National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fossil steam steam

  1. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

  2. Steam Quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, W.

    1989-01-01

    "STEAM QUALITY has been generally defined as the amount of moisture/vapor (or lack thereof) contained within steam produced from some form of boiler. It has long been used as the standard term for the measurement of ""wet or dry"" steam and as a...

  3. Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, G.J.

    1981-06-23

    A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

  4. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    installed steam traps may have failed-thus allowing live steam to escape into the condensate return system. In systems with a regularly scheduled maintenance program, leaking...

  5. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Systems Deaerators are mechanical devices that remove dissolved gases from boiler feedwater. Deaeration protects the steam system from the effects of corrosive gases....

  6. Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quach, K.; Robb, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines are widely used in most industrial facilities because steam is readily available and steam turbine is easy to operate and maintain. If designed properly, a steam turbine co-generation (producing heat and power simultaneously) system...

  7. Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McConnell, Terry

    Thomas Reddinger Director, Steam Operations Steven Richards Assistant Manager of Maintenance & Operations Tim Winterfield Operations Supervisor (Distribution) Deborah Moorhead Office Coordinator III Jacob Donovan- ColinSteam Plant Operator Vincent Massara Steam Plant Operator SU Steam Station/Chilled Water

  8. Steam Pricing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-19.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30463 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-19.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 STEAM PRICING... Kenneth C. Jones Shell Oil Company Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Steam is used in many plants to furnish both heat and mechanical energy. It is typically produced in several fired boilers which may operate at different pressures and with different...

  9. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W.

    1989-01-01

    "Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning - steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry...

  10. Steam in Distribution and Use: Steam Quality Redefined 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deacon, W. T.

    1989-01-01

    Steam quality is an important measurement in steam generation. It's a measurement of steam to moisture ratio. In use, steam quality takes on a different meaning- steam which maximizes energy transfer. To do this, the steam must be clean, dry...

  11. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    2004-01-01

    and Cost The ultimate goal in optimizing the steam system is to minimize the steam generation costs. Most projects are dependent on the steam balance and can only be justified if low-pressure steam is being vented or if steam is being let down. Some... savings can be quantified. Steam Venting or Letting Down? Typically a plant will be either venting excess low-pressure steam or letting down steam to meet the low-pressure steam demand. If a plant has multiple operating units, it is possible...

  12. Steam System Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant...

  13. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  14. Steam Trap Application 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    The effective application of steam traps encompasses three primary areas which are the selection and sizing, the installation, and the monitoring of the steam trapping system. Proper application of steam traps will improve production rates, product...

  15. Steam Path Audits on Industrial Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchell, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    on Industrial steam Turbines DOUGLAS R. MITCHELL. ENGINEER. ENCOTECH, INC., SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK ABSTRACT The electric utility industry has benefitted from steam path audits on steam turbines for several years. Benefits include the ability to identify... areas of performance degradation during a turbine outage. Repair priorities can then be set in accordance with quantitative results from the steam path audit. As a result of optimized repair decisions, turbine efficiency increases, emissions...

  16. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650°C to 800°C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650°C to 760°C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  17. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  18. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Doyle, Edward F. (Dedham, MA); DiBella, Francis A. (Roslindale, MA)

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  19. Steam Technical Brief: Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  20. Waste Steam Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    An examination has been made of the recovery of waste steam by three techniques: direct heat exchange to process, mechanical compression, and thermocompression. Near atmospheric steam sources were considered, but the techniques developed are equally...

  1. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  2. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  3. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  4. 4. Heat exchangers; Steam, steam processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    to transfer a certain heat rate Q (J/s = W) For a small section dx of the tube (with diameter D), the heat With average temperature difference = for the heat exchanger length, the heat rate can1/74 4. Heat exchangers; Steam, steam processes Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal

  5. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  6. Steam System Survey Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam system, and (5)...

  7. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E. (Simi Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  8. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  9. HP Steam Trap Monitoring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascone, S.

    2011-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2024 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IC-11-10-61.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 STEAM MONITORING HP... Steam Trap Monitoring HP Steam Trap Monitoring ? 12-18 months payback! ? 3-5% permanent reduction in consumption ? LEED Pt.? Innovation in Operations EB O&M ? Saved clients over $1,000,000 Annual consumption Steam Trap Monitoring ? Real...

  10. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TO ACTION-IDENTIFYING STEAM SYSTEM PROPERTIES... 3-1 4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR BOILER EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT... 4-1 4.1 OVERVIEW AND GENERAL...

  11. Steam Champions in Manufacturing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, industrial steam system management has focused on operations and maintenance. Competitive pressures, technology evolution, and increasingly complex regulations provide additional management challenges. The practice of operating a...

  12. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of your steam system. This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler efficiency, feedwater temperature, and steam pressure. This calculation provides a...

  13. Options for Generating Steam Efficiently 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how plant engineers can efficiently generate steam when there are steam generators and Heat Recovery Steam Generators in their plant. The process consists of understanding the performance characteristics of the various equipment...

  14. Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, J. J.; Hirtner, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    A medium-sized plant of a high technology company is reaping the benefits of a Pro-active Steam Trap Program provided by Yarway's TECH/SERV Division. Initial work began March '84 and the most recent steam trap feasibility study conducted in March...

  15. Steam and Condensate Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1980-01-01

    In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from $0.50 per 1,000# to today's cost of $4...

  16. Steam and Condensate Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, W.

    1979-01-01

    In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from about $0.50 per 1,000# to $3.00 or more. Many...

  17. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  18. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  19. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    2000-01-01

    mer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterham mer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing... to seek relief from the Owner. A compromise was negotiated after the first week- steam would be de-energized at midnight before each workday, asbestos abators would start work at 4:00 a.m. and finish by noontime at which time steam would be restored...

  20. Steam System Data Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, D.

    2013-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-13-05-35.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5953 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-13-05-35.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Steam System Data... Certifications ?Retired From Chevron After 25 Years ? Established A Steam System Program ? Planner For Routine Maintenance Work ? Planner For Steam System Improvements ? Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. ? Purchased Wal-Tech Valve, Inc. In 2007 ? Implemented Safety...

  1. Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . keymanengravables.com Steam Turbine Generator Info, Pictures And Deals For Steam turbine generator ediscountshoppingBack One Email To Friend Steam Electricity Generator Need Steam Electricity Generator? See Steam Electricity Generator. greenshieldsindustrial.com Steam Generators Deals on Steam Generators Find what you

  2. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam generation systems best practices and...

  3. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution Losses Module 1 June 29, 2010 Steam EndUser Training Steam Distribution System Losses Module Slide 1 pressure. #12;DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Steam Distribution

  4. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  5. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  6. Evaluating Steam Trap Performance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, N. Y.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11555 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-126.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 EVALUATING STEAM... TRAP PERFORMANCE Noel Y Fuller, P.E. Holston Defense Corporation Kingsport, Tennessee ABSTRACT Laboratory tests were conducted on several types of steam traps at Holston Defense Corporation in Kingsport, Tennessee. Data from these tests...

  7. Reduction in Unit Steam Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  8. Steam generator tube rupture study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Free, Scott Thomas

    1986-01-01

    This report describes our investigation of steam generator behavior during a postulated tube rupture accident. Our study was performed using the steam generator, thermal-hydraulic analysis code THERMIT-UTSG. The purpose ...

  9. Steam System Forecasting and Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

    1982-01-01

    Union Carbide's Taft Plant is a typical petrochemical complex with several processes that use and produce various fuel and steam resources. The plant steam and fuel system balances vary extensively since several process units 'block operate...

  10. Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the applications of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Simulation. Consultants, plant engineers and plant developers can evaluate the steam side performance of HRSGs and arrive at the optimum system which matches the needs...

  11. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  12. Campus Energy Infrastructure Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    Campus Energy Infrastructure Steam Turbine Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural,000 lbs/hr (with duct fire) Steam Turbine Chiller 2,000 tons Campus Heat Load 60 MMBtu/hr (average) Campus-hours) Generator Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction Opportunities and Issues 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, J.; Griffin, B.; Wright, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced... by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam...

  14. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  15. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  16. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  17. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and...

  18. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer solution for various applications.

  19. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  20. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  1. The Elimination of Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickman, F.

    1985-01-01

    compile published data by three leading steam trap facturers. ANNUAL COST OF STEAM LOSS FOR 100 PSIG STEAM AT $5/1000 LBS. TgpOrlflce l18nul8ctuNf M.,utectu,., DI.mNr A' 84 1/." . $ 3,150 $ 2,313 e to from nu ufKluNf co 3,1711 1/4" $12,eoo $ 9...

  2. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... 25 iv v LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Steam supply and condensate drainage piping for a common space heater ... 1 2 Typical orifice plate steam...

  3. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  5. Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.

    1997-01-01

    The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green...

  6. ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastwood, A.

    2002-01-01

    improved insulation, better condensate return, increased process integration, new steam turbines or even the installation of gas-turbine based cogeneration. This approach allows sites to develop a staged implementation plan for both operational and capital...

  7. Trends in packaged steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  8. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  9. Non-Isothermal Steam Mixing Motivation & Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    gas turbine is connected to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), which together feed a single steam turbine. When running multiple gas turbines at different loads, the HRSGs will produce steam streams into the intermediate pressure (IP) steam turbine (figure 1). The goal of this thesis is to determine a compact yet

  10. Combined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    waste heat) Gas Turbine University Substation High Pressure Natural Gas Campus Electric Load SouthernCombined Heat and Power Plant Steam Turbine Steam Turbine Chiller Campus Heat Load Steam (recovered Generator Heat Recovery Alternative Uses: 1. Campus heating load 2. Steam turbine chiller to campus cooling

  11. Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

  12. The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

    2001-01-01

    system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System...

  13. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

    1998-01-01

    , steam requirements for bo process heating and power service do not alwa s coincide. This may leads to an excess of 10 pressure steam that needs to be vented, or a de d for low-pressure steam that has to be supplied from a PRY. Condensing low... condensate. Other direct steam users like oil burners soot blowers and desalters are not in service. Condensate from the steam distribution system is returned to the boiler house in two ways. For large steam users with modulating pressure, steam drums...

  14. Foam Cleaning of Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, C.; Curtis, G.; Horvath, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency and power output of a steam turbine can be dramatically reduced when deposits form on the turbine blades. Disassembly and mechanical cleaning of the turbine is very time consuming and costly. Deposits can be removed from the turbine...

  15. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    to make additional steam for the steam turbine cycle. Thein multi-pressure-level steam turbines to produce additionalthe superheated steam to the steam turbine cycle. The most

  16. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramarz, Kurt W. (Murrysville, PA); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Wilkenhoener, Rolf (Oakbrook Terrace, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  17. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment...

  18. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Industrial Technologies Program's BestPractices tip sheet on improving efficiency of industrial steam systems by recovery latent heat from low-pressure steam.

  19. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  20. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermoscompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam - Steam Tip Sheet #29

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. STeam Injected Piston Engine Troels Hrding Pedersen Bjrn Kjellstrm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .............................................................19 Reduction of NOx-formation by steam injection

  2. Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Improvements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandler, T.

    2010-01-01

    ? Energy efficiency improvements Overview Baytown Olefins Plant Page 3 Baytown Complex ?One of world?s largest integrated, most technologically advanced petroleum/petrochemical complexes ?~3,400 acres along Houston Ship Channel, ~ 25 mi. east... Furnace tube hydrocarbon + steam 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1 2 time C o k e l a y e r Page 8 Steam Cracker Furnace Energy Efficiency ? Overall energy efficiency of furnace depends on ? Run length or % of time furnace is online (more...

  3. Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE| Department ofSteam SystemSteam Systems

  4. Energy Savings Through Steam Trap Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, C.

    2008-01-01

    of continuous monitoring. In addition to energy loss failed open steam traps that go undetected can cause steam system issues. Over pressure on deairator tanks and return lines, electric condensate pump cavitation, and back pressure from undersized vent...

  5. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  6. Steam-sieve method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newby, G. R.

    1984-05-21

    Steam is compressed and heated to make a churn gas that is rife in synthetic fuel, and hydrogen and oxygen are sifted from the churn gas before the steam is recycled.

  7. The Future of Steam: A Preliminary Discussion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.; Harrell, G.; Moore, J.; French, S.

    2001-01-01

    Steam production represents a significant proportion of today's industrial energy demand. But the evolution of process technologies, as well as turbulence in energy markets, suggests that steam's role may be subject to change in the next decade...

  8. "Greening" Industrial Steam Generation via On-demand Steam Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    boiler technology currently in service in the U.S., it is critical to raise awareness and examine the role of emerging new technologies to address the energy and environmental challenges inherent with steam generation. In the same way that tank-less...

  9. Optimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the medium pressure manifold (nominally operated at 14 bar), through a steam turbine that can be usedOptimisation of Fuel Usage and Steam Availability in the Power and Steam Plant of a Paper Mill KEYWORDS: Model Predictive Control, Improved Efficiency, Optimisation, Power and Steam Supply System

  10. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Navigational Tutorial Module Slide 1 ­ Introduction Hello, and welcome to the Steam End User Training. I would like to take a few minutes to show you how to navigate through

  11. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training Introduction Module - 1 8/27/2010 Steam End User Training Introduction Module Slide 1 - Introduction Title Page Hello, and welcome to the Steam System End User training. In this training, we will investigate how to assess, evaluate

  12. Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam "Steam System Assessment Tool" (SSAT) is a powerful tool for quantifying potential steam improvement opportunities in steam systems. However, all assessment tools are only as good as the validity of the modeling...

  13. STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    STEAM-WATER RELATIVE PERMEABILITY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM Laboratory. iv #12;ABSTRACT Steam-water relative permeability curves are required for mathematical models of two-phase geothermal reservoirs. In this study, drainage steam- water relative permeabilities were

  14. Steam System Improvement: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

    1999-01-01

    usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper...

  15. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  16. World launch! Hot-Steam Aerostat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    to the first operable balloon ever that became buoyant by means of superheated steam. The performance of Hei-light and flocked insulation material superheated steam could be maintained also close to the envelopeInfo HeiDAS UH World launch! Hot-Steam Aerostat #12;"If you intend to view the land, if you plan

  17. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  18. Generating Steam by Waste Incineration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D. R.; Darrow, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Combustible waste is a significant source of steam at the new John Deere Tractor Works assembly plant in Waterloo, Iowa. The incinerators, each rated to consume two tons of solid waste per hour, are expected to provide up to 100 percent of the full...

  19. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David (Mauldin, SC); Barb, Kevin Joseph (Halfmoon, NY); Li, Ming Cheng (Cincinnati, OH); Hyde, Susan Marie (Schenectady, NY); Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY); Wesorick, Ronald Richard (Albany, NY); Glynn, Christopher Charles (Hamilton, OH); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  20. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01

    I Saturated Steam L ___ _ Superheated Steam XBL793-949 Fig.water and generate superheated steam at 144 atmospheres (

  1. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  2. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  3. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  4. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation - Steam Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  6. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  7. The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

    2003-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

  8. Steam Management- The 3M Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renz, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    by utilizing air vents. ? Steam traps on siphon-drained revolving drying drums frequently operate incorrectly in this application. Automatic differential condensate controllers are being installed on these drums. ? Automatic air vents are also being... and overcooling the drum, which required irJcreased steam for reheat downstream as a consequence. Improved temperature control was added to the cooling portion of the process. ? Flash steam from condensate receivers is reused for low temperature applications...

  9. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  10. Cyclohexanone 1 Steam Optimization, Freeport Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    Findings in a Mature Manufacturing Process 2010 ACC Energy Efficiency Award Exceptional Merit Cyclohexanone 1 Steam Optimization, Freeport Texas 3 Energy Survey Concept ? 80% of the savings come from 20% of the recommendations: ?What are the critical... Steam Optimization ? The challenge: ? How to optimize steam usage in a mature plant (greater than 25 years) for a commodity product with increased energy costs? ? The answer: ? The activities included a pinch analysis as well as a design...

  11. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  12. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  13. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  14. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  15. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Achieve Steam System Excellence: Industrial Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in plant improvement projects. * Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries (1) defines the volume and...

  17. Capturing Energy Savings with Steam Traps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bockwinkel, R. G.; French, S. A.

