National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fossil-fueled steam-electric power

  1. Estimates of health risks associated with radionuclide emissions from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.

    1995-08-01

    Under the Title III, Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform a study of the hazards to public resulting from pollutants emitted by electric utility system generating units. Radionuclides are among the groups of pollutants listed in the amendment. This report updates previously published data and estimates with more recently available information regarding the radionuclide contents of fossil fuels, associated emissions by steam-electric power plants, and potential health effects to exposed population groups.

  2. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  3. Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon capture, utilisation, and storage Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION; POWER GENERATION; CARBON DIOXIDE; CAPTURE; STORAGE; USA; ENHANCED...

  4. N.R. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; HEAT...

  5. Rajendran, N. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLY ASH; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; BACKFILLING; THERMAL...

  6. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  7. 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A. 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS; GAS TURBINE...

  8. Allen, C.A. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchanger flow distribution models Cole, L.T.; Allen, C.A. 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; FLUIDIZED BED HEAT EXCHANGERS; DESIGN;...

  9. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type

  10. Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A significant feature of the program is the reduction and partial elimination of trips required (usually by diesel-powered trucks) to refuel andor repair remotely located pumping ...

  11. Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

  12. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  13. A brief overview of Chinese Design Code on Fossil-Fueled Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zhongqing; He Yehong

    1996-10-01

    The Chinese Design Code on Fossil Fueled Power Plants (DL 5000-94) was issued in April 1994 by the Ministry of Electric Power Industry, P.R. China, and the English version has been drafted and will be formally published in the near future. Based on the 1984 version and the nation`s current policies, the 1994 version was formed to meet the challenges of the nation`s speedy development of electric power construction. In general, the code is primarily a directive document guiding the planning and engineering of China`s large- and medium-sized fossil-fueled power plants. The preparation of the 1984 version and the revision of it to the 1994 version were all carried out by the East China Electric Power Design Institute under the direction of Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute. For small-sized power plants with unit rating of 25 MW and below, there is another national design code titled Code for Design of Small Sized Power Plants (GB 50049-94) issued in November 1994 jointly by the China`s National Technology Supervision Administration and the Ministry of Construction.

  14. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  20. Evaluation of innovative fossil fuel power plants with CO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-15

    This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO{sub 2} removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion CO{sub 2} removal.

  1. Identifying fly ash at a distance from fossil fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanders, P.J.

    1999-02-15

    A method has been developed to identify fly ash originating at fossil fuel power stations, even at a distance where the ash level is lower by a factor of 1000 from that close to a source. Until now such detection has been difficult and uncertain. The technique combines collection of particles, measurement of magnetization and coercive field, and microscopy. The analysis depends on the fact that ash from iron sulfide in fossil fuels is in the form of spherical magnetite. These particles have a relatively high coercive field H{sub c}, near 135 Oe, compared with airborne particulates from soil erosion which have an H{sub c} of {approximately}35 Oe. The coercive field of any sample therefore gives an indication for the percentage of fly ash relative to the total amount of magnetic material that is airborne. The concentration of ash from a large, isolated coal burning power station is found to fall off with the distance from the source, approximately as D{sup {minus}1}. As D increases there is a drop in H{sub c}, associated with the reduced amount of fly ash relative to the airborne particulates from soil erosion.

  2. Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN; Wilson, Kirk A [Knoxville, TN

    2002-04-23

    A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

  3. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

  4. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  5. Comparison of AB2588 multipathway risk factors for California fossil-fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1997-12-31

    Substances released from power plants may travel through various exposure pathways resulting in human health and environmental risks. The stack air emission`s primary pathway is inhalation from the ambient air. Multipathway factors (adjustment factors to the inhalation risk) are used to evaluate the importance of non-inhalation pathways (such as ingestion and dermal contact). The multipathway factor for a specific substance is the health risk by all pathways divided by the inhalation health risk for that substance. These factors are compared for fossil fuel power stations that submitted regulatory risk assessments in compliance with California Toxic Hot Spots Act (AB2588). Substances representing the largest contributions to the cancer risk are of primary concern: arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium (+6), formaldehyde, nickel, lead, selenium, and PAHs. Comparisons of the chemical-specific multipathway factors show the impacts of regulatory policy decisions on the estimated health risk for trace substances. As an example, point estimates of the soil mixing depth, varying from 1 cm to 15 cm, relate to the relative importance of the pathway. For the deeper mixing depths, the root-zone uptake by homegrown tomato plants (for assumed consumption rate of 15% for San Diego) may result in high multipathway factors for several trace metals. For shallower mixing depths, soil ingestion may become the dominant non-inhalation pathway. These differences may lead to significantly different risk estimates for similar facilities located at different California locations such as to be under local regulatory authorities. The overall multipathway factor for the total cancer risk is about 2, much smaller than some of the chemical-specific factors. Science-based multipathway analysis should reduce much of the concern that may be due to policy-based decisions on pathway selection and high-value point-estimates of the parameters.

  6. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

  7. Fossil fuel power plants: Computer systems for power plant control, maintenance, and operation. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fossil fuel power plant computer systems. Minicomputer and microcomputer systems used for monitoring, process control, performance calculations, alarming, and administrative applications are discussed. Topics emphasize power plant control, maintenance and operation. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 85 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 84 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 119 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  13. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Researchers make progress fighting climate change by capturing carbon dioxide from power plants and storing it deep underground in geological reservoirs March 25, 2013 Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Most of the world's existing energy supply is stored underground in

  14. The impact of environmental regulation on productivity in the US fossil-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whang, J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this dissertation is to examine the impact of environmental regulation on productivity in the U.S. fossil fueled electric generating industry. With the oil shocks, environmental regulation has been considered as one of the main culprits for the apparent productivity slowdown during the 1970`s. Even though new pieces of legislation are continuously enacted to regulate hazardous pollutants emitted, it is difficult to find thorough and meaningful analyses on the effects of regulation. Without exact measurement of regulation effects, it is not easy to design socially efficient environmental policies to reconcile several conflicting goals. Using plant-level production and environmental data for the last two decades, the effects of differentiated environmental regulation are carefully examined. Since unbalanced panel data set is used, fixed-effects and random-effects models are also examined. The estimated impact of environmental regulation explains 6 to 10 percent of the variation of total factor productivity growth rates. This appears to be a relatively mild effect compared with several previous studies.

  15. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  16. Control of SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants: Research and practice of TPRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ming-Chuan Zhang

    1993-12-31

    The generation of electric power in China has been dominated by coal for many years. By the end of 1990, total installed generating capacity reached 135 GW, of which fossil fuel-fired plants accounted for 74 percent. The total electricity generated reached 615 TWh, with fossil fuels accounting for 80.5 percent. About 276 million tons of raw coal are consumed in these fossil fuel-burning units per year, accounting for about 25 percent of the total output of the country. According to the government, by the year 2000, the total installed capacity of Chinese power systems should be at least 240 GW, of which fossil fuels will account for about 77 percent. The coal required for power generation will increase to about 530 million tons per year, accounting for about 38 percent of the total coal output. So, it is obvious that coal consumed in coal-fired power plants occupies a very important place in the national fuel balance. The current environmental protection standards, which are based on ground-level concentrations of pollutants, do not effectively lead to the control of pollution emission concentrations or total SO{sub 2} emissions. Due to the practical limitations of the Chinese economy, there is a limited capability to introduce advanced sulfur emission control technologies. Thus, except for the two 360 MW units imported from Japan for the Luohuang Power Plant in Shichuan province, all the other fossil fuel-fired units have not yet adopted any kind of SO{sub 2} removal measures. The Luohuang units are equipped with Mitsubishi limestone flue gas desulfurization systems. Because of the lack of effective pollution control technologies, large areas of the country have been seriously polluted by SO{sub 2}, and some of them even by acid rain.

  17. Power-Gen `95. Book III: Generation trends. Volume 1 - current fossil fuel technologies. Volume 2 - advanced fossil fuel technologies. Volume 3 - gas turbine technologies I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-31

    This document is Book III of Power-Gen 1995 for the Americas. I contains papers on the following subjects: (1) Coal technologies, (2) atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, (3) repowering, (4) pressurized fluidized bed combustion, (5) combined cycle facilities, and (6) aeroderivitive and small gas turbines.

  18. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  19. Some aspects of the selection of materials for high temperature service in fossil fuel power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birks, N.

    1999-07-01

    The electric power industry, converting heat into electricity, is concerned with two primary parameters, reliability and efficiency. In order to satisfy the reliability criteria, it is preferred to use well known and well tried materials well within their ultimate performance limits. In order to improve the economics of the process, it is attempted first to optimize the process and then to alter the operational parameters in order to increase the efficiency of the cycle used. The efficiency of the thermal cycle used depends primarily on its upper and lower temperature limits. For instance, it is well known that a plant operating in regions where the water supply is cooler demonstrate higher efficiencies than a plant that operates in warmer climates. For practical purposes however, it is the upper temperature limit of the cycle that must be increased to improve efficiency. This immediately requires that materials be selected, for the high temperature components, that can operate safely and continuously under these conditions, that also include aggressive, corrosive atmospheres. The need to consider higher operating temperatures opens up the range of materials being studied to include alloys that are established for high temperature use in other applications as well as new, mainly untried materials. The conditions under which a heat exchanger for electric power generation must operate are so different from other applications that nearly all materials, alternative to those now in use, must be approached as new and undergo extensive testing for coding. Few materials are available for use in this application off the shelf.

  20. A formalized approach to cycle chemistry improvement in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimmer, J.P.; Dooley, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The overall cost impact of cycle chemistry problems in fossil plants is typically hidden within the statistics of component forced outages, efficiency losses and premature end of useful component life. Corrosion of components in US utility steam generating plants is responsible for an estimated 50% of forced outages and over three billion dollars a year in additional operating and maintenance costs. These problems are usually the direct result of repeat incidents of impurity ingress, corrosion, and/or corrosion product generation transport, and deposition on heat transfer and power generation process equipment surfaces. The only way to prevent repeat incidents of cycle chemistry corrosion and/or deposition-influenced equipment problems is to implement a formalized cycle chemistry improvement program that addresses the root-causes of these problems. This paper describes such a program being implemented at twelve (12) utilities under EPRI research project RP2712-11, {open_quotes}Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program.{close_quotes} Interim utility results, after almost three years of project participation, have demonstrated substantial reductions in availability/performance losses and water treatment costs due to applications of state-of-the-art cycle chemistry, monitoring equipment and/or process control systems.

  1. An Internet-based interactive module for air emissions from fossil fuel based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, D.; O`Leary, K.; O`Reilly, S.

    1997-12-31

    The proliferation of the Internet, Web pages and associated software tools available for developing multimedia material provides significant opportunities in training, education and information transfer. This paper will describe the development, testing and evaluation of an interactive teaching module aimed at college and university students that have previous education in thermodynamics and basic chemistry. The module is currently in development at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University with support from Environment Canada. Preliminary testing of this module is expected to begin late January. The module contains options to look at CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions associated with electric power generation in thermal stations that use coal, natural gas, crude and distillate oil. Factors governing the thermal efficiency of typical boiler systems and the thermodynamic limitations for converting heat into work are discussed. Supporting background information such as emission trends and emission factors used in calculations are also included as part of this module. A simple Rankine cycle without reheat or regeneration is considered to compare the emissions per unit energy delivered from each of the fuels considered. For natural gas and distillate oil, combined cycle operation is considered with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator combination replacing the boiler in the simple Rankine cycle. For all fuels, the cogeneration option is investigated by expanding the steam to an intermediate pressure in the turbine and utilizing the remaining heat by condensing the steam in a heat recovery application. Emission factors and basic information on CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies are utilized to calculate and report the emissions per unit energy delivered under the various scenarios investigated.

  2. Impacts from a fossil fuel power plant on ozone levels in Memphis, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, S.F.; Bailey, E.M.

    1998-12-31

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Allen power plant is located on the Mississippi River in the southwest corner of Memphis, Tennessee. Allen has three coal-fired cyclone boilers with a rated capacity of 272 MW each. It is a Phase 2 plant under Title IV of the Clean Air Act and is the largest single source of NO{sub x} in the Memphis area. TVA plans to reduce Allen NOx emissions through a combination of burning low-sulfur coal (which has the benefit of reducing NO{sub x} emissions while also reducing SO{sub 2} emissions) and installing gas re-burn technology. A modeling study using the SAI, Inc., UAM-V photochemical model was conducted to examine the potential impacts of NO{sub x} reductions on ozone levels in the Memphis area. A series of four model simulations were made in which different Allen emissions scenarios were examined. The focus period of the photochemical modeling was 11--14 July 1995 when measurements in and near Memphis indicated peak hourly ozone levels of 135--140 ppb. This analysis primarily examined computed impacts within 50 km of Memphis. Allen was computed to contribute as much as 20--30 ppb to ground ozone levels 20-50 km downwind using its NO{sub x} emission rate before Title IV compliance. After compliance it was computed to contribute only about 10--20 ppb. At the same time, maximum daily ozone reductions due to Allen NO{sub x} titration of ozone were between 30 and 60 ppb. These benefits will be reduced by 30--50% after Title IV compliance, and are expected to occur within 30 km of the plant. More model grid cells indicated dis-benefits (net ground-level ozone increases) than benefits on three of the four episode days using the Title IV compliance emission rate. Significant ozone dis-benefits were expected because of the well-documented NO titration of ozone within plumes having a high ratio of NO to volatile organic compounds.

  3. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  4. No Fossil Fuel - Kingston | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fossil Fuel - Kingston Jump to: navigation, search Name No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Facility No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility...

  5. Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William L 09 BIOMASS FUELS biofuels, glycerin, glycerol,...

  6. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil-fuel power plants. March 1977-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1977-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. Hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 88 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Fossil-fuel power plants: Computer systems for power plant control, maintenance, and operation. October 1976-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the COMPENDEX data base). Report for October 1976-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning fossil-fuel power plant computer systems. Minicomputer and microcomputer systems used for monitoring, process control, performance calculations, alarming, and administrative applications are discussed. Topics emphasize power plant control, maintenance and operation. (Contains 240 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  8. On-line mechanical tube cleaning for steam electric power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    In July 1991, Superior I.D. Tube Cleaners, Inc. (SIDTEC{trademark}) received a grant through the Department of Energy and the Energy Related Invention Program to conduct a long term demonstration of a proprietary technology for on-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning in thermal Power plants on open or once-through cooling water systems where the warmed condenser cooling water is discharged through a canal. The purpose of the demonstration was to confirm and establish the use of this mechanical method as an alternative to the application of chemical biocides in condenser cooling water for the control of biofouling, the growth of micro-organisms which can reduce a unit`s operating efficiency. The SIDTEC on-line mechanical tube cleaner, the Rocket{trademark}, is used to physically remove accumulated deposits on the water side of the main steam condenser, and the non-intrusive tube cleaner recovery system, the Skimmer{trademark}, is used to recover and recirculate tube cleaners. The periodic circulation of tube cleaners can maintain optimum condenser cleanliness and improve unit heat rate. Thermal power plants which discharge condenser cooling water through a canal now have a viable alternative to the chemical treatment of condenser cooling water, whether the principal foulant is biofouling, chemical scaling, silting, or a combination of the three. At prices competitive with scale inhibitors, and a fraction of competing mechanical systems, this technology is provided as a service requiring no capital investment; minimal retrofit modifications to plant structures or equipment; can be installed and maintained without a unit shutdown; does not add any restrictions in the cooling water system; and is environmentally benign.

  9. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  10. Advanced fossil fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, B.

    1995-05-01

    Charged with enhancing the use of US fossil energy resources, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is a federal Department of Energy research center that performs its own research and also manages the work of contractors. One interesting recent METC project is the effort to develop a ``multiannular swirl burner`` (MSB) for use in an advanced fossil fuel combustion system. The design is being developed by an outside contractor with funding and technical assistance from METC. Recently, EG and G Technical Services of West Virginia was asked to provide analytical support to the contractor developing the MSB. Design projects like this usually require building and testing a series of very expensive prototypes. Recent success with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design techniques, however, have generated a great deal of excitement because of its ability to reduce research and development costs. Using FLUENT, a CFD package from Fluent Inc., EG and G was able to predict, with a high degree of accuracy, the performance of one of the MSB combustor prototypes. Furthermore, the model provided researchers with a more detailed understanding of the proposed design`s performance characteristics.

  11. Technical evaluation report on the monitoring of electric power to the reactor-protection system for the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selan, J.C.

    1982-04-26

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the monitoring of electric power to the reactor protection system (RPS) at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2. The evaluation is to determine if the proposed design modification will protect the RPS from abnormal voltage and frequency conditions which could be supplied from the power supplies and will meet certain requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The proposed design modifications with time delays verified by GE, will protect the RPS from sustained abnormal voltage and frequency conditions from the supplying sources.

  12. Impact on the steam electric power industry of deleting Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act: Energy and environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Folga, S.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many power plants discharge large volumes of cooling water. In some cases, the temperature of the discharge exceeds state thermal requirements. Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) allows a thermal discharger to demonstrate that less stringent thermal effluent limitations would still protect aquatic life. About 32% of the total steam electric generating capacity in the United States operates under Section 316(a) variances. In 1991, the US Senate proposed legislation that would delete Section 316(a) from the CWA. This study, presented in two companion reports, examines how this legislation would affect the steam electric power industry. This report quantitatively and qualitatively evaluates the energy and environmental impacts of deleting the variance. No evidence exists that Section 316(a) variances have caused any widespread environmental problems. Conversion from once-through cooling to cooling towers would result in a loss of plant output of 14.7-23.7 billion kilowatt-hours. The cost to make up the lost energy is estimated at $12.8-$23.7 billion (in 1992 dollars). Conversion to cooling towers would increase emission of pollutants to the atmosphere and water loss through evaporation. The second report describes alternatives available to plants that currently operate under the variance and estimates the national cost of implementing such alternatives. Little justification has been found for removing the 316(a) variance from the CWA.

  13. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  14. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 1, Executive summary: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This study identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. Specific conclusions are as follows: (1) To implement CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration on a national scale will decrease power plant net efficiencies and significantly increase the cost of electricity. To make responsible societal decisions, accurate and consistent economic and environmental analysis of all alternatives for atmospheric CO{sub 2} mitigation are required. (2) Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive and energy intensive, exists today. (3) The most promising approach to more economical CO{sub 2} capture is to develop power plant systems that facilitate efficient CO{sub 2} capture. (4) While CO{sub 2} disposal in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is feasible today, the ability to dispose of large quantities Of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain because of both technical and institutional issues. Disposal into the deep ocean or confined aquifers offers the potential for large quantity disposal, but there are technical, safety, liability, and environmental issues to resolve. Therefore, the highest priority research should focus on establishing the feasibility of large scale disposal options.

  15. CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaupp, A.

    1996-12-31

    Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

  16. CO[sub 2] capture from the flue gas of conventional fossil-fuel-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolsky, A.M.; Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J. )

    1994-08-01

    Research has been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate the advantages and deficiencies of several technologies, both commercially available and alternative technologies, for capturing CO[sub 2] from the flue gas of utility boilers that use air as an oxidant (the current universal practice). The technologies include chemical solvent, cryogenic, membrane, physical absorption, and physical adsorption methods. In general, technologies for capturing CO[sub 2] are expensive and energy-intensive. Therefore, they result in a substantial overall increase in the cost of power generation. Research to improve the performance and economics of these technologies is discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. An evaluation of approximations of acute hazard indices based on chronic hazard indices for California fossil-fuel power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gratt, L.B.; Levin, L.

    1998-12-31

    The measures for evaluating risk under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are yet to be defined. Many risk assessments have used only chronic risk measures (lifetime cancer probability and chronic hazard index) based on yearly averages of long-term dispersion of substances into ambient air. In California, many facilities prepared risk assessments using hourly meteorological data and short-term emission rates, allowing the calculation of an acute hazard index. These risk assessments are more costly and labor-intensive than those using the annualized meteorological data. A simple scheme to estimate the acute hazard index from the chronic index is proposed. This scheme is evaluated for four electric power stations in Southern California. The simple scheme was found lacking due to the inability to reasonably estimate both the hourly emission rates from annual averages and hourly concentrations from annual concentrations. The need for the acute risk measure for stack emission can be questioned based on the more detailed risk assessments performed in California.

  18. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Greening up fossil...

