National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for fossil steam generation

  1. Estimates of health risks associated with radionuclide emissions from fossil-fueled steam-electric generating plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.

    1995-08-01

    Under the Title III, Section 112 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment, Congress directed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform a study of the hazards to public resulting from pollutants emitted by electric utility system generating units. Radionuclides are among the groups of pollutants listed in the amendment. This report updates previously published data and estimates with more recently available information regarding the radionuclide contents of fossil fuels, associated emissions by steam-electric power plants, and potential health effects to exposed population groups.

  2. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 85 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 84 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 119 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil fuel power plants. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. The citations examine hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Fossil superheating in geothermal steam power plants (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fossil superheating in geothermal steam power plants Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fossil superheating in geothermal steam power plants You are accessing a document ...

  8. Boiler and steam generator corrosion: Fossil-fuel power plants. March 1977-December 1989 (A Bibliography from the NTIS data base). Report for March 1977-December 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning corrosion effects, mechanisms, detection, and inhibition in fossil fuel fired boilers. Fluidized bed combustors and coal gasification are included in the applications. Hot corrosion, thermal mechanical degradation, and intergranular oxidation corrosion studies performed on the water side and hot gas side of heat exchanger tubes and support structures are presented. Coatings and treatment of material to inhibit corrosion are discussed. Corrosion affecting nuclear powered steam generators is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 88 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  10. Steam generator support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  11. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  12. Productivity improvement handbook for fossil steam power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armor, A.F.; Wolk, R.H. |

    1998-09-01

    This book is written to help electric generation staff operate their plants more profitably in a competitive environment. Since responsibility for keeping the plant running falls directly on the shoulders of plant personnel, they want to understand what can go wrong, receive information on the current condition of equipment, and fix things when equipment fails or performs poorly. The information in this book is organized so a reader can quickly and easily grasp the current state-of-the-art in maintaining fossil steam units, obtain guidance on specific plant problems, and move ahead with solutions. Many reports and guidelines have been issued on boilers, turbines, generators, heat exchangers, and other plant equipment covering failure modes, causes, fixes, and maintenance practices. Liberal use has been made of these reports to extract the salient recommendations, and the citations and bibliographies acknowledge these sources. The reader is directed to the comprehensive list of reports and papers for further details on specific issues. The scope of this book does not permit a detailed and extensive treatment of each of the hundreds of potential in-plant problems, but does permit the reader to get a first assessment of likely symptoms and modes of failure, and enough information to do something about it. It`s a working handbook for fossil plant staff who are daily faced with protecting the integrity and reliability of the electric generation business.

  13. Trends in packaged steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Oil and gas-fired packaged steam generators are used in many industrial plants. They generate saturated or superheated steam up to 250,000 lb/hr, 1000 psig, and 950 F. They may be used for continuous steam generation or as standby boilers in cogeneration systems. Numerous variables affect the design of this equipment. A few important considerations should be addressed at an early point by the plant engineer specifying or evaluating equipment options. These considerations include trends such as customized designs that minimize operating costs and ensure emissions regulations are met. The paper discusses efficiency considerations first.

  14. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  15. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryers, Richard W. (Flemington, NJ); Taylor, Thomas E. (Bergenfield, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  16. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy ...

  17. Fossil generation restructuring in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galambas, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the Ukrainian electrical system as it was in 1991, defines the need for restructuring, outlines the restructuring process, identifies a number of major obstacles that are hindering the implementation of the fossil generation, restructuring process, and points out major problems in the coal procurement system. It describes the visits to several Ukrainian power plants, defines restructuring success to date, makes suggestions for improved restructuring progress, highlights lessons learned, and enlightens the audience on the opportunities of investing in the Ukrainian power generation industry. The primary focus is on the Fossil Generator Advisor task, which was carried out under the direction of Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (Hagler Bailly).

  18. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  19. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  20. Customizing pays off in steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1995-01-01

    Packaged steam generators are the workhorses of chemical process plants, power plants and cogeneration systems. They are available as oil- or gas-fired models, and are used to generate either high-pressure superheated steam (400 to 1,200 psig, at 500 to 900 F) or saturated steam at low pressures (100 to 300 psig). In today's emission- and efficiency- conscious environment, steam generators have to be custom designed. Gone are the days when a boiler supplier--or for that matter an end user--could look up a model number from a list of standard sizes and select one for a particular need. Thus, before selecting a system, it is desirable to know the features of oil- and gas-fired steam generators, and the important variables that influence their selection, design and performance. It is imperative that all of these data are supplied to the boiler supplier so that the engineers may come up with the right design. Some of the parameters which are discussed in this paper are: duty, steam temperature, steam purity, emissions, and furnace design. Superheaters, economizers, and overall performance are also discussed.

  1. High efficiency, quasi-instantaneous steam expansion device utilizing fossil or nuclear fuel as the heat source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio Filippone, Ph.D.

    1999-06-01

    Thermal-hydraulic analysis of a specially designed steam expansion device (heat cavity) was performed to prove the feasibility of steam expansions at elevated rates for power generation with higher efficiency. The steam expansion process inside the heat cavity greatly depends on the gap within which the steam expands and accelerates. This system can be seen as a miniaturized boiler integrated inside the expander where steam (or the proper fluid) is generated almost instantaneously prior to its expansion in the work-producing unit. Relatively cold water is pulsed inside the heat cavity, where the heat transferred causes the water to flash to steam, thereby increasing its specific volume by a large factor. The gap inside the heat cavity forms a special nozzle-shaped system in which the fluid expands rapidly, accelerating toward the system outlet. The expansion phenomenon is the cause of ever-increasing fluid speed inside the cavity system, eliminating the need for moving parts (pumps, valves, etc.). In fact, the subsequent velocity induced by the sudden fluid expansion causes turbulent conditions, forcing accelerating Reynolds and Nusselt numbers which, in turn, increase the convective heat transfer coefficient. When the combustion of fossil fuels constitutes the heat source, the heat cavity concept can be applied directly inside the stator of conventional turbines, thereby greatly increasing the overall system efficiency.

  2. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving...

  3. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation This tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #15 PDF icon Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer How to Calculate the True

  4. Steam-reforming of fossil fuels and wastes to produce energy and chemicals without greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1998-07-01

    Worldwide concern has demanded a re-examination of the energy- and chemical-producing plants that use fossil fuel sources and release large quantities of greenhouse gases. Plant retrofits with steam-reformer/gasifiers will increase plant efficiencies, improve economics and avoid releasing troublesome amounts of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. In this paper, the authors describe and illustrate the several new steam-reforming/gasification plants that are processing waste streams and fossil fuels. These plants range in size from 1 ton/day to 2,000 tons/day. They are commercial and economically successful. These new concepts can be used to both upgrade fossil plants for improved economics while eliminating the release of greenhouse gases. By aggressively retrofitting old coal plants and sequestering CO{sub 2}, a 15% reduction in 1990 CO{sub 2} emissions can be met by the US by 2010.

  5. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings | Department of Energy Buildings Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings in a Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. File fossilfuel.docx More Documents & Publications Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption

  6. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  7. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings in an OIRA Comparison Document. File ...

  8. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  9. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This cost is dependent upon fuel type, unit fuel cost, boiler effciency, feedwater ... steam and serves as a tracking device to allow for boiler performance monitoring. ...

  10. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document | Department of Energy Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Document details the Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings in an OIRA Comparison Document. File fossilfuel_compare2014.docx More

  11. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  12. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  13. Automated Diagnosis and Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Gabe V. Garcia

    2004-10-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is tube degradation. Tube defects are divided into seven categories, one of which is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). Defects of this type usually begin on the outer surface of the tubes and propagate both inward and laterally. In many cases these defects occur at or near the tube support plates. Several different methods exist for the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear steam generator tubes for defect characterization.

  14. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  15. Advanced technologies for co-processing fossil and biomass resources for transportation fuels and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Y.

    2004-07-01

    Over the past few decades, a number of processes have been proposed or are under development for coprocessing fossil fuel and biomass for transportation fuels and power generation. The paper gives a brief description of the following processes: the Hydrocarb system for converting biomass and other carbonaceous fuels to elemental carbon and hydrogen, methane or methanol; the Hynol process where the second step of the Hydrocarb process is replaced with a methane steam reformer to convert methane to CO and H{sub 2}S without deposition of carbon; the Carnol process where CO{sub 2} from coal and the biomass power plants is reacted with hydrogen to produce methanol; and advanced biomass high efficiency power generator cycle where a continuous plasma methane decomposition reactor (PDR) is used with direct carbon fuel cell to produce power and carbon and hydrogen. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  17. Potential failure of steam generator tubes following a station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, L.W.; Palmrose, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is considering changes to pressurized water reactor (PWR) requirements relating to steam generator tube plugging and repair criteria, including leakage monitoring. The proposed changes are known as the alternate tube plugging criteria (APC) and are intended to permit PWRs to operate with through-wall cracks in steam generator tubes subject to meeting a specified limit on predicted primary to secondary leakage under accident conditions. To assess the consequences of the alternate plugging criteria, analyses were performed for a station blackout sequence in which the reactor core melts while the reactor coolant system (RCS) remains at high pressure. Evaluations were conducted to investigate the potential for tube failure with and without secondary system depressurization. The excessive heat coupled with the high-pressure differentials across the steam generator tubes could result in creep rupture failure of the tubes during a severe accident, which could lead to a radiological release directly to the environment. In order to assess the safety significance of the APC, it is important to identify the level of steam generator tube leakage that can occur without challenging the previous study conclusions that steam generator creep failure will not occur prior to a surge line or hot-leg failure. To assess the effect of leakage on steam generator tube integrity during a core melt sequence with the RCS at high pressure and the secondary side of the steam generators pressurized and depressurized, an analysis was performed for a core melt event resulting from an unmitigated station blackout to identify the total steamenerator and tube leakage flow rates that could induce tube ruptures prior to other RCS boudary faliures that could depressurize the RCS.

  18. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  19. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  20. Overview of steam generator tube degradation and integrity issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-10-01

    The degradation of steam generator tubes in pressurized water nuclear reactors continues to be a serious problem. Primary water stress corrosion cracking is commonly observed at the roll transition zone at U-bends, at tube denting locations, and occasionally in plugs and sleeves. Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack commonly occur near the tube support plate crevice, near the tube sheet in crevices or under sludge piles, and occasionally in the free span. A particularly troubling recent trend has been the increasing occurrence of circumferential cracking at the RTZ on both the primary and secondary sides. Segmented axial cracking at the tubes support plate crevices is also becoming more common. Despite recent advances in in-service inspection technology, a clear need still exists for quantifying and improving the reliability of in- service inspection methods with respect to the probability of detection of the various types of flaws and their accurate sizing. Improved inspection technology and the increasing occurrence of such degradation modes as circumferential cracking, intergranular attack, and discontinuous axial cracking have led to the formulation of a new performance-based steam generator rule. This new rule would require the development and implementation of a steam generator management program that monitors tube condition against accepted performance criteria to ensure that the tubes perform the required safety function over the next operating cycle. The new steam generator rule will also be applied to severe accident conditions to determine the continued serviceability of a steam generator with degraded tubes in the event of a severe accident. Preliminary analyses are being performed for a hypothetical severe accident scenario to determine whether failure will occur first in the steam generator tubes, which would lead to containment bypass, or instead in the hot leg nozzle or surge line, which would not.

  1. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  2. Status of the CRBRP steam-generator design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Martinez, R.S.; Murdock, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    Fabrication of the Prototype Unit is near completion and will be delivered to the test site in August, 1981. The Plant Unit design is presently at an advanced stage and will result in steam generator units fully capable of meeting all the requiments of the CRBRP Power Plant.

  3. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  4. Experimental fretting-wear studies of steam generator materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, N.J.; Chow, A.B.; Weckwerth, M.K.

    1995-11-01

    Flow-induced vibration of steam generator tubes results in fretting-wear damage due to impacting and rubbing of the tubes against their supports. This damage can be predicted by computing tube response to flow-induced excitation forces using analytical techniques, and then relating this response to resultant wear damage using experimentally derived wear coefficients. Fretting-wear of steam generator materials has been studied experimentally at Chalk River Laboratories for two decades. Tests are conducted in machines that simulate steam generator environmental conditions and tube-to-support dynamic interactions. Different tube and support materials, tube-to-support clearances, and tube support geometries have been studied. The effect of environmental conditions, such as temperature, oxygen content, pH and chemistry control additive, have been investigated as well. Early studies showed that damage was related to contact force as long as other parameters, such as geometry and motion, were held constant. Later studies have shown that damage is related to a parameter called work-rate, which combines both contact force and sliding distance. Results of short and long-term fretting-wear tests for CANDU steam generator materials at realistic environmental conditions are presented. These results demonstrate that work-rate is an appropriate correlating parameter for impact-sliding interaction.

  5. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  6. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  7. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  8. Next Generation Engineered Materials for Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Arrell

    2006-05-31

    To reduce the effect of global warming on our climate, the levels of CO{sub 2} emissions should be reduced. One way to do this is to increase the efficiency of electricity production from fossil fuels. This will in turn reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} emissions for a given power output. Using US practice for efficiency calculations, then a move from a typical US plant running at 37% efficiency to a 760 C /38.5 MPa (1400 F/5580 psi) plant running at 48% efficiency would reduce CO2 emissions by 170kg/MW.hr or 25%. This report presents a literature review and roadmap for the materials development required to produce a 760 C (1400 F) / 38.5MPa (5580 psi) steam turbine without use of cooling steam to reduce the material temperature. The report reviews the materials solutions available for operation in components exposed to temperatures in the range of 600 to 760 C, i.e. above the current range of operating conditions for today's turbines. A roadmap of the timescale and approximate cost for carrying out the required development is also included. The nano-structured austenitic alloy CF8C+ was investigated during the program, and the mechanical behavior of this alloy is presented and discussed as an illustration of the potential benefits available from nano-control of the material structure.

  9. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  10. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  11. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  12. Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

  13. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O.; Dalle, F.; Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  14. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  15. Benchmark the Fuel Cost of Steam Generation - Steam Tip Sheet #15

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on benchmarking the fuel cost of steam provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  17. Computational Research Challenges and Opportunities for the Optimization of Fossil Energy Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-06-01

    Emerging fossil energy power generation systems must operate with unprecedented efficiency and near-zero emissions, while optimizing profitably amid cost fluctuations for raw materials, finished products, and energy. To help address these challenges, the fossil energy industry will have to rely increasingly on the use advanced computational tools for modeling and simulating complex process systems. In this paper, we present the computational research challenges and opportunities for the optimization of fossil energy power generation systems across the plant lifecycle from process synthesis and design to plant operations. We also look beyond the plant gates to discuss research challenges and opportunities for enterprise-wide optimization, including planning, scheduling, and supply chain technologies.

  18. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

  19. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  20. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  1. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  2. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  3. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  4. Environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion in power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, J.W.; Beal, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    All the recent developments in the combustion systems employed for power generation have been based on environmental considerations. Combustion modifications have been developed and utilised in order to control NO{sub x} emissions and improvements continue to be made as the legislative requirements tighten. Chemical processes and fuel switching are used to control SO{sub x} emissions. After nitrogen, carbon dioxide is the major gas emitted from the combustion process and its potential potency as a greenhouse gas is well documented. Increased efficiency cycles, mainly based on natural gas as the prime fuel, can minimise the amount of CO{sub x} produced per unit of power generated. As the economics of natural gas utilisation become less favourable a return to clean coal technology based power generation processes may be required.

  5. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.; Mulac, Anthony J.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  6. Electroslag Strip Cladding of Steam Generators With Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Consonni, M.; Maggioni, F.; Brioschi, F.

    2006-07-01

    The present paper details the results of electroslag cladding and tube-to-tubesheet welding qualification tests conducted by Ansaldo-Camozzi ESC with Alloy 690 (Alloy 52 filler metal) on steel for nuclear power stations' steam generators shell, tubesheet and head; the possibility of submerged arc cladding on first layer was also considered. Test results, in terms of chemical analysis, mechanical properties and microstructure are reproducible and confidently applicable to production cladding and show that electroslag process can be used for Alloy 52 cladding with exceptionally stable and regular operation and high productivity. The application of submerged arc cladding process to the first layer leads to a higher base metal dilution, which should be avoided. Moreover, though the heat affected zone is deeper with electroslag cladding, in both cases no coarsened grain zone is found due to recrystallization effect of second cladding layer. Finally, the application of electroslag process to cladding of Alloy 52 with modified chemical composition, was proved to be highly beneficial as it strongly reduces hot cracking sensitivity, which is typical of submerged arc cladded Alloy 52, both during tube-to-tubesheet welding and first re-welding. (authors)

  7. Steam generator materials performance in high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafey, J.E.; Roberts, D.I.

    1980-11-01

    This paper reviews the materials technology aspects of steam generators for HTGRs which feature a graphite-moderated, uranium-thorium, all-ceramic core and utilizes high-pressure helium as the primary coolant. The steam generators are exposed to gas-side temperatures approaching 760/sup 0/C and produce superheated steam at 538/sup 0/C and 16.5 MPa (2400 psi). The prototype Peach Bottom I 40-MW(e) HTGR was operated for 1349 EFPD over 7 years. Examination after decommissioning of the U-tube steam generators and other components showed the steam generators to be in very satisfactory condition. The 330-MW(e) Fort St. Vrain HTGR, now in the final stages of startup, has achieved 70% power and generated more than 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ MWh of electricity. The steam generators in this reactor are once-through units of helical configuration, requiring a number of new materials factors including creep-fatigue and water chemistry control. Current designs of larger HTGRs also feature steam generators of helical once-through design. Materials issues that are important in these designs include detailed consideration of time-dependent behavior of both base metals and welds, as required by current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code rules, evaluation of bimetallic weld behavior, evaluation of the properties of large forgings, etc.

  8. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  9. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

    2012-08-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

  11. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B.

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  12. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  13. Analysis of potential for jet-impingement erosion from leaking steam generator tubes during severe accidents.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Diercks, D. R.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2002-05-01

    This report summarizes analytical evaluation of crack-opening areas and leak rates of superheated steam through flaws in steam generator tubes and erosion of neighboring tubes due to jet impingement of superheated steam with entrained particles from core debris created during severe accidents. An analytical model for calculating crack-opening area as a function of time and temperature was validated with tests on tubes with machined flaws. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code was used to calculate the jet velocity impinging on neighboring tubes as a function of tube spacing and crack-opening area. Erosion tests were conducted in a high-temperature, high-velocity erosion rig at the University of Cincinnati, using micrometer-sized nickel particles mixed in with high-temperature gas from a burner. The erosion results, together with analytical models, were used to estimate the erosive effects of superheated steam with entrained aerosols from the core during severe accidents.

  14. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  15. Evaluation and field validation of Eddy-Current array probes for steam generator tube inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generator Tubing program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification, and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report describes the design of specialized high-speed 16-coil eddy-current array probes. Both pancake and reflection coils are considered. Test results from inspections using the probes in working steam generators are given. Computer programs developed for probe calculations are also supplied.