    1997-01-01

    , flanges and other connections. The economic loss can be significant. To appre ciate the massive economic impact of wasting steam, let's again look at the very small trap leak on 30 pound pressure typical for many process applications. Chart 1 shows... how much steam will be lost each hour from various size orifices and pressure ranges and the example calcula tions show how much steam is lost per year. Chart 1. Steam Loss Comparison For Various Pressures and Orifice Sizes Drip &Tracer Traps "1...

  18. Pre-In-Plant Training Webinar (Steam)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This pre-In-Plant training webinar for the Better Plants Program covers how to find energy savings in steam systems.

  19. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E.

    2009-07-15

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Preliminary Results from the Industrial Steam System Market Assessment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGrath, G. P.; Wright, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses fuel use and potential energy savings in the steam systems of three steam intensive industries: pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining. To determine the energy consumption to generate steam...

  1. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  2. Energy Savings with Computerized Steam Trap Maintenance Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klidzejs, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the efforts made at 3M Company plants to save energy in the steam distribution system by improving the maintenance of steam traps. The results from steam trap surveys for 17 facilities with over 6,400 ...

  3. Effective Steam Trap Selection/Maintenance - Its Payback 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, E.

    1984-01-01

    In oil refineries and petrochemical plants large number of steam traps are used to discharge condensate from steam mains, tracers and process equipment. Early efforts on steam traps focused almost exclusively on their selection and sizing...

  4. Design and Performance Aspects of Steam Generators 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1994-01-01

    generators are "standard" or "off-the-shelf items", that there exists a model number for a given steam capacity and one has to live with whatever performance is offered by the boiler vendor. Unfortunately, boiler suppliers also encourage specifying of steam...

  5. Energy Management - Using Steam Pressure Efficiently 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiandani, N.

    1983-01-01

    Saturated steam contains heat in two different forms. Sensible heat and latent heat. Due to the nature of this vapor, the relative proportion of latent heat is higher at lower pressures compared to higher pressures. When steam is used for heating...

  6. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a...

  7. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

  8. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity...

  9. Appendices: Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy U.S. Department of Energy Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity...

  10. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Second Edition (October 2012) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate...

  11. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Uninsulated steam distribution and condensate return lines are a constant source of wasted energy. The table shows typical...

  12. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    domestic hot water, sterilization autoclaves, and air makeup coils. Oversized boiler plants and steam distribution systems utilizing saturated steam are potential...

  14. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition This sourcebook is...

  15. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Industrial Steam Systems (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Consider Installing a...

  16. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best...

  17. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  18. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  19. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  20. Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S. , Santa Clara, CA )

    1992-07-01

    Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

  1. Customizing pays off in steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1995-01-01

    Packaged steam generators are the workhorses of chemical process plants, power plants and cogeneration systems. They are available as oil- or gas-fired models, and are used to generate either high-pressure superheated steam (400 to 1,200 psig, at 500 to 900 F) or saturated steam at low pressures (100 to 300 psig). In today's emission- and efficiency- conscious environment, steam generators have to be custom designed. Gone are the days when a boiler supplier--or for that matter an end user--could look up a model number from a list of standard sizes and select one for a particular need. Thus, before selecting a system, it is desirable to know the features of oil- and gas-fired steam generators, and the important variables that influence their selection, design and performance. It is imperative that all of these data are supplied to the boiler supplier so that the engineers may come up with the right design. Some of the parameters which are discussed in this paper are: duty, steam temperature, steam purity, emissions, and furnace design. Superheaters, economizers, and overall performance are also discussed.

  2. Light-gas effect on steam condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.H.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigcaiones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    In a postulated reactor accident, the loss of coolant results in a release of high-temperature steam into the containment. Under these circumstances steam condensation onto containment walls provides an effective mechanism of energy removal. However, the presence of noncondensable gas is known to degrade the heat transfer. It has also been found that the introduction of a light noncondensable gas has little effect until sufficient quantities are present to disrupt the buoyancy forces. Our investigation shows the dramatic effect of high concentrations of light gas decreasing steam condensation rates under anticipated accident conditions for AP600, with helium as the simulant for hydrogen.

  3. Energy Conservation Through Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diamante, L.; Nagengast, C.

    1979-01-01

    the bottom edge and out, the bucket becomes bouyant, floats up, closes the valve and the flow stops. The slight static pressure the water around the bucket exerts on the steam inside will begin to drive it out through the small hole in the top we spoke... at which condensate is forming, thus steam will eventually flow into the trap. Steam unlike condensate, or air in a relative sense, is highly compressible and will undergo a substantial volume change in expanding from the inlet to outlet pressure...

  4. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used in industry. However... reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between $200 and $800 per...

  5. Internal combustion engine injection superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, F.G.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a method for introducing water vapor to the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing a metered amount of liquid water into a heat exchanger; contacting the heat exchanger directly with hot exhaust gases emanating from the exhaust manifold; maintaining the water in the heat exchanger for a period sufficient to vaporize the water into steam and superheat same; reducing pressure and increasing temperature to create superheated steam; introducing the superheated steam into the air supply proximate to the air induction system, upstream of any carburetion, of the internal combustion engine.

  6. The Enbridge "Steam Saver" Program: Steam Boiler Plant Efficiency-Update to Year End 2005 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.; Johnson, D.

    2006-01-01

    ” PROGRAM STEAM BOILER PLANT EFFICIENCY-UPDATE TO YEAR END, 2005 March 1, 2006 Bob Griffin, P.Eng., Energy Solutions Manager, Enbridge Gas Distribution Inc., Toronto, Ontario Daniel Johnson, B.A.Sc., Industrial Energy Engineer, Enbridge Gas Distribution... of Enbridge’s “Steam Saver” program first introduced in 1997. The goal of this program is to reduce fuel consumption in industrial steam plants and distribution systems. We have now completed 92 detailed boiler plant performance tests and audits...

  7. Reservoir performance characterized in mature steam pattern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.D.; McPherson, J.G.; Covington, T.E.

    1989-04-01

    A detailed reservoir description provided new insight in an investigation of a ten-year-old steam flood. Mobil Oil Corporation conducted this study of the Pleistocene upper Tulare sands in South Belridge field, located in the San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. The study area is on the gently dipping (6/degrees/) southwestern flank of the South Belridge anticline. Wireline logs from 19 wells in a 10-ac (660 ft x 660 ft) pattern were correlated in detail. Seven post-steam conventional cores (1523 ft) aided (1) the evaluation of vertical and lateral steam-sweep efficiency, (2) evaluation of reservoir and fluid changes due to steam, (3) influence of lithofacies in reservoir quality, and (4) provided insight to the three-dimensional reservoir flow-unit geometries.

  8. Optimized Control Of Steam Heating Coils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali, Mir Muddassir

    2012-02-14

    Steam has been widely used as the source of heating in commercial buildings and industries throughout the twentieth century. Even though contemporary designers have moved to hot water as the primary choice for heating, a large number of facilities...

  9. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  10. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Compressor & Steam Turbine Efficiency Improvements & Revamping Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hata, S.; Horiba, J.; Sicker, M.

    2011-01-01

    in which they operate. This energy growth requires high efficiency improvements for machine design and operation to minimize life cycle cost. This paper will focus on the mechanical drive steam turbines which power the main process equipment in the heart...

  12. Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

  13. Solar steam generation by heat localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghasemi, Hadi

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated ...

  14. Extraction Steam Controls at EPLA-W 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinker, J. L.

    2004-01-01

    ExxonMobil's Baton Rouge site encompasses a world-scale refinery, chemical plant and third party power station. Historically, inflexible and unreliable control systems on two high-pressure, extracting/condensing steam turbines prevented the site...

  15. Steam System Optimization : A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

    2002-01-01

    The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...

  16. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  17. Optimization of Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaie, H.; Nasr, M. R. J.

    2008-01-01

    involved super heater, preheater, water drum, economizer and radiant chamber. In this case study boilers do not have any economizer so no heat exchanger between the incoming boilers feed water and the hot flue gases before they are vented to atmosphere... boiler feed water treatment, steam boilers, steam turbines, steam distribution, steam users and producer. row water needs to be treated before it can be used for steam generation it need to be first filtered to remove suspend solids then need...

  18. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  19. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  20. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  1. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  2. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    , SSAT, and the 3E-Plus Insulation Tool. The Steam Generation Efficiency module focuses on boiler efficiency. In this section the definition of boiler efficiency will be discussed and the various avenues of boiler losses will be explored. Resource Utilization Effectiveness will discuss fuel selection, steam

  3. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    1998-01-01

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  4. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    steam systems - Measure boiler efficiency - Estimate the magnitude of specific boiler losses - Identify and prioritize areas of boiler efficiency improvement - Recognize the impacts of fuel selection Measurements] Boiler o Flue gas temperature o Flue gas oxygen content o Boiler fuel flow o Boiler steam

  5. Subsurface steam sampling in Geysers wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lysne, P. [Lysne (Peter), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, B. [Unocal Geothermal and Power Operations Group, Santa Rose, CA (United States); Hirtz, P. [Thermochem, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States); Normann, R.; Henfling, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A new downhole sampling tool has been built for use in steam wells at The Geysers geothermal reservoir. The tool condenses specimens into an initially evacuated vessel that is opened down hole at the direction of an on-board computer. The tool makes a temperature log of the well as it is deployed, and the pressure and temperature of collected specimens are monitored for diagnostic purposes. Initial tests were encouraging, and the Department of Energy has funded an expanded effort that includes data gathering needed to develop a three-dimensional model of The Geysers geochemical environment. Collected data will be useful for understanding the origins of hydrogen chloride and non-condensable gases in the steam, as well as tracking the effect of injection on the composition of produced steam. Interested parties are invited to observe the work and to join the program.

  6. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  7. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo (Champaign, IL); Lu, Yonggi (Urbana, IL); Rostam-Abadi, Massoud (Champaign, IL)

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  8. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of an intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinss, Judicael Christopher

    2001-01-01

    in accelerating oil production and to compare the performance of steam-propane injection versus steam injection alone on an intermediate crude oil of 21 ?API gravity. Eight experimental runs were performed: three pure steam injection runs, three steam...

  9. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    and adding the superheated steam to the steam turbine cycle.into gasifier as superheated steam in order to reach a highsignificant amount of superheated steam has to be generated

  10. Energy & Environmental Benefits from Steam & Electricity Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratheal, R.

    2004-01-01

    -site powerhouses (one coal-fired and one natural gas-fired) and from gas-fired and waste heat boilers in its four hydrocarbon cracking plants. The challenge was to find a way to reduce costs and improve reliability of procuring and/or producing electricity... and steam while maintaining or reducing TEX air emissions. TEX entered into an agreement with Eastex Cogeneration to build, own and operate a 440 MW gas-fired steam and electric cogeneration facility on site. Implementation of the project was complex...

  11. Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeBat, R.

    2001-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-01-05-37.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 35654 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-01-05-37.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Savings in Steam... Systems (A Case Study) Rich DeBat Steam Systems Engineer Armstrong Service, Inc. Three Rivers, MI ABSTRACT Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during the Fall of 1999...

  12. Cover Heated, Open Vessels - Steam Tip Sheet #19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Finding Benefits by Modeling and Optimizing Steam and Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, B.; Nelson, D.

    2007-01-01

    A site-wide steam modeling and optimization program (Visual MESA) was implemented at the INEOS Chocolate Bayou site. This program optimizes steam production, compressor turbine extraction, pump operation (turbine/motor) operation, as well...

  14. The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

  15. Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larkin, A.

    2002-01-01

    and implement small scale cogeneration. These recommendations included reducing the medium pressure steam distribution to low pressure, eliminating the medium pressure to low pressure reducing stations, installing a back pressure steam turbine generator...

  16. Steam Tracing...New Technologies for the 21st Century 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitzer, R. K.; Barth, R. E.; Bonorden, C.

    1999-01-01

    For decades, steam tracing has been an accepted practice in the heating of piping, vessels, and equipment. This paper presents recent product innovations such as "burn-safe" and "energy efficient" steam tracing products. For the many applications...

  17. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators...

  18. Install and Automatic Blowdown Control System - Steam Tip Sheet #23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petto, S.

    1987-01-01

    can be found in power generation. steam distribution, and in all types of durable and non-durable Industrial productions. I 300 " 0 " 200 C " ? ? ~ 'DO ?~ 50 ' .. '7. '70 '75 '50 '.2 The cost to maintain steam systems. namely...

  20. CIBO's Energy Efficiency Handbook for Steam Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bessette, R. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Council of Industrial Boiler Owners (CIBO) has developed a handbook to help boiler operators get the best performance from their industrial steam systems. This energy efficiency handbook takes a comprehensive look at the boiler and steam system...

  1. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  2. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    that it can be reused. Vapor recompression relies upon a mechanical compressor or steam jet ejector to increase the temperature of the latent heat in steam to render it usable for...

  3. Following Where the Steam Goes: Industry's Business Opportunity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Many associated benefits accrue from plant projects which comprehensively address steam systems. The DOE-Alliance to Save Energy Steam Challenge program was initiated shortly after last year's IETC on April 30, 1998 to promote awareness...

  4. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  5. Industrial Steam Power Cycles Final End-Use Classification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Final end uses of steam include two major classifications: those uses that condense the steam against heat transfer surfaces to provide heat to an item of process or service equipment; and those that require a mass flow of steam for stripping...

  6. Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merz, Stephan

    Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le�ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

  7. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

  8. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  9. Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, María Victoria

    Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

  10. An ObjectOriented Algebraic SteamBoiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ã?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object­Oriented Algebraic Steam­Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba Ë? Olveczky 1# , Piotr, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object­oriented algebraic solution of the steam­boiler specification Introduction The steam­boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for di

  11. STEAM RECEIVER MODELS FOR SOLAR DISH CONCENTRATORS: TWO MODELS COMPARED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that commercial steam turbines operate at. It is envisaged that plants based on large arrays of dishes wouldSTEAM RECEIVER MODELS FOR SOLAR DISH CONCENTRATORS: TWO MODELS COMPARED José Zapata, Keith response of a parabolic dish steam cavity receiver. Both approaches are based on a heat transfer model

  12. Lowest Pressure Steam Saves More BTU's Than You Think 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallery, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    the high and low steam pressures. The discussion below shows how the savings in using low pressure steam can be above 25%! The key to the savings is not in the heat exchanger equipment or the steam trap, but is back at the powerhouse - the sensible heat...

  13. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  14. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  15. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  16. Steam Trap Testing and Evaluation: An Actual Plant Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    With rising steam costs and a high failure rate on the Joliet Plants standard steam trap, a testing and evaluation program was begun to find a steam trap that would work at Olin-Joliet. The basis was to conduct the test on the actual process...

  17. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    are inevitable, so the global economy will expand, production will increase, more fossil fuel energy will be needed, and that fuel will become scarce and more costly. Although fuel prices are low now, energy costs can be expected to trend significantly upward...

  19. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers - Steam Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment - Steam Tip Sheet #21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

    2004-09-30

    Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand...

  2. Improved Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Performance with Solvent as Steam Additive 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weiqiang

    2011-02-22

    Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is used widely as a thermal recovery technique in Canada to produce a very viscous bitumen formation. The main research objectives of this simulation and experimental study are to investigate oil recovery...

  3. Steam Challenge: Developing A New DOE Program to Help Industry be Steam Smart 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, T.; Hart, F.

    1998-01-01

    Last year, the Alliance to Save Energy, the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies, and a cadre of private companies and associations formed an innovative "Steam Partnership" with the goal of developing a new, DOE technical...

  4. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  5. Task 1—Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A·USC) steam turbine is high enough (760°C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre •. A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  6. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunha, Frank J. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  7. Steam Trap Maintenance as a Profit Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchillon, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    program at a large, 4000 trap chemical plant. The previously "good" maintenance program which was losing $565,000 per year in steam was turned into a $485,000 per year cost savings. This paper will also give the steps that can in as few as 3 months...

  8. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  9. Coreflood experimental study of steam displacement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cerutti, Andres Enrique

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to verify experimentally whether or not a Buckley-Leverett shock front exists when steam displaces oil in a porous medium, as assumed in the Aydelotte-Pope steamflood predictive model. Experiments were conducted...