  19. Fossil fuel is king with energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    1996-11-01

    Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double today`s levels by 2020, according to the World Energy Council. As diverse energy needs develop, fossil fuels are expected to continue to be the major source for power generation throughout the world. In the United States, utility deregulation is making low-cost fuel and power plant efficiency more important than ever. Electricity generators see both natural gas and coal as the fuels that will allow them to best meet the nation`s future energy needs. Coal will see less increase in its share of electricity generation than natural gas due to the costs associated with meeting the Clean Air Act Amendments` (CAAA) requirements. According to Organizations for Economic Cooperation Development, coal in both the United States and Europe will experience a 12 percent growth by 2010. Even with this somewhat slow growth, coal will remain the nation`s number one fuel for electricity generation well into the next century.

  20. DOE - Fossil Energy: How Fossil Fuels Were Formed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil Fuel Formation Fossil Energy Study Guides How Fossil Fuels were Formed Contrary to what many people believe, fossil fuels are not the remains of dead dinosaurs. In fact,...

  1. Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School (63.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for ...

  2. Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety cooperation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health ...

  3. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption ...

  4. fossil fuels | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy becomes more competitive with fossil fuels in OECD countries, reports of this nature can go a long way to supporting more and more development. The four new reports in...

  5. fan blades Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; Seay, E. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    draft fan blades Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; Seay, E. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER...

  6. New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

    2007-12-31

    Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

  7. Fossil fuels supplies modeling and research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1996-06-01

    The fossil fuel supplies modeling and research effort focuses on models for US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) planning and management. Topics covered included new SPR oil valuation models, updating models for SPR risk analysis, and fill-draw planning. Another task in this program area is the development of advanced computational tools for three-dimensional seismic analysis.

  8. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  9. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, strategic options for the management of toxic substances: Electric power generation (fossil fuel) sector, report of stakeholder consultations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Electric Power Generation Sector Issue Table was formed to assess the management of toxic substances released from that sector, and more specifically, to develop (where warranted) goals, targets, and effective and efficient options for managing toxic releases in order to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment. This strategic options report sets out the recommendations of Issue Table members for the management of toxic substances. The introduction includes an industry profile and a review of the provincial management of electric power sector strategic options priority (SOP) substances. Chapter 2 discusses what substances are toxic, estimates releases of SOP substances from the sector, and reviews Issue Table approaches to risk assessment. Chapter 3 outlines Issue Table activities. Chapter 4 screens toxic substance management options, with evaluation of options against 13 groups of criteria. Chapter 5 presents toxic substances management proposals made to the Issue Table by the electric power generation industry, environmental groups, and Environment Canada.

  10. Tsiklauri-Durst combined cycle (T-D Cycle{trademark}) application for nuclear and fossil-fueled power generating plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, B.; Korolev, V.N.; Durst, B.M.; Shen, P.K.

    1998-07-01

    The Tsiklauri-Durst combined cycle is a combination of the best attributes of both nuclear power and combined cycle gas power plants. A technology patented in 1994 by Battelle Memorial Institute offers a synergistic approach to power generation. A typical combined cycle is defined as the combination of gas turbine Brayton Cycle, topping steam turbine Rankine Cycle. Exhaust from the gas turbine is used in heat recovery steam generators to produce steam for a steam turbine. In a standard combined cycle gas turbine-steam turbine application, the gas turbine generates about 65 to 70 percent of system power. The thermal efficiency for such an installation is typically about 45 to 50 percent. A T-D combined cycle takes a new, creative approach to combined cycle design by directly mixing high enthalpy steam from the heat recovery steam generator, involving the steam generator at more than one pressure. Direct mixing of superheated and saturated steam eliminates the requirement for a large heat exchanger, making plant modification simple and economical.

  11. Fossil fuel conversion--measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale-up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifiers and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifiers (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas).

  12. Fossil fuel combined cycle power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon Davidovich; Armstrong, Timothy Robert; Judkins, Roddie Reagan

    2006-10-10

    A system for converting fuel energy to electricity includes a reformer for converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one lower molecular weight gas, at least one turbine to produce electricity from expansion of at least one of the lower molecular weight gases, and at least one fuel cell. The system can further include at least one separation device for substantially dividing the lower molecular weight gases into at least two gas streams prior to the electrochemical oxidization step. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  13. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  14. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  15. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels This infographic was created by students from General Douglas MacArthur High School in Levittown, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge encourages young people to improve their foundational understanding of bioenergy, which is a

  16. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  17. EMGeo: Risk Minimizing Software for Finding Offshore Fossil Fuels...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search EMGeo: Risk Minimizing Software for Finding Offshore ... developed advanced software for discovering and mapping offshore fossil fuel deposits. ...

  18. Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships (Redirected from Brazil-NETL Cooperation) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-NETL Cooperation Name Brazil-NETL Cooperation...

  19. Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-NETL Cooperation Name Brazil-NETL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Energy...

  20. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Document details the Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption ...

  1. New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

    2006-09-30

    Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

  2. An oxy-hydrocarbon model of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred D. Lang; Tom Canning

    2007-09-15

    This paper asserts a new method of analyzing fossil fuels, useful for sorting coals into well-defined categories and for the identification of outlying ultimate analysis data. It describes a series of techniques starting with a new multivariant approach for describing the lower ranks of coal, progressing to a classical, but modified, single-variant approach for the volatile and high-energy ranks. In addition, for a few special cases, multiple low and high ranks are also well described by the multivariant approach. As useful as these techniques are for analyzing fuel chemistry in the laboratory arena, this work was initiated in support of Exergetic Systems' Input/Loss Method. At commercial coal-fired power plants, Input/Loss allows the determination of fuel chemistry based on combustion effluents. The methods presented allow equations to be developed independent of combustion stoichiometrics, which improve Input/Loss accuracy in determining fuel chemistry on-line and in real time.

  3. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

    2012-08-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

  4. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-09-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  5. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  6. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-07-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRB and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  7. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-04-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming process, mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  8. Technical and economic assessment on coal-fired power generation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; CHINA; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; SULFUR DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; FLUE GAS; DESULFURIZATION; WASTE ...

  9. Optimization of fossil fuel sources: An exergy approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camdali, U.

    2007-02-15

    We performed linear programming for optimization of fossil fuel supply in 2000 in Turkey. For this, an exergy analysis is made because the second law of thermodynamics takes into account the quality of energy as well as quantity of energy. Our analyses showed that the interfuel substitution between different fossil fuels will lead to a best energy mix of the country. The total retail price of fossil fuels can be lowered to 11.349 billion US$ from 13.012 billion US$ by increasing the domestic production of oil, lignite, and hard coal and by decreasing imports. The remaining demand can be met by natural gas imports. In conclusion, our analysis showed that a reduction of 1.663 billion US$ in fossil fuel cost can be made possible by giving more emphasis on domestic production, particularly of oil, lignite and hard coal.

  10. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012 ii This report...

  11. Solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monge, A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Design of processes for upgrading heavy fossil fuels such as coal-derived liquids, heavy petroleum fractions, tar sands, and shale oil, requires quantitative information for equilibrium properties of the fossil fuel in the presence of compressed light gases at elevated temperatures. Presented here are methods to predict and measure solubilities of heavy fossil fuels in compressed gases in the region ambient to 100 bar and 600 K. A molecular-thermodynamic model is used to predict heavy fossil-fuel solubilities. The heavy fuel is fractionated ina spinning-band column at low pressure and high reflux; each fraction is considered to be a pseudo-component. Each fraction is characterized by one vapor-pressure datum (obtained during fractionation), elemental analysis, and proton-NMR spectra (to determine aromaticity). Liquid-phase properties are obtained from the SWAP equation for vapor pressure and from a density correlation. Vapor-phase properties are obtained using the virial equation of state with virial coefficients from Kaul's correlation. The molecular-thermodynamic model has been used to establish a design-oriented computer program for calculating heavy, fossil-fuel solubility for general application in process design and, in particular, for isobaric condensation as a function of temperature as required for design of a continuous-flow heat exchanger. A total-vaporization technique is used to measure the solubilities of narrow-boiling, heavy fossil-fuel fractions in compressed gases. The solubility of a heavy fraction is determined from the volume of gas required to vaporize completely a small, measured mass of fossil-fuel sample. To test the molecular-thermodynamic model, the total-vaporization technique has been used to measure the solubilities of two Lurgi coal-tar fractions in compressed methane. Predicted and experimental solubilities agree well.

  12. NREL: Technology Deployment - Fossil Fuel Dependency Falls from 100% to 56%

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on Alcatraz Island Fossil Fuel Dependency Falls from 100% to 56% on Alcatraz Island News Solar Cells Light Up Prison Cells on 'The Rock' Sponsors U.S. National Park Service American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Key Partners National Park Service Golden Gate National Recreation Area National Park Service Denver Services Center Princeton Power Inc. University of Washington Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program Related Stories U.S. Virgin Islands

  13. Low-emission vortex combustion of biomass and fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finker, F.Z.; Kubischkin, I.B.; Akhmedov, D.B.

    1995-11-01

    The article introduces the results of development and industrial experience of low-emission vortex combustion technology (LEVC) of biomass and fossil fuel in industrial and utility boilers in Russian timber and paper industries and Polish power plants. The LEVC technology is based on aerodynamics method of multiple circulation of gases and fuel in the furnaces. LEVC technology accumulates the advantages of conventional and fluidized bed combustion technology. Existing boilers could be easily retrofitted for the application of LEVC technology without requiring major investment. The repowering of boiler with LEVC was the result the reduction NOx emission to the level 170g/GJ without installation additional flue gas cleaning equipment and it gave the opportunity for an injection of sulfur sorbent in the furnace. The authors discussed Russian-Polish experiment on utility boiler retrofitted with the application of LEVC. As the result the efficiency of the boiler increased in 2%. The reduction of the emission is: NOx-40%, SO2-17%.

  14. In-situ FT-IR diagnostics for monitoring and control of fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonanno, A.S.; Wojtowicz, M.A.; Serio, M.A.; Nelson, C.M.; Solomon, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and testing of a prototype fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) based measurement system for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) and process control in fossil fuel-fired power plants. On several occasions, prototype systems have been transported and assembled at full-scale and pilot-scale fossil fuel-fired combustors. The in-situ version of the prototype is able to measure NH{sub 3} and HCl concentrations, which are difficult to measure extractively, as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, H{sub 2}O, and SO{sub x} concentrations. The results of recent tests will be presented which involve in-situ monitoring of selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of NO{sub x} based on simultaneous measurement of NO, NH{sub 3} and CO.

  15. Norwegian carbon taxes and their implication for fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaarstad, O.

    1995-12-31

    The Scandinavian countries, and in particular Norway and Sweden, have since 1990/91 taxed CO{sub 2}-emissions with carbon tax of about US $150 per ton of CO{sub 2}. One may therefore say that these countries have placed themselves in a role as {open_quotes}carbon tax laboratories{close_quotes}. These very high CO{sub 2}-taxes have been in place for about four years and the first lessons from this experience are reported. In general it would seem as if the taxation mechanism is less efficient than economists have expected. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are increasing in both Norway and Sweden and the stabilization goal to the year 2000 will not be achieved in spite of the high taxation. The fossil fuel industry will have to learn to live with the climate change question which is inherently hostile to fossil fuels. It is argued that a more informed and active participation by the fossil fuel industry is needed in the climate change discussion. In addition the image of fossil fuels will benefit from showing real and potential improvement in the area of greenhouse gas emissions in the whole energy chain from production to combustion. The R&D effort being done into CO{sub 2}-capture and -disposal is creating such an option for the future. It is argued that the image of the entire fossil fuel industry will benefit from the creation of a {open_quotes}CO{sub 2}-free{close_quote} option or vision for oil, gas and coal. A number of examples are shown where today (or in the near future) actual CO{sub 2}-disposal in underground formations are taking place.

  16. USVI Makes Headway Toward Goal to Reduce Fossil Fuel 60% by 2025

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil prices spike to over $145/ barrel and price of electricity exceeds $0.50/kWh in U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) USVI announces goal to reduce fossil fuel use 60% by 2025 In 3rd most active hurricane season on record, Earl hits USVI Virgin Islands Energy O ce (VIEO) launches Sun Power Loan Program WAPA installs waste heat recovery plant, adding 19 MW of power without burning a single drop of additional oil VIEO awards nearly $1 million to USVI nonpro ts for energy e ciency and renewable energy

  17. Fossil fuels in a sustainable energy future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel, T.F.

    1995-12-01

    The coal industry in the United States has become a world leader in safety, productivity, and environmental protection in the mining of coal. The {open_quotes}pick-and-shovel{close_quotes} miner with mangled limbs and black lung disease has been replaced by the highly skilled technicians that lead the world in tons per man-hour. The gob piles, polluted streams, and scared land are a thing of the past. The complementary efforts of the DOE and EPRI-funded programs in coal utilization R&D and the Clean Coal Technology Program commercial demonstrations, have positioned the power generation industry to utilize coal in a way that doesn`t pollute the air or water, keeps electrical power costs low, and avoids the mountains of waste material. This paper reviews the potential for advanced coal utilization technologies in new power generation applications as well as the repowering of existing plants to increase their output, raise their efficiency, and reduce pollution. It demonstrates the potential for these advanced coal-fueled plants to play a complementary role in future planning with the natural gas and oil fired units currently favored in the market place. The status of the US program to demonstrate these technologies at commercial scale is reviewed in some detail.

  18. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators Preprint D. Lew and G. Brinkman National Renewable Energy Laboratory N. Kumar, P. Besuner, D. Agan, and S. Lefton Intertek APTECH Presented at IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting San Diego, California July 22-26, 2012 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5500-53504 August 2012 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under

  20. Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayer, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

  1. Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

  2. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Pierce, B.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) Act of 1989 directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake an equipment assessment project aimed at developing the capability within Poland to manufacture or modify industrial-scale combustion equipment to utilize fossil fuels cleanly. This project is being implemented in the city of Krakow as the `Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project.` Funding is provided through the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The project is being conducted in a manner that can be generalized to all of Poland and to the rest of Eastern Europe. The historic city of Krakow has a population of 750,000. Almost half of the heating energy used in Krakow is supplied by low-efficiency boilerhouses and home coal stoves. Within the town, there are more than 1,300 local boilerhouses and 100,000 home stoves. These are collectively referred to as the `low emission sources` and they are the primary sources of particulates and hydrocarbon emissions in the city and major contributors of sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide.

  3. Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Hai; Dong, Junhang; Lin, Jerry; Romero, Van

    2012-03-01

    This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases. This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

  4. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, Jr., Lee T.; Boggess, Ronald J.; Carson, Ronald J.; Falkenberg, Virginia P.; Flanagan, Patrick; Hettinger, Jr., William P.; Kimel, Kris; Kupchella, Charles E.; Magid, Lee J.; McLaughlin, Barbara; Royster, Wimberly C.; Streepey, Judi L.; Wells, James H.; Stencel, John; Derbyshire, Frank J.; Hanley, Thomas R.; Magid, Lee J.; McEllistrem, Marc T.; Riley, John T.; Steffen, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.'' was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  5. Progress performance report of clean uses of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    A one-year USDOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant, entitled ``Clean Uses of Fossil Fuels.`` was awarded to the Kentucky EPSCoR Committee in September 1991 and administered through the the DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee. Ten Traineeships were awarded to doctoral students who are enrolled or accepted into Graduate Programs at either the University of Kentucky or the University of Louisville. The disciplines of these students include Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Geological Sciences, and Physics. The methods used for a statewide proposal solicitation and to award the Traineeships are presented. The review panel and Kentucky DOE/EPSCoR Subcommittee involved in awarding the Traineeships are described. A summary of the proposed research to be performed within these awards is presented, along with a description of the qualifications of the faculty and students who proposed projects. Future efforts to increase participation in Traineeship proposals for the succeeding funding period are outlined.

  6. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  7. The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svendsen, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Information is outlined on the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) special project on non-utility fossil fuel ash classification. Data are presented on; current (1996) regulatory status of fossil-fuel combustion wastes; FBC technology identified for further study; CIBO special project methods; Bevill amendment study factors; data collection; and CIBO special project status.

  8. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; MECHANICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DRAFT COOLING TOWERS; PERFORMANCE; SIMULATION; COST; DESIGN; HEAT TRANSFER; OPERATION; WATER REQUIREMENTS; COOLING TOWERS; ENERGY TRANSFER; MECHANICAL STRUCTURES; TOWERS...

  9. Plants Martin, Christopher; Pavlish, John 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    was provided by the Wyoming State Legislature under an award made through the Wyoming Clean Coal Technologies Research Program. University Of North Dakota USDOE United States...

  10. renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... to meet future energy needs and worsen the national dependency on foreign petroleum. ... This trend towards a dependency on the transmission grid to facilitate not only economic ...

  11. An optical gas temperature probe for high temperature fossil fuel process streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, L.E.; Cook, R.L.; Lineberry, J.T.; Litchford, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Reported here are the results of a feasibility study of a modular optical gas temperature probe for direct measurement of gas temperature in fossil-fueled combustion streams. A probe based upon the spectroscopic technique of line reversal would be superior to currently available gas temperature technology. The study concluded that a modular form of the line reversal optical temperature probe is feasible and, as such. the probe should be a commercially viable product with potential economic benefits from improved monitoring and control of utility furnaces. Such a probe will have the capability of making direct measurements of gas temperature in hot (>1500 K) process streams of coal combustion systems and large-scale power plant facilities.

  12. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-07-13

    This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

  13. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Map Appendix State/area maps Figure A1. Fossil fuel production on federal and Indian lands, FY 2014 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration based on U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Natural Resources Revenue. "ONNR Statistical Information Site" (http://statistics.onrr.gov). July 2015 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014 24 Figure A2. Changes in fossil fuels production (trillion

  14. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However

  15. INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

    2001-10-31

    This Final Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3,3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the MH/C System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem. Because of USEPA policies and regulations that do not require treatment of low level or low-level/PCB contaminated wastes, DOE terminated the project because there is no purported need for this technology.

  16. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper was prepared in response to recent requests that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide updated summary information regarding fossil fuel production on federal and...

  17. Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M.

    2008-07-01

    Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

  18. Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

    2012-09-01

    Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

  19. A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, Robert Joseph; Boden, Thomas A; Breon, F.-M.; Erickson, D; Gregg, J. S.; Jacobson, Andrew; Marland, Gregg; Miller, J.; Oda, T; Raupach, Michael; Rayner, P; Treanton, K.

    2012-01-01

    This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

  20. Toward Verifying Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions with the CMAQ Model: Motivation, Model Description and Initial Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhen; Bambha, Ray P.; Pinto, Joseph P.; Zeng, Tao; Boylan, Jim; Huang, Maoyi; Lei, Huimin; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Shishi; Mao, Jiafu; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Shi, Xiaoying; Wei, Yaxing; Michelsen, Hope A.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the urgent need for emission verification of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, we have developed regional CO2 simulation with CMAQ over the contiguous U.S. Model sensitivity experiments have been performed using three different sets of inputs for net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and two fossil fuel emission inventories, to understand the roles of fossil fuel emissions, atmosphere-biosphere exchange and transport in regulating the spatial and diurnal variability of CO2 near the surface, and to characterize the well-known ‘signal-to-noise’ problem, i.e. the interference from the biosphere on the interpretation of atmospheric CO2 observations. It is found that differences in the meteorological conditions for different urban areas strongly contribute to the contrast in concentrations. The uncertainty of NEE, as measured by the difference among the three different NEE inputs, has notable impact on regional distribution of CO2 simulated by CMAQ. Larger NEE uncertainty and impact are found over eastern U.S. urban areas than along the western coast. A comparison with tower CO2 measurements at Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) shows that the CMAQ model using hourly varied and high-resolution CO2 emission from the Vulcan inventory and CarbonTracker optimized NEE reasonably reproduce the observed diurnal profile, whereas switching to different NEE inputs significantly degrades the model performance. Spatial distribution of CO2 is found to correlate with NOx, SO2 and CO, due to their similarity in emission sources and transport processes. These initial results from CMAQ demonstrate the power of a state-of-the art CTM in helping interpret CO2 observations and verify fossil fuel emissions. The ability to simulate CO2 in CMAQ will also facilitate investigations of the utility of traditionally regulated pollutants and other species as tracers to CO2 source attribution.

  1. Evaluation of Susquehanna steam electric station emergency procedures related to ATWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, P.R.; Refling, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A number of variations in operator response strategy to a severe anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) event may be considered. Calculations have been performed for the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, a two-unit 1050-MW(e) boiling water reactor, to compare the relative effectiveness of various level and flow control strategies for ATWS mitigation. The objectives of this evaluation were to determine the critical timing parameters of the various response strategies, their demands for operator action, and their relative effectiveness. The evaluations performed have considered ATWS from full power with no rod insertion for both isolation and nonisolation events. These evaluations have not considered the impact of additional equipment failure such as loss of the high-pressure coolant injection system or the standby liquid control system.