  16. Reactance simulation for the defects in steam generator tube with outside ferrite sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Kima, Yong-il; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Jung, Jae-kap

    2009-04-01

    A magnetic sludge is partly produced around the tube sheet outside a steam generator due to stress and heat. The sludge with magnetite is one of the important factors affecting eddy current signals. It causes trouble for the safety of the steam generator tubes and is difficult to detect by conventional eddy current methods. A new type of probe is needed to detect the signals for the magnetic sludge. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils--a magnetizing coil and the other a detecting coil--and we simulated the signal induced by the ferromagnetic sludge in the Inconel 600 tube.

  17. EA-1778: Proposed Rule, 10 CFR 433 and 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Rule, 10 CFR Part 433, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and 10 CFR Part 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  18. An Internet-based interactive module for air emissions from fossil fuel based power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karman, D.; O`Leary, K.; O`Reilly, S.

    1997-12-31

    The proliferation of the Internet, Web pages and associated software tools available for developing multimedia material provides significant opportunities in training, education and information transfer. This paper will describe the development, testing and evaluation of an interactive teaching module aimed at college and university students that have previous education in thermodynamics and basic chemistry. The module is currently in development at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Carleton University with support from Environment Canada. Preliminary testing of this module is expected to begin late January. The module contains options to look at CO, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions associated with electric power generation in thermal stations that use coal, natural gas, crude and distillate oil. Factors governing the thermal efficiency of typical boiler systems and the thermodynamic limitations for converting heat into work are discussed. Supporting background information such as emission trends and emission factors used in calculations are also included as part of this module. A simple Rankine cycle without reheat or regeneration is considered to compare the emissions per unit energy delivered from each of the fuels considered. For natural gas and distillate oil, combined cycle operation is considered with a gas turbine-heat recovery steam generator combination replacing the boiler in the simple Rankine cycle. For all fuels, the cogeneration option is investigated by expanding the steam to an intermediate pressure in the turbine and utilizing the remaining heat by condensing the steam in a heat recovery application. Emission factors and basic information on CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control technologies are utilized to calculate and report the emissions per unit energy delivered under the various scenarios investigated.

  19. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Fossil-fuel power plants and power generation: Economic analysis. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning economic analyses and evaluations of utility and industrial fossil-fuel power generation. Coal-fired, oil-fired, and natural gas-fired electric power generating systems are discussed. Specific technologies, experiences, and locations are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Cost analysis for compliance with EPA's regional NOx emissions reductions for fossil-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.; Mann, A.; Ward, J.; Ramezan, M.

    1999-07-01

    To achieve a more stringent ambient-air ozone standard promulgated in 1997, the U.S. EPA has established summer NOx emissions limits for fossil-fired electric power generating units in the Ozone Transport Rulemaking region, consisting of 22 eastern and midwestern states and the District of Columbia. These jurisdictions are required to submit State Implementation Plans by September 1999 in response to EPA's rule, with compliance required by 2007. There are 1757 affected units in this region. In the present study, projected state-by-state growth rates for power production are used to estimate power production and NOx emissions by unit in the year 2007. NOx emissions reductions expected by January 1, 2000 due to Title IV compliance are estimated, leaving a substantial balance of emissions reductions to be achieved by post-combustion NOx control. Cost estimates are developed for achieving these remaining reductions.

  6. Corrosion test qualification for in situ stress relief of recirculating steam generators' U-bends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monter, J.V.; Miglin, B.P.; Lauer, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    Highly stressed alloy 600 is susceptible to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in high-purity water at nuclear steam generator (NSG) operating temperatures. Two regions in recirculating steam generators (RSG) are particularly prone to primary-side-initiated SCC: tube expansion transitions of the tube in the tubesheet and tight radii tube bends. One remedial measure to improve IGSCC in these regions is to heat the tubes and thus relieve the residual stresses that contribute significantly to the cracking problem. This article describes a corrosion test program using the accelerated SCC environments of sodium tetrathionate and sodium hydroxide to qualify an in situ stress-relief process for the most SCC-susceptible U-bends in an RSG.

  7. Initial operating results of coal-fired steam generators converted to 100% refuse-derived fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsin, J.A. ); Graika, P.K. ); Gonyeau, J.A. ); Bloomer, T.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The conversion of Northern States Power Company's (NSP) Red Wing and Wilmarth steam generators to fire refuse-derived fuel (RDF) is discussed. The use of the existing plant with the necessary modifications to the boilers has allowed NSP to effectively incinerate the fuel as required by Washington and Ramsey Counties. This paper covers the six-month start-up of Red Wing No. 1, commencing in May 1987, and the operating results since the plant went commercial in July 1987.

  8. Steam Technical Brief: Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  9. Fossil plant decommissioning: Tracking deferred costs in a competitive market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1995-06-15

    Widespread concern over nuclear plant decommissioning has triggered similar interest in the decommissioning of fossil-fired steam generating stations. This rising interest stems in part from the emergence of a competitive market in electric generation, which, among other things, threatens impairment of assets. Fossil decommissioning issues are not nearly as contentious as those that attend nuclear plants. Nevertheless, the magnitude of cost estimates for fossil decommissioning, when expressed as a percentage of station investment, is high enough to demand attention from accountants and regulators.

  10. Proceedings: 1983 Workshop on Secondary-Side Stress Corrosion Cracking and Intergranular Corrosion of PWR Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1986-03-01

    Participants in this international workshop discussed research investigating mechanisms and propagation rates of intergranular corrosion in PWR steam generators. Laboratory test results, which have been consistent with power plant experience, permitted preliminary definition of corrosion rates in alloy 600 tubing.

  11. Tsiklauri-Durst combined cycle (T-D Cycle{trademark}) application for nuclear and fossil-fueled power generating plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsiklauri, B.; Korolev, V.N.; Durst, B.M.; Shen, P.K.

    1998-07-01

    The Tsiklauri-Durst combined cycle is a combination of the best attributes of both nuclear power and combined cycle gas power plants. A technology patented in 1994 by Battelle Memorial Institute offers a synergistic approach to power generation. A typical combined cycle is defined as the combination of gas turbine Brayton Cycle, topping steam turbine Rankine Cycle. Exhaust from the gas turbine is used in heat recovery steam generators to produce steam for a steam turbine. In a standard combined cycle gas turbine-steam turbine application, the gas turbine generates about 65 to 70 percent of system power. The thermal efficiency for such an installation is typically about 45 to 50 percent. A T-D combined cycle takes a new, creative approach to combined cycle design by directly mixing high enthalpy steam from the heat recovery steam generator, involving the steam generator at more than one pressure. Direct mixing of superheated and saturated steam eliminates the requirement for a large heat exchanger, making plant modification simple and economical.

  12. Allowance markets, fossil generation trends and SO{sub 2} compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, K.; Hewson, T. Jr.; Van Horn, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates prospects and uncertainties in the emission allowance and emission control markets of concern to electric utilities required to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Over-control in Phase One, 1995 through 1999, is projected to produce a surplus of about 10 million tons of banked emission allowances that can later be drawn down to delay costly controls otherwise required in Phase Two, starting in year 2000. Trading of emission allowances in Phase Two is projected to reach roughly 1.5 million tons per year. Aversion to trading may slightly depress the price of allowances. Long term (2010) allowance prices are estimated to fall in the $350--600 per ton range (1994$), depending on fossil generation levels. When discounted to reflect major uncertainties, this range may be consistent with today`s low prices. The delay of Phase Two controls may cause some projected Phase Two costs to fall beyond short planning horizons that are reflective of high levels of uncertainty. Such short planning horizons make FGD retrofits less attractive than longer term evaluations would suggest. Barring major developments, the authors anticipate allowance prices and trading volumes to move more in line with long term expectations (with appropriate discounting) as Phase Two approaches.

  13. Method and apparatus for steam mixing a nuclear fueled electricity generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a nuclear electrical generation system that comprises the addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant that results in a surprising increase in plant performance. More particularly, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler is installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  14. Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

    2012-09-01

    Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

  15. In-situ stress relief of expanded Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.; McIlree, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is the most common cause of defects in steam generator tubing. Methods of averting tubing damage are constantly under review. This paper concentrates on the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here discusses the identification and implementation of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  17. MELCOR Analysis of Steam Generator Tube Creep Rupture in Station Blackout Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Y.; Vierow, K. [Purdue University (United States)

    2005-12-15

    A pressurized water reactor steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) is of concern because it represents a bypass of the containment for radioactive materials to the environment. In a station blackout accident, tube integrity could be threatened by creep rupture, particularly if cracks are present in the tube walls. Methods are developed herein to improve assessment capabilities for SGTR by using the severe-accident code MELCOR. Best-estimate assumptions based on recent research and computational fluid dynamics calculations are applied in the MELCOR analysis to simulate two-dimensional natural circulation and to determine the relative creep-rupture timing in the reactor coolant pressure boundary components. A new method is developed to estimate the steam generator (SG) hottest tube wall temperature and the tube critical crack size for the SG tubes to fail first. The critical crack size for SG tubes to fail first is estimated to be 20% of the wall thickness larger than by a previous analysis. Sensitivity studies show that the failure sequence would change if some assumptions are modified. In particular, the uncertainty in the countercurrent flow limit model could reverse the failure sequence of the SG tubes and surge line.

  18. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

  19. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  20. Economizer recirculation for low-load stability in heat recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuscino, R.T.; Shade, R.L. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    An economizer system is described for heating feedwater in a heat recovery steam generator which consists of: at least first and second economizer tube planes; each of the economizer tube planes including a plurality of generally parallel tubes; the tubes being generally vertically disposed; each of the economizer tube planes including a top header and a bottom header; all of the plurality of tubes in each economizer tube plane being connected in parallel to their top and bottom headers whereby parallel feedwater flow through the plurality of tubes between the top and bottom headers is enabled; one of the top and bottom headers being an inlet header; a second of the top and bottom headers being an outlet header; a boiler feed pump; the boiler feed pump being effective for applying a flow of feedwater to the inlet header; means for serially interconnecting the economizer tube planes; the means for serially interconnecting including means for flowing the feedwater upward and downward in tubes of alternating ones of the economizer tube planes between the inlet header and the outlet header; means for conveying heated feedwater from the outlet header to a using process; means for recirculating at least a portion of the heated feedwater from the outlet header to an inlet of the boiler feed pump; and the means for recirculating including means for relating the portion to a steam load in the using process whereby an increased flow is produced through all of the economizer tube planes at values of the steam load below a predetermined value and a condition permitting initiation of reverse flow in any of the tubes is substantially reduced.

  1. Control Scheme Modifications Increase Efficiency of Steam Generation System at Exxon Mobil Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights control scheme modifications made to the steam system at ExxonMobil's Mary Ann Gas Plant in Mobile, Alabama, which improved steam flow efficiency and reduced energy costs.

  2. An expanded review and comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel and geothermal electrical generating facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, R.B.; Neil, P.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper provides a review of the greenhouse gas emissions due to fossil fuel and geothermal electrical generation and to the emissions of their respective support activities. These support activities consist of, exploration, development, and transportation aspects of the fuel source, including waste management. These support activities could amount to an additional 6% for coal, 22% for oil, 13% for natural gas and 1% for geothermal. The presented methodologies and underlying principles can be used to better define the resultant emissions, rankings and global impacts of these electrical generating industries.

  3. Recovery of tritium dissolved in sodium at the steam generator of fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oya, Y.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.; Okuno, K.

    2008-07-15

    The tritium recovery technique in steam generators for fast breeder reactors using the double pipe concept was proposed. The experimental system for developing an effective tritium recovery technique was developed and tritium recovery experiments using Ar gas or Ar gas with 10-10000 ppm oxygen gas were performed using D{sub 2} gas instead of tritium gas. It was found that deuterium permeation through two membranes decreased by installing the double pipe concept with Ar gas. By introducing Ar gas with 10000 ppm oxygen gas, the concentration of deuterium permeation through two membranes decreased by more than 1/200, compared with the one pipe concept, indicating that most of the deuterium was scavenged by Ar gas or reacted with oxygen to form a hydroxide. However, most of the hydroxide was trapped at the surface of the membranes because of the short duration of the experiment. (authors)

  4. Primary water stress corrosion crack growth rates in Alloy 600 steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lott, R.G.; Jacko, R.J.; Gold, R.E.

    1992-12-31

    Direct measurements of SCC crack growth rates have been used to determine the effects of changes in PWR primary water chemistry on the stress corrosion cracking behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Reversing current DC potential measurement techniques have been adapted for use on thin walled tubing containing through-wall circumferential cracks. These techniques have been used to monitor crack rates in Alloy 600 tubing exposed to typical PWR primary water chemistries at 330{degrees}C. Crack growth rate studies, conducted under well defined stress intensity conditions, provide a sensitivity in the assessment of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility that is not possible using more traditional techniques. Preliminary studies have been conducted to determine the effects of B and Li concentrations on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of Alloy 600 tubing.

  5. Observations and insights into Pb-assisted stress corrosion cracking of alloy 600 steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, L.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2005-08-15

    Pb-assisted stress-corrosion cracking (PbSCC) of Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing in high-temperature-water service and laboratory tests were studied by analytical transmission electron microscopy of cross-sectioned samples. Examinations of pulled tubes from many pressurized water reactors revealed lead in cracks from 11 of 17 samples. Comparisons of the degraded intergranular structures with ones produced in simple laboratory tests with PbO in near-neutral AVT water showed that the PbSCC characteristics in service tubing could be reproduced without complex chemistries and heat-flow conditions that can occur during plant operation. Observations of intergranular and transgranular cracks promoted by Pb in the test samples also provided new insights into the mechanisms of PbSCC in mill-annealed and thermally treated Alloy 600.

  6. Performance demonstration tests for eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Anderson, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes the methodology and results for development of performance demonstration tests for eddy current (ET) inspection of steam generator tubes. Statistical test design principles were used to develop the performance demonstration tests. Thresholds on ET system inspection performance were selected to ensure that field inspection systems would have a high probability of detecting and and correctly sizing tube degradation. The technical basis for the ET system performance thresholds is presented in detail. Statistical test design calculations for probability of detection and flaw sizing tests are described. A recommended performance demonstration test based on the design calculations is presented. A computer program for grading the probability of detection portion of the performance demonstration test is given.

  7. A Review of Some Degradation Mechanisms in CANDU Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogundele, G.; Clark, M.; Goszczynski, G.; Lloyd, A.; Pagan, S.; Sedman, K.; King, P.

    2006-07-01

    The first CANDU (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) went into operation in July 1971. Today, there are several units in operation at the Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington sites in Ontario, Canada. The steam generator tubing materials were manufactured from Monel 400, Inconel 600, and Incoloy 800 for the Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington respectively and are subjected to different operating conditions. This paper presents a review of some of the various types of degradation mechanisms that have been observed on these tubing materials over the operating period of the respective plants. The results presented are based on the metallurgical examination of removed tubes. The mechanisms that have been observed include pitting, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular attack, fretting, and erosion corrosion. The nature of the flaws and causative factors (if known) are discussed. (authors)

  8. Stress relief treatment of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Rooyen, D.; Cragnolino, C.

    1994-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of Alloy 600 tubing in the primary side of operating steam generators is the subject of this investigation. The objective of the program was to examine the feasibility of heat treatment to alleviate the IGSCC problem. In addition to this, tests were also performed to examine the IGSCC susceptibility of nuclear grade Alloy 600 tubing obtained from various sources. Examination of temperature-time combinations that may hold potential for improved IGSCC resistance of the transition regions of tubes expanded into tube sheet holes was done. The combinations fall in two categories. One is of short duration and relatively high temperature, where induction is the best method of heating because the treatment only lasts from some tens of seconds to a few minutes. The other is carried out in a lower temperature range and lasts for several hours. This latter combination of temperatures and times is considered for the so-called global heat treatment of entire tube sheet. To assess the effect of these treatments, reverse U-bend testing in high purity deaerated water containing an overpressure of hydrogen was employed and several heats of Alloy 600 were compared in tests at 365{degrees}C, which is well above actual operating temperatures of steam generators, but provides an accelerated test procedure. Results of furnace heating in the range of 550-610{degrees}C indicated improvement in IGSCC resistance, with best performance after a heat treatment at 610{degrees}C for nine hours. In addition to stress relief, carbide precipitation can also occur, and their relative contributions to the improvement is discussed.

  9. GENERATION, TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF TUNGSTEN-OXIDE AEROSOLS AT 1000 C IN FLOWING AIR-STEAM MIXTURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2001-10-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the rates of oxidation and vaporization of pure tungsten rods in flowing air, steam and air-steam mixtures in laminar flow. Also measured were the downstream transport of tungsten-oxide condensation aerosols and their region of deposition, including plateout in the superheated flow tube, rainout in the condenser and ambient discharge which was collected on an array of sub-micron aerosol filters. The nominal conditions of the tests, with the exception of the first two tests, were tungsten temperatures of 1000 C, gas mixture temperatures of 200 C and wall temperatures of 150 C to 200 C. It was observed that the tungsten oxidation rates were greatest in all air and least in all steam, generally decreasing non-linearly with increasing steam mole fraction. The tungsten oxidation rates in all air were more than five times greater than the tungsten oxidation rates in all steam. The tungsten vaporization rate was zero in all air and increased with increasing steam mole fraction. The vaporization rate became maximum at a steam mole fraction of 0.85 and decreased thereafter as the steam mole fraction was increased to unity. The tungsten-oxide was transported downstream as condensation aerosols, initially flowing upwards from the tungsten rod through an 18-inch long, one-inch diameter quartz tube, around a 3.5-inch radius, 90{sup o} bend and laterally through a 24-inch horizontal run. The entire length of the quartz glass flow path was heated by electrical resistance clamshell heaters whose temperatures were individually controlled and measured. The tungsten-oxide plateout in the quartz tube was collected, nearly all of which was deposited at the end of the heated zone near the entrance to the condenser which was cold. The tungsten-oxide which rained out in the condenser as the steam condensed was collected with the condensate and weighed after being dried. The aerosol smoke which escaped the condenser was collected on the sub-micron filter assemblies. There was no aerosol generation for the case of all air, so the plateout, condensate and smoke were all zero. For the case of all steam, there was very little plateout in the superheated regions (several percent) and the rest of the aerosol was collected in the condensate from the condenser. There was no smoke discharge into the filters. For the experiments with intermediate air-steam fractions, there was some aerosol plateout, considerable aerosol in the condensate and aerosol smoke discharged from the condenser with the escaping air.