  10. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc (San Jose, CA); Wallman, P. Henrik (Berkeley, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  11. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  12. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17

    the synthetic sample and experimental study previously carried out. (e) To correlate steam-propane distillation yields for some crude oils and synthetic hydrocarbons to generate steam-propane distillation data that could be used to develop the input data... there is need to develop a model to predict distillate yield under any set of conditions for any heavy oil, requiring only the simulated distillation (SIMDIS) trace (i.e. percent off vs. normal boiling temperature) of the oil. The expected deliverables from...

  13. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  14. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W. (Longwood, FL); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  15. Deliberate ignition of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures in condensing steam environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Stamps, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    Large scale experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of thermal glow plug igniters to burn hydrogen in a condensing steam environment due to the presence of water sprays. The experiments were designed to determine if a detonation or accelerated flame could occur in a hydrogen-air-steam mixture which was initially nonflammable due to steam dilution but was rendered flammable by rapid steam condensation due to water sprays. Eleven Hydrogen Igniter Tests were conducted in the test vessel. The vessel was instrumented with pressure transducers, thermocouple rakes, gas grab sample bottles, hydrogen microsensors, and cameras. The vessel contained two prototypic engineered systems: (1) a deliberate hydrogen ignition system and (2) a water spray system. Experiments were conducted under conditions scaled to be nearly prototypic of those expected in Advanced Light Water Reactors (such as the Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80+), with prototypic spray drop diameter, spray mass flux, steam condensation rates, hydrogen injection flow rates, and using the actual proposed plant igniters. The lack of any significant pressure increase during the majority of the burn and condensation events signified that localized, benign hydrogen deflagration(s) occurred with no significant pressure load on the containment vessel. Igniter location did not appear to be a factor in the open geometry. Initially stratified tests with a stoichiometric mixture in the top showed that the water spray effectively mixes the initially stratified atmosphere prior to the deflagration event. All tests demonstrated that thermal glow plugs ignite hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under conditions with water sprays near the flammability limits previously determined for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under quiescent conditions. This report describes these experiments, gives experimental results, and provides interpretation of the results. 12 refs., 127 figs., 16 tabs.

  16. On Water, Steam and String Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christof Schmidhuber

    1997-01-22

    This is a colloquium-style review lecture for physicists and non-physicists, as part of the requirements for ``Habilitation'' at the university of Bern: At a pressure of 220 atm. and a temperature of 374 Celsius there is a second-order phase transition between water and steam. Understanding it requires the concept of the renormalization group. Images from computer simulations of the lattice gas model (included) are used to explain its basic ideas. It is briefly reviewed how the renormalization group is used to compute critical coefficients for the water-steam phase transition, in good agreement with experiment. Applications in particle physics and string theory are mentioned. The appendix contains a sample of the author's results on renormalization group flows in theories with dynamical gravity and their relation to perturbative string theory: gravity modifies critical coefficients and phase diagrams, in agreement with numerical calculations, and leads to curious phenomena such as oscillating flows and quantum mechanical flows.

  17. Cash Flow Impacts of Industrial Steam Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2003-01-01

    . Corporate leaders can maintain ROI by avoiding asset additions, but eventually the downtime imposed by failing assets begins to defeat this strategy. Plant optimization achieved through applied energy efficiency can only support the manager's adherence... gets the resources to upgrade steam assets and maintenance. But in addition, product managers enjoy lower costs per unit due to reduced waste of direct materials, as well as avoided downtime. Sales and marketing staff enjoy a bit more negotiating...

  18. Propellant actuated nuclear reactor steam depressurization valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehrke, Alan C. (San Jose, CA); Knepp, John B. (San Jose, CA); Skoda, George I. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear fission reactor combined with a propellant actuated depressurization and/or water injection valve is disclosed. The depressurization valve releases pressure from a water cooled, steam producing nuclear reactor when required to insure the safety of the reactor. Depressurization of the reactor pressure vessel enables gravity feeding of supplementary coolant water through the water injection valve to the reactor pressure vessel to prevent damage to the fuel core.

  19. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  20. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760°C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  1. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  2. Steam System Optimization: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

    2000-01-01

    to the atmosphere. Figure 6. Existing and proposed collection of atmospheric condensate at Plant C. Recovery of condensate and vented flash steam at the Atmospheric Flash Drums will save Plant C $144,000 annual1y. The savings estimation is based on the amount... vent condenser, and finally collected at the recycle solvent drum. A pressure relieve valve at the vent header, maintains the temperature and the pressure without Figure 7. Existing arrangements at Crystal1izers. Typical Material Balance data from...

  3. Steam System Modeler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE| Department ofSteam System Modeler

  4. Steam System Survey Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department of Energy 1 DOE| Department ofSteam System

  5. Underground coal gasification using oxygen and steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, L.H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, S. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, through model experiment of the underground coal gasification, the effects of pure oxygen gasification, oxygen-steam gasification, and moving-point gasification methods on the underground gasification process and gas quality were studied. Experiments showed that H{sub 2} and CO volume fraction in product gas during the pure oxygen gasification was 23.63-30.24% and 35.22-46.32%, respectively, with the gas heating value exceeding 11.00 MJ/m{sup 3}; under the oxygen-steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio stood at 2: 1, gas compositions remained virtually stable and CO + H{sub 2} was basically between 61.66 and 71.29%. Moving-point gasification could effectively improve the changes in the cavity in the coal seams or the effects of roof inbreak on gas quality; the ratio of gas flowing quantity to oxygen supplying quantity was between 3.1:1 and 3.5:1 and took on the linear changes; on the basis of the test data, the reasons for gas quality changes under different gasification conditions were analyzed.

  6. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  7. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  8. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer - Steam Tip Sheet #26A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet is part of a series of tip sheets on how to optimize an industrial steam system.

  10. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-10-01

    A sourcebook designed to provide steam system users with a reference outlining opportunities to improve system performance and optimize energy efficiency in industrial energy systems.

  11. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...

  12. Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Full Steam Ahead for PV in US Homes? Mark Bolinger, Galenutility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations in the yearsimplications for PV rebate program administrators, PV system

  13. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    drying and heating, multi-effect evaporators, vulcanizers, reboilers, strippers, condensate receiver tanks, and solvent extraction processes. Producing a Vacuum with Steam Jet...

  14. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Rotating Equipment Steam turbines are well suited as prime movers for driving boiler feedwater pumps, forced or induced-draft fans, blowers, air compressors, and other...

  15. DOE's BestPractices Steam End-User Training Steam End User Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    loss is almost always the largest boiler loss. [Slide Visual ­ Stack Loss Title Page] Steam factor in managing boiler performance. We will discuss both of these aspects of stack loss--we will start in the boiler exhaust gas. The temperature of the exhaust gas is an indicator of the amount of energy lost from

  16. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G. (Ballston Spa, NY); Carberg, William George (Ballston Spa, NY); Jones, Charles Michael (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  17. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.

    2005-11-01

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  18. Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainableGlynn County,Solar Jump to: navigation,Capital AdvisorsSteam Biomass

  19. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Iron FT Synthesis, Steam-Power Cycle All Values in 2010 $CO 2 capture, Steam-Power Cycle All Values in 2010 $ MinimumCO 2 Capture Steam-Power Cycle All Values in 2010 $ Minimum

  20. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01

    stream conditions in steam power cycle. Table 4.1 Reactantreactor system. Steam power cycle 8.1 Efficiencies vs.793-944 Fig. 3.5. Steam power cycle. Table 3.3. Flows and

  1. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01

    IOUT *MEBP *STC(QAAN. R )-STEAM TURBINE CALC. ~ETFQMIN~5 ST~KJ/S) 1JC. /(GROSS STEAM TURBINE POWER PRODUCTION) STEA~ GENprogram then prints the steam turbine results. All flows in

  2. A Case Study of Steam System Evaluation in a Petroleum Refinery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Iordanova, N.

    2003-01-01

    in the areas of: Steam generation, Steam distribution, Steam Utilization, Condensate recovery, and Combustion optimization in kilns. By implementing all the above 31 ECMs, the refinery is estimated to save $3.5 million annually. Based on our preliminary...

  3. Experimental study of Morichal heavy oil recovery using combined steam and propane injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goite Marcano, Jose Gregorio

    1999-01-01

    with steam (for the purpose of increasing steam recovery efficiency) are being evaluated. An experimental study has been performed to investigate the effect of combined steam and propane injection on recovery of heavy oil from the Morichal field, Venezuela...

  4. Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Low-pressure process steam requirements are usually met by throttling high- pressure steam, but a portion of the...

  5. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  6. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be- havior of the boiler. For each model, we de ne and verify a controller that maintains the safe

  7. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be­ havior of the boiler. For each model, we define and verify a controller that maintains

  8. ENERGY SERIES "CFD Modeling and its Application in Steam Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    SEMINAR: ENERGY SERIES "CFD Modeling and its Application in Steam Condenser Performance Improvement will discuss the application of CFD to steam condensers, an area where both of the above mentioned limitations of computational fluid dynamics, having applied these techniques extensively in the design large heat exchangers

  9. Steam distribution and energy delivery optimization using wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The Extreme Measurement Communications Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) explores the deployment of a wireless sensor system with a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework in the ORNL campus. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize the energy delivery within the steam distribution system. We address the goal of achieving significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam valves/traps. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capabilities. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observe the state measurements of these sensors. Our assessments are based on analysis of the wireless sensor measurements. We describe Fourier-spectrum based algorithms that interpret acoustic vibration sensor data to characterize flows and classify the steam system status. We are able to present the sensor readings, steam flow, steam trap status and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  10. Plant View On Reducing Steam Trap Energy Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallery, S. J.

    1982-01-01

    's total energy consumption is used by industry in producing the goods which are consumed around the world. Steam is the most commonly used energy source for the petrochemical industry. Most of this steam is used for heating and evaporating the many...

  11. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CHP Applications, April 2005 Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

  12. Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

  13. Feasibility of Steam Hydrogasification of Microalgae for Production of Synthetic Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suemanotham, Amornrat

    2014-01-01

    Figure 2.2. Biomass Air Steam Oxygen Hydrogen Gasifier typeAir GasifierSteam Gasifier Oxygen Gasifier Hydrogen Gasifier

  14. Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  15. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible and corrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen Chloride in Superheated Steam and Chloride in Deepof Chloride in Superheated Geothermal Steam, Geothermics,

  16. Issues in the selection of the LMFBR steam cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buschman, H.W.; McConnell, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Unlike the light-water reactor, the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) allows the designer considerable latitude in the selection of the steam cycle. This latitude in selection has been exercised by both foreign and domestic designers, and thus, despite the fact that over 25 LMFBR's have been built or are under construction, a consensus steam cycle has not yet evolved. This paper discusses the LMFBR steam cycles of interest to the LMFBR designer, reviews which of these cycles have been employed to date, discusses steam-cycle selection factors, discusses why a consensus has not evolved, and finally, concludes that the LMFBR steam-cycle selection is primarily one of technical philosophy with several options available.

  17. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  18. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  19. SUPERCRITICAL STEAM CYCLE FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Talbert, Robert J.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Filippov, Gennady A.; Bogojavlensky, Roald G.; Grishanin, Evgeny I.

    2005-07-01

    Revolutionary improvement of the nuclear plant safety and economy with light water reactors can be reached with the application of micro-fuel elements (MFE) directly cooled by a supercritical pressure light-water coolant-moderator. There are considerable advantages of the MFE as compared with the traditional fuel rods, such as: Using supercritical and superheated steam considerably increases the thermal efficiency of the Rankine cycle up to 44-45%. Strong negative coolant and void reactivity coefficients with a very short thermal delay time allow the reactor to shutdown quickly in the event of a reactivity or power excursion. Core melting and the creation of corium during severe accidents are impossible. The heat transfer surface area is larger by several orders of magnitude due to the small spherical dimensions of the MFE. The larger heat exchange surface significantly simplifies residual heat removal by natural convection and radiation from the core to a subsequent passive system of heat removal.

  20. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V. (Richland, WA); Durst, Bruce M. (Kennewick, WA); Prichard, Andrew W. (Richland, WA); Reid, Bruce D. (Pasco, WA); Burritt, James (Virginia Beach, VA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  1. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Udell, Kent S. (Berkeley, CA); Bruton, Carol J. (Livermore, CA); Carrigan, Charles R. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  2. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  3. Thermo-gasification of steam classified municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eley, M.H.; Sebghati, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) has been processed using a procedure called steam classification. This material has been examined for use as a combustion fuel, feedstock for composting, and cellulytic enzyme hydrolysis. An initial study has been conducted using a prototype plasma arc pyrolysis system to transform the steam classified MSW into a pyrolysis gas and vitrified material. With 136 kg (300 lbs) of the steam classified MSW pyrolysized at a feed rate of 22.7 kg/hour (50 lbs/hour), samples of the gas and grasslike material were captured for analysis. A presentation of the emission data and details on the system used will be presented.

  4. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    turbine at 75'rc adiabatic efficiency to a vacuum of 2"Hg. No steam is extracted. 15,7 ~Blu/hr STACK Figure 3. Enthalpy analysis of power plant cycle. Analyzing this system points to the steam turbine condenser as the source of inefficiency... it's thrown away. Why be concerned about throwing away something that has virtually no value? But there is concern. The steam turbine condenser is nearly always viewed as the source of inefficiency in the cycle. The problem is that the wrong thing...

  5. Steam bubble collapse induced water hammer in draining pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, P.; Silva, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    When hot steam replaces cold condensate in a horizontal or almost horizontal pipe, a steam bubble collapse induced water hammer often results. The effect of condensate drainage velocity and pipe declination on the incidence of steam bubble collapse induced water hammer is investigated experimentally. Declining the pipe more than 2.4{degrees} allows drainage velocities up to 3 ft/sec (1m/s) in a two inch (5 cm) pipe without water hammer. A semi-empirical theory allows extrapolation to other pressures, pipe sizes and inclinations. 4 refs.

  6. 1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1. Introduction The efficiency of steam turbines can be improved by in- creasing the maximum-efficiency power plant. 2. Turbines, Steam, Efficiency and Power Plant A power plant has a steam generator which the operating pressure is below about 22 MPa, in which case the steam is separated and passed on to the turbine

  7. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for intended deployment in large arrays of dishes, with steam directed to a central large steam turbine powerDYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION José Zapata 1 , John dish has been in operation since 2010 with a mono-tube steam cavity receiver, the SG4 system

  8. ESTIMATION OF OUTLET MASS FLOW FOR A MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVER FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    arrays of parabolic dishes, where each collector contributes steam to a central steam-turbine power blockESTIMATION OF OUTLET MASS FLOW FOR A MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVER FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION José This paper presents recent developments on a dynamic model for a mono-tube cavity receiver for direct steam

  9. DIRECT STEAM GENERATION USING THE SG4 500m2 PARABOLOIDAL DISH CONCENTRATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    steam turbine power block. As well as DSG, the ANU group is investigating energy conversion options conveyed the steam to our 50 kWe steam turbine; the new dish is oversized for the current engine, so someDIRECT STEAM GENERATION USING THE SG4 500m2 PARABOLOIDAL DISH CONCENTRATOR Greg Burgess 1 , Keith

  10. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla_steam_water_est(sr) = #12;Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 7. p.11, The initial

  11. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q. (Saratoga Springs, NY); Salamah, Samir A. (Niskayuna, NY); DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  12. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heat exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.

  13. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heatmore »exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.« less

  14. Steam Partnerships: Case Study of Improved Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calogero, M. V.; Hess, R. E.; Leigh, N.

    2002-01-01

    energy consumers. They have supplied the energy commodities (fuel, electricity, or water) and may have even assisted with energy (steam) generation and production. But in most cases, their assistance and expertise came up short when dealing...

  15. Steam Efficiency: Impacts from Boilers to the Boardroom 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, C.

    2000-01-01

    potentially include increased shareholder value, market branding opportunities, avoidance of emission control penalties, and improvements in workplace safety. This discussion also covers the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam program, which...

  16. Thermohydraulic analysis of U-tube steam generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Hugo Cardoso

    1984-01-01

    Recent trends in plant safety analysis reveal a need for benchmark analytical representations of the steam generators to aid in the improvement of system codes and of fast codes for operator assistance. A model for such ...

  17. Steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruel, R.

    Work on steam bubble collapse, water hammer and piping network response was carried out in two closely related but distinct sections. Volume I of ,,is report details the experiments and analyses carried out in conjunction ...