  2. The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji; Borgwardt, R.H.

    1993-10-01

    Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

  3. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Document details the Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings in an OIRA Comparison Document.

  4. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings in a Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking.

  5. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014 July 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data,

  6. Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Data (EIA-767 data file)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity data files > Form EIA-767 Form EIA-767 historical data files Data Released: November 02, 2006 Next Release: None(discontinued) Annual steam-electric plant operation and design data Historical data files contain annual data from organic-fueled or combustible renewable steam-electric plants with a generator nameplate rating of 10 or more megawatts. The data are derived from the Form EIA-767 "Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report." The files contains data on

  7. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  8. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linville, B.

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  9. Mitigating environmental pollution and impacts from fossil fuels: The role of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, S.Y.; Li, J.B.; Huang, Y.F.

    2007-07-01

    In order to meet the rising global demand for energy, rapid development of conventional fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) have been experienced by many nations, bringing dramatic economic benefit and prosperity to fossil-fuel industries as well as well being of human society. However, various fossil-fuel related activities emit huge quantities of gaseous, liquid, and solid waste materials, posing a variety of impacts, risks, and liabilities to the environment. Therefore, on the one hand, control measures are desired for effectively managing pollution issues; on the other hand, it becomes extremely critical to invest efforts in finding promising alternative energy sources as solutions to the possible energy shortage crisis in future. This article focuses on both aspects through: (1) a discussion of waste materials generated from fossil-fuel industries and waste management measures; and (2) an exploration of some well-recognized alternative fuels in terms of their nature, availability, production, handling, environmental performances, and current and future applications. The conclusion restates the urgency of finding replaceable long-term alternatives to the conventional fuels.

  10. COâ‚‚ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine; Wada, Kenichi; van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  11. CO2 emissions mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wada, Kenichi; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher and decrease with mitigation. A first deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes global emission targets until 2030, in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges and regionally-specific low-carbon technology targets. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increases strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger - twice and more - than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because leakage and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.

  12. Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: September 2014 | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions Nordyke, M.D. (2000) 27 Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R. (1999) 25 Evaluation of ...

  13. Orimulsion conversion boosts prospects of `fourth` fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    This article describes how, by retrofitting a 100-MW oil-fired and a 215-MW coal-fired unit, one utility turned a plant destined for peaking service into a base-load asset with a predictable fuel bill and manageable emissions-even in environmentally sensitive Atlantic Canada. Six years ago, New Brunswick Power Corp (NB Power) found itself on the horns of a dilemma. For years, the utility had been searching for a powerplant fuel with a more stable price than oil, which at the time was fueling one-third of its generating capacity. Buying and burning more domestic coal-even at twice the price of offshore supplies-was the preferred option, because that would also help keep New Brunswick`s coal mines open. But by 1989, federal and provincial legislation had begun to plan for stringent limits on SO{sub 2} emissions that would take the local-coal card out of NB Power`s hand. Containing up to 8% sulfur, New Brunswick coal would be too dirty to burn by itself; emissions from a 200-MW unit would alone use up nearly half of the utility`s system-wide annual quota for SO{sub 2} emissions schedules for imposition in 1994. Enter Bitor America Corp, the Boca Raton (Fla) marketing subsidiary of the world`s third-largest oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PdVSA). Looking to further the fortunes of Orimulsion, a liquid emulsion of bitumen and water from the Orinoco region of Venezuela, Bitor funded and provided technical support for the first large-scale test burn of the fuel in the 100-MW Unit 1 of NB Power`s Dalhousie station in northern New Brunswick. After making the required modifications, NB Power burned Orimulsion in Unit 1 for two years. By 1991, the utility had cleanly converted more than a million barrels of the fuel to nearly half a million megawatt-hours of electricity-in the process finding few reasons not to commit to permanently converting Dalhousie`s Unit 1, as well as coal fired 215-MW Unit 2, to burn Orimulsion.

  14. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  15. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2004-10-21

    During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

  16. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  17. Novel Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palitha Jayaweera; Francis Tanzella

    2005-03-01

    SRI International (SRI) is developing ceramic-based microsensors to detect exhaust gases such as NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO in advanced combustion and gasification systems under this DOE NETL-sponsored research project. The sensors detect the electrochemical activity of the exhaust gas species on catalytic electrodes attached to a solid state electrolyte and are designed to operate at the high temperatures, elevated pressures, and corrosive environments typical of large power generation exhausts. The sensors can be easily integrated into online monitoring systems for active emission control. The ultimate objective is to develop sensors for multiple gas detection in a single package, along with data acquisition and control software and hardware, so that the information can be used for closed-loop control in novel advanced power generation systems. This report details the Phase I Proof-of-Concept, research activities performed from October 2003 to March 2005. SRI's research work includes synthesis of catalytic materials, sensor design and fabrication, software development, and demonstration of pulse voltammetric analysis of NO, NO{sub 2}, and CO gases on catalytic electrodes.

  18. NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

    2004-04-01

    Accomplishments during the first six months of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers.

  19. Table 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per Million Btu) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3 Fossil Fuel Composite 4 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Percent Change 7 1949 0.21 1.45 0.05 0.37 0.44 3.02 0.26 1.81 – – 1950 .21 1.41 .06 .43 .43 2.95 [R] .26 1.74 -3.6 1951 .21 1.35 .06 .40 .44 2.78 .26 1.65 -5.4 1952 .21 1.31 [R] .07 .45 .44 2.73 .26 1.63 -1.0 1953 .21 1.29 .08 .50 .46 2.86 .27 1.69 3.3 1954 .19 1.18 .09 .55 .48 2.94 .28 1.70 .7 1955

  20. Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Post, W. M.; Dale, V. H.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Mann, L. K.; Mulholland, P. J.; O`Neill, R. V.; Peng, T. -H.; Farrell, M. P.

    1990-02-01

    The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere, oceans, and sediments. Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is determined by characteristics of carbon fluxes among major reservoirs of the global carbon cycle. The objective of this paper is to document the knowns, and unknowns and uncertainties associated with key questions that if answered will increase the understanding of the portion of past, present, and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} attributable to fossil fuel burning. Documented atmospheric increases in CO{sub 2} levels are thought to result primarily from fossil fuel use and, perhaps, deforestation. However, the observed atmospheric CO{sub 2} increase is less than expected from current understanding of the global carbon cycle because of poorly understood interactions among the major carbon reservoirs.

  1. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  2. Municipal waste combustion assessment: Fossil fuel co-firing. Final report, October 1988-July 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landrum, V.J.; Barton, R.G.

    1989-07-01

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; and describes the population of coal fired boilers that currently co-fire RDF, have previously co-fired RDF but have ceased to do so, and have been used in RDF co-firing demonstrations. (Fossil fuel co-firing, defined as the combustion of RDF with another fuel (usually coal) in a device designed primarily to burn the other fuel, is generally confined to commercial and utility boilers.) Model plants are developed and good combustion practices are recommended.

  3. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Table 1. Fossil fuel sales of production from federal lands, FY 2003-14 Fiscal Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2 Natural Gas Coal Fossil Fuels Million Barrels 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Million Barrels 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Billion Cubic Feet 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Million Short Tons 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total 2003 679 3,939 33.0% 93 347 14.7% 6,798 6,981 35.7% 436 8,960 40.6%

  4. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Table 2. Fossil fuel sales of production from Indian lands, FY 2003-14 Fiscal Year Crude Oil and Lease Condensate Natural Gas Plant Liquids 2 Natural Gas Coal Fossil Fuels Million Barrels 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Million Barrels 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Billion Cubic Feet 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Million Short Tons 1 Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total Trillion Btu Percent of U.S. Total 2003 10 59 0.5% 2 6 0.3% 283 291 1.5% 30 616 2.8% 972 1.7% 2004 10 58

  5. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  6. COâ‚‚ emission mitigation and fossil fuel markets: Dynamic and international aspects of climate policies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bauer, Nico; Bosetti, Valentina; Hamdi-Cherif, Meriem; Kitous, Alban; McCollum, David; Mejean, Aurelie; Rao, Shilpa; Turton, Hal; Paroussos, Leonidas; Ashina, Shuichi; et al

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores a multi-model scenario ensemble to assess the impacts of idealized and non-idealized climate change stabilization policies on fossil fuel markets. Under idealized conditions climate policies significantly reduce coal use in the short- and long-term. Reductions in oil and gas use are much smaller, particularly until 2030, but revenues decrease much more because oil and gas prices are higher than coal prices. A first deviation from optimal transition pathways is delayed action that relaxes global emission targets until 2030 in accordance with the Copenhagen pledges. Fossil fuel markets revert back to the no-policy case: though coal use increasesmore » strongest, revenue gains are higher for oil and gas. To balance the carbon budget over the 21st century, the long-term reallocation of fossil fuels is significantly larger—twice and more—than the short-term distortion. This amplifying effect results from coal lock-in and inter-fuel substitution effects to balance the full-century carbon budget. The second deviation from the optimal transition pathway relaxes the global participation assumption. The result here is less clear-cut across models, as we find carbon leakage effects ranging from positive to negative because trade and substitution patterns of coal, oil, and gas differ across models. In summary, distortions of fossil fuel markets resulting from relaxed short-term global emission targets are more important and less uncertain than the issue of carbon leakage from early mover action.« less

  7. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 42 Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. (1996) 36 Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J. (1999) 35 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM),

  10. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 141 Decomposition of calcium sulfate: a review of the literature. [62 refs] Swift, W M; Panek, A F; Smith, G W; Vogel, G J; Jonke, A A (1976) 122 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs.,

  11. Standard for the qualification of high capacity fossil fuel fired plant operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Axtman, W.

    1996-12-31

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, at the request of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and, in recognition of the needs and benefits associated with standard qualifications of operators of high capacity fossil fuel fired plants, established the Qualifications of High Capacity Fossil Fuel Fired Operator (QFO) Committee in 1994. The purpose of the QFO Committee is to develop and maintain such a standard for operators. This standard includes qualifications, duties, responsibilities and the certification requirements for operators as appropriate to The Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 for fossil fuel fired plants with inputs equal to or greater than 10,000 Btu/hr. This Standard does not cover the certification or validation of fossil plant operating procedures, operating practices, facility performance, nor compliance with any particular permit requirement. This standard recognizes the titles or positions to which any particular fossil plant operator may apply, will vary within a facility. Therefore, this standard does not attempt to identify the individual who is required to obtain certification in any class designation. The fossil plant owner is urged to contact the local jurisdiction in which the fossil plant is located in this regard. This standard does not in itself require certification but rather it serves as a means for complying with federal, state, and local regulations which require operators of fossil fuel fired boilers with inputs equal to or greater than 10,000,000 But/hr to be certified. Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public health and safety. Revisions to this Standard result from committee considerations of factors such as technological advances, new data, and changing environmental and industry needs. Revisions do not imply that previous editions of this standard were inadequate.

  12. High capacity fossil fuel fired plant operator training program. Student handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, S.; Gardner, M.; Nguyen, Q.

    1994-09-30

    The operator of fossil fuel-fired boilers has a significant responsibility in assuring that the unit is continuously operated in a manner which complies with the various state and federal regulations. The course will emphasize the operating principles for all types of boilers and for all types of control equipment used for controlling air emissions from boilers. The course will emphasize the significant operating parameters that directly influence air emissions.

  13. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 213 Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource? Scurlock, J.M.O. (2000) 159 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Barker, K.M. [Petrolite Corp. (United States)]

  14. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 82 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. (1997) 65 Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Final report Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J. (1996) 50 Fluid Dynamics in Sucker

  15. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 134 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Barker, K.M. [Petrolite Corp. (United States)] (1994) 94 Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J. (1999) 92

  16. Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: December 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: December 2014 Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Settgast, R R; Carrigan, C R (2011) 107 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 60 DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood

  17. Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: September 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: September 2014 Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Settgast, R R; Carrigan, C R (2011) 138 Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann (2007) 51 Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United

  18. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  19. NEW OPTICAL SENSOR SUITE FOR ULTRAHIGH TEMPERATURE FOSSIL FUEL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell G. May; Tony Peng; Tom Flynn

    2004-12-01

    Accomplishments during the Phase I of a program to develop and demonstrate technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. Engineers from Prime Research, LC and Babcock and Wilcox Research Center collaborated to generate a list of potential applications for robust photonic sensors in existing and future boiler plants. From that list, three applications were identified as primary candidates for initial development and demonstration of high-temperature sensors in an ultrasupercritical power plant. A matrix of potential fiber optic sensor approaches was derived, and a data set of specifications for high-temperature optical fiber was produced. Several fiber optic sensor configurations, including interferometric (extrinsic and intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer), gratings (fiber Bragg gratings and long period gratings), and microbend sensors, were evaluated in the laboratory. In addition, progress was made in the development of materials and methods to apply high-temperature optical claddings to sapphire fibers, in order to improve their optical waveguiding properties so that they can be used in the design and fabrication of high-temperature sensors. Through refinements in the processing steps, the quality of the interface between core and cladding of the fibers was improved, which is expected to reduce scattering and attenuation in the fibers. Numerical aperture measurements of both clad and unclad sapphire fibers were obtained and used to estimate the reduction in mode volume afforded by the cladding. High-temperature sensors based on sapphire fibers were also investigated. The fabrication of an intrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity within sapphire fibers was attempted by the bulk diffusion of magnesium oxide into short localized segments of longer sapphire fibers. Fourier analysis of the fringes that resulted when the treated fiber was interrogated by a swept laser spectrometer suggested that an intrinsic cavity had been formed in the fiber. Also

  20. Assessment of a multi-stage underwater vehicle concept using a fossil-fuel Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Stirling Engine because of its inherent closed-cycle operation can be readily modified to work in an airless environment even if the primary source of energy is a fossil fuel. Thus, Stirling engines are well suited for use in the underwater environment and have been operated successfully in manned military submarines since the early 1980s. In recent years fossil fueled Stirling systems have been also proposed for use in small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). However, in this case the need to carry an onboard oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design difficulties. These are identified in the paper. However, if the oxidant supply to the engine is provided by the membrane extraction of dissolved oxygen from seawater and/or disposable fuel/oxidant pods are used then the UUV Stirling system becomes more attractive. If this latter concept is extended to include multi-stage vehicles then it can be shown that fossil fueled Stirlings could also be put to effective use in long range-long endurance underwater vehicular operations.

  1. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  2. EA-1778: Proposed Rule, 10 CFR 433 and 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Rule, 10 CFR Part 433, “Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings” and 10 CFR Part 435, “Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings”.

  3. Environmental review for the conversion of Bellefonte Nuclear Plant to fossil fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.; Rucker, H.; Summers, R.

    1998-07-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority recently issued for public review a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the conversion of the unfinished Bellefonte Nuclear Plant to fossil fuel. The DEIS was structured to support three tiers of decision making. Tier 1 is to decide between the No-Action Alternative, which is to leave Bellefonte as a partially completed nuclear plant into the indefinite future, and the Proposed Action Alternative, which is to proceed with converting Bellefonte to fossil fuel. Tier 2 is to select one of five conversion options. In the DEIS, TVA indicated no preference among the five competing fossil conversion options. The five conversion pathways would fully repower the plant consistent with fossil fuel availability, would use commercially ready systems and technologies and be designed to fully utilize the capacity of transmission lines serving Bellefonte. Conversion options addressed were pulverized coal (PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), IGCC with joint production of electricity and chemicals, and an option, which combines elements of NGCC and IGCC with coproduction. Tier 3 involves decisions about eight sub-option choices, basically types of processes, equipment, and modes of operation, which is part of two or more conversion options. An example of a sub-option choice would be the type of gasifier that would be used in conversion options involving coal or petroleum coke gasification. Other sub-option choices addressed in the DEIS were natural gas pipeline corridors; fuels, feedstocks, and by-products transportation modes; types of combustion turbines; solid fuels; types of boilers for conventional coal-fired options; chemical production mixes; and modes of onsite solid fuel conveyance. The impact of constructing and operating each proposed fossil conversion option at Bellefonte were evaluated for 18 environmental resource and economic categories.

  4. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    The Vulcan Project is a NASA/DOE funded effort under the North American Carbon Program (NACP) to quantify North American fossil fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at space and time scales much finer than has been achieved in the past. The purpose is to aid in quantification of the North American carbon budget, to support inverse estimation of carbon sources and sinks, and to support the demands posed by higher resolution CO2 observations (in situ and remotely sensed). The detail and scope of the Vulcan CO2 inventory has also made it a valuable tool for policymakers, demographers, social scientists and the public at large. The Vulcan project has achieved the quantification of the 2002 U.S. fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the scale of individual factories, powerplants, roadways and neighborhoods on an hourly basis. The entire inventory was built on a common 10 km x 10 km grid to facilitate atmospheric modeling. In addition to improvement in space and time resolution, Vulcan is quantified at the level of fuel type, economic sub-sector, and county/state identification. Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  5. Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

    1994-06-01

    This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

  6. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; et al

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption andmore » clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).« less

  7. Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Guan, D.; Wei, W.; Davis, S.; Ciais, P.; Bai, J; Peng, S.; Zhang, Q.; Hubacek, K.; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert Joseph; Crawford-Brown, D.; Lin, J.; Zhao, H.; Hong, C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Feng, K.; Peters, Glen P.; Xi, F.; Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zeng, Ning; He, K.

    2015-08-19

    Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China’s total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. The primary sources of this uncertainty are conflicting estimates of energy consumption and emission factors, the latter being uncertain because of very few actual measurements representative of the mix of Chinese fuels. Here we re-evaluate China’s carbon emissions using updated and harmonized energy consumption and clinker production data and two new and comprehensive sets of measured emission factors for Chinese coal. We find that total energy consumption in China was 10 per cent higher in 2000–2012 than the value reported by China’s national statistics, that emission factors for Chinese coal are on average 40 per cent lower than the default values recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and that emissions from China’s cement production are 45 per cent less than recent estimates. Altogether, our revised estimate of China’s CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production is 2.49 gigatonnes of carbon (2 standard deviations = ±7.3 per cent) in 2013, which is 14 per cent lower than the emissions reported by other prominent inventories. Over the full period 2000 to 2013, our revised estimates are 2.9 gigatonnes of carbon less than previous estimates of China’s cumulative carbon emissions. Our findings suggest that overestimation of China’s emissions in 2000–2013 may be larger than China’s estimated total forest sink in 1990–2007 (2.66 gigatonnes of carbon) or China’s land carbon sink in 2000–2009 (2.6 gigatonnes of carbon).

  8. Table 1.15 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels, 1980-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Non-Combustion Use of Fossil Fuels, 1980-2011 Year Petroleum Products Natural Gas 4 Coal Total Percent of Total Energy Consumption Asphalt and Road Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases 1 Lubricants Petro- chemical Feedstocks 2 Petroleum Coke Special Naphthas Other 3 Total Physical Units 5<//td> 1980 145 230 58 253 14 [R] 37 58 795 [R] 639 2.4 [ – –] [ – –] 1981 125 229 56 216 15 [R] 27 54 722 [R] 518 [R] 2.1 [ – –] [ – –] 1982 125 256 51 157 15 [R] 25 48 678 [R] 448 [R] 1.4 [ – –] [

  9. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linville, B.

    1983-07-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

  10. Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.

    1990-07-01

    Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gurney, Kevin

    Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

  13. June 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Fossil Fuels Solubility of methane in water under natural conditions: a laboratory study. Final report, April 1, 1978-June 30, 1982 Blount, C.W.; Price, L.C. (1982) 201 Bamboo: An Overlooked Biomass Resource? Scurlock, J.M.O. (2000) 166 Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D. (1982) 164 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr.

  14. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels Generalized displacement correlation method for estimating stress intensity factors Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Settgast, R R; Carrigan, C R (2011) 95 Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D. (2006) 63 Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2}

  15. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Final report Benemann, J.R.; Oswald, W.J. (1996) 65 Avian Collisions with Wind Turbines: A Summary of Existing Studies and Comparisons to Other Sources of Avian Collision Mortality in the United States Wallace P. Erickson, Gregory D. Johnson, M. Dale Strickland, David P. Young, Jr., Karyn J. Sernka, Rhett E.

  16. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of Energy

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information 5 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 184 A kinetic study of methanol synthesis in a slurry reactor using a CuO/ZnO/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalyst Al-Adwani, H.A. (1992) 97 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for paraffin control Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]; Barker, K.M.