  10. Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) at Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Alan Mays; Bert R. Bock; Gregory A. Brodie; L. Suzanne Fisher; J. Devereux Joslin; Donald L. Kachelman; Jimmy J. Maddox; N. S. Nicholas; Larry E. Shelton; Nick Taylor; Mark H. Wolfe; Dennis H. Yankee; John Goodrich-Mahoney

    2005-08-30

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Department of Energy-National Energy Technologies Laboratory (DOE-NETL) are evaluating and demonstrating integration of terrestrial carbon sequestration techniques at a coal-fired electric power plant through the use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system gypsum as a soil amendment and mulch, and coal fly ash pond process water for periodic irrigation. From January to March 2002, the Project Team initiated the construction of a 40 ha Carbon Capture and Water Emissions Treatment System (CCWESTRS) near TVA's Paradise Fossil Plant on marginally reclaimed surface coal mine lands in Kentucky. The CCWESTRS is growing commercial grade trees and cover crops and is expected to sequester 1.5-2.0 MT/ha carbon per year over a 20-year period. The concept could be used to meet a portion of the timber industry's needs while simultaneously sequestering carbon in lands which would otherwise remain non-productive. The CCWESTRS includes a constructed wetland to enhance the ability to sequester carbon and to remove any nutrients and metals present in the coal fly ash process water runoff. The CCWESTRS project is a cooperative effort between TVA, EPRI, and DOE-NETL, with a total budget of $1,574,000. The proposed demonstration project began in October 2000 and has continued through December 2005. Additional funding is being sought in order to extend the project. The primary goal of the project is to determine if integrating power plant processes with carbon sequestration techniques will enhance carbon sequestration cost-effectively. This goal is consistent with DOE objectives to provide economically competitive and environmentally safe options to offset projected growth in U.S. baseline emissions of greenhouse gases after 2010, achieve the long-term goal of $10/ton of avoided net costs for carbon sequestration, and provide half of the required reductions in global greenhouse gases by 2025. Other potential benefits of the demonstration include developing a passive technology for water treatment for trace metal and nutrient release reductions, using power plant by-products to improve coal mine land reclamation and carbon sequestration, developing wildlife habitat and green-space around production facilities, generating Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) credits for the use of process water, and producing wood products for use by the lumber and pulp and paper industry. Project activities conducted during the five year project period include: Assessing tree cultivation and other techniques used to sequester carbon; Project site assessment; Greenhouse studies to determine optimum plant species and by-product application; Designing, constructing, operating, monitoring, and evaluating the CCWESTRS system; and Reporting (ongoing). The ability of the system to sequester carbon will be the primary measure of effectiveness, measured by accessing survival and growth response of plants within the CCWESTRS. In addition, costs associated with design, construction, and monitoring will be evaluated and compared to projected benefits of other carbon sequestration technologies. The test plan involves the application of three levels each of two types of power plant by-products--three levels of FGD gypsum mulch, and three levels of ash pond irrigation water. This design produces nine treatment levels which are being tested with two species of hardwood trees (sweet gum and sycamore). The project is examining the effectiveness of applications of 0, 8-cm, and 15-cm thick gypsum mulch layers and 0, 13 cm, and 25 cm of coal fly ash water for irrigation. Each treatment combination is being replicated three times, resulting in a total of 54 treatment plots (3 FGD gypsum levels X 3 irrigation water levels x 2 tree species x 3 replicates). Survival and growth response of plant species in terms of sequestering carbon in plant material and soil will be the primary measure of effectiveness of each treatment. Additionally, the ability of the site soils and unsaturated zone subsurface m

  11. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  12. Steam Generator Component Model in a Combined Cycle of Power Conversion Unit for Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Chang H; Han, James; Barner, Robert; Sherman, Steven R

    2007-06-01

    The Department of Energy and the Idaho National Laboratory are developing a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to serve as a demonstration of state-of-the-art nuclear technology. The purpose of the demonstration is two fold 1) efficient low cost energy generation and 2) hydrogen production. Although a next generation plant could be developed as a single-purpose facility, early designs are expected to be dual-purpose. While hydrogen production and advanced energy cycles are still in its early stages of development, research towards coupling a high temperature reactor, electrical generation and hydrogen production is under way. A combined cycle is considered as one of the power conversion units to be coupled to the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The combined cycle configuration consists of a Brayton top cycle coupled to a Rankine bottoming cycle by means of a steam generator. A detailed sizing and pressure drop model of a steam generator is not available in the HYSYS processes code. Therefore a four region model was developed for implementation into HYSYS. The focus of this study was the validation of a HYSYS steam generator model of two phase flow correlations. The correlations calculated the size and heat exchange of the steam generator. To assess the model, those calculations were input into a RELAP5 model and its results were compared with HYSYS results. The comparison showed many differences in parameters such as the heat transfer coefficients and revealed the different methods used by the codes. Despite differences in approach, the overall results of heat transfer were in good agreement.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for application in heat exchangers and core internals for the NGNP. The primary candidates are Inconel 617, Haynes 230, Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR. Based on the technical maturity, availability in required product forms, experience base, and high temperature mechanical properties all of the vendor pre-conceptual design studies have specified Alloy 617 as the material of choice for heat exchangers. Also a draft code case for Alloy 617 was developed previously. Although action was suspended before the code case was accepted by ASME, this draft code case provides a significant head start for achieving codification of the material. Similarly, Alloy 800H is the material of choice for control rod sleeves. In addition to the above listed considerations, Alloy 800H is already listed in the nuclear section of the ASME Code; although the maximum use temperature and time need to be increased.

  14. Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patti, F.J.

    1996-03-01

    Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today`s world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal.

  15. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  16. Neutron measurements of the fuel remaining in the TMI II once-through steam generators (OTSG'S)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geelhood, B.D.; Abel, K.H.

    1989-02-01

    Polypropylene tubes containing a string of 18 copper rods were inserted into the lower head region and each J-leg of the two once-through steam generators (OTSG) of the unit two reactor at Three Mile Island. The object was to measure the neutron flux present in those regions and estimate the amount of residual fuel remaining in each OTSG. The neutron flux from any residual fuel induces a radioisotope, /sup 64/Cu, in the copper coupons. The /sup 64/Cu activity is detected by coincidence counting the two 511-keV gamma rays produced by the annihilation of the positron emitted in the decay of /sup 64/Cu. The copper coupons were placed between two 6-inch diameter, 6-inch long NaI(Tl) crystals and the electronics produced a coincidence count whenever the two gamma rays were uniquely detected. The net coincidence count is proportional to the amount of /sup 64/Cu activity in the coupon. This document discusses calculation methods, statistical methods, and results of this research. 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  17. Continuous-wave radar to detect defects within heat exchangers and steam generator tubes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassersharif, Bahram (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Caffey, Thurlow Washburn Howell; Jedlicka, Russell P.; Garcia, Gabe V. (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A major cause of failures in heat exchangers and steam generators in nuclear power plants is degradation of the tubes within them. The tube failure is often caused by the development of cracks that begin on the outer surface of the tube and propagate both inwards and laterally. A new technique was researched for detection of defects using a continuous-wave radar method within metal tubing. The experimental program resulted in a completed product development schedule and the design of an experimental apparatus for studying handling of the probe and data acquisition. These tests were completed as far as the prototypical probe performance allowed. The prototype probe design did not have sufficient sensitivity to detect a defect signal using the defined radar technique and did not allow successful completion of all of the project milestones. The best results from the prototype probe could not detect a tube defect using the radar principle. Though a more precision probe may be possible, the cost of design and construction was beyond the scope of the project. This report describes the probe development and the status of the design at the termination of the project.

  18. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.; Mulac, A.J.

    1980-10-10

    An apparatus is described for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  19. Control of alkaline stress corrosion cracking in pressurized-water reactor steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, I.S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Park, I.G. . Div. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1999-06-01

    Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubings in steam generators of the Kori-1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR) caused an unscheduled outage in 1994. Failure analysis and remedy development studies were undertaken to avoid a recurrence. Destructive examination of a removed tube indicated axial intergranular cracks developed at the top of sludge caused by a boiling crevice geometry. A high ODSCC propagation rate was attributed to high local pH and increased corrosion potential resulting from oxidized copper presumably formed during the maintenance outage and plant heatup. Remedial measures included: (1) crevice neutralization by crevice flushing with boric acid (H[sub 3]BO[sub 3]) and molar ratio control using ammonium chloride (NH[sub 4]Cl), (2) corrosion potential reduction by hydrazine (H[sub 2]NNH[sub 2]) soaking and suppression of oxygen below 20 ppb to avoid copper oxide formation, (3) titanium dioxide (TiO[sub 2]) inhibitor soaking, and (4) temperature reduction of 5 C. Since application of the remedy program, no significant ODSCC has been observed, which clearly demonstrates the benefit of departing from an oxidizing alkaline environment. In addition, the TiO[sub 2] inhibitor appeared to have a positive effect, warranting further examination.

  20. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators - Steam Tip Sheet #22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing high-pressure boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues; A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-11-01

    A BestPractices Technical Brief describing industrial steam generation systems and opportunities for reducing steam system operating pressure.

  2. Evaluation of anticipatory signal to steam generator pressure control program for 700 MWe Indian pressurized heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahari, S.; Hajela, S.; Rammohan, H. P.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) is horizontal channel type reactor with partial boiling at channel outlet. Due to boiling, it has a large volume of vapor present in the primary loops. It has two primary loops connected with the help of pressurizer surge line. The pressurizer has a large capacity and is partly filled by liquid and partly by vapor. Large vapor volume improves compressibility of the system. During turbine trip or load rejection, pressure builds up in Steam Generator (SG). This leads to pressurization of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS). To control pressurization of SG and PHTS, around 70% of the steam generated in SG is dumped into the condenser by opening Condenser Steam Dump Valves (CSDVs) and rest of the steam is released to the atmosphere by opening Atmospheric Steam Discharge Valves (ASDVs) immediately after sensing the event. This is accomplished by adding anticipatory signal to the output of SG pressure controller. Anticipatory signal is proportional to the thermal power of reactor and the proportionality constant is set so that SG pressure controller's output jacks up to ASDV opening range when operating at 100% FP. To simulate this behavior for 700 MWe IPHWR, Primary and secondary heat transport system is modeled. SG pressure control and other process control program have also been modeled to capture overall plant dynamics. Analysis has been carried out with 3-D neutron kinetics coupled thermal hydraulic computer code ATMIKA.T to evaluate the effect of the anticipatory signal on PHT pressure and over all plant dynamics during turbine trip in 700 MWe IPHWR. This paper brings out the results of the analysis with and without considering anticipatory signal in SG pressure control program during turbine trip. (authors)

  3. The influence of dissolved hydrogen on primary water stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 at PWR steam generator operating temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacko, R.J.; Economy, G.; Pement, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    PWR primary coolant chemistry uses an intentional dissolved hydrogen concentration of 20 to 50 ml (STP)/kg of water to effect a net suppression of oxygen-producing radiolysis, to minimize corrosion in primary loop materials and to maintain a low redox potential. Speculation has attended a possible influence of dissolved hydrogen on the kinetics of initiation of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) behavior of Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Three series of experiments are presented for conditions in which the level of dissolved hydrogen was intentionally varied over the hydrogen and temperature ranges of interest for steam generator operation. No significant effect of dissolved hydrogen was found on PWSCC of Alloy 600.

  4. Analytical TEM Comparisons of Stress-Corrosion-Crack Microstructure in Alloy 600 under Steam-Generator Service and Laboratory Test Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Scott, Peter M.

    2002-05-31

    High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) been used to characterize stress-corrosion cracks in Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing from tests with caustic and acid-sulfate solutions. The aim of this work was to identify the microstructural and microchemical signatures of intergranular attack and cracking produced under well-controlled test conditions in order to determine the local environments promoting degradation in service. The examinations are part of an experimental program devoted to a study of IGA/IGSCC in steam generator tube alloys supported by the Framatome Owners Group via its Steam Generator Technical Committee.

  5. Effect of steam generator configuration in a loss of the RHR during mid-loop operation at PKL facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villanueva, J. F.; Carlos, S.; Martorell, S.; Sanchez, F.

    2012-07-01

    The loss of the residual heat removal system in mid-loop conditions may occur with a non-negligible contribution to the plant risk, so the analysis of the accidental sequences and the actions to mitigate the accident are of great interest in shutdown conditions. In order to plan the appropriate measures to mitigate the accident is necessary to understand the thermal-hydraulic processes following the loss of the residual heat removal system during shutdown. Thus, transients of this kind have been simulated using best-estimate codes in different integral test facilities and compared with experimental data obtained in different facilities. In PKL (Primaerkreislauf-Versuchsanlage, primary coolant loop test facility) test facility different series of experiments have been undertaken to analyze the plant response in shutdown. In this context, the E3 and F2 series consist of analyzing the loss of the residual heat removal system with a reduced inventory in the primary system. In particular, the experiments were developed to investigate the influence of the steam generators secondary side configuration on the plant response, what involves the consideration of different number of steam generators filled with water and ready for activation, on the heat transfer mechanisms inside the steam generators U-tubes. This work presents the results of such experiments calculated using, RELAP5/Mod 3.3. (authors)

  6. Fuzzy Logic Controller Architecture for Water Level Control in Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generator (SG) Using ANFIS Training Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Naseri, Zahra

    2002-07-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a Fuzzy logic controller architecture is applied to show desired control of the water level in a Nuclear steam generator. with regard to the physics of the system, it is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial member functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generators while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input output mapping based on both human knowledge (in from of Fuzzy if then rules) and stipulated input output data. In this paper with a simple test it has been shown that the architecture fuzzy logic controller has a reasonable response to one step input at a constant power. Through computer simulation, it is found that Fuzzy logic controller is suitable, especially for the water level deviation and abrupt steam flow disturbances that are typical in the existing power plant. (authors)

  7. Battery-free Wireless Sensor Network For Advanced Fossil-Fuel Based Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Jia

    2011-02-28

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the project supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-07NT4306. The aim of the project was to conduct basic research into battery-free wireless sensing mechanism in order to develop novel wireless sensors and sensor network for physical and chemical parameter monitoring in a harsh environment. Passive wireless sensing platform and five wireless sensors including temperature sensor, pressure sensor, humidity sensor, crack sensor and networked sensors developed and demonstrated in our laboratory setup have achieved the objective for the monitoring of various physical and chemical parameters in a harsh environment through remote power and wireless sensor communication, which is critical to intelligent control of advanced power generation system. This report is organized by the sensors developed as detailed in each progress report.

  8. Some aspects of the selection of materials for high temperature service in fossil fuel power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birks, N.

    1999-07-01

    The electric power industry, converting heat into electricity, is concerned with two primary parameters, reliability and efficiency. In order to satisfy the reliability criteria, it is preferred to use well known and well tried materials well within their ultimate performance limits. In order to improve the economics of the process, it is attempted first to optimize the process and then to alter the operational parameters in order to increase the efficiency of the cycle used. The efficiency of the thermal cycle used depends primarily on its upper and lower temperature limits. For instance, it is well known that a plant operating in regions where the water supply is cooler demonstrate higher efficiencies than a plant that operates in warmer climates. For practical purposes however, it is the upper temperature limit of the cycle that must be increased to improve efficiency. This immediately requires that materials be selected, for the high temperature components, that can operate safely and continuously under these conditions, that also include aggressive, corrosive atmospheres. The need to consider higher operating temperatures opens up the range of materials being studied to include alloys that are established for high temperature use in other applications as well as new, mainly untried materials. The conditions under which a heat exchanger for electric power generation must operate are so different from other applications that nearly all materials, alternative to those now in use, must be approached as new and undergo extensive testing for coding. Few materials are available for use in this application off the shelf.

  9. Improvement design study on steam generator of MHR-50/100 aiming higher safety level after water ingress accident

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyama, S.; Minatsuki, I.; Shimizu, K.

    2012-07-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been studying on MHI original High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR), namely MHR-50/100, for commercialization with supported by JAEA. In the heat transfer system, steam generator (SG) is one of the most important components because it should be imposed a function of heat transfer from reactor power to steam turbine system and maintaining a nuclear grade boundary. Then we especially focused an effort of a design study on the SG having robustness against water ingress accident based on our design experience of PWR, FBR and HTGR. In this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis from the view point of economic and plant efficiency. As a result, the SG design parameter of helium inlet/outlet temperature of 750 deg. C/300 deg. C, a side-by-side layout and one unit of SG attached to a reactor were selected. In the next, a design improvement of SG was carried out from the view point of securing the level of inherent safety without reliance on active steam dump system during water ingress accident considering the situation of the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster on March 11, 2011. Finally, according to above basic design requirement to SG, we performed a conceptual design on adapting themes of SG structure improvement. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  11. Review of Dissimilar Metal Welding for the NGNP Helical-Coil Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John N. DuPont

    2010-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently funding research and development of a new high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) that is capable of providing high temperature process heat for industry. The steam generator of the HTGR will consist of an evaporator economizer section in the lower portion and a finishing superheater section in the upper portion. Alloy 800H is expected to be used for the superheater section, and 2.25Cr 1Mo steel is expected to be used for the evaporator economizer section. Dissimilar metal welds (DMW) will be needed to join these two materials. It is well known that failure of DMWs can occur well below the expected creep life of either base metal and well below the design life of the plant. The failure time depends on a wide range of factors related to service conditions, welding parameters, and alloys involved in the DMW. The overall objective of this report is to review factors associated with premature failure of DMWs operating at elevated temperatures and identify methods for extending the life of the 2.25Cr 1Mo steel to alloy 800H welds required in the new HTGR. Information is provided on a variety of topics pertinent to DMW failures, including microstructural evolution, failure mechanisms, creep rupture properties, aging behavior, remaining life estimation techniques, effect of environment on creep rupture properties, best practices, and research in progress to improve DMW performance. The microstructure of DMWs in the as welded condition consists of a sharp chemical concentration gradient across the fusion line that separates the ferritic and austenitic alloys. Upon cooling from the weld thermal cycle, a band of martensite forms within this concentration gradient due to high hardenability and the relatively rapid cooling rates associated with welding. Upon aging, during post weld heat treatment (PWHT), and/or during high temperature service, C diffuses down the chemical potential gradient from the ferritic 2.25Cr 1Mo steel toward the austenitic alloy. This can lead to formation of a soft C denuded zone near the interface on the ferritic steel, and nucleation and growth of carbides on the austenitic side that are associated with very high hardness. These large differences in microstructure and hardness occur over very short distances across the fusion line (~ 50 100 ?m). A band of carbides also forms along the fusion line in the ferritic side of the joint. The difference in hardness across the fusion line increases with increasing aging time due to nucleation and growth of the interfacial carbides. Premature failure of DMWs is generally attributed to several primary factors, including: the sharp change in microstructure and mechanical properties across the fusion line, the large difference in coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between the ferritic and austenitic alloys, formation of interfacial carbides that lead to creep cavity formation, and preferential oxidation of the ferritic steel near the fusion line. In general, the large gradient in mechanical properties and CTE serve to significantly concentrate the stress along the fusion where a creep susceptible microstructure has evolved during aging. Presence of an oxide notch can concentrate the stress even further. Details of the failure mechanism and the relative importance of each factor varies.