  18. C++ Implementation of IAPWS Water/Steam Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling Zou; Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Qiyue Lu

    2014-02-01

    For the calculations of water-involved systems, such as safety analysis of light water reactors, it is essential to provide accurate water properties. The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam is an international non-profit association of national organizations concerned with the properties of water and steam. It provides internationally accepted formulations of water/steam properties for scientific and industrial applications. The purpose of this work is to provide a stand-alone software package in C++ programming language to provide accurate and efficient water/steam properties evaluation, based on the latest IAPWS releases. The discussion on related IAPWS releases, code implementations and verifications are provided in details.

  19. Steam System Management Program Yields Fuel Savings for Refinery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, L. D.; Hagan, K. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Phillips refinery at Borger, Texas, determined the need to develop a utility monitoring system. Shortly after this commitment was made, the refinery was introduced to a flowsheet modeling program that could be used to model and optimize steam...

  20. The Economics of Back-Pressure Steam Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J. R.; Choroszylow, E.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, back-pressure steam turbines have become the focal point in many cogeneration applications. This is a result of the savings in operating costs associated with the generation of electrical or mechanical power coincident with the economical...

  1. Steam Turbines for Critical Applications and Emergency or Standby Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waterland, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    Steam turbines are frequently preferred over electric motors where operational continuity is important. This often imposes extreme premiums in operating cost. The parameters affecting relative economics are explored and a range of alternatives...

  2. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  5. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    content of a solid. Dryers account for the largest end use of steam in the pulp and paper industry. 9 The chemical manufacturing, textiles, and food processing industries also...

  6. Steam Turbine Performance in Europe | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steam Turbine Performance in Europe Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to...

  7. Rapid Recolonisation of Agricultural Soil by Microarthropods After Steam Disinfestation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cucco, Marco

    sterilisation. This research was supported by ACNA and MURST grants. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, Vol. 27 to methyl bromide. Indeed, steam sterilisation presents several obvious advantages, such as the lack

  8. Hanford 300 Area steam transition preliminary utility options study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, N.J.; Weakley, S.A.; Berman, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    The cost of steam in the Hanford 300 Area is approaching $60 per million Btu; the cost in industry is {approx} $10 per million Btu. The cost of steam in the 300 Area is expected to continue to increase because of the age of the central steam system, load decreases, safety requirements, and environmental regulations. The intent of this report is to evaluate options that would more cost-effectively met the future heating needs of the buildings in the 300 Area. In general, the options fall into two categories: central systems and distributed systems. A representative option from each category was analyzed using the life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) techniques mandated by the federal government. The central plant option chosen for evaluation was the existing central steam plant modified to allow continued operation. The distributed option chosen was a dedicated heating system for each building.

  9. Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    J.R. Simplot Don plant in Pocatello, Idaho, repaired boiler feed water pumps such as the one pictured above, and revised boiler operating practices to reduce steam venting by 17...

  10. Energy Conservation Thru Steam Trap Surveys and Preventive Maintenance Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, T.; Dewhirst, B.

    1980-01-01

    justification for the survey program. Defective steam traps and their energy characteristics will also be discussed. An on-going preventive maintenance program can be initiated from the information derived from the survey. Sustained energy efficiency...

  11. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and operates to provide steam on demand. The boilers are most efficient when they run at full capacity. When a boiler is turned down, the efficiency drops. To maximize...

  12. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  13. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    describes how Dow Chemical Company saved 272,000 MMBtu and 1.9 million annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a plant in Louisiana. Dow Chemical Company:...

  14. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  15. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Marvin W. (Fairview, WV)

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  16. Heat transfer and film cooling with steam injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conklin, Gary Eugene

    1982-01-01

    HEAT TRANSFER AND FILM COOLING WITH STEAM INJECTION A Thesis by GARY EUGENE CONKLIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND FILM COOLING WITH STEAM INJECTION A Thesis by GARY EUGENE CONKLIN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairm of Committee) (Member) (Memb e r) (Me r (Head Departme ) May 1982 ABSTRACT Heat...

  17. Drum drying of black liquor using superheated steam impinging jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiravi, A.H.; Mujumdar, A.S.; Kubes, G.J. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-05-01

    A novel drum dryer for black liquor utilizing multiple impinging jets of superheated steam was designed and built to evaluate the performance characteristics and effects of various operating parameters thereon. Appropriate ranges of parameters such as steam jet temperature and velocity were examined experimentally to quantify the optimal operating conditions for the formation of black liquor film on the drum surface as well as the drying kinetics.

  18. An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    , Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 POTENTIAL INSTALLAnON DESIGNS -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Steam Trap (Figure A). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Level Pot (Figure B). -Steam Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate Level Control... (Figure C). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve and Level Override (Figure D). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve for Drainage and Set Point Control (Figure E). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate PumplTrap Drainage (Figure F). An in...

  19. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  20. FLASH predictions of the MB-2 steam line break tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lincoln, F.W.; Coffield, R.D.; Johnson, E.G.

    1992-12-31

    If a main steam line from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator were to rupture, the effect would be a depressurization of the secondary side and a consequential overcooling transient on the primary side. Analyses must accurately predict the effects of the rapid cooldown of the reactor vessel coolant on positive nuclear-kinetic reactivity feedback to the core plus thermal shock to the reactor vessel and other primary system components. Many early studies of the steam line break (SLB) transient made extremely conservative assumptions to maximize the primary to secondary heat transfer which in turn maximized the reactor vessel cooldown rate. Among the more significant of these assumptions was that flow from the break was pure steam and that the tube bundle remained covered until the secondary mass inventory was significantly reduced. The Model F commercial PWR steam generator testing performed in the Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) facility located at the Westinghouse Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida provided data to better qualify the actual variation in these key parameters. A conclusion of this analysis is that the MB-2 steam line break data base is accurate and of sufficient detail to provide a valuable basis for making comparisons relative to code predictions. Results obtained using the FLASH transient safety analysis code were found to be in excellent agreement with the data.

  1. Single pressure steam bottoming cycle for gas turbines combined cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zervos, N.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a process for recapturing waste heat from the exhaust of a gas turbine to drive a high pressure-high temperature steam turbine and a low pressure steam turbine. It comprises: delivering the exhaust of the gas turbine to the hot side of an economizer-reheater apparatus; delivering a heated stream of feedwater and recycled condensate through the cold side of the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus to elevate the temperature below the pinch point of the boiler; delivering the discharge from the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine through the economizer-reheater apparatus in an indirect heat exchange relationship with the gas turbine exhaust on the hot side of the economizer-reheater apparatus; driving the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine with the discharge stream of feedwater and recycled condensate which is heated to a temperature below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus; and driving the low pressure steam turbine with the discharged stream of the high pressure-high temperature steam turbine reheated below the pinch point of the boiler by the economizer-reheater apparatus.

  2. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  3. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  4. Closed circuit steam cooled turbine shroud and method for steam cooling turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Sexton, Brendan Francis (Simpsonville, SC); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A turbine shroud cooling cavity is partitioned to define a plurality of cooling chambers for sequentially receiving cooling steam and impingement cooling of the radially inner wall of the shoud. An impingement baffle is provided in each cooling chamber for receiving the cooling media from a cooling media inlet in the case of the first chamber or from the immediately upstream chamber in the case of the second through fourth chambers and includes a plurality of impingement holes for effecting the impingement cooling of the shroud inner wall.

  5. Evaluation of some transport and thermodynamic properties of superheated steam: Effects of steam temperature and pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devahastin, S.; Mujumdar, A.S.

    2000-05-01

    For machine computation of drying, humidification and dehumidification processes it is necessary to have reliable correlations to predict transport and thermodynamic properties of the drying medium as functions of temperature and pressure. In this paper empirical correlations for specific volume, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity as well as specific isobaric heat capacity of superheated steam over the temperature range of 160--500 C and the pressure range of 100--500 kPa are presented. The Prandtl numbers at various temperatures and pressures are also presented. Comments on the properties and the use of these correlations are given.

  6. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  7. High-temperature oxidation of Zircaloy in hydrogen-steam mixtures. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, H.M.; Thomas, G.R.

    1982-09-01

    Oxidation rates of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes have been measured in hydrogen-steam mixtures at 1200 to 1700/sup 0/C. For a given isothermal oxidation temperature, the oxide layer thicknesses have been measured as a function of time, steam supply rate, and hydrogen overpressure. The oxidation rates in the mixtures were compared with similar data obtained in pure steam and helium-steam environments under otherwise identical conditions. The rates in pure steam and helium-steam mixtures were equivalent and comparable to the parabolic rates obtained under steam-saturated conditions and reported in the literature. However, when the helium was replaced with hydrogen of equivalent partial pressure, a significantly smaller oxidation rate was observed. For high steam-supply rates, the oxidation kinetics in a hydrogen-steam mixture were parabolic, but the rate was smaller than for pure steam or helium-steam mixtures. Under otherwise identical conditions, the ratio of the parabolic rate for hydrogen-steam to that for pure steam decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing steam-supply rate.

  8. Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

    1999-07-01

    Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

  9. Potential failure of steam generator tubes following a station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, L.W.; Palmrose, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering changes to pressurized water reactor (PWR) requirements relating to steam generator tube plugging and repair criteria, including leakage monitoring. The proposed changes are known as the alternate tube plugging criteria (APC) and are intended to permit PWRs to operate with through-wall cracks in steam generator tubes subject to meeting a specified limit on predicted primary to secondary leakage under accident conditions. To assess the consequences of the alternate plugging criteria, analyses were performed for a station blackout sequence in which the reactor core melts while the reactor coolant system (RCS) remains at high pressure. Evaluations were conducted to investigate the potential for tube failure with and without secondary system depressurization. The excessive heat coupled with the high-pressure differentials across the steam generator tubes could result in creep rupture failure of the tubes during a severe accident, which could lead to a radiological release directly to the environment. In order to assess the safety significance of the APC, it is important to identify the level of steam generator tube leakage that can occur without challenging the previous study conclusions that steam generator creep failure will not occur prior to a surge line or hot-leg failure. To assess the effect of leakage on steam generator tube integrity during a core melt sequence with the RCS at high pressure and the secondary side of the steam generators pressurized and depressurized, an analysis was performed for a core melt event resulting from an unmitigated station blackout to identify the total steamenerator and tube leakage flow rates that could induce tube ruptures prior to other RCS boudary faliures that could depressurize the RCS.

  10. Optimization of steam explosion pretreatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foody, P.

    1980-04-01

    Different operating conditions are required to optimize the yield from each of the various fractions in the substrate. Xylose recovery is maximized at short cooking times whereas maximum lignin recovery requires much longer cooking times. Peak glucose yield and rumen digestibility occur at intermediate times. If process conditions are set for maximum glucose yield we have achieved a yield of 68% of the theoretical, based on an average of a dozen substrates tested. Individual results ranged from 46 to 87%. If the process is optimized for maximum total sugars (i.e. glucose plus xylose) we have obtained an average yield of 60%, with a range of 31 to 75%. With rumen microflora, the average value of the in-vitro cellulose digestibility was 82%, with a range of 41 to 90%. The optimum operating conditions for total sugars are a pressure of 500 to 550 psig with a cooking time of 40 to 50 seconds and 35% starting moisture content. Particle size is not a significant factor, nor is pre-steaming or use of a constricting die in the gun nozzle. High quality lignin can be extracted with 80% yield. The Iotech lignin is very soluble, has a low molecular weight and is reactive. The unique properties of the lignin derive from the explosion at the end of the pretreatment. A lignin formaldehyde resin has been successfully formulated and tested. It represents a high value utilization of the lignin byproduct with immediate market potential. A detailed engineering design of the process gives an estimated operating cost of $7.50/OD ton of biomass. At this low cost, the Iotech process achieves many important pretreatment goals in a single step. The substrate has been sterilized; it has been pulverized into a powder; the cellulose has been accessible; and a highly reactive lignin fraction can be recovered and utilized.

  11. Managing steam: An engineering guide to industrial, commercial, and utility systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a guide to steam production, utilization, handling, transport, system optimization, and condensation and recovery. This book incudes a description of how steam, condensate, and hot water are used in various industrial, commercial, institutional, and utility sectors and explains how steam is generated and distributed. Waste-heat recovery, fluidized-bed boilers, and cogeneration systems and boiler control theory are discussed. The book also describes different types of valves, valve components, regulators, steam traps, and metering devices available for managing steam and condensate and discusses maintaining steam systems for optimum service and longer life.

  12. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  13. Steam exit flow design for aft cavities of an airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storey, James Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Tesh, Stephen William (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    Turbine stator vane segments have inner and outer walls with vanes extending therebetween. The inner and outer walls have impingement plates. Steam flowing into the outer wall passes through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer wall surface. The spent impingement steam flows into cavities of the vane having inserts for impingement cooling the walls of the vane. The steam passes into the inner wall and through the impingement plate for impingement cooling of the inner wall surface and for return through return cavities having inserts for impingement cooling of the vane surfaces. A skirt or flange structure is provided for shielding the steam cooling impingement holes adjacent the inner wall aerofoil fillet region of the nozzle from the steam flow exiting the aft nozzle cavities. Moreover, the gap between the flash rib boss and the cavity insert is controlled to minimize the flow of post impingement cooling media therebetween. This substantially confines outflow to that exiting via the return channels, thus furthermore minimizing flow in the vicinity of the aerofoil fillet region that may adversely affect impingement cooling thereof.

  14. Bore tube assembly for steam cooling a turbine rotor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeStefano, Thomas Daniel (Ballston Lake, NY); Wilson, Ian David (Clifton Park, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An axial bore tube assembly for a turbine is provided to supply cooling steam to hot gas components of the turbine wheels and return the spent cooling steam. A pair of inner and outer tubes define a steam supply passage concentric about an inner return passage. The forward ends of the tubes communicate with an end cap assembly having sets of peripheral holes communicating with first and second sets of radial tubes whereby cooling steam from the concentric passage is supplied through the end cap holes to radial tubes for cooling the buckets and return steam from the buckets is provided through the second set of radial tubes through a second set of openings of the end cap into the coaxial return passage. A radial-to-axial flow transitioning device, including anti-swirling vanes is provided in the end cap. A strut ring adjacent the aft end of the bore tube assembly permits axial and radial thermal expansion of the inner tube relative to the outer tube.

  15. Loss-of-feedwater, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break experiments: Steam generator transient response test program: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendler, O.J.; Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results. Two LOF tests were analyzed in detail. Both tests were initiated from 100% power condition by shutting off the main feedwater flow. In LOF Test No. 1, the remaining boundary conditions were kept constant while in LOF Test No. 2, the power was rapidly reduced to 3%. The results show that the primary to secondary heat transfer becomes degraded when the collapsed water liquid level in the bundle region falls below approximately 50 inches. The SGTR test analyzed in detail - SGTR Test No. 2 - simulated the post-reactor-trip portion of the SGTR transient (T/sub prim/ = 560/sup 0/F). The transient was initiated by starting the SGTR flow injection and simultaneously shutting off the auxiliary feedwater. The water level rose and flooded the dryer to its mid-elevation by the end of the test. The primary carry-over was shown to be less than 0.4% of the tracer mass injected into the secondary side by the SGTR flow. SGTR Test No. 3 investigated the response of the intact steam generator. Reverse heat transfer and low heat flow conditions were simulated. The results have demonstrated the occurrence of temperature stratification in the secondary water which lasted for about 800 seconds.

  16. Effect of steam partial pressure on gasification rate and gas composition of product gas from catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atul Sharma; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Advanced Fuel Group

    2009-09-15

    HyperCoal was produced from coal by a solvent extraction method. The effect of the partial pressure of steam on the gasification rate and gas composition at temperatures of 600, 650, 700, and 750{sup o}C was examined. The gasification rate decreased with decreasing steam partial pressure. The reaction order with respect to steam partial pressure was between 0.2 and 0.5. The activation energy for the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-catalyzed HyperCoal gasification was independent of the steam partial pressure and was about 108 kJ/mol. The gas composition changed with steam partial pressure and H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} decreased and CO increased with decreasing steam partial pressure. By changing the partial pressure of the steam, the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the synthesis gas can be controlled. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  18. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  19. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  20. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1996-12-24

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water. 3 figs.

  1. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  2. Steam Traps-The Oft Forgotten Energy Conservation Treasure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pychewicz, F. S.