  17. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  18. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  19. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  20. Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patti, F.J.

    1996-03-01

    Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today`s world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal.

  1. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices

  2. Energy Department Report Calculates Emissions and Costs of Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    does not consider other factors such as capital costs of construction for wind, solar, fossil-fueled power plants, or transmission. These costs are significant, but outside the...

  3. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  4. Table 3.7 Value of Fossil Fuel Imports, 1949-2011 (Thousand Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Value of Fossil Fuel Imports, 1949-2011 (Thousand Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil 1 Petroleum Products 2 Total Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 Nominal 3 Real 4 1949 2,368 16,332 [R] 3,976 27,423 [R] 0 0 304,658 2,101,235 [R] 137,130 945,789 [R] 448,132 3,090,779 [R] 1950 2,624 17,904 [R] 5,297 36,142 [R] 0 0 369,208 2,519,159 [R] 214,629 1,464,445 [R] 591,758 4,037,650 [R] 1951 2,420 15,402 [R] 1,932 12,296 [R] 0 0 374,869

  5. Table 3.8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports, 1949-2011 (Thousand Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports, 1949-2011 (Thousand Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil Petroleum Products 1 Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 297,179 2,049,652 [R] 8,323 57,404 [R] 1,823 12,573 [R] 98,425 678,840 [R] 461,439 3,182,557 [R] 867,189 5,981,026 [R] 1950 269,195 1,836,756 [R] 6,159 42,024 [R] 3,199 21,827 [R] 102,717 700,853 [R] 394,434 2,691,280 [R] 775,704 5,292,740 [R] 1951 586,056

  6. Table 3.9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, 1949-2011 (Thousand Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Value of Fossil Fuel Net Imports, 1949-2011 (Thousand Dollars) Year Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas Crude Oil Petroleum Products 1 Total Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 Nominal 2 Real 3 1949 -294,811 -2,033,320 [R] -4,347 -29,981 [R] -1,823 -12,573 [R] 206,233 1,422,395 [R] -324,309 -2,236,768 [R] -419,057 -2,890,248 [R] 1950 -266,571 -1,818,852 [R] -862 -5,882 [R] -3,199 -21,827 [R] 266,491 1,818,306 [R] -179,805 -1,226,835 [R] -183,946

  7. Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.; Gerdemann, Steve; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Turner, Paul; Patrick, Brian R.

    2011-10-18

    A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

  8. A creep damage estimation method for in-service fossil fuel boiler superheater tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogata, F. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Takahashi, H. . Research Inst. of Fracture Technology)

    1995-02-01

    Because mechanical properties of structural materials for high-temperature use, such as boiler tubing, degrade during long-term service, it is essential to detect toughness degradation by means of a nondestructive and simple field test technique. A grain boundary etching technique is developed to detect material degradation, and assess creep strength and notch toughness. An etching test using a picric acid solution with a wetting agent or using 20 percent HNO[sub 3] with alcoholic solution was found to have great potential for the nondestructive estimation of grain boundary embrittlement caused by carbide and sigma precipitation in SUS stainless steel. The feasibility of this estimation procedure was determined showing the relationships between Charpy impact energy (CVN) and grooving width (W[sub GS]), and creep damage ratio ([Phi]) and W[sub GS]. Superheater tubes of fossil fuel boiler were tested on site to demonstrate the validity of this technique.

  9. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Table 7. Sales of fossil fuel production from federal and Indian lands by state/area, FY 2003-14 trillion Btu State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Alabama 75 57 51 47 40 42 60 88 86 71 46 29 Alaska 61 66 68 52 32 28 27 23 21 19 18 21 Arizona 258 273 280 193 180 162 157 154 164 163 167 158 Arkansas 7 8 10 10 10 11 15 18 14 13 11 11 California 141 125 124 139 146 129 116 115 121 125 121 119 Colorado 785 842 960 906 905 931 846 868 917 952 875 877 Florida 0 - - - - -

  10. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The software can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.

  11. sparse-msrf:A package for sparse modeling and estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emission fields

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-10-06

    The software is used to fit models of emission fields (e.g., fossil-fuel CO2 emissions) to sparse measurements of gaseous concentrations. Its primary aim is to provide an implementation and a demonstration for the algorithms and models developed in J. Ray, V. Yadav, A. M. Michalak, B. van Bloemen Waanders and S. A. McKenna, "A multiresolution spatial parameterization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions", accepted, Geoscientific Model Development, 2014. The softwaremore » can be used to estimate emissions of non-reactive gases such as fossil-fuel CO2, methane etc. The software uses a proxy of the emission field being estimated (e.g., for fossil-fuel CO2, a population density map is a good proxy) to construct a wavelet model for the emission field. It then uses a shrinkage regression algorithm called Stagewise Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (StOMP) to fit the wavelet model to concentration measurements, using an atmospheric transport model to relate emission and concentration fields. Algorithmic novelties described in the paper above (1) ensure that the estimated emission fields are non-negative, (2) allow the use of guesses for emission fields to accelerate the estimation processes and (3) ensure that under/overestimates in the guesses do not skew the estimation.« less

  12. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985 and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands are forecast as well as the impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  13. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

  14. Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/02

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions. (DMC)

  15. Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller

    2007-12-15

    This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a

  17. Table 3.2 Value of Fossil Fuel Production, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Value of Fossil Fuel Production, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year Coal 1 Natural Gas 2 Crude Oil 3,4 Total Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 Nominal 5 Real 6 1949 2.52 17.37 [R] 0.33 2.24 4.68 32.27 [R] 7.52 51.88 [R] 1950 2.91 19.84 [R] .44 3.00 4.95 33.80 [R] 8.30 56.64 [R] 1951 3.05 19.40 [R] .52 3.32 [R] 5.69 36.19 [R] 9.26 58.92 [R] 1952 2.67 16.73 [R] .64 4.01 5.79 36.25 [R] 9.11 56.99 [R] 1953 2.55 15.79 [R] .76 4.67 [R] 6.32 39.06 [R] 9.63 59.52 [R] 1954 2.02 12.40 [R]

  18. Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrik, Michael; Ruhl, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels. Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

  19. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Parish, Esther S; Kline, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  20. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most of which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.

  1. Determining NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeel, A.

    1996-11-01

    To determine nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions, the concentration of NO{sub x} within the stack gas must be determined. USEPA Reference Methods 7, 7A, 7C, 7D and/or 7E are the procedures to be used for NO{sub x} measurement as referenced in 40 CFR 60 subparts D, Da, Db and Dc - {open_quotes}Standards of performance for fossil fuel-fired steam generators...{open_quotes}. Depending upon the reason for determining NO{sub x} emissions, information in addition to NO{sub x} concentrations may be needed. Generally, USEPA Reference Methods 1 - 4 will be used to gather the additional data needed to satisfy the specific need for determining NO{sub x} emissions. The following text outlines the individual NO{sub x} sampling methodology, the relative costs of the reference method (RM) sampling, and the use of the resulting reference method data to calculate emissions in units of applicable standards.

  2. Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

    2001-03-07

    We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

  3. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1997-08-05

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

  4. Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Wen-Ching; Newby, Richard A.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

  5. Risks to global biodiversity from fossil-fuel production exceed those from biofuel production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dale, Virginia H.; Parish, Esther S.; Kline, Keith L.

    2014-12-02

    Potential global biodiversity impacts from near-term gasoline production are compared to biofuel, a renewable liquid transportation fuel expected to substitute for gasoline in the near term (i.e., from now until c. 2030). Petroleum exploration activities are projected to extend across more than 5.8 billion ha of land and ocean worldwide (of which 3.1 billion is on land), much of which is in remote, fragile terrestrial ecosystems or off-shore oil fields that would remain relatively undisturbed if not for interest in fossil fuel production. Future biomass production for biofuels is projected to fall within 2.0 billion ha of land, most ofmore » which is located in areas already impacted by human activities. A comparison of likely fuel-source areas to the geospatial distribution of species reveals that both energy sources overlap with areas with high species richness and large numbers of threatened species. At the global scale, future petroleum production areas intersect more than double the area and higher total number of threatened species than future biofuel production. Energy options should be developed to optimize provisioning of ecosystem services while minimizing negative effects, which requires information about potential impacts on critical resources. Furthermore, energy conservation and identifying and effectively protecting habitats with high-conservation value are critical first steps toward protecting biodiversity under any fuel production scenario.« less

  6. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

    2008-08-13

    Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

  7. Removal of Mercury from Aqueous Streams of Fossil Fuel Power Plants Using Novel Functionalized Nanoporous Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Feng, X; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2006-01-11

    A new class of hybrid nanoporous materials has been developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removing toxic heavy metals such as mercury from aqueous and nonaqueous waste streams. These novel materials consist of functional molecules capable of selectively binding mercury (thiol groups) covalently bound (as densely populated monolayers) to the synthetic nanoporous substrates. Tests indicated that this sorbent (Self-Assembled Monolayers on Mesoporous Silica - SAMMS) can achieve mercury loading as high as {approx}635 mg/g. The high affinity for Hg adsorption by this material was reflected by Kd values as high as 3.5 x 108 ml/g. Data indicated that SAMMS can adsorb both inorganic and organic forms of mercury. Experimental data indicated that mercury adsorption performance of SAMMS was not significantly affected by pH, ionic strength, presence of other cations (Na, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, and Zn), and complexing anions (Cl, CN, CO3, SO4, and PO4) in solution. Adsorption kinetics studies indicated that SAMMS adsorbed mercury very rapidly (about 99.9% adsorption occurring within first five minutes). Tests conducted using samples of different aqueous and non-aqueous waste streams have confirmed the exemplary performance characteristics of SAMMS sorbents. Preliminary cost estimates indicated that using SAMMS would result in significant savings in mercury remediation costs as compared to the use of conventional adsorbents such as ion exchange resin and activated carbon.

  8. ROSE-based compact simulator for fossil fuel-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, H.; Burelle, R.

    1996-11-01

    Nuclear simulators specifications typically ask for {open_quotes}high fidelity full scope replica simulator{close_quotes}. This request is not only the norm but also mandatory due to the strict regulations and safety concerns in that industry. It is an unquestionable fact that these types of simulators do provide the most realistic and effective environment to train control room operators in normal, abnormal operations, and especially in emergency conditions which would be difficult to rehearse otherwise. Utilities in the fossil industry who could afford the price that these top of the line simulators demand would not hesitate long to acquire one. Fortunately for the others, this industry has the luxury to be more flexible in its simulator`s needs which permits utilities to select a simulator within their specific budget. They may chose from a wide range of different types of simulators, including full scope or partial scope, high fidelity or generic, hardware control rooms replicas or CRT-based graphical emulations. In all cases, a simulator must be economically beneficial to plant operations to justify its cost. Taking into account the distinctive requirements of the fossil industry, including their budget constraints, CAE used its vast experience in nuclear simulators to produce a user-friendly, CRT-based compact fossil simulator, using ROSE (Real-time Object-oriented Software Environment). This paper describes the specifics and characteristics of the ROSE-base compact simulator.

  9. Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State Energy Program project results in annual estimated cost savings of $313,000 for reduced consumption of gasoline, diesel, propane, and electricity.

  10. EERE Success Story—Arizona: Solar Panels Replace Inefficient Fossil Fuel-Powered Energy Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    State Energy Program project results in annual estimated cost savings of $313,000 for reduced consumption of gasoline, diesel, propane, and electricity.

  11. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  12. Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

    2010-03-01

    As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled “Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors”, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: • Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, • Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and • Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nation’s energy

  13. General circulation model calculations of the direct radiative forcing by anthropogenic sulfate and fossil-fuel soot aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haywood, J.M.; Roberts, D.L.; Slingo, A.

    1997-07-01

    A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different aerosol profiles, relative humidity parameterizations, chemical compositions, and internal and external mixtures of the two aerosol types are investigated. The contribution to the radiative forcing from cloudy sky regions is found to be negligible for sulfate aerosol; this is in contrast to recent studies where the cloudy sky contribution was estimated using a method in which the spatial correlation between cloud amount and sulfate burden was ignored. However, the radiative forcing due to fossil-fuel soot aerosol is enhanced in cloudy regions if soot aerosol exists within or above the cloud. The global solar radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol is estimated to be -0.38 W m{sup -2} and the global thermal radiative forcing is estimated to be +0.01 W m{sup -2}. The hemispheric mean radiative forcings vary by only about 10% for reasonable assumptions about the chemical form of the sulfate aerosol and the relative humidity dependence; the uncertainties in the aerosol loading are far more significant. If a soot/sulfate mass ratio of 0.075 is assumed, then the global solar radiative forcing weakens to -0.18 W m{sup -2} for an external mixture and weakens further for an internal mixture. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the radiative forcing shows strong negative/positive forcing contrasts that may influence the dynamical response of the atmosphere. Although these results are extremely sensitive to the adopted soot/sulfate ratio and the assumed vertical profile, they indicate that fossil-fuel soot aerosol may exert a nonnegligible radiative forcing and emphasize the need to consider each anthropogenic aerosol species. 58 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. An expanded review and comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel and geothermal electrical generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, R.B.; Neil, P.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the greenhouse gas emissions due to fossil fuel and geothermal electrical generation and to the emissions of their respective support activities. These support activities consist of, exploration, development, and transportation aspects of the fuel source, including waste management. These support activities could amount to an additional 6% for coal, 22% for oil, 13% for natural gas and 1% for geothermal. The presented methodologies and underlying principles can be used to better define the resultant emissions, rankings and global impacts of these electrical generating industries.

  15. Electric power monthly, July 1999, with data for April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-07-01

    The Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  16. Evaluation of vost and semivost methods for halogenated compounds in the Clean Air Act amendments title III. Validation study at fossil fuel plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, M.D.; Knoll, J.E.; Midgett, M.R.; McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), Title III, present a need for stationary source sampling and analytical methods for the list of 189 toxic air pollutants. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has used VOST and SemiVOST sampling and analytical methods for a wide variety of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the past, but these methodologies have been completely validated for only a few of the organic compounds. The applicability of VOST and SemiVOST techniques to the halogenated organic compounds listed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been evaluated under laboratory conditions for chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric response, sorbent recovery and analytical method detection limit. Dynamic spiking techniques for the sampling trains (both gaseous and liquid dynamic spiking) were also evaluated in the laboratory. In the study, the VOST and SemiVOST methods were evaluated in the field at a fossil fuel power plant. The source was selected to provide actual stationary source emissions with the compounds of interest present in trace amounts or not present. The paper presents the results of the field validation of the VOST and SemiVOST sampling and analytical methods.

  17. Electric power monthly, May 1995 with data for February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisiommakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuel, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  18. Electric power monthly, December 1997 with data for September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  19. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Benson, Steven; Crocker, Charlene; Mackenzie, Jill

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  20. Targeted chlorination for biofouling control in steam electric power plant condenser tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an understanding of the relationships between biofouling, heat transfer, and to assess the technical feasibility of the targeted chlorination (TC) concept as an alternative to conventional chlorination in once-through seawater cooling systems. A shell and tube type heat exchanger was designed and constructed. The test facility monitored biofouling growth by measuring heat transfer resistance (thermal performance), pressure drop (hydraulic performance), and biomass deposit. Biocide effectiveness was determined by triplicates average residual biomass. Tests were run to evaluate 18 treatment scenarios. Preliminary tests were done to determine variabilities between shells and among tubes, effect of heating, very high dose chlorine burn out and regrowth behavior. LOGIT, a software package by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for sigmoidal fit, was used for the preliminary test data. The other three tests studied effect of chlorine dosage (low, high), contact time, and frequency. To minimize variability in results, triplicates for each chlorination scheme were used. The total amount of chlorine applied (flow rate Q x C x T x F) ranged from about 400 to 4,000 pounds per million gallons per day (an equivalent to a CTF range of 6 to 60 ppm.min/day). With respect to efficiency of biofouling control, it was found by regression analysis that among four variables C, T, (CT) and F, F was most significant and C, T, and (CT) were relatively equal in ranking.

  1. The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    None 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) is a state-of-the-art test center sponsored...

  2. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2 Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS The Mesaba Energy...

  3. Nuclear Power and the Environment - Energy Explained, Your Guide...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Exports How Much Coal Is Left Use of Coal Prices ... Unlike fossil fuel-fired power plants, nuclear reactors do ... the nuclear power plant, then the emissions from ...

  4. NREL: Learning - Concentrating Solar Power Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. ...

  5. Concentrating solar power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the southwestern United States and other sunbelts worldwide. Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a...

  6. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  7. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  8. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  9. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  10. A multiresolution spatial parametrization for the estimation of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions via atmospheric inversions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Jaideep; Lee, Jina; Lefantzi, Sophia; Yadav, Vineet; Michalak, Anna M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2) from limited ground-based and satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations will form a key component of the monitoring of treaties aimed at the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. To that end, we construct a multiresolution spatial parametrization for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions (ffCO2), to be used in atmospheric inversions. Such a parametrization does not currently exist. The parametrization uses wavelets to accurately capture the multiscale, nonstationary nature of ffCO2 emissions and employs proxies of human habitation, e.g., images of lights at night and maps of built-up areas to reduce the dimensionality of the multiresolution parametrization. The parametrization is used in a synthetic data inversion to test its suitability for use in atmospheric inverse problem. This linear inverse problem is predicated on observations of ffCO2 concentrations collected at measurement towers. We adapt a convex optimization technique, commonly used in the reconstruction of compressively sensed images, to perform sparse reconstruction of the time-variant ffCO2 emission field. We also borrow concepts from compressive sensing to impose boundary conditions i.e., to limit ffCO2 emissions within an irregularly shaped region (the United States, in our case). We find that the optimization algorithm performs a data-driven sparsification of the spatial parametrization and retains only of those wavelets whose weights could be estimated from the observations. Further, our method for the imposition of boundary conditions leads to a 10computational saving over conventional means of doing so. We conclude with a discussion of the accuracy of the estimated emissions and the suitability of the spatial parametrization for use in inverse problems with a significant degree of regularization.

  11. Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Beginning in 2001, data are for electric utility and unregulated generating plants",,,,,,"Plant Operation and Design Report."" * 1997-2005-EIA, Electric Power Annual 2008 (January ...

  12. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (1994) 29 Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production Spath, P. L.; Mann, ... AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja (1997) 23 ...

  13. Can industry`s `fourth` fossil fuel establish presence in US?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armor, A.F.; Dene, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    After five years of commercial experience burning Orimulsion overseas, US utilities are now evaluating the new fuel as a serious alternative to oil. In their relentless drive to remain competitive, electric utilities with oil-fired generating units are searching for lower cost fuel alternatives. Because of high fuel prices, oil-fired units have low capacity factors. Only 23 out of 142 oil-capable units in the US had capacity factors greater than 50% in 1993; the average was a mere 24%. Utility consumption of fuel oil slid from over 600,000 barrels (bbl)/day in 1989 to less than 200,000 bbl/day last year. Orimulsion now fuels nearly 3,000 MW/yr worldwide. The UK`s PowerGen Ltd, currently the world`s largest consumer of Orimulsion, fires some 10-million bbl/yr at two 500-MW units at its Ince plant and three 120-MW units at its Richborough plant. Both plants formerly burned fuel oil, and have been using Orimulsion since 1991. Canada`s New Brunswick Power Corp has fired Orimulsion in two units at its Dalhousie plant since 1994 (Power, April 1995, p 27); one 105-MW unit was originally designed for fuel oil, the other 212-MW unit was designed for coal. Last year, Denmark`s SK Power converted its coal-fired, 700-MW Asnaes Unit 5 to Orimulsion firing. And in the US, Florida Power and Light Co. (FP and L) has signed a 20-yr fuel supply contract with Bitor America Corp (Boca Raton, Fla.), for two 800-MW units at the oil-fired Manatee plant, contingent on securing necessary permits. The Manatee installation (Power, September 1994, p 57) would be the first in the US to burn the fuel. Today, five years after Orimulsion begun to be used commercially, many of the lingering questions involving the new fuel`s handling, transportation, combustion, emissions control, spill control, and waste utilization have been settled. Several US utilities have expressed serious interest in the fuel as an alternative to oil.

  14. Electric power monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Statistics are provided for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold.

  15. China: Emissions pattern of the world leader in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, J; Andres, Robert Joseph; Marland, Gregg

    2008-01-01

    Release of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacture is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. Our best estimate is that China became the largest national source of CO2 emissions during 2006. Previously, the United States (US) had occupied that position. However, the annual emission rate in the US has remained relatively stable between 2001-2006 while the emission rate in China has more than doubled, apparently eclipsing that of the US in late 2006. Here we present the seasonal and spatial pattern of CO2 emissions in China, as well as the sectoral breakdown of emissions. Though our best point estimate places China in the lead position in terms of CO2 emissions, we qualify this statement in a discussion of the uncertainty in the underlying data (3-5% for the US; 15-20% for China). Finally, we comment briefly on the implications of China's new position with respect to international agreements to mitigate climate change.