  12. Steam Oxidation of Advanced Steam Turbine Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2008-01-01

    Power generation from coal using ultra supercritical steam results in improved fuel efficiency and decreased greenhouse gas emissions. Results of ongoing research into the oxidation of candidate nickel-base alloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines are presented. Exposure conditions range from moist air at atmospheric pressure (650C to 800C) to steam at 34.5 MPa (650C to 760C). Parabolic scale growth coupled with internal oxidation and reactive evaporation of chromia are the primary corrosion mechanisms.

  13. A Numerical Model Without Truncation Error for a Steady-State Analysis of a Once-Through Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Eui Kwang; Eoh, Jae Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To overcome the drawbacks of conventional schemes for a numerical analysis of a steam generator (SG), an efficient numerical model has been developed to analyze the steady state of a once-through-type SG where the feedwater is heated to superheated steam. In the developed model, the temperature and enthalpy are defined at the boundary of a calculation cell, and the exact solutions for the temperature distribution in a calculation cell are utilized. This feature of the developed model frees calculation from the undesirable effects of numerical diffusion, and only a small number of nodes are required. Also, the developed model removes the ambiguity from the parameter values at the inlet and exit of a calculation.The BoSupSG-SS computer code was developed by using the analysis model, and it performed well with only three calculation nodes to analyze a superheated SG. The developed model can be effectively used for the cases where a fast one-dimensional calculation is required such as an SG or system design analysis.

  14. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  15. Steam generator behavior during loss-of-feedwater and loss-of-offsite-power ATWS experiments in LOFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, Y.; Behling, S.R.; Grush, W.H.

    1983-11-01

    Two Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) experiments, L9-3 and L9-4, were conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/44) pressurized water reactor (PWR) system with a nuclear core and is designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident/emergency core cooling experiments. Experiment L9-3 simulated a loss-of-feedwater ATWS in a commercial PWR; Experiment L9-4 simulated a loss-of-offsite-power ATWS. The system transient behavior in each experiment was dominated by interaction between the primary-to-secondary heat removal rate in the steam generator and by reactor kinetics in the core. Comparisons of RELAP5/MOD1 calculational results to the measured test data show that the degradation of the primary-to-secondary heat transfer and the transient response of the primary coolant system in both experiments were calculated well.

  16. Investigation of particulate corrosion product transients in the primary coolant of the Winfrith steam generating heavy water reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Means, F.A.; Rodliffe, R.S.; Harding, K.

    1980-03-01

    Equipment for on-line counting and sizing of particles has been used to sample coolant from the primary circuit of a water reactor (the Winfrith steam generating heavy water reactor). The particle size distribution is compared with a determination by electron microscopic examination of a filter sample and is shown to be in good agreement. The technique allows transients in coolant-borne particle concentrations to be sufficiently resolved for analysis in terms of postulated particle deposition and resuspension behavior. The deposition behavior is found to be describable by a first-order rate process with rate constants smaller than those that would be predicted from mass transfer considerations. It is concluded that deposition cannot be limited by mass transfer alone.

  17. Life Estimation of PWR Steam Generator U-Tubes Subjected to Foreign Object-Induced Fretting Wear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Jhung, Myung Jo; Kim, Woong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2005-10-15

    This paper presents an approach to the remaining life prediction of steam generator (SG) U-tubes, which are intact initially, subjected to fretting-wear degradation due to the interaction between a vibrating tube and a foreign object in operating nuclear power plants. The operating SG shell-side flow field conditions are obtained from a three-dimensional SG flow calculation using the ATHOS3 code. Modal analyses are performed for the finite element models of U-tubes to get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and participation factor. The wear rate of a U-tube caused by a foreign object is calculated using the Archard formula, and the remaining life of the tube is predicted. Also discussed in this study are the effects of the tube modal characteristics, external flow velocity, and tube internal pressure on the estimated results of the remaining life of the tube.

  18. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley; Lu, Baofu; Huang, Xuedong; Penha, Rosani, L.; Perillo, Sergio, R.; Zhao, Ke

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 ???????????????????????????????? September 2004. ???????????????????????????????· Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. ???????????????????????????????· Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. ???????????????????????????????· Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. ???????????????????????????????· Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. ???????????????????????????????· Development of advanced signal processing methods using wavelet transforms and image processing techniques for isolating flaw types. ???????????????????????????????· Development and implementation of a new nonlinear and non-stationary signal processing method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for flaw detection and location. This is a more robust and adaptive approach compared to the wavelet transform

  19. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal processing methods using wavelet transforms and image processing techniques for isolating flaw types. (6) Development and implementation of a new nonlinear and non-stationary signal processing method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), for flaw detection and location. This is a more robust and adaptive approach compared to the wavelet transform. (7) Implementation of a moving-window technique in the time domain for detecting and quantifying flaw types in tubular structures. A window zooming technique was also developed for flaw location in tubes. (8) Theoretical study of elastic wave propagation (longitudinal and shear waves) in metallic flat plates and tubing with and without flaws. (9) Simulation of the Lamb wave propagation using the finite-element code ABAQUS. This enabled the verification of the experimental results. The research tasks included both analytical research and experimental studies. The experimental results helped to enhance the robustness of fault monitoring methods and to provide a systematic verification of the analytical results. The results of this research were disseminated in scientific meetings. A journal manuscript was submitted for publication. The new findings of this research have potential applications in aerospace and civil structures. The report contains a complete bibliography that was developed during the course of the project.

  20. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief History of Coal Use in the United...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History Fossil Energy Study Guides A Brief History of Coal Use Steam Locomotive - In the 1800s, one of the primary uses of coal was to fuel steam engines used to power locomotives. ...

  1. In situ generation of steam and alkaline surfactant for enhanced oil recovery using an exothermic water reactant (EWR)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P

    2011-05-24

    A method for oil recovery whereby an exothermic water reactant (EWR) encapsulated in a water soluble coating is placed in water and pumped into one or more oil wells in contact with an oil bearing formation. After the water carries the EWR to the bottom of the injection well, the water soluble coating dissolves and the EWR reacts with the water to produce heat, an alkali solution, and hydrogen. The heat from the EWR reaction generates steam, which is forced into the oil bearing formation where it condenses and transfers heat to the oil, elevating its temperature and decreasing the viscosity of the oil. The aqueous alkali solution mixes with the oil in the oil bearing formation and forms a surfactant that reduces the interfacial tension between the oil and water. The hydrogen may be used to react with the oil at these elevated temperatures to form lighter molecules, thus upgrading to a certain extent the oil in situ. As a result, the oil can flow more efficiently and easily through the oil bearing formation towards and into one or more production wells.

  2. Simulation of the loss of RHR during midloop operations and the role of steam generators in decay heat removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja, L.L.; Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Loss of residual heat removal (RHR) during midloop operations was simulated using the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code for a typical four-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) under reduced inventory level. Two cases are considered here: one for an intact reactor coolant system with no vents and the other for an open system with a vent in the pressurizer. The effect of air on the transients was studied, unlike the RETRAN analysis of core boiling during midloop operations performed by Fujita and Rice, which did not analyze the presence of air in the system. The steam generators have water in the secondary covering the U-tubes. The system gets pressurized once water starts boiling in the core with higher system pressures for the vent-closed case. Reflux condensation occurs in the U-tubes aiding decay heat removal and preventing complete uncovery of the core. Sudden pressurization of the hot leg and vessel upper head causes the reactor vessel to act as a manometer reducing the core level and raising the downcomer level. Fuel centerline and clad temperatures are below safety limits throughout the transients.

  3. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  4. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, James C.; Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-07-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR. (authors)

  5. Base-Load and Peak Electricity from a Combined Nuclear Heat and Fossil Combined-Cycle Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conklin, Jim; Forsberg, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is proposed that uses heat from a high-temperature reactor and fossil fuel to meet base-load and peak electrical demands. The high-temperature gas turbine produces shaft power to turn an electric generator. The hot exhaust is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. A simplified computational model of the thermal power conversion system was developed in order to parametrically investigate two different steady-state operation conditions: base load nuclear heat only from an Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR), and combined nuclear heat with fossil heat to increase the turbine inlet temperature. These two cases bracket the expected range of power levels, where any intermediate power level can result during electrical load following. The computed results indicate that combined nuclear-fossil systems have the potential to offer both low-cost base-load electricity and lower-cost peak power relative to the existing combination of base-load nuclear plants and separate fossil-fired peak-electricity production units. In addition, electric grid stability, reduced greenhouse gases, and operational flexibility can also result with using the conventional technology presented here for the thermal power conversion system coupled with the AHTR.

  6. Prediction of residual stress field in mechanically expanded 0.750 inch diameter steam generator tube plugs. Part 1: 2-D solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, D.K.

    1996-12-01

    One of the most formidable classes of problems that arises in the commercial nuclear power industry is the determination of the residual stress field in steam generator tubes. As early as 1983, it was reported that primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes had occurred at a low frequency. The degradation of steam generator tubing by PWSCC has resulted in unplanned nuclear plant outages and costly repair operations such as tube plugging and eventually steam generator replacement. Although the previous discussion centered around the PWSCC of the Inconel 600 tubes, the repair plugs which are intended to isolate the damaged tubes from the primary system, have also begun to show similar types of cracking in the rolled transitions. Plug severance is highly undesirable in the nuclear plant because the primary-to-secondary barrier would then be voided and radioactive fluid would escape to the non-radioactive feedwater system. At the present time, although the tube problems have been discussed extensively in the literature roll plugs and their associated SCC have yet to be fully addressed. In addition, roll plus present a different set of loads, expansion regions, discontinuities, and displacement boundary conditions to be analyzed. The method of solution to the subject roll expansion problem employs the use of a general purpose finite element program to mathematically simulate the expansion process. The hydraulic expansion simulation is accomplished by matching the final displacements of an installed plug for which field measurements are available. Because of the symmetry which exists in the geometry and loading, this problem is modeled and analyzed as an axisymmetric problem. The resulting stress field throughout the plug, and in particular, in the rolled transition region, is calculated.

  7. Simulation of loss of RHR during midloop operations and the role of steam generators in decay heat removal using the RELAP5/MOD3 code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Raja, L.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Loss of residual heat removal during midloop operations was simulated for a typical four-loop pressurized water reactor operated under reduced inventory level using the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic code. Two cases are considered here: one for an intact reactor coolant system with no vents and the other for an open system with a vent in the pressurizer. The presence of air in the reactor coolant system is modeled, and its effect on the transients is calculated. The steam generators are considered under wet lay up with water in the secondary covering the U-tubes. The system is pressurized once the water starts boiling in the core. Higher system pressures are seen for the closed-vent case when compared with the open-vent case. Reflux condensation occurs in the steam generator U-tubes preventing complete uncovery of the core and aiding in decay heat removal. The total heat removed by the steam generators is one-third of that produced by the core. The hot leg and vessel upper head pressurization cause the reactor vessel to act as a manometer where the core level drops and the downcomer level rises. This phenomenon is seen at different transient times for the two cases. Since it occurs only for a brief period, the rest of the transient is unaffected. Fuel centerline and clad temperatures are observed to be below the accepted safety limits throughout both transients.

  8. Clarification of stress corrosion cracking mechanism on nickel base alloys in steam generators for their long lifetime assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagano, Hiroo; Kajimura, Haruhiko

    1995-12-31

    Thermally treated (TT) Alloys 600 (16%Cr-8%Fe-bal.Ni) and 690 (30%Cr-10%Fe-bal.Ni) have been successfully used in the steam generators of operating pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper deals with intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mechanisms in Ni-base alloys in various corrosive environments such as deaerated water, air-saturated chloride medium, and caustic solutions at high temperatures with focus on Cr content and Cr carbide precipitation at grain boundaries in the alloys. Nickel base alloys of high purity, or with different Cr, C, and B contents with different heat treatments were put to various corrosion tests. SCC resistance of Alloy 600 is affected differently by water chemistry of environments, while Alloy 690 is almost immune to the environments investigated: (1) Cr depletion at grain boundaries is clearly detrimental to IGSCC resistance of Alloy 600 in air-saturated water containing Cl{sup {minus}} ions at 300 C. (2) High purity Alloy 600 has weaker SCC resistance in deaerated water at 360 C than commercially available Alloy 600. Cr depletion along grain boundaries is detrimental to the IGSCC resistance, however its detrimental effect disappears when Cr carbides precipitate at grain boundaries in semi-continuous or continuous way. The NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} film formed on the metal surfaces enhances the IGSCC resistance. Similar relationship between Cr depletion and Cr carbide precipitation is also observed in Alloy 600 in deaerated caustic solutions at high temperatures. (3) Concerning intergranular attack (IGA), which occurs in oxidizing caustic solutions at high temperature, existence of semi-continuous or continuous Cr carbides improves the IGA resistance regardless of Cr depletion. A dual layer corrosion protective film composed of an upper layer of NiO and lower layer of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} formed on metal surfaces, of which formation is accelerated by selective Cr carbide dissolution, may be responsible for the IGA resistance.

  9. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3.1 with the LSTF SB-SG-06 experiment simulating a steam generator tube rupture transient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seul, K.W.; Bang, Y.S.; Lee, S.; Kim, H.J.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of the present work is to identify the predictability of RELAP5/MOD3.1 regarding thermal-hydraulic behavior during a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). To evaluate the computed results, LSTF SB-SG-06 test data simulating the SGTR that occurred at the Mihama Unit 2 in 1991 are used. Also, some sensitivity studies of the code change in RELAP5, the break simulation model, and the break valve discharge coefficient are performed. The calculation results indicate that the RELAP5/MOD3.1 code predicted well the sequence of events and the major phenomena during the transient, such as the asymmetric loop behavior, reactor coolant system (RCS) cooldown and heat transfer by natural circulation, the primary and secondary system depressurization by the pressurizer auxiliary spray and the steam dump using the intact loop steam generator (SG) relief valve, and so on. However, there are some differences from the experimental data in the number of the relief valve cycling in the affected SG, and the flow regime of the hot leg with the pressurizer, and the break flow rates. Finally, the calculation also indicates that the coolant in the core could remain in a subcooled state as a result of the heat transfer caused by the natural circulation flow even if the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) turned off and that the affected SG could be properly isolated to minimize the radiological release after the SGTR.

  10. A Thermo-Mechanical Analysis for a Nozzle Header of a Once-Through Steam Generator Designed for an Integral Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, YongWan; Kim, Dong Ok; Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jong In; Zee, Sung Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, PO Box 105, YuSong, Taejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Thermo-mechanical behavior of the nozzle header of a steam generator developed for an integral reactor was investigated using experimental and finite element methods. The nozzle feedwater header suffers from severe thermal transient loadings during the operation of the nuclear reactor. The nozzle header is exposed to the low temperature inlet feedwater and the high temperature outlet superheated steam. The other side of the nozzle header is in contacts with the high temperature primary coolant. This temperature gradient results in high thermal stresses in the nozzle header structure. The thermal transient loading has been simulated in the test loop. The thermo-hydraulic parameters of the primary and the secondary system were controlled according to the operation mode programmed in the computer. Strain gauges and thermocouples attached at the highly stressed region monitored the thermo-mechanical behavior of the nozzle header. In parallel to the experimental study, the transient behavior of the nozzle header was simulated utilizing a commercial finite element code. The fluid temperature and the pressure obtained from the test loop were used for the input of the finite element analysis. As a result of this investigation, the thermo-mechanical load carrying capacity of the developed steam generator nozzle header was proved numerically and experimentally. (authors)

  11. Superheated steam power plant with steam to steam reheater. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, G.J.

    1981-06-23

    A desuperheater is disposed in a steam supply line supplying superheated steam to a shell and tube reheater.

  12. Application of computational neural networks in predicting atmospheric pollutant concentrations due to fossil-fired electric power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Hawary, F.

    1995-12-31

    The ability to accurately predict the behavior of a dynamic system is of essential importance in monitoring and control of complex processes. In this regard recent advances in neural-net based system identification represent a significant step toward development and design of a new generation of control tools for increased system performance and reliability. The enabling functionality is the one of accurate representation of a model of a nonlinear and nonstationary dynamic system. This functionality provides valuable new opportunities including: (1) The ability to predict future system behavior on the basis of actual system observations, (2) On-line evaluation and display of system performance and design of early warning systems, and (3) Controller optimization for improved system performance. In this presentation, we discuss the issues involved in definition and design of learning control systems and their impact on power system control. Several numerical examples are provided for illustrative purpose.

  13. Effectiveness of 700{degrees}C thermal treatment on primary water stress corrosion sensitivity of Alloy 600 steam generator tubes: Laboratory tests and in field experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cattant, F.; Keroulas, F. de; Garriga-Majo, D.; Todeschini, P.; Van Duysen, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    In France, the steam generators of some 900 MWe reactors, and of all the 1 300 MWe reactors in service are equipped with heat treated Alloy 600 tubes. The purpose of the heat treatment, performed at 700{degrees}C, is to relieve the residual stresses. Generally, it also increases the SCC resistance of the alloy. A laboratory study has been carried out in order to gain a better understanding of the metallurgical factors influencing the PWSCC resistance of Alloy 600 after heat treatment. It has been shown that there are two kinds of tubes for which the heat treatment does not produce a microstructure having a potentially high resistance to SCC: tubes with a high carbon content (over 0.032%) or tubes mill-annealed at high temperatures and heavily cold-worked by the straightening. The analysis of the behaviour of french steam generators reveals that the heat treatment generally had the expected beneficial effect. However, the early cracking in service of some treated tubes led EDF (national power company) to proceed with removals. The majority of the cracked pulled-out tubes exhibit microstructures having a potentially high PWSCC sensibility in laboratory tests. It has been shown that these microstructures can be correlated to a high carbon content.

  14. Stress relief to prevent stress corrosion in the transition region of expanded Alloy 600 steam-generator tubing. Final report. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures with which stress relief can be obtained range from 700 to 850/sup 0/C, with lower temperatures in this range requiring longer times at temperature to provide the requisite reduction in residual stresses. No work has yet been done outside this range. Preliminary tests, using induction heating, have been carried out on a mock tube sheet assembly, designed to the dimensions of a typical steam generator, and have identified the type of heating/cooling cycle that would occur in the tube sheet during a stress relief operation. Preliminary results show that the times to reach the higher temperatures in the range observed to give stress relief, of the order of 850/sup 0/C, can be as short as 8 seconds, and less with optimum coil design and power control.

  15. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  16. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  17. Results of studies on application of CCMHD to advanced fossil fuel power plant cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foote, J.P.; Wu, Y.C.L.S.; Lineberry, J.T.