    1985-01-01

    of every steam system. It is common to find 10-60% of the team traps in any facility malfunctioning. The result ant waste can easily equal 5-15% of a plant' total steam generation with concomitant processing and safety problems from failed open... into the effective utilization of st l am traps and, hopefully, will serve as a guide or your energy saving efforts in this vital are CHAMPION The key to the success of an effective team trap program rests with a single individual the person selected...

  3. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  4. Generating Electricity with your Steam System: Keys to Long Term Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullock, B.; Downing, A.

    2010-01-01

    The application of combined heat and power principals to existing plant steam systems can help produce electricity at more than twice efficiency of grid generated electricity. In this way, steam plant managers can realize substantial savings...

  5. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators - Steam Tip Sheet #20

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  6. CO2 Reduction through Optimization of Steam Network in Petroleum Refineries: Evaluation of New Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manesh, M. H. K; Khodaie, H.; Amidpour, M.

    2008-01-01

    Steam network of petroleum refinery is energy intensive, and consequently contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions. A simple model for the estimation of CO2 emissions associated with operation of steam network as encountered...

  7. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  8. Three dimensional effects in analysis of PWR steam line break accident

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Chon-Kwo

    A steam line break accident is one of the possible severe abnormal transients in a pressurized water reactor. It is required to present an analysis of a steam line break accident in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) ...

  9. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy When the pressure of saturated condensate is reduced, a portion of the liquid "flashes" to low-pressure steam. Depending on the...

  10. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste - Steam Tip Sheet #11

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. The Passenger Steamboat Phoenix: An Archaeological Study of Early Steam Propulsion in North America 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, George 1977-

    2012-08-31

    The advent of steam contributed heavily to the economic transformation of early America, facilitating trade through the transportation of goods along the country’s lakes, rivers, and canals. Serious experimentation with steam navigation began...

  12. Energy Comparison Vacuum Producing Equipment - Mechanical Vacuum Pumps vs. Steam Ejectors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foisy, E. C.; Munkittrick, M. T.

    1982-01-01

    vacuum on condensers, process reactors, or equipment and processes requiring subatmospheric conditions, has been to utilize steam ejectors. Due to the inherent operating inefficiency and wastefulness of the steam ejector, coupled with the rapidly...

  13. Case Study: Lessons Learned From Converting Electric Chillers to Steam Chillers in a Electric Deregulated Market. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wohl, J.

    2001-01-01

    was that a flatter load profile due to steam cooling should allow better electric pricing from energy suppliers....

  14. Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    2001-01-01

    Consumption for Steam production We had to establish a ‘new’ baseline for energy use by boilers because, firstly, the statistics

  15. An Algebraic Speci cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidoit, Michel

    An Algebraic Speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System Michel Bidoit 1 , Claude Chevenier describe how to derive an algebraic speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from to specify the detection of the steam-boiler fail- ures. Finally we discuss validation and veri#12;cation

  16. Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System Jan Vitt 1 of the steam boiler control system has been derived using a formal method based on assumption/commitment pairs Introduction The steam boiler control system, as described in chapter AS of this book, has been designed

  17. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery through Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage January 22, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Enhanced Oil Recovery through Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage January 22, 2014 A Comparative Study Of Continuous And Cyclic Steam Injection With Trapping Of Oil Phase Muhammad Adil Javed Summary of Thesis Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) through steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has become an important in

  19. Steam Production from Waste Stack Gases in a Carbon Black Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istre, R. I.

    1981-01-01

    Waste stack gases from carbon black plant bag filters are used as fuel to produce superheated steam - G25 PSIG and 7500F. This steam is out into a steam header that serves Conoco plants in the Lake Charles, Louisiana area. Combustion of the waste...

  20. Further experimental studies of steam-propane injection to enhance recovery of Morichal oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson,Mark Anthony

    2000-01-01

    In 1998-1999, experimental research was conducted by Goite at Texas A&M University into steam-propane injection to enhance oil recovery from the Morichal field, Venezuela. Goite's results showed that, compared with steam injection alone, steam-propane...

  1. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  2. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  3. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  4. Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börger, Egon

    Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control speci cation problem to il- lustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the speci, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract machines

  5. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland). Dept. of Process Equipment

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  6. Steam BestPractice Resources and Tools: "Old" News is "New" News! 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, A.; Hart, F.; Russell, C.; Jaber, D.

    2000-01-01

    system efficiency. The Steam BestPractice effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has identified and documented an extensive group of steam system resources and tools to assist steam system users to improve their systems. This paper describes the "new" news...

  7. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  8. Mapping steam and water flow in petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.; Schenkel, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Daley, T.; Peterson, J.; Majer, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Murer, A.S. [Mobil Exploration and Producing US (United States); Johnston, R.M. [SPE, CalResources LLC (United States); Klonsky, L. [Chevron USA Production Co. (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Over the past 5 years, we have applied high-resolution geophysical methods (crosswell seismic and electromagnetics (EM), and passive seismic) to map and characterize petroleum reservoirs in the San Joaquin Valley and to monitor changes during secondary recovery operations. The two techniques provide complementary information. Seismic data reveal the reservoir structure, whereas EM measurements are more sensitive to the pore fluid distribution. Seismic surveys at the south Belridge field were used to map fracture generation and monitor formation changes due to the onset of steam flooding. Early results show possible sensitivity to changes in gas saturation caused by the steam flooding. Crosswell EM surveys were applied at a shallow pilot at Lost Hills for reservoir characterization and steamflood monitoring. Images made from baselines data clearly show the distribution of the target oil sands; repeated surveys during the steam flood allowed us to identify the boundaries of the steam chest and to accurately predict breakthrough. Applications of the EM techniques in steel-cased wells are at an early stage, but preliminary results at Lost Hills show sensitivity to formation resistivity in a water-flood pilot. Finally, passive seismic surveys during hydrofracture operations measured events corelatable in frequency content and magnitude with the size and orientation of induced fractures.

  9. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  10. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  11. Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Therkelesen, Peter; McKane, Aimee

    2013-05-01

    Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

  12. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  13. A better steam engine: Designing a distributed concentrating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    A better steam engine: Designing a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS the technical and socioenviroeconomic understanding of solar combined heat and power. This work will investigate Fluid Isentropic Fluid Dry Fluid [14] Aoun, B., 2009, Micro combined heat and power operating

  14. Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Scott

    Halophilic Archaea determined from geothermal steam vent aerosols Dean G. Ellis, Richard W. Bizzoco Hydrothermal vents, known as `fumaroles', are ubiq- uitous features of geothermal areas. Although their geology contained halophilic Archaea closely related to the Haloarcula spp. found in non-geothermal salt mats

  15. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W. [Sterling Chemicals, Texas City, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  16. Pebble Bed Boiling Water Reactor Concept With Superheated Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Newman, D.; Meriwether, G.; Korolev, V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    An Advanced Nuclear Reactor concept is presented which extends Boiling Water Reactor technology with micro-fuel elements (MFE) and produces superheated steam. A nuclear plant with MFE is highly efficient and safe, due to ceramic-clad nuclear fuel. Water is used as both moderator and coolant. The fuel consists of spheres of about 1.5 mm diameter of UO{sub 2} with several external coatings of different carbonaceous materials. The outer coating of the particles is SiC, manufactured with chemical vapor disposition (CVD) technology. Endurance of the integrity of the SiC coating in water, air and steam has been demonstrated experimentally in Germany, Russia and Japan. This paper describes a result of a preliminary design and analysis of 3750 MWt (1500 MWe) plant with standard pressure of 16 MPa, which is widely achieved in the vessel of pressurized-water type reactors. The superheated steam outlet temperature of 550 deg. C elevates the steam cycle to high thermal efficiency of 42%. (authors)

  17. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

  18. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  19. A simulation study of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Munoz, Jorge Eduardo

    2004-11-15

    in an increase of oil recovery to 35.4-32.6% OOIP at 150-300 BPDCWE. Fifth, with steam-propane injection, for both well systems, oil production acceleration increases with lower injection rates. Sixth, the second oil production peak in the vertical...

  20. High Pressure Superheater 1 (HPSH1) is the first heat exchange tube bank inside the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to encounter exhaust flue gas from the gas turbine of a Combined Cycle Power Plant. Steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steam Generator (HRSG) to encounter exhaust flue gas from the gas turbine of a Combined Cycle Power Plant. Steam flowing through the HPSH1 gains heat from the flue gas prior to entering the steam turbine changes that occurred, especially in the steam temperature at the HPSH1 entry, and the different rates

  1. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  2. Methods for disassembling, replacing and assembling parts of a steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian D. (Mauldin, SC); Wesorick, Ronald R. (Albany, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows. The bore tube assembly, radial tubes, elbows, manifold segments and crossover tubes are removable from the turbine rotor and replaceable.

  3. Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

    2009-11-01

    A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

  4. The Engineered Approach to Energy and Maintenance Effective Steam Trapping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krueger, R. G.; Wilt, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    .0420" 21.85 0.0935" 51.84 0.1440" 91.20 0.1910" 1.10 0.0210" 4.62 0.0430" 21.94 0.0937" 54.02 0.1470" 93.60 0.1935" 1.26 0.0225" 5.40 0.0465" 23.04 0.0960" 55.87 0.1495" 96.04 0.1960" 1.44 0.0240" 5.49 0.0469" 24.01 0.0980" 57.76 0.1520" 99.00 0... and effective trap consumes 1-2 Ibs./hr. steam just to functionally efficient. Energy operating targets function properly. An inverted bucket trap loses 2-4 should include an analysis of steam trapping practices Ibs./hr. and a thermodynamic disc trap 0.5-1 lbs...

  5. Oil shale retorting with steam and produced gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, L.S. Jr.; Wheaton, L.D.

    1991-08-20

    This patent describes a process for retorting oil shale in a vertical retort. It comprises introducing particles of oil shale into the retort, the particles of oil shale having a minimum size such that the particles are retained on a screen having openings 1/4 inch in size; contacting the particles of oil shale with hot gas to heat the particles of oil shale to a state of pyrolysis, thereby producing retort off-gas; removing the off-gas from the retort; cooling the off-gas; removing oil from the cooled off-gas; separating recycle gas from the off-gas, the recycle gas comprising steam and produced gas, the steam being present in amount, by volume, of at least 50% of the recycle gas so as to increase the yield of sand oil; and heating the recycle gas to form the hot gas.

  6. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01

    Apartment temperature data have been collected from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. The data have been analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating. This research attempts to answer the question, 'What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?' This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort. Apartment temperature data were analyzed for deviation from a 70 degrees F desired setpoint and for variation by heating system type, apartment floor level and ambient conditions. The data shows that overheating is significant in these multifamily buildings with both hot water and steam heating systems.

  7. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  8. Steam Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2012-08-01

    Older heating systems often suffer from mis-investment--multiple contractors upgrading parts of systems in inadequate or inappropriate ways that reduce system functionality and efficiency--or from a lack of proper maintenance. This technical report addresses these barriers to information, contractor resources, and cost-savings. Building off of previous research, CNT Energy conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam; system balancing.

  9. ExxonMobile Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, T.

    2010-01-01

    changes, and other factors discussed herein (and in Item 1 of ExxonMobil?s latest report on Form 10-K). This material is not to be reproduced without the permission of Exxon Mobil Corporation. ExxonMobil Beaumont Chemical Plant Steam Integration Project... Industrial Energy Technology Conference ACC Energy Award ? Exceptional Merit May 20 ? 21, 2010 New Orleans, LA Terry L. Long 2 Beaumont Complex 3 Background ? The ExxonMobil Beaumont Complex is an integrated refining and petrochemical manufacturing...

  10. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01

    in Coal Sulfur Removal From Coal By Pyrolysis EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental Apparatus Experimental Procedure Analyses of the Products RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature Effect Upon Desulfurization Pressure Effect Upon Desulfurization... . Treatment Composition Effect Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of' Air V1 V111 ix 10 15 20 24 31 31 35 39 43 45 49 52 53 V11 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of Steam and Air . . 53 Sulfur Removal...

  11. Screw Type Steam Compressors for Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR) Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawamura, K.; Apaloo, Thomas-L.

    1986-01-01

    hand, is not affected by such problem. No special mist separator is required and, at the same time, the wet or saturated vapor compression is possible, and does not affect the efficiency of the SSHP. (3) Stability of performance for a wide... COMPRESSORS FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION (MVR) SYSTEMS K. KAWAMURA AND THOMAS-L. APALOO MYCOM CORPORATION, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA MATSUDA, MAYEKAWA MFG. CO., TOKYO, JAPAN ABSTRACT In processes of evaporation, distillation or drying, steam...

  12. Technical evaluation: 300 Area steam line valve accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    On June 7, 1993, a journeyman power operator (JPO) was severely burned and later died as a result of the failure of a 6-in. valve that occurred when he attempted to open main steam supply (MSS) valve MSS-25 in the U-3 valve pit. The pit is located northwest of Building 331 in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. Figure 1-1 shows a layout of the 300 Area steam piping system including the U-3 steam valve pit. Figure 1-2 shows a cutaway view of the approximately 10- by 13- by 16-ft-high valve pit with its various steam valves and connecting piping. Valve MSS-25, an 8-in. valve, is located at the bottom of the pit. The failed 6-in. valve was located at the top of the pit where it branched from the upper portion of the 8-in. line at the 8- by 8- by 6-in. tee and was then ``blanked off`` with a blind flange. The purpose of this technical evaluation was to determine the cause of the accident that led to the failure of the 6-in. valve. The probable cause for the 6-in. valve failure was determined by visual, nondestructive, and destructive examination of the failed valve and by metallurgical analysis of the fractured region of the valve. The cause of the accident was ultimately identified by correlating the observed failure mode to the most probable physical phenomenon. Thermal-hydraulic analyses, component stress analyses, and tests were performed to verify that the probable physical phenomenon could be reasonably expected to produce the failure in the valve that was observed.

  13. Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

  14. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  15. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  16. Large scale steam valve test: Performance testing of large butterfly valves and full scale high flowrate steam testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meadows, J.B.; Robbins, G.E.; Roselius, D.G. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the design testing of large (36-inch diameter) butterfly valves under high flow conditions. The two butterfly valves were pneumatically operated air-open, air-shut valves (termed valves 1 and 2). These butterfly valves were redesigned to improve their ability to function under high flow conditions. Concern was raised regarding the ability of the butterfly valves to function as required with high flow-induced torque imposed on the valve discs during high steam flow conditions. High flow testing was required to address the flow-induced torque concerns. The valve testing was done using a heavily instrumented piping system. This test program was called the Large Scale Steam Valve Test (LSSVT). The LSSVT program demonstrated that the redesigned valves operated satisfactorily under high flow conditions.

  17. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  18. The Enbridge Consumers Gas "Steam Saver" Program ("As Found" Performance and Fuel Saving Projects from Audits of 30 Steam Plants) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, B.

    2000-01-01

    to implement energy efficiency programs in all markets. In 1997, Enbridge Consumers Gas introduced the "Steam Saver" 203 Enbridge Consumers Gas, Toronto, Ontario boiler plant audit which is aimed at large volume industrial and institutional customers... the Greater Toronto area, Ottawa, Eastern Ontario and the Niagara Penninsula. We have 1.4 million customers including 1200 Large Volume customers. In 1994, for the first time, the Ontario Energy Board required the two main gas utilities in this province...

  19. The concept of chemical looping reactions has been widely applied in chemical industries. Fundamental research on chemical looping reactions has also been applied to energy systems. Fossil fuel chemical looping applications were used with the steam-iron p

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high efficiency operational processes, interest in chemical looping technology has resurfaced for itsThe concept of chemical looping reactions has been widely applied in chemical industries. Fundamental research on chemical looping reactions has also been applied to energy systems. Fossil fuel

  20. Superheated-steam test of ethylene propylene rubber cables using a simultaneous aging and accident environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, P.R.; St. Clair, S.D.; Gilmore, T.W.

    1986-06-01

    The superheated-steam test exposed different ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables and insulation specimens to simultaneous aging and a 21-day simultaneous accident environment. In addition, some insulation specimens were exposed to five different aging conditions prior to the 21-day simultaneous accident simulation. The purpose of this superheated-steam test (a follow-on to the saturated-steam tests (NUREG/CR-3538)) was to: (1) examine electrical degradation of different configurations of EPR cables; (2) investigate differences between using superheated-steam or saturated-steam at the start of an accident simulation; (3) determine whether the aging technique used in the saturated-steam test induced artificial degradation; and (4) identify the constituents in EPR that affect moisture absorption.