  16. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  17. Conclusions drawn from actions implemented within the first stage of the Cracow program of energy conservation and clean fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieda, J.; Bardel, J.; Pierce, B.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1992 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), acting on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, executed the first stage of the Cracow Program of Energy Conservation and Clean Fossil Fuels, called also American-Polish Program of Actions for Elimination of Low Emission Sources in Cracow. The main contractor for BNL and PNL was the Cracow Development Office (BRK). The interest in improving the condition of Cracow air results from the fact that the standard for permissible air pollution was exceeded several times in Cracow and especially within the central part of the town. Therefore, air pollution appeared one of the most important problems that faced the municipal authorities. It followed from monitoring investigations that the high level of air pollutant concentration is caused by in-home coal-fired tile stoves operated in winter seasons and by coal- and coke-fired boiler houses simulated mainly in the central part of the town. The results obtained in first stage are presented. This paper is an attempt to formulate conclusions drawn from these works and recommendations with regard to the future policy of the town authorities; selected results are presented to clarify or illustrate the conclusions.

  18. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  19. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025

  20. An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhicheng Wang

    2007-03-15

    The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

  1. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.; Pierce, B.

    1995-06-01

    Krakow is one of the largest and oldest cities in Poland. It is situated in the south of the country on the banks of the Vistula River. From the 11th until the 17th centuries, it was the capital of Poland. Today, Krakow is a city of 750,000 residents, one of the largest centers of higher education, an important industrial center, and is of particular importance because of the number and kinds of historic buildings and sites. For this reason, Krakow was included by the UNESCO in the list of the world`s cultural heritages. For about three decades, significant air pollution has been one of Krakow`s most serious problems. Because the city is situated in the Vistula River valley, it is poorly ventilated and experiences a high concentration of air pollutants. The quality of air in Krakow is affected mainly by industry (Sendzimir Steelworks, energy industry, chemical plants), influx from the Silesian industrial region (power plants, metallurgy), transboundary pollution (Ostrava - Czech Republic), and local sources of low pollution, i.e. more than 1,000 boiler houses using solid fuels and more than 100,000 coal-fired home stoves. These local sources, with low stacks and almost no pollution-control equipment, are responsible for about 35-40% of the air pollution. This report presents phase I results of a program to reduce pollution in krakow. Phase I was to gather information on emissions and costs, and to verify assumptions on existing heating methods and alternatives.

  2. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined

  3. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, William L

    2012-10-31

    The primary objectives of this work can be summed into two major categories. Firstly, the fundamentals of the combustion of glycerol (in both a refined and unrefined form) were to be investigated, with emphasis of the development of a system capable of reliably and repeatedly combusting glycerol as well as an analysis of the emissions produced during glycerol combustion. Focus was placed on quantifying common emissions in comparison to more traditional fuels and this work showed that the burner developed was able to completely combust glycerol within a relatively wide range of operating conditions. Additionally, focus was placed on examining specific emissions in more detail, namely interesting NOx emissions observed in initial trials, acrolein and other volatile organic emissions, and particulate and ash emissions. This work showed that the combustion of crude glycerol could result in significantly reduced NOx emissions as a function of the high fuel bound oxygen content within the glycerol fuel. It also showed that when burned properly, the combustion of crude glycerol did not result in excessive emissions of acrolein or any other VOC compared to the combustion from more traditional fuels. Lastly however, this work has shown that in any practical application in which glycerol is being burned, it will be necessary to explore ash mitigation techniques due to the very high particulate matter concentrations produced during glycerol combustion. These emissions are comparable to unfiltered coal combustion and are directly tied to the biodiesel production method. The second focus of this work was directed to developing a commercialization strategy for the use of glycerol as a fuel replacement. This strategy has identified a 30 month plan for the scaling up of the laboratory scale burner into a pre-pilot scale system. Additionally, financing options were explored and an assessment was made of the economics of replacing a traditional fuel (namely natural gas) with crude glycerol from biodiesel production. This analysis showed that the cost of replacing natural gas with crude glycerol requires a strong function of the market price per unit of energy for the traditional fuel. However, the economics can be improved through the inclusion of a federal tax credit for the use of a renewable fuel. The conclusion of this analysis also shows that the ideal customer for energy replacement via crude glycerol is biodiesel producers who are located in remote regions, where the cost of energy is higher and the cost of crude glycerol is lowest. Lastly, the commercialization strategy analyzed competing technologies, namely traditional natural gas and electric heaters, as well as competing glycerol burners, and concludes with a discussion of the requirements for a pilot demonstration.

  4. Electric power monthly, March 1999 with data for December 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be sued in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  5. Electric power monthly: April 1996, with data for January 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 64 tabs.

  6. Electric Power Monthly, September 1995: With data for June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  7. Electric power monthly, May 1998, with data for February 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. The EPM provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 30 refs., 58 tabs.

  8. Electric power monthly, August 1998, with data for May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 9 refs., 57 tabs.

  9. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  11. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  12. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  13. Concentrating Solar Power Basics | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Basics Many power plants today use fossil fuels as a heat source to boil water. The steam from the boiling water spins a large turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. However, a new generation of power plants with concentrating solar power systems uses the sun as a heat source. The three main types of concentrating solar power systems are: linear concentrator, dish/engine, and power tower systems. Linear concentrator systems collect the sun's energy

  14. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  15. Electric power annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-08

    This report presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and state levels: generating capability and additions, net generation, fossil-fuel statistics, retail sales and revenue, finanical statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, demand side management, nonutility power producers. Purpose is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts, and the public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets.

  16. Electric power monthly, April 1999 with data for January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  17. Electric power monthly, September 1998, with data for June 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  18. Electric power monthly, October 1998, with data for July 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  19. Electric power monthly, November 1998, with data for August 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-11-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, June 1999, with data for March 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  1. Electric Power monthly, November 1995 with data for August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-15

    This report presents monthly electricity statistics, with the purpose of providing energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities; the information are from six data sources: forms EIA-759, FERC Form 423, EIA-826, EIA-861, EIA-860, and Form OE-417R. An article on reclicensing and environmental issues affecting hydropower is included. Then the statistics are presented in: US electric power at a glance, utility net generation, utility consumption of fossil fuels, fossil-fuel stocks at utilities, fossil fuel receipts and costs, utility sales/revenue/average revenue per kWh, and monthly plant aggregates. Finally, nonutility power producer statistics, bibliography, technical notes, and a glossary are presented.

  2. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, David; Lemar, Paul

    2015-12-01

    This report estimates the potential for opportunity fuel combined heat and power (CHP) applications in the United States, and provides estimates for the technical and economic market potential compared to those included in an earlier report. An opportunity fuel is any type of fuel that is not widely used when compared to traditional fossil fuels. Opportunity fuels primarily consist of biomass fuels, industrial waste products and fossil fuel derivatives. These fuels have the potential to be an economically viable source of power generation in various CHP applications.

  3. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  4. Electric power monthly: October 1995, with data for July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-19

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  5. Electric power monthly, May 1999, with data for February 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 64 tabs.

  6. Electric power monthly: October 1996, with data for July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. This report contains approximately 60 tables.

  7. A review of METC`S continuous process monitoring devices for application to high temperature and pressure fossil fuel process streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chisholm, W.P.

    1994-12-31

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center of the United States Department of Energy, in support of advanced fossil fuel technologies, is developing and applying a number of innovative continuous process monitors. These include an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer, an alkali monitor, a particle counter and sizer, and a water vapor monitor. The alkali monitor is a flame emission spectrometer currently undergoing field trials. Alkali emission from gasifiers and combustors is of interest because it causes corrosion and deposition on downstream components, such as particle filters, sulfur compound sorbents, turbine blades, etc. This device can measure alkali concentrations at the part-per-billion level. The particle monitoring devices use laser light scattering to count and size particles. By measuring particle concentration around a particulate removal device, capture efficiency can be measured in real time with a resolution of one minute. Particles between .45 and 80 microns can be counted at rates as high as one million per second in 5 bar, 350 degree celsius environments. The optical water vapor monitor uses near-infrared light absorption to monitor and control steam injection in an advanced heat exchanger. It is targeted for a 300 degrees celsius and 5 bar environment. The inductively coupled plasma system uses a helium and argon plasma discharge within a torch assembly capable of accepting a high temperature and pressure sample stream. An artificial neural network is being developed to interpret its data. Real-time data from a bench-scale coal gasifier will be presented and discussed.

  8. Sensitivity of global-scale climate change attribution results to inclusion of fossil fuel black carbon aerosol - article no. L14701

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.S.; Jones, A.; Roberts, D.L.; Stott, P.A.; Williams, K.D.

    2005-07-16

    It is likely that greenhouse gas emissions caused most of the global mean warming observed during the 20th century, and that sulphate aerosols counteracted this warming to some extent, by reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby cooling the planet. However, the importance of another aerosol, namely black carbon, could be underestimated. Here we include fossil fuel black carbon aerosol in a detection and attribution analysis with greenhouse gas and sulphate aerosols. We find that most of the warming of the 20th Century is attributable to changes in greenhouse gases offset by net aerosol cooling. However the pattern of temperature change due to black carbon is currently indistinguishable from the sulphate aerosol pattern of temperature change. The attribution of temperature change due to greenhouse gases is not sensitive to the inclusion of black carbon. We can be confident about the overall attribution of total aerosols, but less so about the contributions of black carbon emissions to 20th century climate change. This work presents no evidence that black carbon aerosol forcing outweighed the cooling due to sulphate aerosol.

  9. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result

  10. Transitioning from fossil-fueled ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Chemical Reactions That lithium-ion batteries lose their ... Simulation and Experiment Sandia's BATLab is a leading facility for investigating and understanding battery ...

  11. Electric Power Monthly - December 2004 issue

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State (lowest level of aggregation), Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, cost, quantity and quality of fossil fuels received,...

  12. Electric Power Monthly ? November 2005 Data issue

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State (lowest level of aggregation), Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, cost, quantity and quality of fossil fuels received,...

  13. Electric Power Monthly ? December 2007 Data issue

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    State (lowest level of aggregation), Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, cost, quantity and quality of fossil fuels received,...

  14. Electric Power Monthly - March 2004 issue

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State (lowest level of aggregation), Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, cost, quantity and quality of fossil fuels received,...

  15. Electric Power Monthly ? December 2006 Data issue

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    State (lowest level of aggregation), Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, cost, quantity and quality of fossil fuels received,...

  16. NUCLEAR POWERED CO2 CAPTURE FROM THE ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, S

    2008-09-22

    A process for capturing CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere was recently proposed. This process uses a closed cycle of sodium and calcium hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide transformations to capture dilute CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere and to generate a concentrated stream of CO{sub 2} that is amenable to sequestration or subsequent chemical transformations. In one of the process steps, a fossil-fueled lime kiln is needed, which reduces the net CO{sub 2} capture of the process. It is proposed to replace the fossil-fueled lime kiln with a modified kiln heated by a high-temperature nuclear reactor. This will have the effect of eliminating the use of fossil fuels for the process and increasing the net CO{sub 2} capture. Although the process is suitable to support sequestration, the use of a nuclear power source for the process provides additional capabilities, and the captured CO{sub 2} may be combined with nuclear-produced hydrogen to produce liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other technologies. Conceivably, such plants would be carbon-neutral, and could be placed virtually anywhere without being tied to fossil fuel sources or geological sequestration sites.

  17. Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.C.; Glantz, C.S.; Edelmen, P.C.

    1993-11-01

    This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions.

  18. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    TDA Research Inc., in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, will develop a new, high-capacity sorbent to remove sulfur from anaerobic digester gas. This technology will enable the production of a nearly sulfur-free biogas to replace natural gas in fuel cell power plants while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels.

  19. Nuclear energy is an important source of power, supplying 20

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy is an important source of power, supplying 20 percent of the nation's electricity. More than 100 nuclear power plants are operating in the U.S., and countries around the world are implementing nuclear power as a carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels. We can maximize the climate and energy security benefits provided by responsible global nuclear energy expansion by developing options to increase the energy extracted from nuclear fuel, improve waste management, and strengthen nuclear

  20. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  1. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, A.B.; Roy, C.

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  2. Diagnosis system to improve heat rate in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, G.; Villavicencio R., A.

    1996-05-01

    Today fossil fuel power plants is showing a trend toward full automation. This increases the difficulty for human operators to follow in detail the progress of power plants, and also limit the contribution of human operators to diagnostic task. Therefore, automated and intelligent fault diagnostic systems have been intensively investigated. Despite several successful examples of diagnostic systems, often called expert systems, the development task of a diagnostic system still remains empiric and is unique for each system. This paper discusses the design of a Diagnostic System to improve Heat Rate for fossil fuel power plant. The approach is characterized as an fault tree diagnostic system. The prototype of this system has showed the benefits and the feasibility of using this system to diagnose equipment in power plants.

  3. U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: Continued Life or Replacement After 60? (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants generate approximately 20% of U.S. electricity, and the plants in operation today are often seen as attractive assets in the current environment of uncertainty about future fossil fuel prices, high construction costs for new power plants (particularly nuclear plants), and the potential enactment of greenhouse gas regulations. Existing nuclear power plants have low fuel costs and relatively high power output. However, there is uncertainty about how long they will be allowed to continue operating.

  4. Electric Power Monthly March 2003

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil...

  5. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer Engineering, and Argonne National Laboratory, will develop and demonstrate a prototype microturbine combined heat and power system fueled by synthesis gas and integrated with a biomass gasifier, enabling reduced fossil fuel

  6. Electric power monthly. June 1966 with data for March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-06-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public, with the purpose of providing energy decisionmakers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities (Public Law 93-275). A section on upgrading transmission capacity for wholesale electric power trade is included. The tables include US electric power at a glance, utility net generation, utility consumption of fossil fuels, fossil-fuel stocks/receipts/cost at utilities, utility sales/revenue/revenue per kWh, and monthly plant aggregates.

  7. ThermoElectric Power System Simulator (TEPSS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America's wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  8. Impacts of proposed RCRA regulations and other related federal environmental regulations on fossil fuel-fired facilities: Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Estimation of the costs associated with implementation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations for non-hazardous and hazardous material disposal in the utility industry are provided. These costs are based on engineering studies at a number of coal-fired power plants in which the costs for hazardous and non-hazardous disposal are compared to the costs developed for the current practice design for each utility. The relationship of the three costs is displayed. The emphasis of this study is on the determination of incremental costs rather than the absolute costs for each case (current practice, non-hazardous, or hazardous). For the purpose of this project, the hazardous design cost was determined for minimum versus maximum compliance.

  9. Electric Power Monthly, August 1990. [Glossary included

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly summaries of electric utility statistics at the national, Census division, and State level. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data includes generation by energy source (coal, oil, gas, hydroelectric, and nuclear); generation by region; consumption of fossil fuels for power generation; sales of electric power, cost data; and unusual occurrences. A glossary is included.

  10. Science on the Hill: Driving toward an algae-powered future

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science on the Hill: Driving toward an algae-powered future Driving toward an algae-powered future A new research project led by Los Alamos National Laboratory seeks to drive algal biofuels to marketability, decreasing our nation's dependence on fossil fuels and putting the brakes on global warming. December 24, 2015 LANL scientist Richard Sayre Los Alamos National Laboratory scientist David Fox holds a vial of blue-green algae that is part of the Laboratory's research into improving algae

  11. Control Strategies for Distributed Energy Resources to Maximize the Use of Wind Power in Rural Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Shuai; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Samaan, Nader A.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Chunlian; Zhang, Yu

    2011-10-10

    The focus of this paper is to design control strategies for distributed energy resources (DERs) to maximize the use of wind power in a rural microgrid. In such a system, it may be economical to harness wind power to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels for electricity production. In this work, we develop control strategies for DERs, including diesel generators, energy storage and demand response, to achieve high penetration of wind energy in a rural microgrid. Combinations of centralized (direct control) and decentralized (autonomous response) control strategies are investigated. Detailed dynamic models for a rural microgrid are built to conduct simulations. The system response to large disturbances and frequency regulation are tested. It is shown that optimal control coordination of DERs can be achieved to maintain system frequency while maximizing wind power usage and reducing the wear and tear on fossil fueled generators.

  12. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  13. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.; Blankinship, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    In the current and prevailing concept of photosynthesis, the Z-scheme, first proposed by Hill and Bendall, PSII can split water, but is not thought to be able to perform one of PSI`s assigned functions-the reduction of ferredoxin/NADP{sup +} essential for CO{sub 2} assimilation. The Z-scheme therefore requires both PSII and PSI working in sequence for complete photosynthesis using water as the source of electrons and CO{sub 2} as the terminal electron acceptor. Despite disagreement from several investigators, the Z-scheme has become the textbook model of photosynthesis. Recently, we have demonstrated that sustained photoassimilation of CO{sub 2} and evolution of H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} in minimal medium can be achieved by the PSII light reaction without involvement of PSI in a PSI-deficient mutant of Chlamydomonas grown photoheterotrophically using an organic nutrient (acetate). In this paper, we report a more exciting discovery that PSI-deficient mutants of Chlamydomonas were capable of growing photoautotrophically with CO{sub 2} as the sole source of carbon. Since the Z-scheme requires both PSI and PSII working together in series for complete photosynthesis, it predicts that PSI-deficient mutants of green algae will not grow photoautotrophically. The discovery of photoautotrophic growth of PSI-deficient green algae without any organic nutrients, therefore, provides clear and solid evidence for the existence of a new type of photosynthesis-{open_quotes}PSII photosynthesis{close_quotes} that is an alternative to the Z-scheme. Our discovery may also provide an explanation for many {open_quotes}anomalous{close_quotes} quantum requirements that have been reported over the last 50 years, but failed to be explained by the Z-scheme.

  14. Transitioning from fossil-fueled to electrifie

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    depends on developing batteries that are increasingly economical, reliable, and safe. A vehicle battery is a large investment and carries with it a requirement for a long, reliable life. Substantially improving battery performance requires greatly improving the energy storage community's fundamental understanding of the complex processes active in batteries, particularly those that degrade a battery's service lifetime. As a lithium-ion battery discharges and then is recharged, lithium ions

  15. Enhancing carburization resistance in fossil fuel environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.D.; Tassen, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    There has been steady progress in the development of wrought alloys for use in gaseous carburizing environments. Contributing significantly to this progress is a growing knowledge base of the role of scales in enhancing carburization resistance. Future improvements in carburization resistance must build upon this level of understanding. This paper seeks to survey some of this wealth of information regarding scale characteristics of commercial wrought nickel-containing alloys as these scales are influenced by environment and alloy composition. Some suggestions as to the future direction of alloy development with regard to scale optimization and minimization of carburization resistance are proposed.

  16. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Biofuels vs Fossil Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from North Caddo Magnet High School in Vivian, LA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  17. Microsoft Word - Fossil Fuel EA Final EA

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE compared the Proposed Rule with the "no-action alternative" of using the current Federal building energy efficiency standards found at 10 CFR Part 433 and 10 CFR Part 435...

  18. Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the rulemaking referenced above. The communications occurred at a meeting held on February 13, 2013. DOE 433 ex parte memo.pdf (16.1 KB) More Documents & Publications Disclosure of ...

  19. Fireside corrosion probes for fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, G.R.; Eden, D.A.

    2006-03-01

    Electrochemical corrosion rate probes have been constructed and tested along with mass loss coupons in environments consisting of N2/O2/CO2/SO2 plus water vapor. Temperatures ranged from 450° to 700°C. Results show that electrochemical corrosion rates for ash-covered mild steel are a function of time, temperature, and gaseous environment. Correlation between the electrochemical and mass loss corrosion rates was poor.