    1998-07-01

    A study was conducted to assess the potential for application of a Closed Cycle MHD disk generator (CCMHD) in advanced fossil fuel power generation systems. Cycle analyses were conducted for a variety of candidate power cycles, including simple cycle CCMHD (MHD); a cycle combining CCMHD and gas turbines (MHD/GT); and a triple combined cycle including CCMHD, gas turbines, and steam turbines (MHD/GT/ST). The above cycles were previously considered in cycle studies reported by Japanese researchers. Also considered was a CCMHD cycle incorporating thermochemical heat recovery through reforming of the fuel stream (MHD/REF), which is the first consideration of this approach. A gas turbine/steam turbine combined cycle (GT/ST) was also analyzed for baseline comparison. The only fuel considered in the study was CH4. Component heat and pressure losses were neglected, and the potential for NOx emission due to high combustion temperatures was not considered. Likewise, engineering limitations for cycle components, particularly the high temperature argon heater, were not considered. This approach was adopted to simplify the analysis for preliminary screening of candidate cycles. Cycle calculations were performed using in-house code. Ideal gas thermodynamic properties were calculated using the NASA SP- 273 data base, and thermodynamic properties for steam were calculated using the computerized ASME Steam Tables. High temperature equilibrium compositions for combustion gas were calculated using tabulated values of the equilibrium constants for the important reactions.

  18. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... There are four basic ways to test steam traps: temperature, sound, visual, and electronic. Recommended Steam Trap Testing Intervals * High-Pressure (150 psig and above): Weekly to ...

  19. DOE - Fossil Energy:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NEWSALERT - Keep Up to date with e-mail alerts from the Office of Fossil Energy Fossil Energy NEWSALERT is a free, e-mail notification service of the U.S. Department of Energy's ...

  20. How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam at the point of generation? From which boiler? At what header pressure or at what ... If the plant has only one steam generator (boiler), uses a single fuel, and has a single ...

  1. Solar-Augment Potential of U.S. Fossil-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.; Langle, N.; Bedilion, R.; Libby, C.

    2011-02-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems utilize solar thermal energy for the generation of electric power. This attribute makes it relatively easy to integrate CSP systems with fossil-fired power plants. The 'solar-augment' of fossil power plants offers a lower cost and lower risk alternative to stand-alone solar plant construction. This study ranked the potential to add solar thermal energy to coal-fired and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) plants found throughout 16 states in the southeast and southwest United States. Each generating unit was ranked in six categories to create an overall score ranging from Excellent to Not Considered. Separate analysis was performed for parabolic trough and power tower technologies due to the difference in the steam temperatures that each can generate. The study found a potential for over 11 GWe of parabolic trough and over 21 GWe of power tower capacity. Power towers offer more capacity and higher quality integration due to the greater steam temperatures that can be achieved. The best sites were in the sunny southwest, but all states had at least one site that ranked Good for augmentation.

  2. Achieve Steam System Excellence - Steam Overview | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently. PDF ...

  3. Fossil plant self assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozgo, R.H.; Maguire, B.A.

    1996-07-01

    The increasingly competitive environment of the electric utility business is focusing utilities attention on reducing the cost of electricity generation. By using benchmark indicators, gains are being sought in plant material condition with corresponding improvements in operating efficiency and capacity factor as well as reductions in Operating and Maintenance (O&M) costs. In designing a process for improvement, Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) plant managers were asked to review and approve objectives and criteria for Fossil Plant Operations. The program methods included optimizing work processes (including material condition, maintenance programs, work control systems, and personnel performance); team building techniques to foster personnel buy-in of the process; and long term cultural change to insure an ongoing continuous improvement process with measurable results. The program begins with a self assessment of each plant based upon the approved Objectives and Criteria. The Criteria and Review Approaches (CRAs) are established by senior management and the review team. The criteria cover Management, Operations, Maintenance, and Support Functions including Technical Support, Training and Qualification, Environmental Compliance, Chemistry, and Safety and Emergency Preparedness. The Assessment is followed by a review of corrective action plans and an interim corrective action review. Annual Assessments are planned to ensure continuous improvement. Emphasis is placed on progress made in maintenance at the fossil stations.

  4. Advanced fossil fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, B.

    1995-05-01

    Charged with enhancing the use of US fossil energy resources, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is a federal Department of Energy research center that performs its own research and also manages the work of contractors. One interesting recent METC project is the effort to develop a ``multiannular swirl burner`` (MSB) for use in an advanced fossil fuel combustion system. The design is being developed by an outside contractor with funding and technical assistance from METC. Recently, EG and G Technical Services of West Virginia was asked to provide analytical support to the contractor developing the MSB. Design projects like this usually require building and testing a series of very expensive prototypes. Recent success with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design techniques, however, have generated a great deal of excitement because of its ability to reduce research and development costs. Using FLUENT, a CFD package from Fluent Inc., EG and G was able to predict, with a high degree of accuracy, the performance of one of the MSB combustor prototypes. Furthermore, the model provided researchers with a more detailed understanding of the proposed design`s performance characteristics.

  5. Assessing the impact of energy losses in steam systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, D.W.

    1995-07-10

    This article examines the impact of steam leaks on the efficiency of the process steam system. The topics include steam losses under various operating conditions and orifice sizes, failed drip traps, the significance of small leaks, energy losses and pollutants generated by trap failure, steps to take to conserve steam and energy through repair and maintenance.

  6. RELAP5-3D Modeling of Heat Transfer Components (Intermediate Heat Exchanger and Helical-Coil Steam Generator) for NGNP Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. A. Anderson; P. Sabharwall

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is aimed at the research and development of a helium-cooled high-temperature gas reactor that could generate both electricity and process heat for the production of hydrogen. The heat from the high-temperature primary loop must be transferred via an intermediate heat exchanger to a secondary loop. Using RELAP5-3D, a model was developed for two of the heat exchanger options a printed-circuit heat exchanger and a helical-coil steam generator. The RELAP5-3D models were used to simulate an exponential decrease in pressure over a 20 second period. The results of this loss of coolant analysis indicate that heat is initially transferred from the primary loop to the secondary loop, but after the decrease in pressure in the primary loop the heat is transferred from the secondary loop to the primary loop. A high-temperature gas reactor model should be developed and connected to the heat transfer component to simulate other transients.

  7. DOE - Fossil Energy: How Fossil Fuels Were Formed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fossil Fuel Formation Fossil Energy Study Guides How Fossil Fuels were Formed Contrary to what many people believe, fossil fuels are not the remains of dead dinosaurs. In fact,...

  8. Fossil Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy Fossil Energy Below are resources for Tribes on fossil energy. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 This paper...

  9. Office of Fossil Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Terminal (Bcf) (Bcf) (Bcf) LNG Imports by Company Office of Fossil Energy Office of Oil & Natural Gas Office of Regulation and International Engagement Division of Natural Gas...

  10. Fossil | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Fossil energy sources, including oil, coal and natural gas, are non-renewable resources that formed when prehistoric plants and animals died...

  11. CFD study of natural convection mixing in a steam generator mock-up: Comparison between full geometry and porous media approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehbi, A.; Badreddine, H.

    2012-07-01

    In CFD simulations of flow mixing in a steam generator (SG) during natural circulation, one is faced with the problem of representing the thousands of SG U-tubes. Typically simplifications are made to render the problem computationally tractable. In particular, one or a number of tubes are lumped in one volume which is treated as a single porous medium. This approach dramatically reduces the computational size of the problem and hence simulation time. In this work, we endeavor to investigate the adequacy of this approach by performing two separate simulations of flow in a mock-up with 262 U-tubes, i.e. one in which the porous media model is used for the tube bundle, and another in which the full geometry is represented. In both simulations, the Reynolds Stress (RMS) model of turbulence is used. We show that in steady state conditions, the porous media treatment yields results which are comparable to those of the full geometry representation (temperature distribution, recirculation ratio, hot plume spread, etc). Hence, the porous media approach can be extended with a good degree of confidence to the full scale SG. (authors)

  12. International agreement report: Assessment study of RELAP-5 MOD-2 Cycle 36. 01 based on the DOEL-2 Steam Generator Tube Rupture incident of June 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stubbe, E J

    1986-10-01

    This report presents a code assessment study based on a real plant transient that occurred at the DOEL 2 power plant in Belgium on June 25th 1979. DOEL 2 is a two-loop WESTINGHOUSE PWR plant of 392 MWe. A steam generator tube rupture occurred at the end of a heat-up phase which initiated a plant transient which required substantial operator involvement and presented many plant phenomena which are of interest for code assessment. While real plant transients are of special importance for code validation because of the elimination of code scaling uncertainties, they introduce however some uncertainties related to the specifications of the exact initial and boundary conditions which must be reconstructed from available on-line plant recordings and on-line computer diagnostics. Best estimate data have been reconstructed for an assessment study by means of the code RELAP5/MOD2/CYCLE 36.01. Because of inherent uncertainties in the plant data, the assessment work is focussed on phenomena whereby the comparison between plant data and computer data is based more on trends than on absolute values. Such approach is able to uncover basic code weaknesses and strengths which can contribute to a better understanding of the code potential.

  13. Steam Digest Volume IV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  14. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, E.P. Jr.

    1999-01-12

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed there between. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock. 2 figs.

  15. Water cooled steam jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jr., Edward P.

    1999-01-01

    A water cooled steam jet for transferring fluid and preventing vapor lock, or vaporization of the fluid being transferred, has a venturi nozzle and a cooling jacket. The venturi nozzle produces a high velocity flow which creates a vacuum to draw fluid from a source of fluid. The venturi nozzle has a converging section connected to a source of steam, a diffuser section attached to an outlet and a throat portion disposed therebetween. The cooling jacket surrounds the venturi nozzle and a suction tube through which the fluid is being drawn into the venturi nozzle. Coolant flows through the cooling jacket. The cooling jacket dissipates heat generated by the venturi nozzle to prevent vapor lock.

  16. Steam System Survey Guide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The most appropriate analysis of the economic benefits of operating the steam turbine uses ... Noncondensable gases traveling with the steam will pass through the turbine and enter the ...

  17. EPRI-DOE Joint Report Focuses on Fossil Fleet Transition with Fuel Changes and Large Scale Variable Renewable Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department released a report on fossil fleet transition with renewable integration, describing operational and engineering challenges to the fossil generation fleet.

  18. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  19. Fossil | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Fossil For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our <a href="node/770751">interactive chart</a>. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. For the first time since 1995, U.S. oil production has surpassed imports. Explore the trend with our interactive chart. | Graphic by Daniel Wood, Energy Department. Fossil energy sources, including oil, coal and natural gas, are non-renewable resources that formed when

  20. DOE - Fossil Energy:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Services, LLC (Trinidad and Tobago) 1926; 1926-A FE03-30-NG 071103 Mex TransAlta Chihuahua S.A. de C.V. 1877 Page owner: Fossil Energy Office of Communications Page updated...

  1. Office of Fossil Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    LNG Imports by Country of Origin LNG Imports by Receiving Terminal (Bcf) (Bcf) (Bcf) LNG Imports by Company Office of Fossil Energy Office of Oil & Natural Gas Office of Regulation ...

  2. Proceedings: 1996 EPRI fossil plant maintenance conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    EPRI sponsors many conferences and workshops addressing various aspects of fossil power plant maintenance. Featured have been topics such as inspection methods, life assessment techniques, overhaul planning, predictive maintenance programs, thermography, vibration monitoring, welding, and component-specific events on boilers, condensers, feedwater heaters, generators, and turbines. The 1996 EPRI Fossil Plant Maintenance Conference-held July 29-August 1, 1996, in Baltimore, Maryland-reached a wider audience by providing a forum to discuss all aspects of fossil plant maintenance. Knowledgeable industry personnel exchanged information on state-of-the-art technology; identified major unresolved problems; and helped establish priorities for further research, development, and demonstration in fossil plant maintenance. This document presents report presented at the conference. Individual papers have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  3. Apparatus and methods for supplying auxiliary steam in a combined cycle system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorman, William G.; Carberg, William George; Jones, Charles Michael

    2002-01-01

    To provide auxiliary steam, a low pressure valve is opened in a combined cycle system to divert low pressure steam from the heat recovery steam generator to a header for supplying steam to a second combined cycle's steam turbine seals, sparging devices and cooling steam for the steam turbine if the steam turbine and gas turbine lie on a common shaft with the generator. Cooling steam is supplied the gas turbine in the combined cycle system from the high pressure steam turbine. Spent gas turbine cooling steam may augment the low pressure steam supplied to the header by opening a high pressure valve whereby high and low pressure steam flows are combined. An attemperator is used to reduce the temperature of the combined steam in response to auxiliary steam flows above a predetermined flow and a steam header temperature above a predetermined temperature. The auxiliary steam may be used to start additional combined cycle units or to provide a host unit with steam turbine cooling and sealing steam during full-speed no-load operation after a load rejection.

  4. Fossil Energy FY 2009 Budget

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fossil Energy's FY 2009 budget, including request, House and Senate marks, and Omnibus appropriation.

  5. Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Systems Steam Systems Many manufacturing facilities can recapture energy by installing more efficient steam equipment and processes and applying energy management practices. ...

  6. Steam Field | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Steam Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Steam Field Dictionary.png Steam Field: No definition has been...

  7. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  8. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  9. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, Paul W.; Bannister, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    A gas turbine system in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas.

  10. Thermochemically recuperated and steam cooled gas turbine system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viscovich, P.W.; Bannister, R.L.

    1995-07-11

    A gas turbine system is described in which the expanded gas from the turbine section is used to generate the steam in a heat recovery steam generator and to heat a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and the steam in a reformer. The reformer converts the hydrocarbon gas to hydrogen and carbon monoxide for combustion in a combustor. A portion of the steam from the heat recovery steam generator is used to cool components, such as the stationary vanes, in the turbine section, thereby superheating the steam. The superheated steam is mixed into the hydrocarbon gas upstream of the reformer, thereby eliminating the need to raise the temperature of the expanded gas discharged from the turbine section in order to achieve effective conversion of the hydrocarbon gas. 4 figs.

  11. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O.; Montoya, Paul C.; Muir, James F.; Wayland, Jr., J. Robert

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  12. Steam Digest 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  13. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  14. Canadian Environmental Protection Act, strategic options for the management of toxic substances: Electric power generation (fossil fuel) sector, report of stakeholder consultations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    The Electric Power Generation Sector Issue Table was formed to assess the management of toxic substances released from that sector, and more specifically, to develop (where warranted) goals, targets, and effective and efficient options for managing toxic releases in order to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment. This strategic options report sets out the recommendations of Issue Table members for the management of toxic substances. The introduction includes an industry profile and a review of the provincial management of electric power sector strategic options priority (SOP) substances. Chapter 2 discusses what substances are toxic, estimates releases of SOP substances from the sector, and reviews Issue Table approaches to risk assessment. Chapter 3 outlines Issue Table activities. Chapter 4 screens toxic substance management options, with evaluation of options against 13 groups of criteria. Chapter 5 presents toxic substances management proposals made to the Issue Table by the electric power generation industry, environmental groups, and Environment Canada.

  15. Fossil-Fired Boilers

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-09-23

    Boiler Performance Model (BPM 3.0S) is a set of computer programs developed to analyze the performance of fossil-fired utility boilers. The programs can model a wide variety of boiler designs, and can model coal, oil, or natural gas firing. The programs are intended for use by engineers performing analyses of alternative fuels, alternative operating modes, or boiler modifications.

  16. Steam drying of products containing solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothmann, E.; Schluender, E.U. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    1995-12-31

    Drying experiments with single, porous spheres wetted with mixtures of 2-propanol and water were performed using superheated steam, air, or steam-air mixtures as drying agent. Both the drying rate and the moisture composition were determined experimentally for different temperatures and compositions of the drying agent and for different initial compositions of the moisture. It is shown that evaporation of 2-propanol is enhanced by using superheated steam as drying agent instead of air due to steam condensing on the sample. While the overall drying rate increases with rising steam temperature, the evaporation rate of 2-propanol is hardly affected. When drying samples containing mixtures of 2-propanol and water, internal boiling can occur depending on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. Vapor generated inside the sample may cause mechanical dewatering of the sample which greatly increases the drying rate.

  17. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, M.J.

    1987-05-04

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (a hot finger) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellow in providing an indication of total energy (steam + condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the hot and cold fingers subtracts the former from the latter to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning. 2 figs.

  18. No Fossil Fuel - Kingston | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fossil Fuel - Kingston Jump to: navigation, search Name No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Facility No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility...

  19. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  20. Materials Performance in USC Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  1. Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sayer, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

  2. Oxidation of advanced steam turbine alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2006-03-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  3. Geothermal Steam Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Steam Power Plant (Redirected from Dry Steam) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home General List of Dry Steam Plants List of Flash Steam Plants...

  4. Rotating diffuser for pressure recovery in a steam cooling circuit of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eldrid, Sacheverel Q.; Salamah, Samir A.; DeStefano, Thomas Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The buckets of a gas turbine are steam-cooled via a bore tube assembly having concentric supply and spent cooling steam return passages rotating with the rotor. A diffuser is provided in the return passage to reduce the pressure drop. In a combined cycle system, the spent return cooling steam with reduced pressure drop is combined with reheat steam from a heat recovery steam generator for flow to the intermediate pressure turbine. The exhaust steam from the high pressure turbine of the combined cycle unit supplies cooling steam to the supply conduit of the gas turbine.

  5. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  6. Fossil Energy Today | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Blog » Fossil Energy Today Fossil Energy Today Fossil Energy Today - a free, quarterly newsletter published by the Office of Fossil Energy This newsletter is currently on hiatus. Archived editions are available below. Fossil Energy Today - launched in January 2011 - is a free digital newsletter published quarterly by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy. Fossil Energy Today provides you with updates on important activities, progress and other developments within Fossil

  7. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  8. Optimum cycle chemistry for fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, R.B.; Pate, R.

    1995-01-01

    At the time of the last International Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Conference in 1991, the vision for cycle chemistry indicated that the fossil plant would become a cleaner place for high purity water and steam, and that the boiler would cease to be the {open_quotes}filter{close_quotes} in the cycle. It was suggested that chemical cleans for drum boilers should be performed on a 10 year basis or greater, and that for once-through units cleans should be eliminated. Without full support of utility management and investment in carefully chosen chemistry and power cycle materials, there would be no chance of success. Three years later it is gratifying to report that the news and progress is very good. Advancements have been achieved in each area and the vision is becoming clearer and more believable by the utilities. This paper will provide the status on the major changes that have taken place and delineate the further needed activities to the end of the century and beyond. A continuing vision is also provided.

  9. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  10. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  11. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-07-01

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief was developed to provide a basic understanding of the different process-control schemes used in a typical steam system.

  12. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  13. Proceedings: Advances in Life Assessment and Optimization of Fossil Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-06-01

    Condition and remaining life assessment (CARLA) technology has assumed great importance in the context of the reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of fossil power plants. These proceedings summarize a 3-day conference on CARLA technology for boiler, steam turbine, and combustion turbine components operating at elevated temperatures that included a session on maintenance planning and optimization based upon economics and risk assessment.

  14. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  15. Office of Fossil Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Fossil Energy INFOGRAPHIC: Carbon Capture 101 INFOGRAPHIC: Carbon Capture 101 Want to know how carbon capture works? This infographic breaks it down for you Read more Breakthrough Could Improve Turbine Performance, Reduce Carbon Emissions from Power Plants Breakthrough Could Improve Turbine Performance, Reduce Carbon Emissions from Power Plants Results of NETL-supported research point to increased efficiency of turbines and lower CO2 emissions from power generation Read more New

  16. Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon capture, utilisation, and storage Carter, L.D. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; COAL GASIFICATION; POWER GENERATION; CARBON DIOXIDE; CAPTURE; STORAGE; USA; ENHANCED...