  1. z=0 z=0 z=0 Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ¡ ¢£ ¤ ¥§¦ ¨ © ¥£ ¡ £ ¨ © ¦ ¦ ¡ £ ¨ © ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦ © © ¡ ¥ ¥ £ ¦ ¡ ! ¦ " ©# £ $ ¤ #12; 4 ¡ 3 @ ¢ 2 6 3 F 4 9 7 LC LC PC z=0 z=0 z=0 z=1 z=1 TC TC z=0 HP-pump Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump Air compressor Deaerator HP-pump Steam-turbin Condenser LP-pump Air compressor Deaerator HP Combustor Fuel compressor Steam-turbine HP-valve valve LP- drum Evaporator #12; F 4 9 7 ¢ D ¡ 2 B@ 9 7 6

  2. Wireless Sensing, Monitoring and Optimization for Campus-Wide Steam Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Woodworth, Ken [ORNL; Lake, Joe E [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization. With particular focus on the 12-mile long steam distribution network in our campus, we propose an integrated system-level approach to optimize energy delivery within the steam distribution system. Our approach leverages an integrated wireless sensor and real-time monitoring capability. We make real time state assessment on the steam trap health and steam flow estimate of the distribution system by mounting acoustic sensors on the steam pipes/traps/valves and observing measurements of these sensors with state estimators for system health. Our assessments are based on a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap states and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. We are able to present the steam flow and steam trap status, sensor readings, and the assessed alerts as an interactive overlay within a web-based Google Earth geographic platform that enables decision makers to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves. We believe our demonstration serves as an instantiation of a platform that extends implementation to include newer modalities to manage water flow, sewage and energy consumption.

  3. Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAN, XIN

    2012-01-01

    raw materials for coal gasification, Catalysis today, 1997,during the co- gasification of coal and switchgrass, BiomassZ. , Zhu, H. , Steam gasification of coal char using alkali

  4. How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Recover Heat from...

  5. Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011] In aprocess, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR) thepyrolysis and hydro-gasification in a single step. This

  6. Development of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam Hydrogasification Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yang

    2013-01-01

    M. ,   et   al. ,   Gasoline  conversion:  reactivity  al. ,   Methanol   to   gasoline   over   zeolite   H-­?of a Fischer-Tropsch Gasoline Process for the Steam

  7. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  8. Considerations When Selecting a Condensing Economizer - Steam Tip Sheet #26B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet is part of a series of tip sheets on how to optimize an industrial steam system.

  9. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers Absorption chillers use heat, instead of mechanical energy, to provide cooling. The mechanical vapor compressor is replaced...

  10. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells · CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation offers extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiency and emissions reductions by optimizing

  11. Direct Steam Generation with Dish Concentrators Jos Zapata, Keith Lovegrove, John Pye and Greg Burgess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the receiver, and steam was allowed to vent off to atmosphere, while the dish was tracking the sun. Table 1

  12. Once-through steam-generator sensitivity calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, J.L.; Siebe, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 thermal-hydraulic calculations has been performed to determine the effect of uncertainties in modeling once through steam-generator (OTSG) secondary-side phenomena on the calculated behavior of Babcock and Wilcox power plants. The calculations were performed by varying parameters in correlations for the secondary-side phenomena. The parameters and transients were chosen to show the maximum expected sensitivity of the calculated results to the parameter variations. The parameters were then varied over a range representing the estimated uncertainty in the correlation. In this manner, the sensitivity if the calculated plant behavior to the modeling uncertainties was determined with a reasonable number of calculations. The sensitivity of calculated plant behavior to variations in interfacial heat-transfer in the OTSG secondaries was determined in a series of steam-generator overfill transient calculations. Calculations were performed for a main steam line break (MSLB) transient to quantify the sensitivity to variations in interfacial drag in the secondaries; the interfacial drag was varied in these calculations to indicate the effects of entrainment and de-entrainment processes, for which no specific models exist in the code. In addition to the transient calculations, a series of steady-state calculations was performed to determine the sensitivity of the OTSG primary-to-secondary heat transfer to the assumed fraction of tubes wetted by the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) injection. The plant model used for the sensitivity calculations was qualified by performing a benchmark calculation for a natural circulation test in the TMI-1 plant.

  13. PREDICTION OF OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN STEAM TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation results are presented for the prediction of the likelihood of oxide scale exfoliation from superheater tubes. The scenarios considered involved alloys T22, TP347H, and TP347HFG subjected to a simplified operating cycle in a power plant generating supercritical steam. The states of stress and strain of the oxides grown in steam were based solely on modeling the various phenomena experienced by superheater tubes during boiler operation, current understanding of the oxidation behavior of each alloy in steam, and consideration of operating parameters such as heat flux, tube dimensions, and boiler duty cycle. Interpretation of the evolution of strain in these scales, and the approach to conditions where scale failure (hence exfoliation) is expected, makes use of the type of Exfoliation Diagrams that incorporate various cracking and exfoliation criteria appropriate for the system considered. In these diagrams, the strain accumulation with time in an oxide is represented by a strain trajectory derived from the net strain resulting from oxide growth, differences in coefficients of thermal expansion among the components, and relaxation due to creep. It was found that an oxide growing on a tube subjected to routine boiler load cycling conditions attained relatively low values of net strain, indicating that oxide failure would not be expected to occur during normal boiler operation. However, during a boiler shut-down event, strains sufficient to exceed the scale failure criteria were developed after times reasonably in accord with plant experience, with the scales on the ferritic steel failing in tension, and those on the austenitic steels in compression. The results presented illustrate that using this approach to track the state of strain in the oxide scale through all phases of boiler operation, including transitions from full-to-low load and shut-down events, offers the possibility of identifying the phase(s) of boiler operation during which oxide failure is most likely to occur.

  14. Turbine Steam Path Audits for Improved Performance and Profitability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babson, P. E.

    1991-01-01

    in this area. Note that the control (first) stage, which controls the flow rate of steam entering the turbine, is quite sensitive to trailing-end thickness increase. 40 35; a: 30 U1 ? w D c 25 > '" f0- Ul 20 Cf) a " ?f .c 15 J U- t:. '" l.... The three curves shown are additive for the entire three casing electric utility unit selected for this example. A typical cogeneration unit would be represented by the LP (low pressure turbine) curve. These are . ~ 1 iI:;1//~ o~~~ o 5 10 15 20 25...

  15. Improved global efficiency in industrial applications with cogeneration steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, A.; Alsthom, G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper focuses on medium steam turbine in the range of 10--80 MW and their application in cogeneration plants. The author summarizes the different steps which have led to the TM concept: good efficiency; competitive price; short delivery time; operation flexibility; ease of integration in a cogeneration process. The second part of the document shows two examples of integration of these turbines in cogeneration processes; one for acrilonitril (ACN) and polypropylene plant in Spain and the second for a textile plant in Taiwan.

  16. Analysis of pure electrical and cogeneration steam power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albar, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    General Electric's method of steam turbine performance was used with pure electrical and with cogeneration power plants at various flow rates. Comparisons were made for two cases: (1) the same amount of heat is added to each boiler and the amount of electrical power generated is compared; and (2) when each plant should produce the same amount of electric power and the amount of heat added to each boiler is compared. Cogeneration is energetically more efficient than pure electrical plant. Correlations for the dependence of heat rate, power generated, heat added to throttle flow ratio were obtained from this work.

  17. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in todayâ??s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  18. Overheating in Hot Water- and Steam-Heated Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Varshney, K.; Henderson, H.

    2013-10-01

    In this project, the ARIES Building America team collected apartment temperature data from the archives of companies that provide energy management systems (EMS) to multifamily buildings in the Northeast U.S. Data was analyzed from more than 100 apartments in eighteen buildings where EMS systems were already installed to quantify the degree of overheating in an effort to answer the question, "What is the magnitude of apartment overheating in multifamily buildings with central hot water or steam heat?" This report provides valuable information to researchers, utility program managers and building owners interested in controlling heating energy waste and improving resident comfort.

  19. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergy Air-CooledEnergySteam Cookers

  20. Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History View New Pages Recent Changes AllGunneryDataGradient DataGeothermal Steam

  1. Incorporating supercritical steam turbines into molten-salt power tower plants : feasibility and performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, James Edward; Wolf, Thorsten; Muley, Nishant

    2013-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Siemens Energy, Inc., examined 14 different subcritical and supercritical steam cycles to determine if it is feasible to configure a molten-salt supercritical steam plant that has a capacity in the range of 150 to 200 MWe. The effects of main steam pressure and temperature, final feedwater temperature, and hot salt and cold salt return temperatures were determined on gross and half-net efficiencies. The main steam pressures ranged from 120 bar-a (subcritical) to 260 bar-a (supercritical). Hot salt temperatures of 566 and 600%C2%B0C were evaluated, which resulted in main steam temperatures of 553 and 580%C2%B0C, respectively. Also, the effects of final feedwater temperature (between 260 and 320%C2%B0C) were evaluated, which impacted the cold salt return temperature. The annual energy production and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were calculated using the System Advisory Model on 165 MWe subcritical plants (baseline and advanced) and the most promising supercritical plants. It was concluded that the supercritical steam plants produced more annual energy than the baseline subcritical steam plant for the same-size heliostat field, receiver, and thermal storage system. Two supercritical steam plants had the highest annual performance and had nearly the same LCOE. Both operated at 230 bar-a main steam pressure. One was designed for a hot salt temperature of 600%C2%B0C and the other 565%C2%B0C. The LCOEs for these plants were about 10% lower than the baseline subcritical plant operating at 120 bar-a main steam pressure and a hot salt temperature of 565%C2%B0C. Based on the results of this study, it appears economically and technically feasible to incorporate supercritical steam turbines in molten-salt power tower plants.

  2. Hydrogen chloride in superheated steam and chloride in deep brine at The Geysers geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haizlip, J.R.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) concentrations of 10-120 ppm{sub w} have been measured in superheated steam produced by wells at The Geysers, a vapor-dominated geothermal field in northern California. Corrosion of the well casing and steam-gathering system has been recognized in some parts of The Geysers, and is apparently related to the presence of Cl. Cl in the steam is in a volatile form, generated with the steam at reservoir temperatures, and probably travels to the wellhead as HCl gas. Published experimental data for partial pressures of HCl in steam over aqueous HCl solutions and for dissociation constants of HCl were used to calculate distribution coefficients for HCl. Reservoir liquid Cl concentrations capable of generating steam with the observed Cl concentrations were then calculated as a function of pH and temperatures from 250 to 350º C. Equilibrium mineral/liquid reactions with the K-mica and K-feldspar assemblage found in the wells limit the reservoir liquid pH values at various Cl concentrations to about 5 to 6 (near neutral at 250 to 350º C). Within this pH range, liquid at 250º C could not produce steam containing the high Cl concentrations observed. However, liquid at higher temperatures (300 to 350º C) with chloride concentrations greater than 10,000 ppm{sub w} could generate steam with 10 to over 200 ppm{sub w} Cl. There is a positive correlation between pH and the chloride concentrations required to generate a given Cl concentration in steam. The concentration of Cl in superheated steam constrains not only the reservoir liquid composition, but the temperature at which the steam last equilibrated with liquid.

  3. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  4. Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G.; Katona, G.; Muresan, L.; Lazar, M. D.

    2013-11-13

    Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

  5. Experimental studies of steam-propane injection for the Duri intermediate crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendroyono, Arief

    2003-01-01

    for the intermediate Duri crude oil. The experiments involved injecting steam or a mixture of steam and propane into a cell in which was tamped a mixture of sand, oil and water. The cell was placed inside a vacuum jacket set at a reservoir temperature of 100?F...

  6. Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combined-cycle solarised gas turbine with steam, organic and CO2 bottoming cycles John Pye, Keith of the technical feasibility a solarised combined-cycle gas turbines with a dish concentrator, with several with a thermal receiver taken from the earlier 400 m² 'SG3' dish. Work is underway to design a new steam receiver

  7. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham. Modelling is extended to include losses in connecting pipe-work, bends and valves, and updated pressure drop the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  8. Why Insertion Turbine Meters are Replacing Orifice Plates for Steam Flow Measurement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusnak, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    when it was the best choice available. No area typifies this situation more than the problem of measuring steam flows. While the orifice has a number of draw back for steam flow measurement, it is superior to the only alternative available (until...

  9. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla address http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/tds/boiler.html. Following are the corrections to these errors and some

  10. Experimental studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yudishtira, Wan Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies were carried out to compare the benefits of propane as an additive in steam injection and in lean gas injection to enhance production for the Minas light crude oil (34?API). The studies on steam-propane were specifically...

  11. Instrumentation and Control of a Steam Plant Using a Microprocessor Based Controller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattes, D. A.; Day, J.

    1979-01-01

    , and two 400 HP boilers and one 300 HP boiler are housed in Plant B. All boilers are fired with #2 oil. The steam pressure generated in Plant A is 60 PSI to provide steam for heating and kitchen load; and 125 PSI in Plant B for laundry, heating and kitchen...

  12. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF MONO-TUBE CAVITY RECEIVERS FOR DIRECT STEAM GENERATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the completion of the 500 m2 SG4 dish concentrator system in 2009 [1], the Solar Thermal Group at the Australian to an electrical generator, a cooling tower and associated piping. The steam system is installed in a shipping to the water tank for reuse. The thermal output of the system exceeds the capacity of the steam engine

  13. DOE's BestPractices Steam End User Training Blowdown Losses 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    affect on boiler efficiency. [Slide Visual ­Blowdown Losses Title Page] Steam Generation Efficiency 2 ­ Blowdown The next type of loss investigated is blowdown loss. Boiler feedwater is very clean the boiler--the majority of the chemicals entering the boiler with feedwater are not soluble in the steam

  14. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham) is increasingly the approach taken for new large-scale solar thermal energy projects. Compared to earlier systems the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  15. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  16. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  17. Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On-Line Disturbance Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neural Network Based Modeling of a Large Steam Turbine-Generator Rotor Body Parameters from On technique to estimate and model rotor- body parameters of a large steam turbine-generator from real time

  18. A Assertional verification using PVS Vitt & Hooman We present details of the PVS specification of the steam boiler control system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    of the steam boiler control system. In general, a PVS specification consists of a number of theories where each­time systems. These theories are imported in Section A.2 where the steam boiler system is designed, assuming

  19. Conceptual design of a lead-bismuth cooled fast reactor with in-vessel direct-contact steam generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, Jacopo, 1971-

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of a lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) cooled fast reactor that eliminates the need for steam generators and coolant pumps was explored. The working steam is generated by direct contact vaporization of water and liquid ...

  20. Conceptual Design of a Lead-Bismuth Cooled Fast Reactor with In-Vessel Direct-Contact Steam Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buongiorno, J.

    The feasibility of a lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) cooled fast reactor that eliminates the need for steam generators and coolant pumps was explored. The working steam is generated by direct contact vaporization of water and liquid ...

  1. EA-1177: Salvage/Demolition of 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area Steam Plants, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to salvage and demolish the 200 West Area, 200 East Area, and 300 Area steam plants and their associated steam distribution piping...

  2. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  3. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  4. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J. (Export, PA); Schrader, Kenneth J. (Penn Hills, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  5. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  6. Alternatives to traditional water washing used to remove impurities in superheated geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.W.; Jung, D.B. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The method of water washing impurities from superheated geothermal steam as adopted from traditional steam boiler operations in electric power generation stations has been used for a decade and a half under several pseudonyms, e.g., de-superheating, enthalpy modification, de-scaling, etc. Water washing can be effective, but it is costly. It is not necessarily expensive to implement or operate, but the cost of unrecoverable energy lost due to steam enthalpy reduction can be quite high. Are there other ways to remove these undesirables from superheated geothermal steam? That question is the focus of this paper. Several alternatives to water washing will be proposed including dry scrubbing, oil washing, and hybrid cleaning. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each method will be presented along with the various geothermal steam impurities and their effects on the process and equipment.