  20. EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-923 Form Summary of New and Deleted

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Elements 923 Summary of New and Deleted Data Elements for New Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report" NEW Data Elements On Schedule 2, required information from plants 50 MW and above that consume fossil fuels: Commodity Cost in cents per MMBtu - for coal and natural gas fuels. These data will be kept confidential. Mercury Content in coal, parts per million (ppm) Fuel Transportation Modes - reported by code. For natural gas, either Firm or Interruptible transportation

  1. Update on use of mine pool water for power generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-30

    In 2004, nearly 90 percent of the country's electricity was generated at power plants using steam-based systems (EIA 2005). Electricity generation at steam electric plants requires a cooling system to condense the steam. With the exception of a few plants using air-cooled condensers, most U.S. steam electric power plants use water for cooling. Water usage occurs through once-through cooling or as make-up water in a closed-cycle system (generally involving one or more cooling towers). According to a U.S. Geological Survey report, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 136 billion gallons per day of fresh water in 2000 (USGS 2005). This is almost the identical volume withdrawn for irrigation purposes. In addition to fresh water withdrawals, the steam electric power industry withdrew about 60 billion gallons per day of saline water. Many parts of the United States are facing fresh water shortages. Even areas that traditionally have had adequate water supplies are reaching capacity limits. New or expanded steam electric power plants frequently need to turn to non-traditional alternate sources of water for cooling. This report examines one type of alternate water source-groundwater collected in underground pools associated with coal mines (referred to as mine pool water in this report). In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to evaluate the feasibility of using mine pool water in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. That report (Veil et al. 2003) identified six small power plants in northeastern Pennsylvania (the Anthracite region) that had been using mine pool water for over a decade. It also reported on a pilot study underway at Exelon's Limerick Generating Station in southeastern Pennsylvania that involved release of water from a mine located about 70 miles upstream from the plant. The water flowed down the Schuylkill River and augmented the natural flow so that

  2. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  3. MHD Advanced Power Train Phase I, Final Report, Volume 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. R. Jones

    1985-08-01

    Under contract to the Department of Energy, Westinghouse has prepared the definition of a program plan for the development of an MHD Advanced Power Train (APT). The scope of work of this contract includes conceptual designs of early commercial MHD/steam electric plants (topping/bottoming) ranging from 200 to 1000 Mw(e). These plant designs were prepared during 1982 and made use of a system analysis model that provides performance and design information and economic estimates. In early April 1984, DOE requested westinghouse to perform special studies under the existing APT contract to aid the Department in evaluating MHD program options. Two tasks were defined by DOE: the first task was to evaluate an 80 MW(t) integrated test system (with steam electric bottoming cycle) for installation at the CDIF in Butte, Montana; the second task was to investigate placing a 50 MW(e) MHD topping stage onto an existing steam electric plant (as a retrofit). This volume of the final report documents the results of these special studies. Highlights of the studies were presented orally to DOE on May 15, 1984.

  4. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  5. Electric power monthly, July 1995 - with data for April 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    This publication provides statistical data on net generation, fuel consumption, fossil fuel stocks, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on fossil fuel stocks and costs are also included.

  6. DOE/EIA-0226(2000/03) Electric Power Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil...

  7. DOE/EIA-0226(2001/03) Electric Power Monthly

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil...

  8. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  9. ANL Study Shows Wind Power Decreases Power Sector Emissions ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels. "Our study clearly shows that using wind to generate electricity has a discernible ...

  10. Electric power monthly January 1997 with data for October 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistical data. Information is included on U.S. electric utility net generation, consumption of fossil fuels, and fossil-fuel stocks; U.S. electric utility sales; receipts and cost of fossil fuels at utilities; and monthly plant aggregates. A glossary is included.

  11. Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    Considerable optimism prevailed at the decade's beginning that marine energy fluxes would be utilized widely and soon. Potential resources were overestimated and technical difficulties underestimated. Then leaping fuel prices were thought to give a competitive edge to renewable, fuel-free, power technologies. But since most renewable power is of low intensity and requires large conversion systems, costs are innately high and have been very sensitive to the inflation engendered by the 1973 oil embargo, staying well ahead of those of fossil-fueled power. The necessary low-pressure technology has proved difficult to master, and power utilities have been reluctant to invest in variable, undependable supplies. Prospects for power from the oceans were thus at a low ebb near the end of the Seventies. However, persevering efforts helped by more patient expectations have turned the prospects around and up again, and demonstration facilities are under test or construction for temperature-gradient, tidal, wave, and wind power.

  12. EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-923 Form

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    923 Form The New Form EIA-923 combines: Form EIA-906 - Power Plant Report Form EIA-920 - Combined Heat and Power Plant Report Form EIA-423 - Monthly Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants FERC Form 423 - Monthly Report of Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Plants Form EIA-767 - Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report (operational information) What Do I Need to Do? See if you are required to file the EIA-923 Yes? File the EIA-923 electronically No need to re-register if

  13. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  14. Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

  15. Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, III, Kingsbury; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael; Smith, Trevor

    2013-11-05

    Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.

  16. Method and apparatus for automated, modular, biomass power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P.; Lilley, Arthur; Browne, Kingsbury III; Walt, Robb Ray; Duncan, Dustin; Walker, Michael; Steele, John; Fields, Michael; Smith, Trevor

    2011-03-22

    Method and apparatus for generating a low tar, renewable fuel gas from biomass and using it in other energy conversion devices, many of which were designed for use with gaseous and liquid fossil fuels. An automated, downdraft gasifier incorporates extensive air injection into the char bed to maintain the conditions that promote the destruction of residual tars. The resulting fuel gas and entrained char and ash are cooled in a special heat exchanger, and then continuously cleaned in a filter prior to usage in standalone as well as networked power systems.

  17. Electric Power Monthly with data for July 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 57 tabs.

  18. Electric power annual 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  19. Electric power annual 1997. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1 -- with a focus on US electric utilities -- contains final 1997 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1997 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on a monthly sample: Form EIA-826, ``Monthly Electric Utility Sales and Revenue Report with State Distributions``). Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA.

  20. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER FINAL RECHNICAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 1, 1999 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2002 REV. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH, RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy [1-1,1-2]. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties [1-3,1-4]. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon

  1. Electric power annual 1989. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-17

    This publication presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and state levels. The Industry At A Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. 24 figs., 57 tabs.

  2. Table 8.11b Electric Net Summer Capacity: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Subset of Table 8.11a; Kilowatts)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Electric Net Summer Capacity: Electric Power Sector, 1949-2011 (Subset of Table 8.11a; Kilowatts) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage Renewable Energy Other 9 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power 5 Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 8 Wind Total Wood 6 Waste 7 1949 NA NA NA NA 44,887,000 0 [5] 18,500,000 13,000 [10] NA NA NA 18,513,000 NA 63,400,000 1950 NA NA NA NA 49,987,000 0 [5] 19,200,000 13,000 [10] NA

  3. Table 8.11c Electric Net Summer Capacity: Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, 1989-2011 (Breakout of Table 8.11b; Kilowatts)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Electric Net Summer Capacity: Electric Power Sector by Plant Type, 1989-2011 (Breakout of Table 8.11b; Kilowatts) Year Fossil Fuels Nuclear Electric Power Hydro- electric Pumped Storage Renewable Energy Other 8 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Conventional Hydroelectric Power Biomass Geo- thermal Solar/PV 7 Wind Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Electricity-Only Plants 9<//td> 1989 296,541,828 77,966,348 119,304,288 364,000 494,176,464 98,160,610 18,094,424 73,579,794

  4. Electric power annual 1994. Volume 2, Operational and financial data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-28

    This year, the annual is published in two volumes. Volume I focused on US electric utilities and contained final 1994 data on net generation, fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost. This Volume II presents annual 1994 summary statistics for the electric power industry, including information on both electric utilities and nonutility power producers. Included are preliminary data for electric utility retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold (based on form EIA-861) and for electric utility financial statistics, environmental statistics, power transactions, and demand- side management. Final 1994 data for US nonutility power producers on installed capacity and gross generation, as well as supply and disposition information, are also provided in Volume II. Technical notes and a glossary are included.

  5. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil

  6. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    POLYMERS; POLYVINYLS Geothermal Legacy 150802* -- Geothermal Power Plants-- Power Plant Systems & Components; 200101 -- Fossil-Fueled Power Plants-- Cooling & Heat...

  8. Electric power monthly with data for June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity, and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation by energy source and capability of new generating units by company and plant are also included. A section is included in the report which summarizes major industry developments. 1 fig., 64 tabs.

  9. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Solar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar energy offers a number of strategic benefits to the United States. Replacing fossil-fuel combustion with solar energy reduces emissions of human-induced greenhouse...

  10. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Light...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Desalination, currently done primarily with fossil fuels, could be done with LWRs. ... into the following areas: Accident tolerant components: Analysis or experimental ...

  11. Test report : Princeton power systems prototype energy storage system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprised of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. Princeton Power Systems has developed an energy storage system that utilizes lithium ion phosphate batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the Princeton Power Systems Prototype Energy Storage System.

  12. Test Report : GS battery, EPC power HES RESCU.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, David Martin; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Borneo, Daniel R.

    2013-10-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity (DOE/OE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Base Camp Integration Lab (BCIL) partnered together to incorporate an energy storage system into a microgrid configured Forward Operating Base to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and to ultimately save lives. Energy storage vendors will be sending their systems to SNL Energy Storage Test Pad (ESTP) for functional testing and then to the BCIL for performance evaluation. The technologies that will be tested are electro-chemical energy storage systems comprising of lead acid, lithium-ion or zinc-bromide. GS Battery and EPC Power have developed an energy storage system that utilizes zinc-bromide flow batteries to save fuel on a military microgrid. This report contains the testing results and some limited analysis of performance of the GS Battery, EPC Power HES RESCU.

  13. EIA - 2008 New Electric Power EIA-860 Form

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electric Generator Report Form EIA-767 - Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report ... Part A Plant Configuration (Schedule 2) Part B Boiler Information - Air Emission Standards ...

  14. Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2013-10-01

    People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

  15. Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Gammage, R B ; Turner, J E Publication Date: 1979-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 6073318 Report Number(s): CONF-790415-31 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-26 Resource Type: ...

  16. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  17. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    maplayers.html?openChapterschpboundchpbound Four agencies-the National Park Service, Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bureau of Land Management (BLM), in the Department of the...

  18. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    lands in FY 2011 could continue to change for some time, and that revisions to such data are more likely than not to increase reported sales. However, there is no reason to...

  19. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of calcium sulfate: a review of the literature. 62 refs Swift, W M; Panek, A F; Smith, G W; Vogel, G J; Jonke, A A (1976) 175 Practical hot oiling and hot watering for ...

  20. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B. M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nölscher, A. C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D. R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  1. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS--NEAR TERM--CLASS 2 Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite (1999) 26 DEVELOPMENT OF DEWATERING AIDS FOR MINERALS AND COAL FINES ...

  2. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of calcium sulfate: a review of the literature. 62 refs Swift, W M; Panek, A F; Smith, G W; Vogel, G J; Jonke, A A (1976) 50 HIGH EFFICIENCY SYNGAS GENERATION Robert J. ...

  3. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of calcium sulfate: a review of the literature. 62 refs Swift, W M; Panek, A F; Smith, G W; Vogel, G J; Jonke, A A (1976) 130 Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to ...

  4. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 141 Decomposition of calcium sulfate: a review of the literature. 62 refs Swift, W M; Panek, A F; Smith, G W; Vogel, G J; Jonke, A A (1976) ...

  5. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Use of Fossil Fuels & Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from High Tech Early College in Denver, CO, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME Infographic...

  6. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Synthesis Gas Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann (2007) 38 Geothermal Well Stimulation Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J. (1981) 33 Life ...

  7. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2013-05-28

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Stephen Herring

    2010-01-08

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, lab

  9. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2006-09-29

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report summarizes the progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze the diffusion tower using a heated water input are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. The direct contact condenser has also been thoroughly analyzed and the system performance at optimal operating conditions has been considered using a heated water/ambient air input to the diffusion tower. The diffusion tower has also been analyzed using a heated air input. The DDD laboratory facility has successfully been modified to include an air heating section. Experiments have been conducted over a range of parameters for two different cases: heated air/heated water and heated air/ambient water. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model has been examined for both of these cases and agreement between the experimental and theoretical data is good. A parametric study reveals that for every liquid mass flux there is an air mass flux value where the diffusion tower energy consumption is minimal and an air mass flux where the fresh water production flux is maximized. A study was also performed to compare the DDD process with different inlet operating conditions as well as different packing. It is shown that the heated air/heated water case is more capable of greater fresh water production with the same energy consumption than the ambient air/heated water process at high liquid mass flux. It is also shown that there can be significant advantage when using the heated air/heated water process with a less dense less specific surface area packed bed. Use of one configuration over the other depends upon the environment and the desired operating conditions.

  10. Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, K.

    1997-01-01

    Greenhouses are a major application of low-temperature geothermal resources. In virtually all operating systems, the geothermal fluid is used in a hot water heating system to meet 100% of both the peak and annual heating requirements of the structure. This strategy is a result of the relatively low costs associated with the development of most US geothermal direct-use resources and past tax credit programs which penalized systems using any conventional fuel sources. Increasingly, greenhouse operations will encounter limitations in available geothermal resource flow due either to production or disposal considerations. As a result, it will be necessary to operate additions at reduced water temperatures reflective of the effluent from the existing operations. Water temperature has a strong influence on heating system design. Greenhouse operators tend to have unequivocal preferences regarding heating system equipment. Many growers, particularly cut flower and bedding plant operators, prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. This system places small diameter plastic tubes under the benches or adjacent to the plants. Hot water is circulated through the tubes providing heat to the plants and the air in the greenhouse. Advantages include the ability to provide the heat directly to the plants, low cost, simple installation and the lack of a requirement for fans to circulate air. The major disadvantage of the system is poor performance at low (<140{degrees}F) water temperatures, particularly in cold climates. Under these conditions, the quantity of tubing required to meet the peak heating load is substantial. In fact, under some conditions, it is simply impractical to install sufficient tubing in the greenhouse to meet the peak heating load.

  11. Further experience for environmental improvement in fossil fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazzeri, L.; Santis, R. de

    1998-12-31

    Reburning is a technology which has proven, by plant demonstration, capable of providing compliance with very stringent regulatory emissions requests (less than 90 ppm NO{sub x} firing oil and gas and less than 160--170 ppm firing coal). Designing a Reburn System requires a contemporary control of many parameters like flow rates, local stoichiometries residence times, etc.; it also requires the availability and capability of using complex and sophisticated numerical modeling. Although the system can be adapted to any already installed hardware it should be noted that the availability of reliable LNB`s and of specifically designed OFA`s and Reburn fuel injectors can greatly enhance the system performance. Design of OFA system is a subcase of a Reburn System design, as it implies same concepts of mixing and residence times which are the basis of Reburn System. As shown in the cases previously presented Reburning always provides additional margins to OFA operation specifically when very low emission limits are pursued. Finally it should be noted that the use of Reburning may create problems of unburned specifically when very low local stoichiometries and when very low sulfur oils are used which are often characterized by asphaltene instability especially when STZ oil is the result of blending high and low sulfur oils. A specific know-how has been jointly developed by Ansaldo and ENEL to solve these problems acting on both atomizer type selection and operation.

  12. Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figuremore 2. The ... For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast ...

  13. Fossil Fuel-fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    18(1):1-4. Related Geothermal Exploration Activities Activities (1) Geothermal Literature Review At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (Rafferty, 1997) Areas (1) Lightning Dock...

  14. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGraw, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, laboratory fellow and technical director of the INL High Temperature Electrolysis team, today announced that the latest fuel cell modification has set a new mark in endurance. The group's Integrated Laboratory Scale experiment has now operated continuously for 2,583 hours at higher efficiencies than previously attained. Learn more about INL research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. 2016 Bioenergizeme Infographic Challenge: Fossil Fuels vs Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This infographic was created by students from Smithtown High School East in St. James, NY, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  16. Cracow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  17. Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels: December 2014 | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. ... Jain, S.C. (2002) 25 Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and its Effect on Oil Recovery. ...

  18. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR ... (2005) 147 Analysis of crude oil vapor pressures at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. ...

  19. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; et al

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functionsmore » of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.« less

  20. The Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feibus, H.

    1995-12-31

    The joint effort by Polish and American organizations in Krakow has accomplished a great deal in just a few years. In particular, the low emission sources program has had major successes. Poland and America have a lot to learn from each other in the clean and economical use of coal. Both our countries are major producers and users of coal. Both have had to deal with the emissions of particulate and organics from coal combustion. We were fortunate, since our free market economy and democratic government helped us deal with a lot of these problems in the 1950s. In Poland, the freedom to solve these problems has evolved only in the last few years. In the first phase of the program, Polish and American engineers ran combustion tests on boilers and stoves in Krakow. They also performed analyses on the cost and feasibility of various equipment changes. The results of the first phase were used in refining the spreadsheet model to give better estimates of costs emissions. The first phase also included analyses of incentives for proceeding with needed changes. These analyses identified actions needed to create a market for the goods and services which control pollution. Such actions could include privatization, regulation, or financial incentives. The second phase of the program consisted of public meetings in Chicago, Washington, and Krakow. The purpose of the meetings was to inform U.S. and Polish firms about the results of phase 1 and to encourage them to compete to take part in phase 3. The third phase currently underway consists of the commercial ventures that were competitively selected. These ventures were consistent with recommendations unanimously made by the BSC. The three phases of the Polish-American program are discussed.

  1. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... this period, exceeding offshore sales by FY 2007. The ... Further, private landowners often require drilling within a ... analysis, resource evaluation, economic analysis, and ...

  2. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  3. Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  5. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentino, L.; Valenzuela, V.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Conzelmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  6. Electric power monthly, September 1996, with data for June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-09-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  7. Electric power monthly with data for August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-11-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 1 fig., 63 tabs.

  8. Electric power monthly, December 1996 with data for September 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The report presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt hour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 57 tabs.

  9. Electric power monthly, June 1995 with data for March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-19

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 68 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly with data for January 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  11. Electric power monthly, June 1998, with data for March 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and Us levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 5 refs., 57 tabs.

  12. Electric power monthly with data for December 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  13. Electric power monthly with data for October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    The Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy prepares the EPM. This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant.

  14. Electric power monthly with data for October 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics are published on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. A monthly utility update and summary of industry developments are also included. 63 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Electric Power Industry--Chap6

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and carbon dioxide (CO2). Coal-fired generating units produce more SO2 and NOx than other fossil-fuel units for two reasons. First, because coal generally contains more sulfur than...

  16. Browse by Discipline -- Subject Pathways for the E-print Network...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fossil Fuels Geosciences Materials Science Mathematics Multidisciplinary Databases and Resources Physics Plasma Physics and Fusion Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants ...

  17. Site map for the E-print Network -- Energy, science, and technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nuclear Technologies Fossil Fuels Geosciences Materials Science Mathematics Physics Plasma Physics and Fusion Power Transmission, Distribution and Plants Renewable Energy ...

  18. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Greg Goff Chairman, President and CEO "Mitt Romney's energy policy is a relic of the 19th century. We need a 21st century plan. The fate of the planet is at stake." - Bernie Sanders "I believe in natural gas as a clean, cheap alternative to fossil fuels," - Nancy Pelosi

  19. Electric power annual 1996. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric power industry statistics at national, regional, and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts, and the general public with data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Volume 1--with a focus on US electric utilities--contains final 1996 data on net generation and fossil fuel consumption, stocks, receipts, and cost; preliminary 1996 data on generating unit capability, and retail sales of electricity, associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Additionally, information on net generation from renewable energy sources and on the associated generating capability is included in Volume 1 of the EPA. Data published in the Electric Power Annual Volume 1 are compiled from three statistical forms filed monthly and two forms filed annually by electric utilities. These forms are described in detail in the Technical Notes. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  20. Electric power annual 1998. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this report, Electric Power Annual 1998 Volume 1 (EPAVI), is to provide a comprehensive overview of the electric power industry during the most recent year for which data have been collected, with an emphasis on the major changes that occurred. In response to the changes of 1998, this report has been expanded in scope. It begins with a general review of the year and incorporates new data on nonutility capacity and generation, transmission information, futures prices from the Commodity futures Trading commission, and wholesale spot market prices from the pennsylvania-new Jersey-Maryland Independent System Operator and the California Power Exchange. Electric utility statistics at the Census division and State levels on generation, fuel consumption, stocks, delivered cost of fossil fuels, sales to ultimate customers, average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold, and revenues from those retail sales can be found in Appendix A. The EPAVI is intended for a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric power industry, and the general public.

  1. Word Pro - S1

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Production Trade Stock Change and Other d Consumption Fossil Fuels a Nuclear Electric Power Renew- able Energy b Total Imports Exports Net Imports c Fossil Fuels e Nuclear Electric ...

  2. Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Fossil fuel fired electric generating plants are the cornerstone of America's central power system. Currently, the existing fossil fuel fleet accounts for about two-thirds of all electricity...