  17. Steam trap monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryan, Michael J. (Plainfield, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A steam trap monitor positioned downstream of a steam trap in a closed steam system includes a first sensor (the combination of a hot finger and thermocouple well) for measuring the energy of condensate and a second sensor (a cold finger) for measuring the total energy of condensate and steam in the line. The hot finger includes one or more thermocouples for detecting condensate level and energy, while the cold finger contains a liquid with a lower boiling temperature than that of water. Vapor pressure from the liquid is used to do work such as displacing a piston or bellows in providing an indication of total energy (steam+condensate) of the system. Processing means coupled to and responsive to outputs from the thermocouple well hot and cold fingers subtracts the condensate energy as measured by the hot finger and thermocouple well from the total energy as measured by the cold finger to provide an indication of the presence of steam downstream from the trap indicating that the steam trap is malfunctioning.

  18. Steam reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramarz, Kurt W.; Bloom, Ira D.; Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Wilkenhoener, Rolf; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel. A vapor of the hydrocarbon fuel and steam is brought in contact with a two-part catalyst having a dehydrogenation powder portion and an oxide-ion conducting powder portion at a temperature not less than about 770.degree.C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich. The H.sub.2 content of the hydrogen gas is greater than about 70 percent by volume. The dehydrogenation portion of the catalyst includes a group VIII metal, and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide from the group crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure and mixtures thereof. The oxide-ion conducting portion of the catalyst is a ceramic powder of one or more of ZrO.sub.2, CeO.sub.2, Bi.sub.2 O.sub.3, (BiVO).sub.4, and LaGaO.sub.3.

  19. Steam System Modeler

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Steam System Modeler allows you to create up to a 3-pressure-header basic model of your current steam system. A second model can then be created by adjusting a series of characteristics simulating technical or input changes. This allows you to see how each component and adjustment impacts the others and what changes may be most beneficial to increasing the overall efficiency and stability of the system. An interactive diagram is provided for each model and includes comprehensive steam properties and operational details for clarity and ease of use.

  20. How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brief details how to calculate the true cost of steam, which is important for monitoring and managing energy use in a plant, evaluating proposed design changes to the generation or distribution infrastructure and the process itself, and for continuing to identify competitive advantages through steam system and plant efficiency improvements.

  1. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  2. A formalized approach to cycle chemistry improvement in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimmer, J.P.; Dooley, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The overall cost impact of cycle chemistry problems in fossil plants is typically hidden within the statistics of component forced outages, efficiency losses and premature end of useful component life. Corrosion of components in US utility steam generating plants is responsible for an estimated 50% of forced outages and over three billion dollars a year in additional operating and maintenance costs. These problems are usually the direct result of repeat incidents of impurity ingress, corrosion, and/or corrosion product generation transport, and deposition on heat transfer and power generation process equipment surfaces. The only way to prevent repeat incidents of cycle chemistry corrosion and/or deposition-influenced equipment problems is to implement a formalized cycle chemistry improvement program that addresses the root-causes of these problems. This paper describes such a program being implemented at twelve (12) utilities under EPRI research project RP2712-11, {open_quotes}Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program.{close_quotes} Interim utility results, after almost three years of project participation, have demonstrated substantial reductions in availability/performance losses and water treatment costs due to applications of state-of-the-art cycle chemistry, monitoring equipment and/or process control systems.

  3. Cycle chemistry related issues in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, K.L.; Chhatre, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maximizing the availability and useful life of a fossil power plant can be achieved by the reduction of corrosion. Poorly defined chemistry limits and inadequate response to cycle chemistry excursions have cost the utility industry billions of dollars in lost revenue and repair/replacement costs of damage equipment. The Cycle Chemistry related corrosion problems can be minimized by maintaining feed water, boiler water, and steam purity. Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s approach to reduce cycle chemistry related damage, as well as their participation in the Electric Power Research Institute`s Cycle Chemistry Improvement Program demonstration are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Advanced thermometrics for fossil power plant process improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepard, R.L.; Weiss, J.M.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1996-04-30

    Improved temperature measurements in fossil power plants can reduce heat rate and uncertainties in power production efficiencies, extend the life of plant components, reduce maintenance costs, and lessen emissions. Conventional instruments for measurement of combustion temperatures, steam temperatures, and structural component temperatures can be improved by better specification, in situ calibration, signal processing, and performance monitoring. Innovative instruments can enhance, augment, or replace conventional instruments. Several critical temperatures can be accessed using new methods that were impossible with conventional instruments. Such instruments include high temperature resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermometric phosphors, inductive thermometry, and ultrasonic thermometry.

  5. Case studies on recent fossil-fired plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, C.

    2007-12-31

    The article summarises the findings of case studies on fossil-fired power plants carried out by the IEA Clean Coal Centre for the IEA at the request of world leaders at the Gleneagles G8 Summit in July 2005. The studies compared the cost, efficiency and emissions of eight recently constructed coal-fired plants using pulverized coal combustion with subcritical, supercritical or ultra-supercritical steam turbine cycles. Also included was a review of IGCC developments. A case study of a natural gas combined-cycle plant was included for comparison. The full report has been published by the IEA. 1 tab.

  6. Life assessment product catalog for boilers, steam pipes, and steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S. , Santa Clara, CA )

    1992-07-01

    Aging fossil power plants, escalating costs of new plant construction, and load growth rate uncertainties are motivating utilities to make the most effective use of critical components in existing power plants. To help meet this need, EPRI has refined existing methods and developed new methods of predicting the remaining life of key fossil plant components with greater accuracy and confidence. This report describes 16 EPRI products (guidelines, computer programs, and other tools) that apply these techniques to boiler tubes, boiler headers, steam lines, and turbine rotors, blades, and casings. Utility personnel, including plant engineers, maintenance supervisor, engineering department staff, plant operating staff, and performance engineers, can use these products to assess remaining component life, as well as to set cost-effective maintenance procedures, inspection schedules, and operating procedures.

  7. Managing steam: An engineering guide to industrial, commercial, and utility systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makansi, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a guide to steam production, utilization, handling, transport, system optimization, and condensation and recovery. This book incudes a description of how steam, condensate, and hot water are used in various industrial, commercial, institutional, and utility sectors and explains how steam is generated and distributed. Waste-heat recovery, fluidized-bed boilers, and cogeneration systems and boiler control theory are discussed. The book also describes different types of valves, valve components, regulators, steam traps, and metering devices available for managing steam and condensate and discusses maintaining steam systems for optimum service and longer life.

  8. Steam Turbine Materials and Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.H.; Hsu, D.H.

    2008-07-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760 °C. In prior years this project examined the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in high- and intermediate-pressure USC turbines. This steamside oxidation research is continuing and progress is presented, with emphasis on chromia evaporation.

  9. Steam turbine materials and corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Alman, D.E.; Dogan, O.N.; Rawers, J.C.; Schrems, K.K.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Ultra-supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This project examines the steamside oxidation of candidate alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines. As part of this research a concern has arisen about the possibility of high chromia evaporation rates of protective scales in the turbine. A model to calculate chromia evaporation rates is presented.

  10. Fossil Energy Crossword Puzzle | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Crossword Puzzle Fossil Energy Crossword Puzzle PDF icon Fossil Energy Crossword Puzzle (including answer key) More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy Word Find Intermediate Energy Infobook and Intermediate Infobook Activities (29 Activities) Coal Study Guide for Elementary School

  11. PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) PDF icon PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) More Documents &...

  12. Fossil Gulch Wind Park | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gulch Wind Park Jump to: navigation, search Name Fossil Gulch Wind Park Facility Fossil Gulch Wind Park Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In...

  13. Fossil Energy FY 2015 Budget in Brief

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fossil Energy FY 2015 Budget in Brief document gives highlights to the budget request for the FY 2015 budget request for the Office of Fossil Energy.

  14. Los Alamos Lab: Fossil Energy & Environment, Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Office of Fossil Energy, as well as projects supported by the Department of Interior ... to the entire fossil fuel cycle, from exploration and production to capture and storage ...

  15. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Greening up fossil...

  16. Fossil fuel is king with energy producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    1996-11-01

    Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double today`s levels by 2020, according to the World Energy Council. As diverse energy needs develop, fossil fuels are expected to continue to be the major source for power generation throughout the world. In the United States, utility deregulation is making low-cost fuel and power plant efficiency more important than ever. Electricity generators see both natural gas and coal as the fuels that will allow them to best meet the nation`s future energy needs. Coal will see less increase in its share of electricity generation than natural gas due to the costs associated with meeting the Clean Air Act Amendments` (CAAA) requirements. According to Organizations for Economic Cooperation Development, coal in both the United States and Europe will experience a 12 percent growth by 2010. Even with this somewhat slow growth, coal will remain the nation`s number one fuel for electricity generation well into the next century.

  17. Ultra supercritical turbines--steam oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Alman, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions, which are goals of the U.S. Department of Energy?s Advanced Power Systems Initiatives. Most current coal power plants in the U.S. operate at a maximum steam temperature of 538?C. However, new supercritical plants worldwide are being brought into service with steam temperatures of up to 620?C. Current Advanced Power Systems goals include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760?C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections. Initial results of this research are presented.

  18. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps - Steam Tip Sheet #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  19. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  20. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  1. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  2. Simplifying steam trap selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debat, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    In the current economic world order, there is an obligation to eliminate waste and conserve economic and natural resources. One trap blowing 100-lb of steam through a 1/4-in. orifice can cost more than $12,000 a year in wasted energy. Richard J. Debat of Armstrong International, Inc. explains the operating principles of the four basic types of steam traps as the first step in simplifying the selection process so the right trap can be specified for a given application.

  3. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on inspecting and repairing steam traps provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Steam Systems, Retrofit Measure Packages, Hydronic Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Steam System Survey Guide Steam System Survey Guide This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam

  5. Fossil Energy RSS Feeds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy RSS Feeds Fossil Energy RSS Feeds RSS, sometimes known as Really Simple Syndication, is a popular means of sharing content (such as news headlines) without requiring readers to constantly visit a Web site to see what's new. RSS feeds contain headlines and hyperlinks to longer articles or Web pages. RSS feeds from the Office of Fossil Energy provide updates of specific interest to the fossil fuel community. Fossil Energy RSS feeds are free of charge. RSS content can be read using

  6. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-09-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  7. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-07-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRB and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  8. Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.

    1998-04-01

    It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming process, mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or in or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

  9. FOSSIL ENERGY FY 2016 BUDGET | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FOSSIL ENERGY FY 2016 BUDGET FOSSIL ENERGY FY 2016 BUDGET Documents and information related to the Fossil Energy FY 2016 budget. Office of Fossil Energy Techline Office of Fossil Energy Budget Request Presentation

  10. Minimising greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freund, P.

    1997-07-01

    Combustion of fossil fuels is the main anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, the principal greenhouse gas. Generation of electricity is the single largest user of fossil fuels, world-wide. If there is international agreement about the need to make substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, then having access to suitable, effective technology would be important. This would help avoid the need for precipitate action, such as radical changes in the energy supply systems. Capture and disposal of greenhouse gases from flue gases can achieve substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. This can be realized with known technology. In this paper, the range of options will be summarized and steps needed to achieve further progress will be identified. Emissions of other gases, such as methane, are also expected to influence the climate. Methane is emitted from many anthropogenic sources; the IEA Greenhouse Gas programme is investigating ways of reducing these emissions. Opportunities for abatement of methane emissions associated with coal mining will be described. Reduction in emissions from drainage gas is relatively straightforward and can, in appropriate circumstances, generate useful income for the none operator. More substantial amounts of methane are discharged in mine ventilation air but these are more difficult to deal with. In this paper, a summary will be given of recent progress in reducing methane emissions. Opportunities will be examined for further research to progress these technologies.

  11. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  12. Determining NO{sub x} emissions from fossil fuel-fired sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeel, A.

    1996-11-01

    To determine nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions, the concentration of NO{sub x} within the stack gas must be determined. USEPA Reference Methods 7, 7A, 7C, 7D and/or 7E are the procedures to be used for NO{sub x} measurement as referenced in 40 CFR 60 subparts D, Da, Db and Dc - {open_quotes}Standards of performance for fossil fuel-fired steam generators...{open_quotes}. Depending upon the reason for determining NO{sub x} emissions, information in addition to NO{sub x} concentrations may be needed. Generally, USEPA Reference Methods 1 - 4 will be used to gather the additional data needed to satisfy the specific need for determining NO{sub x} emissions. The following text outlines the individual NO{sub x} sampling methodology, the relative costs of the reference method (RM) sampling, and the use of the resulting reference method data to calculate emissions in units of applicable standards.

  13. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  14. Practical aspects of steam injection processes: A handbook for independent operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarathi, P.S.; Olsen, D.K.

    1992-10-01

    More than 80% of the total steam injection process operating costs are for the production of steam and the operation of surface and subsurface equipment. The proper design and operation of the surface equipment is of critical importance to the success of any steam injection operation. However, the published monographs on thermal recovery have attached very little importance to this aspect of thermal oil recovery; hence, a definite need exists for a comprehensive manual that places emphasis on steam injection field practices and problems. This handbook is an attempt to fulfill this need. This handbook explores the concept behind steam injection processes and discusses the information required to evaluate, design, and implement these processes in the field. The emphasis is on operational aspects and those factors that affect the technology and economics of oil recovery by steam. The first four chapters describe the screening criteria, engineering, and economics of steam injection operation as well as discussion of the steam injection fundamentals. The next four chapters begin by considering the treatment of the water used to generate steam and discuss in considerable detail the design, operation and problems of steam generations, distribution and steam quality determination. The subsurface aspects of steamflood operations are addressed in chapters 9 through 12. These include thermal well completion and cementing practices, insulated tubulars, and lifting equipment. The next two chapters are devoted to subsurface operational problems encountered with the use of steam. Briefly described in chapters 15 and 16 are the steam injection process surface production facilities, problems and practices. Chapter 17 discusses the importance of monitoring in a steam injection project. The environmental laws and issues of importance to steam injection operation are outlined in chapter 18.

  15. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  16. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  17. Task 1Steam Oxidation (NETL-US)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam in let temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (AUSC) steam turbine is high enough (760C) Ihat traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferr;tic/manensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature lim itations of this class of materials. Cast versions of three traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys (Haynes 263. Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantia l: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 nun thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equi valem microslruclUre . A multi_step homogenization heat treatment was d~ve loped to better disperse the al loy constituents. These castings were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (al 760 and 800 "C).

  18. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries | Department of Energy Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from

  19. Oxidation of alloys for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, Gordon R.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of advanced alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on alloys for high- and intermediate-pressure turbine sections.

  20. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines This tip sheet on insulating steam ... STEAM TIP SHEET 2 PDF icon Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines ...

  1. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractices Steam Technical Brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer solution for various applications.

  2. Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. ... Return Condensate to the Boiler When steam transfers its heat in a manufacturing process, ...

  3. Fossil Energy Word Find | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Word Find Fossil Energy Word Find Word Find (inlcuidng answer key) PDF icon Fossil Energy Word Search More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy Crossword Puzzle Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

  4. No Fossils in This Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plan for Environmental Teaching GM Environmental Science Club No Fossils in This Fuel Your PlanET Sixth through Eighth Grades (Can be easily adapted to any elementary/middle school level) Ingredients: Yeast, sugar ... what are you making? Sweet rolls? Not in Science Class! You're blending these ingredients to make an innovative form of fuel! That's right ... when these two simple ingredients are mixed, the yeast  a simple, living organism  breaks the sugar down into ethyl alcohol, or

  5. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  6. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  7. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  8. Recommended nozzle loads for major equipment in fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basavaraju, C.

    1995-12-31

    Most commonly, equipment nozzles are limiting items in the qualification of piping systems. Difficulty in meeting the allowable nozzle loads for major equipment such as boilers, HRSGs, steam turbines, pumps, tanks, heat exchangers, etc. is a commonly encountered and recurring problem. This issue also has a potential for impact on project costs and schedules due to modifications, piping reanalysis, and repeated interfaces with equipment vendor. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance with regard to allowable nozzle loads. The approach consisted of utilizing data gathered and experience gained from several recently completed fossil fueled power projects. Tables containing a reasonable set of recommended values for allowable nozzle loads, which do not impose unnecessary burden either on the equipment manufacturers or on the designers and analysts of connected piping, are presented for guidance and use in the procurement of major equipment.

  9. Alloys for advanced steam turbines--Oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2007-10-01

    Advanced or ultra supercritical (USC) steam power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. Current research on the oxidation of candidate materials for advanced steam turbines is presented with a focus on a methodology for estimating chromium evaporation rates from protective chromia scales. The high velocities and pressures of advanced steam turbines lead to evaporation predictions as high as 5 10-8 kg m-2s-1 of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.077 mm per year of solid Cr loss.

  10. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  11. Steam boosted internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.

    1987-01-20

    A device is described to supplement the power produced by burning fuel in an internal combustion engine with steam, the device comprising: a means for producing a constant flow of water past a boiler means; a means for allowing the water to flow in the direction of the boiler; a boiler means external to the internal combustion engine to convert the water into superheated steam; a means for controlling the pressure of the water such that the water pressure is greater than the pressure of the steam produced by the boiler; and a means for injection of the superheated steam directly into a cylinder of the internal combustion engine, a means for producing a constant flow of water at a pressure greater than the pressure of the superheated steam, wherein the constant flow means at greater pressure comprises a chamber with a gaseous component, with the gaseous component being of constant volume and exerting constant pressure upon water within the chamber.

  12. Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upgrades Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleSteam-systemupgrades&old...

  13. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam ... A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control

  14. Steam System Survey Guide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Install an Automatic Blowdown-Control System Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for ...

  15. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  16. Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from Standard Steam Trust) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Standard Steam Trust LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Subsidiary of...

  17. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  18. Fossil Energy | National Energy Technology Laboratory | Southwest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Seok Kim, KAIST 2. Performance Comparison of Supercritical CO 2 Versus Steam Bottoming Cycles for Gas Turbine Combined Cycle ... capable of predicting heat transfer near ...

  19. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  20. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:March 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Researchers make progress fighting climate change by capturing carbon dioxide from power plants and storing it deep underground in geological reservoirs March 25, 2013 Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration Most of the world's existing energy supply is stored underground in

  1. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  2. DOE - Fossil Energy: Coal Mining and Transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mining Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal Mining and Transportation Coal Miners - One type of mining, called "longwall mining", uses a rotating blade to shear coal away from the ...

  3. Fossil Energy Fiscal Year 2011 Budget Request

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statement of Dr. James Markowsky, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy before the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development.