  7. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E. (Delmont, PA); Corletti, Michael M. (New Kensington, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  8. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  9. Effects of pretreatment in steam on the pyrolysis behavior of Loy Yang brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai Zeng; George Favas; Hongwei Wu; Alan L. Chaffee; Jun-ichiro Hayashi; Chun-Zhu Li [Monash University, Vic. (Australia). CRC for Clean Power from Lignite, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2006-02-01

    Dewatering/drying of Victorian brown coal will be an integral part of future brown coal utilization processes aimed at the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This study aims to investigate the effects of the thermal pretreatment of brown coal in the presence of steam/water on its subsequent pyrolysis behavior. A Victorian (Loy Yang) brown coal was thermally pretreated in pressurized steam and inert atmospheres. The pyrolysis behavior of these pretreated coal samples was investigated in a wire-mesh reactor. While the pretreatment in steam at temperatures higher than 250{sup o}C increased the char yield of the steam-treated coal, it did not affect the overall pyrolysis char yield at 1000{sup o} C s{sup -1} if the weight loss during the pretreatment in steam was also considered. However, the tar yield decreased significantly after the pretreatment in the presence of steam. The UV-fluorescence spectroscopy of tars revealed that the release of large aromatic systems from the steam-treated coal was only affected by the pretreatment in steam if the treatment temperature was very high (e.g. 350{sup o}C). The loss of NaCl and the use of high pressure during the pretreatment of brown coal in steam were not the main reasons for the changes in the observed tar yield. The hydrolysis of O-containing structures such as ethers, esters, and carboxylates during the pretreatment in the presence of steam plays an important role in the fates of these O-containing structures during pretreatment and subsequent pyrolysis, leading to changes in the pyrolysis behavior of the brown coal. 36 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

  11. Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1 , David Nowak2 assistant, Coq, for the speci cation and the veri cation of co-inductive properties of the well-known steam-boiler cation tools. Keywords: synchronous programming, theorem proving, the steam- boiler problem. 1

  12. Modelling of a 400m2 steam based Paraboloidal Dish Siangsukone & Lovegrove ANZSES 2003 Destination Renewables 79 copyright

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , informally named "the Big Dish" that produces superheated steam via a receiver mounted monotube boilerModelling of a 400m2 steam based Paraboloidal Dish Siangsukone & Lovegrove ANZSES 2003 Destination Renewables 79 © copyright Reviewed as full Paper 26 to 29 November 2003 Modelling of a 400m 2 steam based

  13. Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

    2012-06-01

    Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

  14. High Temperature Steam Corrosion of Cladding for Nuclear Applications: Experimental

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, Kevin M; Garnier, John E; Sergey Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff; George W. Griffith; Shannong M. Bragg-Sitton

    2013-01-01

    Stability of cladding materials under off-normal conditions is an important issue for the safe operation of light water nuclear reactors. Metals, ceramics, and metal/ceramic composites are being investigated as substitutes for traditional zirconium-based cladding. To support down-selection of these advanced materials and designs, a test apparatus was constructed to study the onset and evolution of cladding oxidation, and deformation behavior of cladding materials, under loss-of-coolant accident scenarios. Preliminary oxidation tests were conducted in dry oxygen and in saturated steam/air environments at 1000OC. Tube samples of Zr-702, Zr-702 reinforced with 1 ply of a ß-SiC CMC overbraid, and sintered a-SiC were tested. Samples were induction heated by coupling to a molybdenum susceptor inside the tubes. The deformation behavior of He-pressurized tubes of Zr-702 and SiC CMC-reinforced Zr-702, heated to rupture, was also examined.

  15. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  16. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion steam control and bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA); Jennings, Stephen J. (Radnor Township, Delaware County, PA)

    1980-01-01

    Two sets of hinged control doors for regulating motive steam flow from an evaporator to a condenser alternatively through a set of turbine blades in a steam bypass around the turbine blades. The evaporator has a toroidal shaped casing situated about the turbine's vertical axis of rotation and an outlet opening therein for discharging motive steam into an annular steam flow path defined between the turbine's radially inner and outer casing structures. The turbine blades extend across the steam flow path intermediate the evaporator and condenser. The first set of control doors is arranged to prevent steam access to the upstream side of the turbine blades and the second set of control doors acts as a bypass around the blades so as to maintain equilibrium between the evaporator and condenser during non-rotation of the turbine. The first set of control doors preferably extend, when closed, between the evaporator casing and the turbine's outer casing and, when open, extend away from the axis of rotation. The second set of control doors preferably constitute a portion of the turbine's outer casing downstream from the blades when closed and extend, when open, toward the axis of rotation. The first and second sets of control doors are normally held in the open and closed positions respectively by locking pins which may be retracted upon detecting an abnormal operating condition respectively to permit their closing and opening and provide steam flow from the evaporator to the condenser.

  17. Development of the first demonstration CFB boiler for gas and steam cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, M; Luo, Z.; Li, X.; Wang, Q.; Shi, Z.; Ni, M.; Cen, K.

    1997-12-31

    To solve the shortage of gas and steam supply in the small towns of the country, a new gas steam cogeneration system has been developed. On the basis of the fundamental research on the system, a demonstration gas steam cogeneration system has been designed. As the phase 1 of the project, a 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration has been erected and operated at Yangzhong Thermal Power Plant of China. This paper introduces the first 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration. Due to the need of gas steam cogeneration process, the boiler has the features of high temperature cyclone separation, high solid recycle ratio, staged combustion and an external heat exchanger adjusting bed temperature and heat load. The operation results show that the boiler has wide fuel adaptability and the heating value of the coal changes from 14MJ/Kg to 25MJ/Kg. The heat load changes from 85t/h to 28t/h while steam parameter is maintained at the normal conditions. The combustion efficiency of the boiler attain 98%. The boiler design and operation experiences may be a guide to the design and operation of larger CFB units in the future.

  18. Steam supply system for superposed turbine and process chamber, such as coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menger, W.M.

    1986-08-26

    A steam supply system is described for a process chamber consuming superheated steam at a pressure of about 600 psi or below which is driven by a boiler operating at a pressure of about 2000 psi, a pressure range above that needed by the process chamber for also driving a superposed turbine. The system consists of: (a) a high pressure boiler feed pump for supplying highly purified water to the boiler; (b) a condensing reboiler connected to receive steam from the superposed turbine in a high pressure side; (c) the condensing reboiler also having a low pressure side, essentially isolated from fluid contact with the high pressure side, for receiving water for use in the lower operating pressure steam processes; (d) the condensing reboiler further comprising integral superheating means for heating the water received in the low pressure side into superheated low pressure steam with the steam received in the high pressure side; (e) means for conveying fluid from the high pressure side of the condensing reboiler to the boiler feed pump; and (f) means for conveying the low pressure superheated steam from the condensing reboiler to the process chamber.

  19. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  20. Energy Management of Steam Distribution Systems Through Energy Audits and Computerized Reporting Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, N.; Mandzuk, N.

    1988-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-88-09-33.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1356 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-88-09-33.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ENERGY KANAGEKBNT... associated with steam distribution systems and how to establish good energy management programs to reduce energy cost by 15 to 25 percent. Recognizing energy losses in steam systems involves I 1. Steam lost through defective valves, fittings and traps...

  1. U-Tube Steam Generator experiments: steady state and transients analysis using RELAP5/MOD2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanasundaram, Mathangi

    1989-01-01

    by the code. RELAP. The floii. regime sv transitions and heat transfer correlations based on a two phase flow over tube bundles have improved the heat transfer prediction at steady state and transient accident in s. U-tube steam generator. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT... two-phase flow and the void distribution in the steam generator to accurately predict PIVR plant response. The 'Alodel Boiler Xo22 (kIB-'2) steani generator is oue such experimental facihty to provide comprehensive data on the behavior of steam...

  2. Location of Leaks in Pressure Testable Direct Burial Steam Distribution Conduits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sittel, M. G.; Messock, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    Central steam is commonly distributed through direct burial lines protected by an outer conduit. These underground conduit systems are subject to electrolytic corrosion. Failure of the outer casing permits water intrusion and damage to insulation...

  3. EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayan, J.

    2011-01-01

    storage is essential if solar power plants are ever tostorage system into a solar power plant. Complete materialdaytime-only steam-cycle solar power plant, then about two-

  4. Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

    2011-01-01

    The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

  5. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer SolutionsL: A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    least 18 inches or more from the heat-transfer unit. The horizontal distance from the vertical drop-leg to the steam trap should never be more than 8 inches. Any length more...

  6. ORNL provided a feasibility evaluation of EPA's plans to route purchased steam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    engines, microturbines, steam turbines, fuel cells · CHP waste-heat-activated technologies -- generation offers extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiency and emissions reductions by optimizing Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Energy Efficiency Group kelleyjs@ornl.gov #12;

  7. Analysis of potential for jet-impingement erosion from leaking steam generator tubes during severe accidents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Diercks, D. R.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes analytical evaluation of crack-opening areas and leak rates of superheated steam through flaws in steam generator tubes and erosion of neighboring tubes due to jet impingement of superheated steam with entrained particles from core debris created during severe accidents. An analytical model for calculating crack-opening area as a function of time and temperature was validated with tests on tubes with machined flaws. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to calculate the jet velocity impinging on neighboring tubes as a function of tube spacing and crack-opening area. Erosion tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-velocity erosion rig at the University of Cincinnati, using micrometer-sized nickel particles mixed in with high-temperature gas from a burner. The erosion results, together with analytical models, were used to estimate the erosive effects of superheated steam with entrained aerosols from the core during severe accidents.

  8. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  9. Financial Impact of Good Condenser Vacuum in Industrial Steam Turbines: Computer Modeling Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viar, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Industrial turbine throttle conditions are fixed by plant designs - materials of construction, steam requirements, etc. Condensing turbine exhaust conditions are limited by the atmosphere to which residual heat is rejected; and are fixed...

  10. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery - Steam Tip Sheet #3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on feedwater economizers for waste heat recovery provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Flooding Experiments with Steam and Water in a Large Diameter Vertical Tube 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Susan Nicole

    2010-10-12

    An experimental study on flooding with steam and water in a large diameter vertical tube was conducted. This research has been performed to provide a better prediction of flooding in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ...

  13. Experimental Study of Steam Surfactant Flood for Enhancing Heavy Oil Recovery After Waterflooding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sunnatov, Dinmukhamed

    2010-07-14

    Steam injection with added surface active chemicals is one of general EOR processes aimed to recover residual oil after primary production processes. It has been demonstrated that, after waterflooding, an oil swept area ...

  14. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA); Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA); Udell, Kent (Berkeley, CA); Buetnner, Harley M. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process.

  15. Dynamic underground stripping: steam and electric heating for in situ decontamination of soils and groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.; Newmark, R.L.; Udell, K.; Buetnner, H.M.; Aines, R.D.

    1995-09-12

    A dynamic underground stripping process removes localized underground volatile organic compounds from heterogeneous soils and rock in a relatively short time. This method uses steam injection and electrical resistance heating to heat the contaminated underground area to increase the vapor pressure of the contaminants, thus speeding the process of contaminant removal and making the removal more complete. The injected steam passes through the more permeable sediments, distilling the organic contaminants, which are pumped to the surface. Large electrical currents are also applied to the contaminated area, which heat the impermeable subsurface layers that the steam has not penetrated. The condensed and vaporized contaminants are withdrawn by liquid pumping and vacuum extraction. The steam injection and electrical heating steps are repeated as necessary. Geophysical imaging methods can be used to map the boundary between the hot, dry, contamination-free underground zone and the cool, damp surrounding areas to help monitor the dynamic stripping process. 4 figs.

  16. A comparative analysis of numerical simulation and analytical modeling of horizontal well cyclic steam injection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravago Bastardo, Delmira Cristina

    2005-08-29

    The main objective of this research is to compare the performance of cyclic steam injection using horizontal wells based on the analytical model developed by Gunadi against that based on numerical simulation. For comparison, a common reservoir...

  17. Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAN, XIN

    2012-01-01

    feasibility of biomass gasification for power generation,Li, X.T. , et al. , Biomass gasification in a circulatingP.U. , Steam-gasification of biomass in a fluidized-bed of

  18. Improving the Capacity or Output of a Steam Turbine Generator at XYZ Power Plant in Illinois

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amoo-Otoo, John Kweku

    2006-05-19

    revenue from increased generation, reducing fuel consumption while also benefiting the environment through reduced emissions. Also as competition revolutionizes, the power generation industry is taking a close look at aging steam turbines...

  19. Additional Steam Traps Increase Production of a Drum Oven at a Petroleum Jelly Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    Additional steam traps were installed on the drum oven at a petroleum jelly production facility at an ExxonMobil plant in Nigeria. The installation improved heat transfer and saved energy.

  20. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Properties of a Steel-jacketed Steam Heating Pipeline with Vacuum Insulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Na, W.; Zou, P.

    2006-01-01

    The steel-jacketed steam heating pipeline employs vacuum insulation to improve the insulating effect and reduce the corrosion, and hence increases the heat transfer efficiency of the heating network and building energy efficiency. It is important...

  1. Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    for on- board hydrogen production for fuel-cell poweredSteam-Reforming Hydrogen production Reactors, M.S. Thesis,at the UC Davis Hydrogen Production and Utilization

  2. Operation of a steam hydro-gasifier in a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Seung; Norbeck, Joseph N.

    2008-01-01

    OPERATION OF A S T E A M HYDRO-GASIFIER IN A FLUIDIZED BEDMaterial Using Self-Sustained Hydro- Gasification." [0011]the process, using a steam hydro-gasification reactor (SHR)

  3. Some considerations in simulation of superheated steam drying of softwood lumber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang, S. [New Zealand Forest Research Inst., Rotorua (New Zealand). Wood Processing Div.

    1997-05-01

    A mathematical model for high-temperature drying of softwood lumber with moist air has been modified and extended to simulate wood drying with superheated steam. In the simulation, differences between the two types of drying are considered, these include: external heat and mass transfer processes and calculation of equilibrium moisture content. The external mass transfer coefficient in the superheated steam drying was found to be much higher than that in the moist air drying, however, the heat transfer coefficients for these two cases were of the same order. The predicted drying curves and wood temperatures from the superheated steam drying model were compared with experimental data and there was close agreement. Further studies will apply the model to development of commercial drying schedules for wood drying with superheated steam.

  4. Investigation of Hybrid Steam/Solvent Injection to Improve the Efficiency of the SAGD Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardali, Mojtaba

    2013-05-09

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has been demonstrated as a proven technology to unlock heavy oil and bitumen in Canadian reservoirs. Given the large energy requirements and volumes of emitted greenhouse gases from SAGD processes, there is a...

  5. Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-04-15

    High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

  6. Gain-scheduled nonlinear control of u-tube steam generators at low powers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Sunil Kumar

    1990-01-01

    envelope. A dynamic compensator is designed using each of the linearized models based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussi&. u with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG, /LTR) method. The LQG/LTR method is a, systematic multivariable control systenz design technique... Generator Control Problem . II. 4 Problems Associated with Low-Power Operation of a. U-Tube Steam Generator II. 5 Current Practice 11 11 13 16 18 U-TUBE STEAM GENERATOR MODELING . . 21 III. 1 Introduction III. 2 Nonlinear Model . III. 3...

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  8. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    and the sensors read and the user can shut down the system with the emergency stop button. #12;Proving Safety with a new setting for the pumps (pr_new) or decides to shut-down the boiler system (stop). There are two_new) or emergency stop (stop) ControllerPumps (pr) M2 M1 Steam Boiler W P active pumps (pr) Figure 1: The steam

  9. Case History of Reapplication of a 2500 KW Steam Turbine/Gear Drive Generator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, S.

    1991-01-01

    OF REAPPLICATION OF A 2500 KW STEAM TURBINE/GEAR DRIVE GENERATOR SAMUEL V. SMITH Manager, Technical Sales and ~ervice Revak Turbomachinery SerVlces La Porte, Texas Abstract In today' s equipment market more and more projects are turning toward..., naphtha and a high grade of wax. The plant requires a steam turbine generator set to produce electrical power for its base load operation. This paper covers the history of how the turbine, gear and generator were selected, along with the highlights...