  3. Table 8.3b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 12,768 8,013 66,801 2,243 89,825 19,346 4,550 23,896 679 114,400 1990 20,793 9,029 79,905 3,822 113,549 18,091 6,418 24,509 28 138,086 1991 21,239 5,502 82,279 3,940 112,960 17,166 9,127 26,293 590 139,843 1992 27,545 6,123 101,923

  4. Satellite-observed US power plant NOx emission reductions and their impact on air quality - article no. L22812

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.W.; Heckel, A.; McKeen, S.A.; Frost, G.J.; Hsie, E.Y.; Trainer, M.K.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J.P.; Peckham, S.E.; Grell, G.A.

    2006-11-29

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion lead to unhealthy levels of near-surface ozone (O{sub 3}). One of the largest U.S. sources, electric power generation, represented about 25% of the U.S. anthropogenic NOx emissions in 1999. Here we show that space-based instruments observed declining regional NOx levels between 1999 and 2005 in response to the recent implementation of pollution controls by utility companies in the eastern U.S. Satellite-retrieved summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) columns and bottom-up emission estimates show larger decreases in the Ohio River Valley, where power plants dominate NOx emissions, than in the northeast U.S. urban corridor. Model simulations predict lower O{sub 3} across much of the eastern U.S. in response to these emission reductions.

  5. Primus Power Corporation Smart Grid Demonstration Project | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    replacing a planned 78M 50 MW fossil fuel plant to compensate for the variable nature of wind energy providing the District with the ability to shift on-peak energy use to...

  6. Power from bio-sources in Italy incentives and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerardi, V.; Ricci, A.; Scoditti, E.

    1996-12-31

    In Italy most of the technologies for producing power from bio-sources, as well as from other non-conventional renewable Energy Sources (RES), are rather mature, but their exploitation is still not completely convenient from the economic point of view. It depends on many factors, such as designing of plants, selection of energy conversion system and components, selection of installation site, size of market still too limited, high production costs of the technologies and lack of adequate financial supports. In the early nineties, in the attempt to overcome this situation, the Italian Government issued a series of measures addressed mainly to the power production from RES. This gives a short description of the regulations in force and some details about an important incentive tool (CIP 6/92 and relative decrees) for RES power plants installation. In particular, it indicates the possible power plant typologies, the criteria to assimilate the fossil fuel plants to RES ones, the present prices of electricity transferred into the grid and the methodology for updating the prices. Furthermore, the paper gives some data concerning submitted proposals, plant operation planning and their geographic distribution according to different bio-sources typologies.

  7. Task 3.0 -- Advanced power systems: Subtask 3.18 -- Ash behavior in power systems. Semi-annual report, June 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zygarlicke, C.J.; McCollor, D.P.; Folkedahl, B.C.; Swanson, M.L.; Musich, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced power systems such as integrated gasifier combined cycle systems and fluidized bed systems are at the forefront of power industry research because of the need for increased efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Ash behavior in power systems can have a significant impact on the design and performance of these systems. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a focused research initiative aimed at filling gaps in the understanding of fundamental mechanisms of ash behavior, which has relevance to commercial application and marketable products associated with advanced power systems. This program develops methods and means to better understand and mitigate adverse coal ash behavior in advanced power systems and can act to relieve the US reliance on diminishing recoverable oil resources and other greenhouse-producing fossil fuels. Subtask 3.18 is structured as three tasks. Task 1 pertains to summarizing the critical issues in ash behavior, especially for advanced power systems. Task 2 focuses on fundamental ash sintering and viscosity-ash composition relationships that are critical for developing a better mechanistic understanding of ash deposit formation and for predicting ash behavior. Task 3 is aimed primarily at determining the role of the ash chemistry and phase relationships for specific ash interactions in advanced power systems. The role of sulfides in the formation of ash deposits in gasification systems and the factors that influence alloy corrosion in supercritical boilers will be specifically analyzed. Task results to date are presented.

  8. User's guide for the BNW-III optimization code for modular dry/wet-cooled power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, D.J.; Faletti, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    This user's guide describes BNW-III, a computer code developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the Dry Cooling Enhancement Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The BNW-III code models a modular dry/wet cooling system for a nuclear or fossil fuel power plant. The purpose of this guide is to give the code user a brief description of what the BNW-III code is and how to use it. It describes the cooling system being modeled and the various models used. A detailed description of code input and code output is also included. The BNW-III code was developed to analyze a specific cooling system layout. However, there is a large degree of freedom in the type of cooling modules that can be selected and in the performance of those modules. The costs of the modules are input to the code, giving the user a great deal of flexibility.

  9. Analysis of State-Level Economic Impacts from the Development...

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    These factors make wind power's cost significantly more stable and predictable than the cost of power generated from fossil fuels. Consequently, power purchase agreements for...

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The National Carbon Capture Center at the Power Systems Development Facility None COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The Power Systems...

  11. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    studies Lee G T Sudhoff F A DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS ENERGY CONSERVATION CONSUMPTION AND UTILIZATION FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS GAS TURBINE POWER...

  12. South Africa-World Bank Climate Activities | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of power generation, whereas renewable energy power generation is a substitute for fossil fuel power generation. As a result, solar water heating transactions are not linked to...

  13. High-resolution emissions of CO{sub 2} from power generation in the USA - article no. G04008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petron, G.; Tans, P.; Frost, G.; Chao, D.L.; Trainer, M. [NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States). Earth Systems Research Laboratory

    2008-10-15

    Electricity generation accounts for close to 40% of the U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel burning, making it the economic sector with the largest source of CO{sub 2}. Since the late 1990s, the Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Markets Division (EPA CAMD) has kept a repository of hourly CO{sub 2} emission data for most power plants in the conterminous United States. In this study, the CAMD CO{sub 2} data are used to derive a high spatiotemporal resolution CO{sub 2} emissions inventory for the electricity generation sector (inventory available on request). Data from 1998 to 2006 have been processed. This unique inventory can be used to improve the understanding of the carbon cycle at fine temporal and spatial scales. The CAMD data set provides the first quantitative estimates of the diurnal and seasonal cycles of the emissions as well as the year to year variability. Emissions peak in the summertime owing to the widespread use of air conditioning. Summertime emissions are in fact highly correlated with the daily average temperature. In conjunction with the EPA Emissions and Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID), we have derived high-resolution maps of CO{sub 2} emissions by fossil fuel burned (coal, gas, oil) for the year 2004. The CAMD data set also reflects regional anomalies in power generation such as the August 2003 blackout in the northeastern United States and the 2000-2001 increase in production in California. We recommend that all sectors of the economy report similar high-resolution CO{sub 2} emissions because of their great usefulness both for carbon cycle science and for greenhouse gases emissions mitigation and regulation.

  14. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  15. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  16. Fuel cell programs in the United States for stationary power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, M.

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, is participating with the private sector in sponsoring the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technologies for application in the utility, commercial and industrial sectors. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) development was sponsored by the Office of Fossil Energy in previous years and is now being commercialized by the private sector. Private sector participants with the Department of Energy include the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Gas Research institute (GRI), electric and gas utilities, universities, manufacturing companies and their suppliers. through continued government and private sector support, fuel cell systems are emerging power generation technologies which are expected to have significant worldwide impacts. An industry with annual sales of over a billion dollars is envisioned early in the 21st century. PAFC power plants have begun to enter the marketplace and MCFC and SOFC power plants are expected to be ready to enter the marketplace in the late 1990s. In support of the efficient and effective use of our natural resources, the fuel cell program seeks to increase energy efficiency and economic effectiveness of power generation. This is to be accomplished through effectiveness of power generation. This is accomplished through the development and commercialization of cost-effective, efficient and environmentally desirable fuel cell systems which will operate on fossil fuels in multiple and end use sectors.

  17. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  18. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for carbon capture utilisation and storage Carter L D FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS COAL GASIFICATION POWER GENERATION CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE STORAGE USA ENHANCED RECOVERY...

  19. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    N R FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS SOLAR ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION HEAT...

  20. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DC (United States)","30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS; GAS TURBINE...

  1. A Statement from U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz on the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and current programs aim to improve energy efficiency, reduce emissions from our fossil fuel plants and transportation sector, advance nuclear power, and scale renewable power...

  2. Statement of Christopher Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to market revolutionary methods and technologies that ... with fossil fuel power plants, including biological ... production systems into a coal-fired power plant to study the ...

  3. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS FEEDWATER PUMPS DESIGN RESEARCH PROGRAMS THERMAL POWER PLANTS BOILERS PERFORMANCE PLANNING RELIABILITY...

  4. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS FEEDWATER PUMPS DESIGN PERFORMANCE RESEARCH PROGRAMS THERMAL POWER PLANTS BOILERS CAVITATION FAILURES...

  5. USE of mine pool water for power plant cooling.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Kupar, J. M .; Puder, M. G.

    2006-11-27

    Water and energy production issues intersect in numerous ways. Water is produced along with oil and gas, water runs off of or accumulates in coal mines, and water is needed to operate steam electric power plants and hydropower generating facilities. However, water and energy are often not in the proper balance. For example, even if water is available in sufficient quantities, it may not have the physical and chemical characteristics suitable for energy or other uses. This report provides preliminary information about an opportunity to reuse an overabundant water source--ground water accumulated in underground coal mines--for cooling and process water in electric generating facilities. The report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which has implemented a water/energy research program (Feeley and Ramezan 2003). Among the topics studied under that program is the availability and use of ''non-traditional sources'' of water for use at power plants. This report supports NETL's water/energy research program.

  6. EERE Success Story-Enhanced Efficiency of Wind-Diesel Power Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The project goals are to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel by 40% in each of the ... In some circumstances, this makes up more than 60% of a household budget. Thus far, the ...

  7. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  8. Use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botterud, A.; Zhi, Z.; Wang, J.; Bessa, R.J.; Keko, H.; Mendes, J.; Sumaili, J.; Miranda, V.

    2011-11-29

    The rapid expansion of wind power gives rise to a number of challenges for power system operators and electricity market participants. The key operational challenge is to efficiently handle the uncertainty and variability of wind power when balancing supply and demand in ths system. In this report, we analyze how wind power forecasting can serve as an efficient tool toward this end. We discuss the current status of wind power forecasting in U.S. electricity markets and develop several methodologies and modeling tools for the use of wind power forecasting in operational decisions, from the perspectives of the system operator as well as the wind power producer. In particular, we focus on the use of probabilistic forecasts in operational decisions. Driven by increasing prices for fossil fuels and concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, wind power, as a renewable and clean source of energy, is rapidly being introduced into the existing electricity supply portfolio in many parts of the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has analyzed a scenario in which wind power meets 20% of the U.S. electricity demand by 2030, which means that the U.S. wind power capacity would have to reach more than 300 gigawatts (GW). The European Union is pursuing a target of 20/20/20, which aims to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20%, increase the amount of renewable energy to 20% of the energy supply, and improve energy efficiency by 20% by 2020 as compared to 1990. Meanwhile, China is the leading country in terms of installed wind capacity, and had 45 GW of installed wind power capacity out of about 200 GW on a global level at the end of 2010. The rapid increase in the penetration of wind power into power systems introduces more variability and uncertainty in the electricity generation portfolio, and these factors are the key challenges when it comes to integrating wind power into the electric power grid. Wind power forecasting (WPF) is an important tool to help

  9. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  10. Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.

  11. Table 8.3a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.3b and 8.3c; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 1989 323,191 95,675 461,905 92,556 973,327 546,354 30,217 576,571 39,041 1,588,939 1990 362,524 127,183 538,063 140,695 1,168,465 650,572 36,433 687,005 40,149 1,895,619 1991 351,834 112,144 546,755 148,216 1,158,949 623,442 36,649

  12. Table 8.3c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.3a; Billion Btu) Year Fossil Fuels Renewable Energy Other 7 Total Coal 1 Petroleum 2 Natural Gas 3 Other Gases 4 Total Biomass Total Wood 5 Waste 6 Commercial Sector 8<//td> 1989 13,517 3,896 9,920 102 27,435 145 10,305 10,450 – 37,885 1990 14,670 5,406 15,515 118 35,709 387 10,193 10,580 – 46,289 1991 15,967 3,684 20,809 118 40,578 169 8,980 9,149 1 49,728 1992

  13. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs: A 1995 update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-21

    Over the years real (inflation-adjusted) O&M cost have begun to level off. The objective of this report is to determine whether the industry and NRC initiatives to control costs have resulted in this moderation in the growth of O&M costs. Because the industry agrees that the control of O&M costs is crucial to the viability of the technology, an examination of the factors causing the moderation in costs is important. A related issue deals with projecting nuclear operating costs into the future. Because of the escalation in nuclear operating costs (and the fall in fossil fuel prices) many State and Federal regulatory commissions are examining the economics of the continued operation of nuclear power plants under their jurisdiction. The economics of the continued operation of a nuclear power plant is typically examined by comparing the cost of the plants continued operation with the cost of obtaining the power from other sources. This assessment requires plant-specific projections of nuclear operating costs. Analysts preparing these projections look at past industry-wide cost trends and consider whether these trends are likely to continue. To determine whether these changes in trends will continue into the future, information about the causal factors influencing costs and the future trends in these factors are needed. An analysis of the factors explaining the moderation in cost growth will also yield important insights into the question of whether these trends will continue.

  14. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  15. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Choose your energy view... Petroleum Natural Gas Renewable Energy Power Plants Coal Biomass Solar Geothermal Fossil Fuel Resources Energy Infrastructure Electricity Wind ...

  16. President Obama Launches EV-Everywhere Challenge as Part of Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... to make solar power directly cost-competitive with electricity from fossil fuels by the end of the decade. ... ways to reduce energy consumption with improved vehicle design. | ...

  17. Launching the Next Wave of Clean Fossil Energy Innovation | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an advanced power plant that cuts carbon pollution, or building an efficient microgrid network that better utilizes fossil fuels, loan guarantees under this solicitation...

  18. Burney Forest Products | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Products provides renewable power to help California diversify its energy supplies from fossil fuel fired generation. Coordinates: 37.271881, -119.270233 Show Map Loading...

  19. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    "NT0000749",,"Technical Report",,,,"Southern Company Services Incorporated","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES",,"The...

  20. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report",,,,"Ion Engineering, Llc","USDOE","20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental (Carbon Capture)",,"The purpose of this project was to...

  1. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion CO sub Capture Brown Alfred Brown Nathan FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS Clean Coal Technology Coal Environmental Carbon Capture Clean Coal Technology Coal Environmental...

  2. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture Brown...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COsub 2 Capture Brown, Alfred; Brown, Nathan 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental (Carbon Capture) Clean Coal Technology Coal -...

  3. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report",,,,"United States Carbon Sequestration Council (United States)","IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)","20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION;...

  4. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from FGD-gypsum. Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... REPORT; WASTE PROCESSING PLANTS; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; FEASIBILITY STUDIES; COST ESTIMATION Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text ...

  5. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject fossil-fueled power plants (4) environmental sciences (3) inorganic, organic, physical, and analytical chemistry (2) air pollution control (1) ...

  6. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CLSM reported by ACI Committee Rajendran N MATERIALS SCIENCE FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT FLY ASH WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION BACKFILLING THERMAL INSULATION SHOCK...

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN (United States)","20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER...

  8. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    on boiler induced draft fan blades Karr O F Brooks J B Seay E FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS ENERGY CONSERVATION CONSUMPTION AND UTILIZATION ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER...

  9. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; CARBON DIOXIDE; MATERIALS RECOVERY; AMINES; SOLVENTS; MATERIALS TESTING; ...

  10. CO2 Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Language: English Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; POTASSIUM CARBONATES; CARBON DIOXIDE; MATERIALS RECOVERY; AMINES; SOLVENTS; MATERIALS TESTING; ...

  11. Clean Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 95742 Product: The company has developed oxyfuel technology for zero emission fossil fuel power plants. References: Clean Energy Systems1 This article is a stub. You can...

  12. Lauren Engineers amp Constructors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Solar Product: Engineering, procurement and construction contractor for fossil fuel power plants, and Nevada Solar One. Coordinates: 32.449175, -99.741424 Show Map...

  13. Simplified Approach for Estimating Impacts of Electricity Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Approach Provides a first-order assessment of the external costs of operating fossil fuel-based, nuclear, hydro, or other power plants, taking into account emissions,...

  14. LEDSGP/DIA-Toolkit/Factors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    expanded solar energy, the impact of switching from imported fossil fuels to solar power may improve public health through improved air quality. Environmental Air -...

  15. Washington: When Life Gives You Solar, Make Syngas | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a standard heat engine to produce electricity. In addition to offsetting the need for fossil fuels in traditional power plants, PNNL's approach offers an affordable pathway to...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject fossil-fueled power plants clean coal technology coal - ... Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion COsub 2 Capture Brown, Alfred ; Brown, Nathan ...

  17. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels Final Technical Report Roberts William L BIOMASS FUELS biofuels glycerin glycerol...

  18. W.A. Parish Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture and Sequestration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    COsub 2 Capture and Sequestration Project Phase 1 Definition Armpriester, Anthony; Smith, Roger; Scheriffius, Jeff; Smyth, Rebecca; Istre, Michael 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER...

  19. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO sub Capture and Sequestration Project Phase Definition Armpriester Anthony Smith Roger Scheriffius Jeff Smyth Rebecca Istre Michael FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS For a...

  20. Sample Annual Report for SCC (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES carbon storage; geologic storage; monitoring, verification, and accounting; MVA; simulation and ...

  1. Ice Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    solutions that promote the efficient use of energy resources, reduce our dependency on fossil fuels, and enable the transition to a cleaner, smarter, more sustainable power...

  2. Alta Wind Energy Center | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    renewable power purchases required for California's regulated utilities. By not utilizing fossil fuels that emit harmful gases, the AWEC will reduce air emissions on an annual...

  3. Special Feature: Energy - The Spark that Ignited DOE Supercomputing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... But today, solar power remains more expensive on average than fossil fuels. Although sunlight is relatively abundant, traditional photovoltaics require rare-earth elements that are ...

  4. Learning From Photosynthesis to Create Electricity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Today, however, solar power remains more expensive on average than fossil fuels. "You may think that the sun is abundant, but traditional photovoltaics require rare-earth elements, ...

  5. The Gold Standard of Cracking Tests | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    in pipelines carrying natural gas, fossil fuels, and water can cause serious damage. ... Preventing failures at nuclear power generating systems, water treatment plants, and other ...

  6. Microsoft Word - Vehicle_Battery_EA_EnerG2[1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... of eliminating or reducing the severity and ... fossil fuels, such as coal (at power plants serving the state), ... in a net benefit re CO2 emissions from vehicles ...

  7. QUADRENNIAL TECHNOLOGY REVIEW AN ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... the pulverized coal (PC) combustion and natural gas systems used in typical fossil fueled power plants today, while ... Key challenges for solvents and sorbents are reducing the ...

  8. EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... 5 Discusses methods to appropriately ... concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere," ... from fossil fuel-fired electricity generating power plants); Oil and Natural ...

  9. Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 emissions from power plants that use fossil fuels ... first be overcome by methods that do not ... for repowering existing coal-fired facilities to capture CO ...

  10. 3-15-11_Final_Testimony_(Legg)_(SEPA).pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by reducing carbon emissions from fossil-fueled energy sources through production and marketing of hydroelectric power, which adds no carbon to the environment. Southeastern's...

  11. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Energy (NE) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program Desert ... (1) fluids (1) fossil fuels (1) france (1) fuel gas (1) fuels (1) gas ...

  12. ORD FWP NRAP FY13 Annual Report (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 ...

  13. Annual Report for SCC (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE carbon ...

  14. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Liquid fluidized bed heat exchanger flow distribution models Cole L T Allen C A GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOSSIL FUELED POWER PLANTS FLUIDIZED BED HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN FLOW MODELS FLOW...

  15. Novel Solvent System for Post Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS Clean Coal Technology Coal - Environmental (Carbon Capture) Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size NAView Full Text ...

  16. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject fossil-fueled power plants (1) inorganic, organic, physical, and analytical chemistry (1) Filter by Author Davila, Jenny (1) Ito, Brandon (1) Lu, ...

  17. Sample Annual Report for SCC (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE transportation fuels, post-syngas production, coal-biomass to liquids, ...

  18. DOE Selects Nine Projects to Receive Funding for Carbon Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    fleet of fossil fuel power-generating facilities and ... leakage pathways or fluid flow in existing wells; and (3) ... related to optimal operation and maintenance. ...

  19. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Filter Results Filter by Subject fossil-fueled power plants ... Researchers in NETL's Thermal Analysis Laboratory are ... degradation rates, and generation of a modeling tool ...