  4. Office of Fossil Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Fossil Energy INFOGRAPHIC: Carbon Capture 101 INFOGRAPHIC: Carbon Capture 101 Want to know how carbon capture works? This infographic breaks it down for you Read more ...

  5. Annual Report: Unconventional Fossil Energy Resource Program...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Fossil Energy (FE) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 02 PETROLEUM; 58 GEOSCIENCES CO2 EOR; CO2-soluble surfactants; enhanced oil recovery Word ...

  6. Advanced Fossil Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Advanced-Fossil-Fact-Sheet-FINAL.pdf More Documents & Publications CO2 Conference Presentation POWER-GEN Conference Presentation National Coal Council Presentation...

  7. Method and apparatus for improving the performance of a steam driven power system by steam mixing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsiklauri, Georgi V.; Durst, Bruce M.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Reid, Bruce D.; Burritt, James

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency and performance of a steam driven power plant wherein addition of steam handling equipment to an existing plant results in a surprising increase in plant performance. For Example, a gas turbine electrical generation system with heat recovery boiler may be installed along with a micro-jet high pressure and a low pressure mixer superheater. Depending upon plant characteristics, the existing moisture separator reheater (MSR) can be either augmented or done away with. The instant invention enables a reduction in T.sub.hot without a derating of the reactor unit, and improves efficiency of the plant's electrical conversion cycle. Coupled with this advantage is a possible extension of the plant's fuel cycle length due to an increased electrical conversion efficiency. The reduction in T.sub.hot further allows for a surprising extension of steam generator life. An additional advantage is the reduction in erosion/corrosion of secondary system components including turbine blades and diaphragms. The gas turbine generator used in the instant invention can also replace or augment existing peak or emergency power needs. Another benefit of the instant invention is the extension of plant life and the reduction of downtime due to refueling.

  8. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  9. Materials Performance in USC Steam Portland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak; R. Hu

    2011-04-26

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, co-called advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limitation to achieving the goal is a lack of cost-effective metallic materials that can perform at these temperatures and pressures. Some of the more important performance limitations are high-temperature creep strength, fire-side corrosion resistance, and steam-side oxidation resistance. Nickel-base superalloys are expected to be the materials best suited for steam boiler and turbine applications above about 675 C. Specific alloys of interest include Haynes 230 and 282, Inconel 617, 625 and 740, and Nimonic 263. Further validation of a previously developed chromia evaporation model is shown by examining the reactive evaporation effects resulting from exposure of Haynes 230 and Haynes 282 to moist air environments as a function of flow rate and water content. These two alloys differ in Ti and Mn contents, which may form outer layers of TiO{sub 2} or Cr-Mn spinels. This would in theory decrease the evaporation of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} from the scale by decreasing the activity of chromia at the scale surface, and be somewhat self-correcting as chromia evaporation concentrates the Ti and Mn phases. The apparent approximate chromia activity was found for each condition and alloy that showed chromia evaporation kinetics. As expected, it was found that increasing the gas flow rate led to increased chromia evaporation and decreased chromia activity. However, increasing the water content in moist air increased the evaporation, but results were mixed with its effect on chromia activity.

  10. Wet-steam erosion of steam turbine disks and shafts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Averkina, N. V.; Zheleznyak, I. V.; Kachuriner, Yu. Ya.; Nosovitskii, I. A.; Orlik, V. G.; Shishkin, V. I.

    2011-01-15

    A study of wet-steam erosion of the disks and the rotor bosses or housings of turbines in thermal and nuclear power plants shows that the rate of wear does not depend on the diagrammed degree of moisture, but is determined by moisture condensing on the surfaces of the diaphragms and steam inlet components. Renovating the diaphragm seals as an assembly with condensate removal provides a manifold reduction in the erosion.

  11. Fossil assests management: Making decisions on older plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, J.

    1996-01-01

    Deregulation of the bulk power market is prompting many electric utilities to reexamine their older fossil generating units to see how they fit into the company`s overall operating strategy and whether they should be retired or modified to help the company become more competitive. EPRI`s Fossil Assets Management methodologies provide a formal value-analysis process for determining which investment and utilization options for fossil plants provide the greatest benfits at the corporate level. Three major types of asset management decisions are involved: how to deploy each unit in a utility`s fossil plant fleet, what investments should be made at specific plants, and how to modify operation and maintenance practices in view of present equipment condition. EPRI has also developed the Strategic Asset Management methodology which focuses on even border alternatives for allocating budgets and staff time across the utility. The FAM and SAM methodologies can be used together to analyze a full suite of asset management decisions, ranging from corporate-level reorganization to key equipment purchases at specific plants. This paper describes these strategies.

  12. Hydrogen chloride in superheated steam and chloride in deep brine at The Geysers geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haizlip, J.R.; Truesdell, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Chloride (Cl) concentrations of 10-120 ppm{sub w} have been measured in superheated steam produced by wells at The Geysers, a vapor-dominated geothermal field in northern California. Corrosion of the well casing and steam-gathering system has been recognized in some parts of The Geysers, and is apparently related to the presence of Cl. Cl in the steam is in a volatile form, generated with the steam at reservoir temperatures, and probably travels to the wellhead as HCl gas. Published experimental data for partial pressures of HCl in steam over aqueous HCl solutions and for dissociation constants of HCl were used to calculate distribution coefficients for HCl. Reservoir liquid Cl concentrations capable of generating steam with the observed Cl concentrations were then calculated as a function of pH and temperatures from 250 to 350 C. Equilibrium mineral/liquid reactions with the K-mica and K-feldspar assemblage found in the wells limit the reservoir liquid pH values at various Cl concentrations to about 5 to 6 (near neutral at 250 to 350 C). Within this pH range, liquid at 250 C could not produce steam containing the high Cl concentrations observed. However, liquid at higher temperatures (300 to 350 C) with chloride concentrations greater than 10,000 ppm{sub w} could generate steam with 10 to over 200 ppm{sub w} Cl. There is a positive correlation between pH and the chloride concentrations required to generate a given Cl concentration in steam. The concentration of Cl in superheated steam constrains not only the reservoir liquid composition, but the temperature at which the steam last equilibrated with liquid.

  13. Task 1: Steam Oxidation,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. G. Wright and G. R. Holcomb

    2009-03-01

    Need to improve efficiency, decrease emissions (esp. CO2) associated with the continued use of coal for power generation

  14. Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-12-01

    China is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020 ; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

  15. Reliable steam: To cogenerate or not to cogenerate?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaber, D.; Jones, T.; D'Anna, L.; Vetterick, R.

    1999-07-01

    Leading industrial companies and institutions are forever seeking new and better ways to reduce their expenses, reduce waste, meet environmental standards, and, in general, improve their bottom-line. One approach to achieving all of these goals is a 100 year-old concept, cogeneration. Many industrial and institutional plants need thermal energy, generally as steam, for manufacturing processes and heating. They also need electric power for motors, lighting, compressed air and air conditioning. Traditionally, these fundamental needs are met separately. Steam is produced with industrial boilers and electricity is purchased from a local utility company. However, these needs can be met at the same time with cogeneration, using the same heat source. Cogeneration is the concurrent production of electrical power and thermal energy from the same heat source. Large steam users commonly take advantage of cogeneration by using high pressure steam with a back pressure turbine to generate electricity, and extract lower pressure steam from the turbine exhaust for their process needs. This approach reduces their electric utility bills while still providing thermal energy for industrial processes. The result is also a more efficient process that uses less total heat and discharges less smoke up the stack. Newer technologies are making cogeneration opportunities available to smaller-sized thermal plants, and electric utility deregulation opportunities are causing many CEOs to seriously consider cogeneration in their manufacturing plants. Whether steam is created through cogeneration or separate generation, many opportunities exist to improve productivity in the distribution system, operation, and maintenance. These opportunities are captured by taking a systems approach, which is promoted by programs such as the Department of Energy's Steam Challenge.

  16. The value of steam turbine upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, K.; Olear, D.

    2005-11-01

    Technological advances in mechanical and aerodynamic design of the turbine steam path are resulting in higher reliability and efficiency. A recent study conducted on a 390 MW pulverized coal-fired unit revealed just how much these new technological advancements can improve efficiency and output. The empirical study showed that the turbine upgrade raised high pressure (HP) turbine efficiency by 5%, intermediate pressure (IP) turbine efficiency by 4%, and low pressure (LP) turbine efficiency by 2.5%. In addition, the unit's highest achievable gross generation increased from 360 MW to 371 MW. 3 figs.

  17. Guide to Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, C.B.

    2001-01-11

    This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight their capabilities and limitations. Finally, recommendations for using orifice plate steam traps are presented, and possible applications are identified.

  18. Fossil Energy Today- Second Quarter, 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Here are just some of the stories featured in this issue: NETL Share Computing Speed, Efficiency to Tackle Barriers; Global Collaboration in Clean Fossil Energy; Charles McConnell Confirmed Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy; and, New Catalyst Technology Reduces Diesel Engine Idling.

  19. Thermostatic steam trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.H.; Mac Nicol, A.E.

    1987-03-03

    A thermostatic trap is described for a heating system having a feed pipe connected to a source of steam and a discharge pipe for discharge of condensate and comprising: housing means defining a volume and comprising a bowl shaped body, a removable cover therefor, a housing inlet pipe portion projecting from a side wall portion of the body and adapted for connection to the discharge pipe. A housing outlet pipe portion projects from a bottom wall portion of the body, and an outlet orifice defined by the bottom wall portion and extends between the volume and the outlet pipe portion; a valve body means retained within the volume and comprising an end wall, a side wall and a retaining ring portion that together define a valve chamber. The end wall defines a valve inlet opening communicating with the chamber and an annular valve seat within the chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening. The valve body means comprises a valve outlet pipe that defines a valve outlet opening axially aligned with the valve inlet opening and communicating with the chamber, the outlet pipe being fixed in the outlet orifice; a resilient, annular seal means disposed within the valve chamber and encircling the valve inlet opening; and a bi-metallic disc disposed within the valve chamber between the annular seal means and the outlet opening and having an outer peripheral portion retained by the retaining ring portion of the valve body means.

  20. CalEnergy Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electric power and steam-producing facilities in the United States and the Philippines. Worldwide, CalEnergy Generation focuses on growth through acquisition and fuel source...

  1. Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget Fossil Energy's FY 2010 budget, including request, House and Senate marks, and final appropriation. PDF icon Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy FY 2011 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2009 Budget FY 2014 Funding History Detail Spreadsheet

  2. Fossil Energy FY 2011 Budget | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2011 Budget Fossil Energy's FY 2011 budget request, House and Senate marks, and final appropriation. PDF icon Fossil Energy FY 2011 Budget More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy FY 2010 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2009 Budget FY 2012 Budget Justification

  3. Fossil Energy FY 2014 Budget | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy FY 2014 Budget Fossil Energy FY 2014 Budget Documents and information related to the Fossil Energy FY 2014 budget. Fossil Energy FY 2014 Budget-in-Brief Office of Fossil Energy Techline - April 10, 2013 Detailed FY 2014 Budget Jusifications for FE Department of Energy's Complete FY 2014 Budget Request

  4. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  5. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  6. Materials for advanced ultrasupercritical steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purgert, Robert; Shingledecker, John; Saha, Deepak; Thangirala, Mani; Booras, George; Powers, John; Riley, Colin; Hendrix, Howard

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have sponsored a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired power plants capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than the current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions. A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction for boilers and for steam turbines. The overall project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760°C (1400°F)/35MPa (5000 psi). This final technical report covers the research completed by the General Electric Company (GE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), with support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) – Albany Research Center, to develop the A-USC steam turbine materials technology to meet the overall project goals. Specifically, this report summarizes the industrial scale-up and materials property database development for non-welded rotors (disc forgings), buckets (blades), bolting, castings (needed for casing and valve bodies), casting weld repair, and casting to pipe welding. Additionally, the report provides an engineering and economic assessment of an A-USC power plant without and with partial carbon capture and storage. This research project successfully demonstrated the materials technology at a sufficient scale and with corresponding materials property data to enable the design of an A-USC steam turbine. The key accomplishments included the development of a triple-melt and forged Haynes 282 disc for bolted rotor construction, long-term property development for Nimonic 105 for blading and bolting, successful scale-up of Haynes 282 and Nimonic 263 castings using traditional sand foundry practices, and a techno-economic study of an A-USC plant including cost estimates for an A-USC turbine which showed A-USC to be economically attractive for partial carbon and capture compared to today’s USC technology. Based on this successful materials research and a review with U.S. utility stakeholders, a new project to develop a component test facility (ComTest) including the world’s first A-USC turbine has been proposed to continue the technology development.

  7. Failures and repairs of headers and drums in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thielsch, H.; Cone, F.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses failures which have occurred in a number of thick-walled pressure vessels including superheater and reheat outlet headers, and med and steam drums in fossil fired boilers. It provides details regarding the causes of failure, which range from original manufacturing defects to service-related deterioration such as creep and thermal fatigue. It also provides information regarding inspection techniques which are capable of detecting similar conditions before they have reached dangerous levels of deterioration. Finally, it provides details pertaining to techniques used to successfully repair these pressure vessels when they have failed.

  8. Inspect and Repair Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Inspect and Repair Steam Traps (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Steam Pressure Reduction: ...

  9. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate ...

  10. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-09-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for baseload electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  12. Advanced fission and fossil plant economics-implications for fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delene, J.G.

    1994-11-01

    In order for fusion energy to be a viable option for electric power generation, it must either directly compete with future alternatives or serve as a reasonable backup if the alternatives become unacceptable. This paper discusses projected costs for the most likely competitors with fusion power for base-load electric capacity and what these costs imply for fusion economics. The competitors examined include advanced nuclear fission and advanced fossil-fired plants. The projected costs and their basis are discussed. The estimates for these technologies are compared with cost estimates for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion plants. The conclusion of the analysis is that fusion faces formidable economic competition. Although the cost level for fusion appears greater than that for fission or fossil, the costs are not so high as to preclude fusion`s potential competitiveness.

  13. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date January 13, 2016 12:01AM to 11:59PM EST ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION PART I DUE DATE ...

  14. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part I Due Date March 16, 2016 12:01PM to 11:59PM EDT ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION PART I DUE DATE...

  15. FABRICATE AND TEST AN ADVANCED NON-POLLUTING TURBINE DRIVE GAS GENERATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene Baxter; Roger E. Anderson; Stephen E. Doyle

    2003-06-01

    In September 2000 the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) contracted with Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) of Sacramento, California to design, fabricate, and test a 20 MW{sub t} (10 MW{sub e}) gas generator. Program goals were to demonstrate a non-polluting gas generator at temperatures up to 3000 F at 1500 psi, and to demonstrate resulting drive gas composition, comprising steam and carbon dioxide substantially free of pollutants. Following hardware design and fabrication, testing, originally planned to begin in the summer of 2001, was delayed by unavailability of the contracted test facility. CES designed, fabricated, and tested the proposed gas generator as originally agreed. The CES process for producing near-zero-emissions power from fossil fuels is based on the near-stoichiometric combustion of a clean gaseous fuel with oxygen in the presence of recycled water, to produce a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine drive fluid comprising steam and carbon dioxide. Tests demonstrated igniter operation over the prescribed ranges of pressure and mixture ratios. Ignition was repeatable and reliable through more than 100 ignitions. Injector design ''A'' was operated successfully at both low power ({approx}20% of rated power) and at rated power ({approx}20 MW{sub t}) in more than 95 tests. The uncooled gas generator configuration (no diluent injectors or cooldown chambers installed) produced drive gases at temperatures approaching 3000 F and at pressures greater than 1550 psia. The fully cooled gas generator configuration, with cooldown chambers and injector ''A'', operated consistently at pressures from 1100 to 1540 psia and produced high pressure, steam-rich turbine drive gases at temperatures ranging from {approx}3000 to as low as 600 F. This report includes description of the intended next steps in the gas generator technology demonstration and traces the anticipated pathway to commercialization for the gas generator technology developed in this program.

  16. Monitoring of temperature-compensated conductivity in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bursik, A.

    1995-01-01

    Specific conductivity is an inexpensive, reliable, on-line method for monitoring the overall level of contaminants and its trends in fossil plant cycles. The most important applications are the monitoring in makeup water and at the economizer inlet. In the makeup, the specific conductivity is related to the content of makeup ionic impurities and carbon dioxide. Specific conductivity at the economizer inlet is an indication of the ammonia level during normal operation, since other ionic impurity levels are relatively very low in relation to the ammonia content. Cation conductivity serves as an excellent diagnostic tool. The advantage of using strong-acid cation exchanger for the alkalizing agents elimination and for the great sensitivity improvement has already been recognized in the 1950`s. The cation conductivity is currently one of the most important {open_quotes}core parameters{close_quotes} in the Cycle Chemistry Improvement Project. In this project, the most important plant cycle locations where cation conductivity on-line monitoring is strongly advised are: condensate pump discharge; polisher outlet or economizer inlet; and hot reheat steam or main steam. An additional monitoring location is the blowdown or the downcomer of drum boilers. The cation conductivity monitoring at this location is becoming vital with the introduction of oxygenated chemistry and OH (sodium hydroxide) treatment in cycles with drum boilers. Degassed cation conductivity has been addressed. Applying this method, the effect of carbon dioxide on cation conductivity is eliminated by boiling off gaseous carbon dioxide before the actual cation conductivity monitoring. Therefore, the degassed cation conductivity reflects only the total non-volatile anionic impurity level.

  17. Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    With Environmental Equipment," " 1985-2010 (Megawatts)" "Year","Coal",,,,"Petrol...ers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)" 1985,302056,120591,56955,304706,36054,28895,65,...

  18. How three smart managers control steam costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendall, R.

    1982-11-01

    Three steam-intensive companies report innovative ways to reduce steam-production costs. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. concentrated on regular maintenance, process modifications, and heat recovery, but also has an on-going policy of seeking further cost savings. Future efforts will explore computer-based boiler controls. Zenith Radio Corporation's color picture tube-making process uses 12% less steam after 700 mechanical steam traps were replaced with fixed-orifice traps. Petro-Tex Chemical Corp. reduced steam costs by monitoring and optimizing process units and by making capital investments to improve steam management. (DCK)

  19. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermoscompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam - Steam Tip Sheet #29

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam jet ejectors and thermocompressors provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Energy Department Releases Draft Advanced Fossil Energy Solicitation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fossil energy projects and facilities that substantially reduce greenhouse gas and other air pollution. The Advanced Fossil Energy Projects solicitation, authorized by Title XVII...

  1. Profiles in Leadership: Christopher Smith, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Christopher Smith, Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, shares his perspective on the work of the Office of Fossil Energy in this Profile in Leadership.

  2. Fossil Energy FY 2014 Appropriations Hearing | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy FY 2014 Appropriations Hearing March 14, 2013 - 1:36pm Addthis Statement of Christopher Smith, Acting Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy before the House Committee ...

  3. Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety cooperation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health ...