  10. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  11. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Exergy Analysis of the Steam Network in Tehran Oil Refinery and Evaluation with New Scenario 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodaei, H.; Taheri, R.; Arghandeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    generating systems and gas turbines instead of old boilers and so on. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of optimization in steam networks. in this paper, we complete the lost works such as optimization and estimation of carbon dioxide emission through... costs. Some parameters can be limited during the optimization such as gas turbine power, the amount of the steam produced in HRSG as well as fuel ratio. The optimization approach is based upon fixed header conditions e.g. temperature and pressure...

  13. Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vojvodic, Aleksandra

    2012-05-11

    A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

  14. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jayne; Ludwig, Peter; Brand, Larry

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  15. A nonlinear dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdalla, M.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    A dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator is presented. The model simulates the advanced liquid metal reactor superheated cycle steam generator with a four-region, moving-boundary, drift-flux model. The model is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from the fundamental equations of conversation of mass, energy, and momentum. Sample results of steady-state and transient calculations are presented.

  16. An investigation into the feasibility of an external combustion, steam injected gas turbine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, David Bruce

    1981-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION, STEAM INJECTED GAS TURBINE A Thesis by DAVID BRUCE FORD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 19SI Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FEASIBILITY OF AN EXTERNAL COMBUSTION i STEAM INJECTED GAS TURBINE A Thesis DAVID BRUCE FORD Approved as to style and content by: & cene 'u Co...

  17. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B. [EDF/DER/MTC, Moret Sur Loing (France); Flesch, B. [EDF/EPN/DMAINT, Paris (France)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  18. Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1995-07-01

    A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

  19. A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SINGLE-WELL STEAM ASSISTED GRAVITY DRAINAGE (SW-SAGD) PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.T. Elliot; A.R. Kovscek

    2001-06-01

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an effective method to produce heavy oil and bitumen which are important energy resources. In a typical SAGD approach, steam is injected into a horizontal well located directly above a horizontal producer helping to displace heated oil. Single-well (SW) SAGD attempts to create a similar process using only one horizontal well. To improve early-time response of SW-SAGD, it is necessary to heat the near-wellbore area to reduce oil viscosity and allow gravity drainage to begin. Ideally heating should occur with minimal circulation or bypassing of steam. We have investigated early-time processes to improve reservoir heating. A numerical simulation study was performed to gauge combinations of cyclic steam injection and steam circulation prior to SAGD in an effort to better understand and improve early-time performance. Results from this study, include cumulative recoveries, temperature distributions, and production rates. It is found that cyclic steaming of the reservoir offers the most favorable option for heating the near-wellbore area to create conditions that improve initial SAGD response. More favorable reservoir conditions such as low viscosity, thick oil zones, and solution gas, improved reservoir response. Under unfavorable conditions, response was limited.

  20. A Computer Program for Simulating Transient Behavior in Steam Turbine Stage Pressure of AHWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    It is proposed to couple the Advanced Heavy water reactor (AHWR), which is being developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India, with a desalination plant. The objective of this coupling is to produce system make-up and domestic water. The proposed desalination plant needs about 1.9 kg/sec of steam and the minimum pressure requirement is 3 bars. The desalination plant can be fed with bled steam extracted from a suitable stage in low pressure turbine. As the turbine stage pressure changes with the load, it is essential to know the availability of bled steam at aforesaid pressure for various load condition. The objective of the present study is to identify a suitable extraction point so as to ensure availability of steam at desired condition for desalination plant, even at part load conditions. In order to fulfill the above objective a steam and feed system analysis code was developed which incorporates the mathematical formulation of different components of the steam and feed system such as, high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) turbines, re-heater, feed heaters etc. The dynamic equations are solved simultaneously to obtain the stage pressure at various load conditions. Based on the results obtained, the suitable extraction stage in LP turbine was selected. This enables to determine the lowest possible part load operation up to which availability of desalination plant could be ensured. (authors)

  1. Reliability of steam generator tubes with axial cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cizelj, L.; Mavko, B. [Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia). Reactor Engineering Div.; Vencelj, P. [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mathematics and Physics

    1996-11-01

    An approach for estimating the failure probability of tubes containing through-wall axial cracks has already been proposed by the authors. It is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and accounts for scatter in tube geometry and material properties, scatter in residual and operational stresses responsible for crack propagation, and characteristics of nondestructive examination and plugging procedures (e.g., detection probability, sizing accuracy, human errors). Results of preliminary tests demonstrated wide applicability of this approach and triggered some improvements. The additions to the model are extensively discussed in this paper. Capabilities are demonstrated by results of analysis of steam generator no. 1 in Slovenian nuclear power plant located in Krsko after the 1992 inspection and plugging campaign. First, the number of cracked tubes and the crack length distribution were estimated using data obtained by the 100% motorized pancake coil inspection. The inspection and plugging activities were simulated in the second step to estimate the efficiency of maintenance in terms of single and multiple-tube rupture probabilities. They were calculated as a function of maximum allowable crack length. The importance of human errors and some limitations of present nondestructive examination techniques were identified. The traditional wall thickness and crack-length-based plugging criteria are compared. The crack-length-based criterion is shown to be more efficient and more safe, especially because of strong suppression effect on probability of multiple-tube rupture. The results are considered to be important for safety and maintenance of existing plants and for further research.

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  3. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mulac, Anthony J. (Tijeras, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  4. Experimental studies of steam and steam-propane injection using a novel smart horizontal producer to enhance oil production in the San Ardo field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivero Diaz, Jose Antonio

    2007-09-17

    is the use of propane as a steam additive with the purpose of increasing recovery and accelerating oil production. The second process involves the use of a novel production configuration that makes use of a vertical injector and a smart horizontal producer...

  5. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D [ORNL; Christopher, Timothy W [ORNL; Oland, C Barry [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL reduce its overall utility costs by decreasing the amount of fuel used to generate steam. Reduced fuel consumption also decreased air emissions. These improvements also helped lower the risk of burn injuries to workers and helped prevent shrapnel injuries resulting from missiles produced by pressurized component failures. In most cases, the economic benefit and cost effectiveness of the SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project is reflected in payback periods of 1 year or less.

  6. A REVIEW OF THE OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF STRUCTURAL ALLOYS IN STEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G; Dooley, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this review is the state of knowledge of the oxidation behavior in steam of alloys with potential for use as pressure parts in steam boilers. Growth of steam-side oxides has implications for scale exfoliation, tube blockage and overheating, and turbine erosion. Mitigation of such problems requires mechanistic understanding of the influences of alloy composition and microstructure as well as time, temperature, and boiler operating parameters on the evolution of specific scale structures. The oxidation behavior in steam of three classes of alloys is addressed: ferritic steels (particularly the 9-12 wt% Cr alloys), austenitic steels, and high-temperature nickel-based alloys. Understanding the interplay among compositional and microstructural requirements for strengthening and oxidation resistance, and their influence on the rate and mode of scale evolution is key to the most effective application of these alloy classes. Underlying these interests is the apparently different mode of oxide growth in steam than in air, especially contributions from inward transport of oxidant species. The particular species involved and their roles in the oxidation process are expected to exert a large influence on the oxide morphologies developed, while the fate of any hydrogen released in the alloy is a further topic of particular interest.

  7. Hydrocracking naphthas using mildly steamed, noble metal-containing zeolite beta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickey, K.J. Jr.; Morrison, R.A.

    1989-03-14

    A method is described for hydrocracking a naphtha which comprises contacting the naphtha with a noble metal-containing zeolite beta naphtha hydrocracking catalyst at a pressure of about 0 to about 2000 psig, a temperature of about 400/sup 0/ to about 650/sup 0/F, a hydrogen or hydrocarbon molar ratio of about 0.1 to 1 to about 15 to 1 and a weight hourly space velocity of about 0.5 to about 20. Naphtha hydrocracking activity of the catalyst is enhanced by mild steaming of the zeolite beta catalyst prior to the contacting, the mild steaming being accomplished by steaming the zeolite catalyst in its fresh state under controlled conditions of temperature, time and steam partial pressure so as to initially increase the alpha activity of the catalyst and produce a steamed catalyst having a peak alpha activity, and subsequently reduce the alpha activity from the peak alpha activity to an alpha activity substantially the same as the alpha activity of the fresh catalyst and no more than 25% below the initial alpha activity of the fresh catalyst.

  8. New Insights into Reaction Mechanisms of Ethanol Steam Reforming on Co-ZrO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The reaction pathway of ethanol steam reforming on Co-ZrO2 has been identified and the active sites associated with each step are proposed. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde and then to acetone, followed by acetone steam reforming. More than 90% carbon was found to follow this reaction pathway. N2-Sorption, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Transmission Electron Microscopy, as well as theoretical Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been employed to identify the structure and functionality of the catalysts, which was further used to correlate their performance in ESR. It was found that metallic cobalt is mainly responsible for the acetone steam reforming reactions; while, CoO and basic sites on the support play a key role in converting ethanol to acetone via dehydrogenation and condensation/ketonization reaction pathways. The current work provides fundamental understanding of the ethanol steam reforming reaction mechanisms on Co-ZrO2 catalysts and sheds light on the rational design of selective and durable ethanol steam reforming catalysts.

  9. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  10. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats (Sturbridge, MA); Benson, Steven (Grand Forks, ND); Crocker, Charlene (Newfolden, MN); Mackenzie, Jill (Carmel, IN)

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  11. Three dimensional analysis of turbulent steam jets in enclosed structures : a CFD approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishii, M.; NguyenLe, Q.

    1999-04-20

    This paper compares the three-dimensional numerical simulation with the experimental data of a steam blowdown event in a light water reactor containment building. The temperature and pressure data of a steam blowdown event was measured at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA), a scaled model of the General Electric simplified Boiling Water Reactor. A three step approach was used to analyze the steam jet behavior. First, a 1-Dimensional, system level RELAP5/Mod3.2 model of the steam blowdown event was created and the results used to set the initial conditions for the PUMA blowdown experiments. Second, 2-Dimensional CFD models of the discharged steam jets were computed using PHOENICS, a commercially available CFD package. Finally, 3-Dimensional model of the PUMA drywell was created with the boundary conditions based on experimental measurements. The results of the 1-D and 2-D models were reported in the previous meeting. This paper discusses in detail the formulation and the results of the 3-Dimensional PHOENICS model of the PUMA drywell. It is found that the 3-D CFD solutions compared extremely well with the measured data.

  12. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  13. Steam Reforming Technology for Denitration and Immobilization of DOE Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, J. B.; McKibbin, J.; Ryan, K.; Schmoker, D.

    2003-02-26

    THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (THOR) is a joint venture formed in June 2002 by Studsvik, Inc. (Studsvik) and Westinghouse Government Environmental Services Company LLC to further develop, market, and deploy Studsvik's patented THORSM non-incineration, steam reforming waste treatment technology. This paper provides an overview of the THORSM steam reforming process as applied to the denitration and conversion of Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes to an immobilized mineral form. Using the THORSM steam reforming technology to treat nitrate containing tank wastes could significantly benefit the DOE by reducing capital and life-cycle costs, reducing processing and programmatic risks, and positioning the DOE to meet or exceed its stakeholder commitments for tank closure. Specifically, use of the THORSM technology can facilitate processing of up to 75% of tank wastes without the use of vitrification, yielding substantial life-cycle cost savings.

  14. RELAP5 modeling of the Westinghouse model D4 steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.; Gortnar, O. (Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia))

    1993-02-01

    The steam generator is one of the most important components of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant. Thus, the ability to model and predict the steam generator steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic behavior is a prerequisite for performing safety analyses of PWR systems. A RELAP5 model of the Westinghouse D4 steam generator with a 70/30 split feedwater system has been developed, and it is tested by simulating five secondary-side-initiated transients. This study of primary-to-secondary heat transfer and the secondary coolant vaporization process has enabled the primary coolant cooldown to be maximized, as required for performing a conservative steamline break analysis. These tests were realized using the RELAP5/MOD2.36.05 and RELAP5/MOD3.5M5 computer codes.

  15. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  16. Results of the Triggered TROI Steam Explosion Experiments with a Narrow Interaction Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Hong, S.H.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-07-01

    The effect of the interaction vessel geometry has been studied on the energetics of a steam explosion in the TROI experiment. The interaction vessel was 30 cm in diameter (1-D geometry). Two types of corium composition were used as a melt. One was spontaneously non-explosive 80 : 20 corium (UO{sub 2} : ZrO{sub 2}) and the other was spontaneously explosive 70 : 30 eutectic corium. A test with 80 : 20 corium was carried out without an external triggering. Another test with 80 : 20 corium was also carried out with an external trigger. In addition, two tests with 70 : 30 corium were carried out with an external trigger. The external trigger was applied just before the contact between the melt and the bottom of the interaction vessel. This time was thought to be the triggering time of a spontaneous steam explosion. The external trigger was a chemical explosive of PETN 1.0 g. However, none of these tests led to steam explosions even with an external triggering. Since eutectic corium led to spontaneous or triggered steam explosions in a previous test using a 60 cm wide interaction vessel (3-D geometry), it is quite probable that a geometry effect of the interaction vessel could exist. The reason for no steam explosions in the narrow (1-D) interaction vessel is believed to be a relatively high void fraction in the vessel when compared with the 3-D vessel. Due to the high void fraction, a steam explosion could not propagate to the surroundings of the melt where the water was depleted. (authors)

  17. Analysis and decision document in support of acquisition of steam supply for the Hanford 200 Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Kavanaugh, D.C.; Reilly, R.W.; Shankle, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Weakley, S.A.; Williams, T.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grant, T.F. [Battelle Human Affairs Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now evaluating its facility requirements in support of its cleanup mission at Hanford. One of the early findings is that the 200-Area steam plants, constructed in 1943, will not meet future space heating and process needs. Because the 200 Area will serve as the primary area for waste treatment and long-term storage, a reliable steam supply is a critical element of Hanford operations. This Analysis and Decision Document (ADD) is a preliminary review of the steam supply options available to the DOE. The ADD contains a comprehensive evaluation of the two major acquisition options: line-term versus privatization. It addresses the life-cycle costs associated with each alternative, as well as factors such as contracting requirements and the impact of market, safety, security, and regulatory issues. Specifically, this ADD documents current and future steam requirements for the 200 Area, describes alternatives available to DOE for meeting these requirements, and compares the alternatives across a number of decision criteria, including life-cycle cost. DOE has currently limited the ADD evaluation alternatives to replacing central steam plants rather than expanding the study to include alternative heat sources, such as a distributed network of boilers or heat pumps. Thirteen project alternatives were analyzed in the ADD. One of the alternatives was the rehabilitation of the existing 200-East coal-fired facility. The other twelve alternatives are combinations of (1) coal- or gas-fueled plants, (2) steam-only or cogeneration facilities, (3) primary or secondary cogeneration of electricity, and (4) public or private ownership.

  18. Process Modeling Results of Bio-Syntrolysis: Converting Biomass to Liquid Fuel with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. L. Hawkes; M. G. McKellar; R. Wood; M. M. Plum

    2010-06-01

    A new process called Bio-Syntrolysis is being researched at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigating syngas production from renewable biomass that is assisted with high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE). The INL is the world leader in researching HTSE and has recently produced hydrogen from high temperature solid oxide cells running in the electrolysis mode setting several world records along the way. A high temperature (~800°C) heat source is necessary to heat the steam as it goes into the electrolytic cells. Biomass provides the heat source and the carbon source for this process. Syngas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, can be used for the production of synthetic liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch processes. This concept, coupled with fossil-free electricity, provides a possible path to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and increased energy independence, without the major infrastructure shift that would be required for a purely hydrogen-based transportation system. Furthermore, since the carbon source is obtained from recyclable biomass, the entire concept is carbon-neutral

  19. Reactance simulation for the defects in steam generator tube with outside ferrite sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Kima, Yong-il [Division of Metrology for Quality Life, KRISS, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Derac [Department of Physics, Hannam University, Daejeon, 336-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Duck-gun [Nuclear Material Technique Development Team, KAERI, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae-kap [Division of Physical Metrology, KRISS, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-01

    A magnetic sludge is partly produced around the tube sheet outside a steam generator due to stress and heat. The sludge with magnetite is one of the important factors affecting eddy current signals. It causes trouble for the safety of the steam generator tubes and is difficult to detect by conventional eddy current methods. A new type of probe is needed to detect the signals for the magnetic sludge. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils--a magnetizing coil and the other a detecting coil--and we simulated the signal induced by the ferromagnetic sludge in the Inconel 600 tube.

  20. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.