  20. Geothermal power plant R and D: an analysis of cost-performance tradeoffs and the Heber Binary-Cycle Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.

    1983-06-30

    A study of advancements in power plant designs for use at geothermal resources in the low to moderate (300 to 400F) temperature range is reported. In 3 case studies, the benefits of R and D to achieve these advancements are evaluated in terms of expected increases in installed geothermal generating capacity over the next 2 decades. A parametric sensitivity study is discussed which analyzes differential power development for combinations of power plant efficiency and capitol cost. Affordable tradeoffs between plant performance and capital costs are illustrated. The independent review and analysis of the expected costs of construction, operation and maintenance of the Heber Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Demonstration Plant are described. Included in this assessment is an analysis of each of the major cost components of the project, including (1) construction cost, (2) well field development costs, (3) fluid purchase costs, and (4) well field and power plant operation and maintenance costs. The total cost of power generated from the Heber Plant (in terms of mills per kWh) is then compared to the cost of power from alternative fossil-fueled base load units. Also evaluated are the provisions of both: (a) the Cooperative Agreement between the federal government and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E); and (b) the Geothermal Heat Sales Contract with Union Oil Company.

  1. High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August, 2000 - July 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, L.C.

    2002-11-01

    OAK B188 High Efficiency Generation of Hydrogen Fuels using Nuclear Power Annual Report August 2000 - July 2001. Currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process is available for commercialization nor has such a process been identified. Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation sector of our economy. Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion are thought to be responsible for global warming. The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station. The benefits of this work will include the generation of a low-polluting transportable energy feedstock in an efficient method that has little or no implication for greenhouse gas emissions from a primary energy source whose availability and sources are domestically controlled. This will help to ensure energy for a future transportation/energy infrastructure that is not influenced/controlled by foreign governments. This report describes work accomplished during the second year (Phase 2) of a three year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first year (Phase 1) was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water, in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most, three) for further detailed consideration. Phase 1 met its goals and did select one process, the sulfur-iodine process, for investigation in Phases 2 and 3. The combined goals of Phases 2 and 3 were to select the advanced nuclear reactor best suited to driving the

  2. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the GREET

  3. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the full FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.

  4. Water treatment capacity of forward osmosis systems utilizing power plant waste heat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xingshi; Gingerich, Daniel B.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2015-06-11

    Forward osmosis (FO) has the potential to improve the energy efficiency of membrane-based water treatment by leveraging waste heat from steam electric power generation as the primary driving force for separation. In this study, we develop a comprehensive FO process model, consisting of membrane separation, heat recovery, and draw solute regeneration (DSR) models. We quantitatively characterize three alternative processes for DSR: distillation, steam stripping, and air stripping. We then construct a mathematical model of the distillation process for DSR that incorporates hydrodynamics, mass and heat transport resistances, and reaction kinetics, and we integrate this into a model for the fullmore » FO process. Finally, we utilize this FO process model to derive a first-order approximation of the water production capacity given the rejected heat quantity and quality available at U.S. electric power facilities. We find that the upper bound of FO water treatment capacity using low-grade heat sources at electric power facilities exceeds process water treatment demand for boiler water make-up and flue gas desulfurization wastewater systems.« less

  5. A Nuclear Renaissance: The Role of Nuclear Power in Mitigating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winslow, Anne

    2011-06-28

    The U. N. Framework Convention on Climate Change calls for the stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at double the preindustrial atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. To achieve this goal, carbon emissions in 2050 must not exceed their current level, despite predictions of a dramatic increase in global electricity demand. The need to reduce GHG emissions and simultaneously provide for additional electricity demand has led to a renewed interest in the expansion of alternatives to fossil fuels--particularly renewable energy and nuclear power. As renewable energy sources are often constrained by the intermittency of natural energy forms, scale-ability concerns, cost and environmental barriers, many governments and even prominent environmentalist turn to nuclear energy as a source of clean, reliable base-load electricity. Described by some as a ''nuclear renaissance'', this trend of embracing nuclear power as a tool to mitigate climate change will dramatically influence the feasibility of emerging nuclear programs around the world.

  6. Fossil fuel conversion -- Measurement and modeling. Topical report, September 14, 1993--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    Progress is described on the following tasks: Fixed-bed devolatilization processes; Fixed-bed combustion and gasification processes; Physical processes in transport reactors; Chemical processes in transport reactors; Advanced fixed-bed model development and evaluation; Advanced two-dimensional transport reactor model development and evaluation; Modeling of gas phase combustion; Modeling of fluidized bed systems; Advanced fixed-bed code application and implementation; Advanced two-dimensional transport gasification code applications and implementation; Modeling of fluidized-bed system applications and implementation; and Applications of ACERC combustion and gasification codes and AFR diagnostic capabilities to systems of interest to METC.

  7. Composite coatings for elevated temperature erosion-corrosion protection in fossil-fueled boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstak, A.; Wang, B.; Baranovski, V.; Beliaev, A.

    1998-12-31

    Fluidized bed combustors components suffer severe erosion, frequently accomplished by corrosive gases attack at elevated temperatures. The tubes damage rate depends on the boiler design bed constituents and combustion parameters, however an accelerated metal wastage is usually found in the same specific areas of different boilers. New HVOF sprayed coatings are developed for the tube erosion-corrosion protection, based on Cr{sub 2}C{sub 2}/Ni-Cr, Cr-Ti-C/Ni-Cr-Mo, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiAl composite materials. The combustion arc Fe-Cr-C coatings were found as an economical solution for relatively low erosion rate zones. The coatings properties and behavior under simulated elevated temperature erosion conditions and in the operating boilers are discussed.

  8. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of calcium sulfate: a review of the literature. 62 refs Swift, W M; Panek, A F; Smith, G W; Vogel, G J; Jonke, A A (1976) 68 Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: ...

  9. Fossil fuel and hydrocarbon conversion using hydrogen-rich plasmas. Topical report February 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    Experiments were made on use of H and CH plasmas for converting waste materials and heavy oils to H-rich transportation fuels. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted with an industrial microwave generator and a commercial microwave oven. A continuously circulating reactor was constructed for conducting experiments on flowing oils. Experiments on decomposition of scrap tires showed that microwave plasmas can be used to decompose scrap tires into potentially useful liquid products. In a batch experiment using a commercial microwave oven, about 20% of the tire was converted to liquid products in about 9 minutes. Methane was decomposed in a microwave plasma to yield a liquid products composed of various compound types; GC/MS analyses identified unsaturated compounds including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, methyl and ethyl naphthalene, small amounts of larger aromatic rings, and olefinic compounds. Experiments on a crude oil in a continuously flowing reactor showed that distillate materials are produced using H and CH plasmas. Also, the recycle oils had an overall carbon aromaticity lower than that of starting feed material, indicating that some hydrogenation and methanation had taken place in the recycle oils.

  10. Better batteries to break dependence on fossil fuels > EMC2 News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EMC2 News Latest News Prof. Hctor Abrua wins Electrochimica Acta Gold Medal award Pastore wins Bauer Scholarship Award Room-temperature lithium metal battery closer to ...

  11. Cost-effectiveness of emission control at fossil-fuel units for different cumulative load patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, S.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a method to recommend allocation of generating units, with a view to achieve cost-effective control of particulate and gaseous emissions over an energy scenario. Definition of relative cost and relative emission, with respect to corresponding base-case values, allows one to develop a model that describes cost and emission aspects of the chosen scenario. Optimization of this model, by any appropriate linear-programming software, yields the allocation levels to be recommended. The emphasis of this paper is on the way in which results of the said optimization model reflect the effect of demand patterns on the allocation levels. Depending on the demands, required generation levels from each individual unit may differ. This affects the overall generation cost, and simultaneously the emissions from the thermal units, both relative to respective base values. Since the optimization algorithm attempts to reduce both the relative quantities, its results always reflect the changing generation vs. emission tradeoff for utilities vis-a-vis different demand patterns.

  12. Minimizing the life cycle costs attributed to boiler tubing in fossil-fueled plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paterson, S.R.

    1995-08-01

    During the past quarter century, much has been learned about tube degradation, the factors which lead to and influence the rate of damage, and measures to mitigate or eliminate the damage in boiler tubing. This paper will describe some of the knowledge which has been compiled regarding two of the most significant degradation modes--corrosion-fatigue of waterwall tubes and high temperature creep of superheater and reheater tubes.

  13. ABB`s investigations into air toxic emissions from fossil fuel and MSW combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesnor, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    Since passage of the Clean Air Act, Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has been actively developing a knowledge base on the Title 3 hazardous air pollutants, more commonly called air toxics. As ABB is a multinational company, US operating companies are able to call upon work performed by European counterparts, who have faced similar legislation several years ago. In addition to the design experience and database acquired in Europe, ABB Inc. has been pursuing several other avenues to expand its air toxics knowledge. ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB CE) is presently studying the formation of organic pollutants within the combustion furnace and partitioning of trace metals among the furnace outlet streams. ABB Environmental Systems (ABBES) has reviewed available and near-term control technologies and methods. Also, both ABB CE and ABBES have conducted source sampling and analysis at commercial installations for hazardous air pollutants to determine the emission rates and removal performance of various types of equipment. Several different plants hosted these activities, allowing for variation in fuel type and composition, boiler configuration, and air pollution control equipment. This paper discusses the results of these investigations.

  14. Impact of cycle chemistry on fossil-fueled high pressure boilers - BHEL approach and experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somu, M.; Gourishankar, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cycle chemistry in high pressure boilers plays an important role as far as availability and reliability of the boilers are concerned. Up keep of proper cycle chemistry is a stupendous task and care must be taken, right from design stage to commissioning and operation of the boilers. It calls for selection of proper design, method of manufacture of critical components and practicing proper procedures during commissioning and regular operation of boilers. Control of cycle chemistry is important from the view point of proper quality of steam and prevention of corrosion. The corrosion is like a double edged knife which reduces the boiler availability on one side and steam quality on the other. The steam quality dictates the efficiency of the turbine. Apart from the internal and external Water Treatment practices, selection of proper deaerator, sizing of drum, steam loading, selection of appropriate drum internals etc. help achieve the desired cycle chemistry. The impact of such cycle chemistry, selection of equipment, Water Treatment practice and operational practices are presented in this paper, in the back drop of BHEL`s design, fabrication and operational guidelines and experience on high pressure boilers. The critical components in the pre-boiler circuit as well as in the main circuit are assessed from the point of view of appropriate water chemistry parameters.

  15. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-07-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e., SO{sub 2}, HCI, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield; (2) No discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts; and (3) No liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized. This favorable process economics, superior to all other available alternatives in high-capacity, high-sulfur electric utility service, is made possible through substantial value added in conversion of ammonia reagent supply to agglomerated sulfur blending stock, i.e., comprised principally of ammonium sulfate, much in demand for increased use in worldwide, large-scale agriculture. The growing, potentially vast size of the international market for ammonium sulfate is quantified herein.

  16. Increased cost-effectiveness of low-grade fossil fuels using ammonia FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, W.

    1998-04-01

    Current worldwide advancements in site-specific application and commercial operation of ammonia-base flue gas desulfurization, (FGD), in high-capacity, high-sulfur, electric utility service, economically justified by significant revenues from ammonium sulfate generation and worldwide sale, are detailed. This major new direction in cost-effectiveness in FGD selection/application and in the process design of such flue gas cleaning systems overcomes the problem of FGD waste/byproduct management/utilization and encompasses numerous major performance advancements reviewed herein: (1) Conversion of anions of all captured acid-gas, i.e. SO2, HCl, etc., and of all collected residual particulate matter into agriculturally-usable ammonium compounds combined in the single byproduct yield, (2) no discard or long-term, outdoor storage of sulfurous waste byproducts, and (3) no liquid effluent. In the face of a capital-cost penalty in any application of ammonia FGD, an attractive cost effectiveness is nonetheless realized.

  17. Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. ...

  18. Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Final report: Initial site investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-15

    Original objective of this project was to retrofit the Balice Boilerhouse with a TCS Coal Micronization system and Amerex baghouses to achieve higher combustion efficiencies and lower air emission, including SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO and particulate matter. The Balice Boilerhouse is located adjacent to the Krakow Airport and provides heating steam for the Polish Military Unit No. 1616. In May 1995 the Polish Military announced it had decided to convert its boiler house to gas; thus cancelling the TCS Project. The balance of 1995 was spent considering alternative Project sites in Krakow for the application of the TCS coal Micronization technology.

  19. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang (2008) 37 Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use in an urban bus. ...

  20. Final Progress Report: Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James P. Barry; Peter G. Brewer

    2004-05-25

    OAK-B135 This report summarizes activities and results of investigations of the potential environmental consequences of direct injection of carbon dioxide into the deep-sea as a carbon sequestration method. Results of field experiments using small scale in situ releases of liquid CO2 are described in detail. The major conclusions of these experiments are that mortality rates of deep sea biota will vary depending on the concentrations of CO2 in deep ocean waters that result from a carbon sequestration project. Large changes in seawater acidity and carbon dioxide content near CO2 release sites will likely cause significant harm to deep-sea marine life. Smaller changes in seawater chemistry at greater distances from release sites will be less harmful, but may result in significant ecosystem changes.

  1. CRACOW CLEAN FOSSIL FUELS AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM. PROGRESS REPORT, OCTOBER 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PIERCE,B.

    1998-10-01

    Since 1990 the US Department of Energy has been involved in a program aimed at reducing air pollution caused by small, coal-fired sources in Poland. The program focuses on the city of Cracow and is designed so that results will be applicable and extendable to the entire region. This report serves both as a review of the progress which has been made to date in achieving the program objectives and a summary of work still in progress.

  2. Applications of the thermogravimetric analysis in the study of fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie

    1996-12-31

    Development and applications of thermogravimetric analysis techniques are reported. Applications include: coal structure, coal liquefaction reactions, hydroprocessing of coal-derived resids, and determination of boiling points.

  3. Table 1.14 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and American...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    These latter quantities are included with natural gas. 6Sales volumes are reported for the fiscal year in which the sales occurred as opposed to the date of the royalty payment. ...

  4. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Table 10. Sales of natural gas plant liquids production from federal and Indian lands by state/area, FY 2003-14 million barrels State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Alabama 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - - 0 Arizona - - - - - - 0 0 0 0 - - Arkansas - - - - - - - - - - - - California 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Colorado 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 8 9 11 6 7 Florida - - - - - - - - - - - - Illinois - - - - - - - - - - - - Indiana - - - - - - - - - - - - Kansas 0 0

  5. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Table 11. Sales of coal production from federal and Indian lands by state/area, FY 2003-14 million short tons State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 2 1 0 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Arizona 13 13 14 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 California 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Colorado 22 22 25 22 22 23 18 19 19 19 17 17 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Illinois 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Indiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Kansas 0 0 0 0

  6. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Table 3. Sales of crude oil and lease condensate production from federal and Indian lands, FY 2003-14 million barrels Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Onshore federal excludes volumes on Indian lands. Offshore federal only includes areas in federal waters. Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration based on U.S. Department of the Interior, Office of Natural Resources Revenue. "ONNR Statistical Information Site"

  7. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Table 5. Sales of natural gas plant liquids production from federal and Indian lands, FY 2003-14 million barrels Fiscal Year Offshore Federal Onshore Federal Total Federal Indian Lands 2003 51 42 93 2 2004 62 41 104 2 2005 56 40 96 2 2006 46 39 85 2 2007 59 44 103 3 2008 53 50 103 3 2009 45 47 93 3 2010 58 73 131 3 2011 52 79 131 3 2012 45 85 130 4 2013 45 63 108 4 2014 48 69 117 4 Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components because of independent rounding. Onshore federal excludes volumes

  8. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Table 8. Sales of crude oil and lease condensate production from federal and Indian lands by state/area, FY 2003-14 million barrels State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Alaska 4 5 5 3 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 California 23 21 21 23 24 21 19 19 19 19 19 19 Colorado 4 4 5 6 5 5 5 4 4 5 4 5 Florida 0 - - - - - - - - - - - Illinois 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Indiana 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  9. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Table 9. Sales of natural gas production from federal and Indian lands by state/area, FY 2003-14 billion cubic feet State 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Alabama 71 53 48 44 36 34 30 32 27 20 21 20 Alaska 35 37 40 35 28 25 24 20 16 16 13 13 Arizona 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 - - Arkansas 7 8 9 10 10 10 15 18 14 12 11 10 California 6 5 5 7 7 7 7 7 10 13 8 8 Colorado 290 348 406 404 412 424 431 425 461 487 469 465 Florida - - - - - - - - - - - - Illinois - - - - - - - - - -

  10. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  11. Electricity Transmission Success Stories - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense statistics for...

  12. Electrical Energy Storage A DOE ENERGY FRONTIER RESEARCH CENTER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense statistics for...

  13. Electricity Transmission and Distribution Technologies Available for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense statistics for...

  14. Electric Sales, Revenue, and Average Price 2011 - Energy Information

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Administration Electricity Glossary › FAQS › Overview Data Electricity Data Browser (interactive query tool with charting & mapping) Summary Sales (consumption), revenue, prices & customers Generation and thermal output Capacity of electric power plants Consumption of fuels used to generate electricity Receipts of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Average cost of fossil-fuels for electricity generation Fossil-fuel stocks for electricity generation Cost, revenue and expense

  15. Remote power systems with advanced storage technologies for Alaskan villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isherwood, W.; Smith, R.; Aceves, S.; Berry, G.; Clark, W.; Johnson, R.; Das, D.; Goering, D.; Seifert, R.

    1997-12-01

    Remote Alaskan communities pay economic and environmental penalties for electricity, because they must import diesel as their primary fuel for electric power production, paying heavy transportation costs and potentially causing environmental damage with empty drums, leakage, and spills. For these reasons, remote villages offer a viable niche market where sustainable energy systems based on renewable resources and advanced energy storage technologies can compete favorably on purely economic grounds, while providing environmental benefits. These villages can also serve as a robust proving ground for systematic analysis, study, improvement, and optimization of sustainable energy systems with advanced technologies. This paper presents an analytical optimization of a remote power system for a hypothetical Alaskan village. The analysis considers the potential of generating renewable energy (e.g., wind and solar), along with the possibility of using energy storage to take full advantage of the intermittent renewable sources available to these villages. Storage in the form of either compressed hydrogen or zinc pellets can then provide electricity from hydrogen or zinc-air fuel cells when renewable sources are unavailable.The analytical results show a great potential to reduce fossil fuel consumption and costs basing renewable energy combined with advanced energy storage devices. The best solution for our hypothetical village appears to be a hybrid energy system, which can reduce consumption of diesel fuel by over 50% with annualized cost savings by over 30% by adding wind turbines to the existing diesel generators. When energy storage devices are added, diesel fuel consumption and costs can be reduced substantially more. With optimized energy storage, use of the diesel generatorss can be reduced to almost zero, with the existing equipment only maintained for added reliability. However about one quarter of the original diesel consumption is still used for heating purposes

  16. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Jason R; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A L

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  17. Design & development fo a 20-MW flywheel-based frequency regulation power plant : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rounds, Robert; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the successful efforts of Beacon Power to design and develop a 20-MW frequency regulation power plant based solely on flywheels. Beacon's Smart Matrix (Flywheel) Systems regulation power plant, unlike coal or natural gas generators, will not burn fossil fuel or directly produce particulates or other air emissions and will have the ability to ramp up or down in a matter of seconds. The report describes how data from the scaled Beacon system, deployed in California and New York, proved that the flywheel-based systems provided faster responding regulation services in terms of cost-performance and environmental impact. Included in the report is a description of Beacon's design package for a generic, multi-MW flywheel-based regulation power plant that allows accurate bids from a design/build contractor and Beacon's recommendations for site requirements that would ensure the fastest possible construction. The paper concludes with a statement about Beacon's plans for a lower cost, modular-style substation based on the 20-MW design.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of a Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Plant and Impacts of Key Design Alternatives: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.; Turchi, C. S.

    2011-09-01

    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, California, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrate salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically-derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its life cycle, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g CO2eq per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJeq/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce life cycle water consumption by 77% but increase life cycle GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase life cycle GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces life cycle GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically-derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  19. Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noskievic, P. Ochodek, T.

    1998-07-01

    Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently, necessary steps in making coal utilization more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fueled by pulverized coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper than coal) do not result in an increased efficiency of the standing equipment by applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalization of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in the near future.

  20. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank J. Hartz; Rob Taylor; Grant Davies

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.