  4. Energy Department's Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy Chief to Tour Western Michigan University's Clean Coal Research Facilities, ... Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology help industry make fossil energy use ...

  5. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN GUARANTEE ANNOUNCEMENT DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN GUARANTEE ANNOUNCEMENT LPO has released a supplement to its ...

  6. Powerpoint Presentation: Fossil Energy R&D American Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powerpoint Presentation: Fossil Energy R&D American Recovery & Reinvestment Act Projects Powerpoint Presentation: Fossil Energy R&D American Recovery & Reinvestment Act Projects A ...

  7. Fossil Energy FY 2012 Budget | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Fossil Energy FY 2012 Budget More Documents & Publications FY 2014 Budget Request Statistical Table Fossil Energy FY 2013 Budget FY 2014 Department of Energy Budget ...

  8. A novel technique to control high temperature materials degradation in fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Martinez-Villafane, A.

    1995-11-01

    High temperature corrosion of superheater (SH) and, specially, reheater (RH) is strongly dependent on metal temperature. In this work, a way to continuously monitor the metal temperature of SH or RH, elements developed by the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) is described and the effects of operating parameters on metal temperature are evaluated. Also, the effects the steam-generator design and metal temperature on the corrosion rates have been investigated. In some steam generators, corrosion rates were reduced from 0.7 to 0.2 mm/y by changing the tube material and reducing the metal temperature. Also, the effect of metal temperature on the residual life of a 347H tube in a 158MW steam generator is evaluated. It is concluded that metal temperature is the most important parameter in controlling the high-temperature materials behavior in boiler environments.

  9. DOE - Fossil Energy: Introduction to Coal Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Introduction An Energy Lesson Cleaning Up Coal COAL is our most abundant fossil fuel. The United States has more coal than the rest of the world has oil. There is still enough coal ...

  10. Presentation: DOE Office of Fossil Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Paula Gant, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Oil and Gas highlighted a number of reports from 2011-2013 aimed at the safe and responsible...

  11. fossil fuels | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy becomes more competitive with fossil fuels in OECD countries, reports of this nature can go a long way to supporting more and more development. The four new reports in...

  12. Fossil energy program. Progress report, July 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeese, L. E.

    1980-10-01

    This report - the seventy-second of a series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives to oil and gas as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process and program analysis, fossil energy environmental analysis, coal preparation and waste utilization, coal preparation plant automation, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, technical support to the TVA fluidized bed combustion demonstration plant program, fossil energy applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international assessment of atmospheric fluidized bed combustion technology, and PFBC systems analysis.

  13. Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure Steam This tip sheet ...

  14. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements their overall research effort by evaluating water availability at power plants under drought conditions. While there are a number of competing demands on water uses, particularly during drought conditions, this report focuses solely on impacts to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet. Included are both fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants. One plant examined also uses biomass as a fuel. The purpose of this project is to estimate the impact on generation capacity of a drop in water level at U.S. steam electric power plants due to climatic or other conditions. While, as indicated above, the temperature of the water can impact decisions to halt or curtail power plant operations, this report specifically examines impacts as a result of a drop in water levels below power plant submerged cooling water intakes. Impacts due to the combined effects of excessive temperatures of the returned cooling water and elevated temperatures of receiving waters (due to high ambient temperatures associated with drought) may be examined in a subsequent study. For this study, the sources of cooling water used by the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet were examined. This effort entailed development of a database of power plants and cooling water intake locations and depths for those plants that use surface water as a source of cooling water. Development of the database and its general characteristics are described in Chapter 2 of this report. Examination of the database gives an indication of how low water levels can drop before cooling water intakes cease to function. Water level drops are evaluated against a number of different power plant characteristics, such as the nature of the water source (river vs. lake or reservoir) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  15. Utility-led cogen plant meets tight specs on steam supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckersley, R.

    1995-08-01

    No Purpa machine here, this plant adds low-cost generating capacity while supplying steam with guaranteed reliability to petrochemicals producer. This article examines the design which ensures recovery of export steam load with minimum time and pressure loss. EI DuPont de Nemours and Co needed a new source of reliable, inexpensive steam to replace aging, inefficient boilers at its LaPorte (Tex) plant, where agricultural chemicals and other products are manufactured. At the same time, Houston Lighting and Power Co (HL and P) was exploring new ways to add capacity cost effectively. San Jacinto steam/electric station was the ideal solution that satisfied both needs. Fully operation since last April, the station`s performance has been excellent. Operating with complete reliability, the system has respond smoothly to meet changes in DuPont`s steam demand without upset.

  16. Alternatives to traditional water washing used to remove impurities in superheated geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, D.W.; Jung, D.B. [Two-Phase Engineering & Research, Inc., Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The method of water washing impurities from superheated geothermal steam as adopted from traditional steam boiler operations in electric power generation stations has been used for a decade and a half under several pseudonyms, e.g., de-superheating, enthalpy modification, de-scaling, etc. Water washing can be effective, but it is costly. It is not necessarily expensive to implement or operate, but the cost of unrecoverable energy lost due to steam enthalpy reduction can be quite high. Are there other ways to remove these undesirables from superheated geothermal steam? That question is the focus of this paper. Several alternatives to water washing will be proposed including dry scrubbing, oil washing, and hybrid cleaning. A discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each method will be presented along with the various geothermal steam impurities and their effects on the process and equipment.

  17. Project DEEP STEAM: third meeting of the technical advisory panel, Bakersfield, CA, March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, R. L.; Johnson, D. R.; Donaldson, A. B.; Mulac, A. J.; Krueger, D. A.

    1981-04-01

    The third meeting of the technical advisory panel for the Deep Steam project was held in March 1980 in Bakersfield, California. The following seven papers were presented: Materials Studies; Insulation/Packer Simulation Test; Enhanced Recovery Packer; High Pressure Downhole Steam Generator; Lower Pressure Downhole Steam Generator; Physical Simulations; and Field Testing. The panel made many recommendations, some of which are: shell calcium silicate insulation should be included in the injection string modification program; for metal packer, consider age hardening alloys, testing with thermal cycling, intentionally flawed casing, and operational temperatures effect on differential expansion, plus long term tests under temperature and corrosive environment; for minimum stress packer, consider testing environment carefully as some elastomers are especially susceptible to oil, oxygen, and combustion gases; for downhole steam generator, quality of water required with new low pressure combustion design needs to be investigated; in field testing, materials coupons, for corrosion monitoring, should be an integral part of field test operations.

  18. Superalloys for ultra supercritical steam turbines--oxidation behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-09-01

    Goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so called ultra-supercritical (USC) steam conditions. One of the important materials performance considerations is steam-side oxidation resistance. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism under USC conditions. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales with cylindrical geometries was developed that allows for the effects of CrO2(OH)2 saturation within the gas phase. This approach was combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles as a function of exposure time and to predict the time until the alloy surface concentration of Cr reaches zero. This time is a rough prediction of the time until breakaway oxidation. A hypothetical superheater tube, steam pipe, and high pressure turbine steam path was examined. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. The predicted time until breakaway oxidation increases dramatically with decreases in temperature and total pressure. Possible mitigation techniques were discussed, including those used in solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects (lowering the activity of Cr in the oxide scale by adding Mn to the alloy), and thermal barrier coating use on high pressure turbine blades for both erosion and chromia evaporation protection.

  19. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date June 15, 2016 12:01AM to 11:59PM EDT ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION PART II DUE DATE Learn more about the Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation

  20. Supplement to Advanced Fossil Loan Guarantee Announcement 062315 |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy to Advanced Fossil Loan Guarantee Announcement 062315 Supplement to Advanced Fossil Loan Guarantee Announcement 062315 PDF icon Supplement_third_to_Advanced_Fossil_Loan_Guarantee_Announcement_062315.pdf More Documents & Publications Supplement second to REEE Loan Guarantee Announcement 062315 DOE-LPO_Email-Update_001_Through_11 DISTRIBUTED ENERGY PROJECTS SUPPLEMENT TO ADVANCED FOSSIL LOAN GUARANTEE ANNOUNCEMENT

  1. PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) PDF icon PIA - Fossil Energy Web System (FEWEB) More Documents & Publications Integrated Safety Management Workshop Registration, PIA, Idaho National Laboratory PIA - WEB Physical Security Major Application PIA - WEB Unclassified Business Operations General Support

  2. Fossil Energy Today - Third Quarter, 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Fossil Energy Today - Third Quarter, 2011 Topics In This Issue... Addressing Today's Energy Challenges Empowering Education Global CCS Projects NETL Joins Forces with India Hurricane Preparedness Upcoming Events PDF icon Fossil Energy Today - Issue No. 3, Third Quarter, 2011 More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy Today - Second Quarter, 2012 Fossil Energy Today - First

  3. Investments in fossil energy technology: How the government's fossil energy R&D program has made a difference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    1997-03-01

    America has the technological capacity to change its energy future. There is no reason, for example, why our nation must continue following a path of rising oil imports when billions of barrels of crude oil remain in domestic oil fields. There is no reason why we cannot continue to use our abundant supplies of high-value, low-cost coal when we have the scientific know-how to remove virtually all of its pollutants and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. There is no reason why we cannot turn increasingly to clean-burning natural gas and tap the huge supplies we know exist within our borders. We remain a nation rich in the fuels that have powered economic growth. Today 85 percent of the energy we use to heat our homes and businesses, generate our electricity, and fuel our vehicles comes from coal, petroleum and natural gas. As we move toward a new century, the contributions of these fuels will grow. By 2015, the United States is likely to require nearly 20 percent more energy than it uses today, and fossil fuels are projected to supply almost 88 percent of the energy Americans will consume. We have the scientific know-how to continue using our fossil fuel wealth without fear of environmental damage or skyrocketing costs. The key is technology - developing cutting edge concepts that are beyond the private sector's current capabilities. Some of the most important innovations in America's energy industry are the results of investments in the Federal government's fossil energy research and development programs. Today, our air and water are cleaner, our economy is stronger, and our industries are more competitive in the global market because these programs have produced results. This booklet summarizes many of these achievements. It is not a comprehensive list by any means. Still, it provides solid evidence that the taxpayers' investment in government fossil energy research has paid real and measurable dividends.

  4. An Energy Signature Scheme for Steam Trap Assessment and Flow Rate Estimation Using Pipe-Induced Acoustic Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M; Allgood, Glenn O; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Lake, Joe E

    2012-01-01

    The US Congress has passed legislation dictating that all government agencies establish a plan and process for improving energy efficiencies at their sites. In response to this legislation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has recently conducted a pilot study to explore the deployment of a wireless sensor system for a real-time measurement-based energy efficiency optimization framework within the steam distribution system within the ORNL campus. We make assessments on the real-time status of the distribution system by observing the state measurements of acoustic sensors mounted on the steam pipes/traps/valves. In this paper, we describe a spectral-based energy signature scheme that interprets acoustic vibration sensor data to estimate steam flow rates and assess steam traps health status. Experimental results show that the energy signature scheme has the potential to identify different steam trap health status and it has sufficient sensitivity to estimate steam flow rate. Moreover, results indicate a nearly quadratic relationship over the test region between the overall energy signature factor and flow rate in the pipe. The analysis based on estimated steam flow and steam trap status helps generate alerts that enable operators and maintenance personnel to take remedial action. The goal is to achieve significant energy-saving in steam lines by monitoring and acting on leaking steam pipes/traps/valves.

  5. Steam cooling system for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Ian David; Barb, Kevin Joseph; Li, Ming Cheng; Hyde, Susan Marie; Mashey, Thomas Charles; Wesorick, Ronald Richard; Glynn, Christopher Charles; Hemsworth, Martin C.

    2002-01-01

    The steam cooling circuit for a gas turbine includes a bore tube assembly supplying steam to circumferentially spaced radial tubes coupled to supply elbows for transitioning the radial steam flow in an axial direction along steam supply tubes adjacent the rim of the rotor. The supply tubes supply steam to circumferentially spaced manifold segments located on the aft side of the 1-2 spacer for supplying steam to the buckets of the first and second stages. Spent return steam from these buckets flows to a plurality of circumferentially spaced return manifold segments disposed on the forward face of the 1-2 spacer. Crossover tubes couple the steam supply from the steam supply manifold segments through the 1-2 spacer to the buckets of the first stage. Crossover tubes through the 1-2 spacer also return steam from the buckets of the second stage to the return manifold segments. Axially extending return tubes convey spent cooling steam from the return manifold segments to radial tubes via return elbows.

  6. Gallatin fossil plant: Evaluation of waste reduction opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McEntyre, C.L.; Harris, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    As part of the business planning process, Fossil and Hydro Power set a goal for each facility to reduce noncombustion related solid waste generation by 10% from FY 1994 levels by the end of FY 1995 and by 30% by the end of FY 1997. Facility managers wanted help in identifying and understanding the waste streams at their facilities. A task team performed a pilot waste assessment using the processes described in F and H`s Solid Waste Procedure and EPA`s Facility Pollution Prevention Guide. Objectives were to develop a baseline by conducting a Site Assessment for generation of noncombustion solid waste and identification to the extent practicable of existing solid waste management costs. Several options for reducing wastes generation, improving operations, and reducing costs were identified.

  7. Fossil Energy Today - Fourth Quarter, 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Fossil Energy Today - Fourth Quarter, 2011 Topics In This Issue.... Industrial Carbon Capture, Storage Project Begins Construction A New Path Forward: CCUS FE R&D: A Legacy of Benefit NETL Helps Develop Improved Coronary Stents for Heart Patients CSLF Ministerial Reinforces Support for CCUS PDF icon Fossil Energy Today - Issue No. 4, Fourth Quarter, 2011 More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy Today - Third Quarter, 2011 Fossil Energy Today - Fourth Quarter, 2012 Fossil Energy

  8. Fossil Energy Today - Second Quarter, 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Fossil Energy Today - Second Quarter, 2011 Topics In This Issue... Office Reorganization McConnell Joins FE Staff Coal Cleaning Commercial Success Sonar Survey Program Heating Oil Reserve Converts Stock Marcellus Shale Water Management FE Spotlight Upcoming Events PDF icon Fossil Energy Today - Issue No. 2, Second Quarter, 2011 More Documents & Publications Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2013 Fossil Energy Today - Third Quarter, 2011 Fossil Energy Today - Second Quarter, 2012

  9. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual resource sites. Absolute costs at a given site will be determined by the specifics of a given project.

  10. Nuclear-energy application studied as source of injection steam for heavy-oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perrett, R.J.; Gledhill, P.R.; Dawson, P.; Stephenson, D.J.

    1981-08-03

    This study into the feasibility of adapting a well-proven nuclear reactor as a centralized source of injection steam for the recovery of heavy oil has shown that the reactor modifications are practicable and well within the bounds of current technology. The gas-cooled reactor is capable of meeting the highest steam supply pressure requirement and it possesses a high degree of inherent safety. The injection of steam for the recovery of heavy oil is the most well developed of the available options. At current price levels of oil and uranium, nuclear heat can be generated at a fraction of the running costs of oil fired thermal plant. Taken over a project lifetime of 25 years for the field model used for this assessment, the improved earnings for the nuclear option could amount to as much as /10 billion. The program requirements for a typical development have been examined and the construction times for the gas reactor steam plant, the oil-field development and the upgrading plant are compatible at between five and six years. The economic advantage of steam generation by nuclear energy gives a further recovery breakthrough. It becomes possible to continue the steam drive process up to much more adverse recovery ratios of steam quantity injected for unit oil produced if nuclear energy is employed.

  11. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heat exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.

  12. Integrated solar thermochemical reaction system for steam methane reforming

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Feng; Diver, Rich; Caldwell, Dustin D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Cameron, Richard J.; Humble, Paul H.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Dagle, Robert A.; Wegeng, Robert S.

    2015-06-05

    Solar-aided upgrade of the energy content of fossil fuels, such as natural gas, can provide a near-term transition path towards a future solar-fuel economy and reduce carbon dioxide emission from fossil fuel consumption. Both steam and dry reforming a methane-containing fuel stream have been studied with concentrated solar power as the energy input to drive the highly endothermic reactions but the concept has not been demonstrated at a commercial scale. Under a current project with the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL is developing an integrated solar thermochemical reaction system that combines solar concentrators with micro- and meso-channel reactors and heatmore » exchangers to accomplish more than 20% solar augment of methane higher heating value. The objective of our three-year project is to develop and prepare for commercialization such solar reforming system with a high enough efficiency to serve as the frontend of a conventional natural gas (or biogas) combined cycle power plant, producing power with a levelized cost of electricity less than 6¢/kWh, without subsidies, by the year 2020. In this paper, we present results from the first year of our project that demonstrated a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency as high as 69% with a prototype reaction system.« less

  13. Project DEEP STEAM: fourth meeting of the technical advisory panel, Albuquerque, NM, November 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, R.L.; Donaldson, A.B.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Hart, C.M.; Johnson, D.R.; Mulac, A.J.; Wayland, J.R.; Weirick, L.J.

    1981-07-01

    The Fourth Project DEEP STEAM Technical Advisory Panel Meeting was held on 5 and 6 November 1980 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to review the status of project DEEP STEAM. This Proceedings, following the order of the meeting, is divided into five main sections: the injection string modification program, the downhole steam generator program, supporting activities, field testing, and the Advisory Panel recommendations and discussion. Each of the 17 presentations is summarized, and a final Discussion section has been added, when needed, for inclusion of comments and replies related to specific presentations. Finally, the Advisory Panel recommendations and the ensuing discussion are summarized in the closing section.

  14. Annual Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Data (EIA-767 data file)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity data files > Form EIA-767 Form EIA-767 historical data files Data Released: November 02, 2006 Next Release: None(discontinued) Annual steam-electric plant operation and design data Historical data files contain annual data from organic-fueled or combustible renewable steam-electric plants with a generator nameplate rating of 10 or more megawatts. The data are derived from the Form EIA-767 "Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design Report." The files contains data on

  15. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  16. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 °C) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 °C).

  17. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment This tip sheet outlines the benefits of steam turbine drives for rotating equipment as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET #21 PDF icon Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment (January 2012) More Documents & Publications Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency Benchmark the Fuel Cost of

  18. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Retrofit Kit | Department of Energy Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and flows to the trap drain beneath the sterilizer. Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and flows to the trap drain beneath the sterilizer. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) identified steam sterilizer condensate retrofit kits as a water-saving technology

  19. Significant Silica Solubility in Geothermal Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Russell

    1986-01-21

    Although it is widely believed that silica solubility in low pressure (5 to 10 bar) geothermal steam is negligible, when one takes into account steam flows exceeding 10 million tonnes a year--at Wairakei, for instance--it is found that the amount transmitted in the vapor has the potential to give significant deposits on turbine nozzles and blades. A 150 MWe power station, when based on flows from a hot water reservoir at (a) 250 C or (b) 315 C, and with separator pressures of 6 bar, is found to carry about 100 and 200 kg/year respectively in the steam phase. In the case of a similar sized station exploiting a dry steam reservoir such as The Geysers, equivalent silica flows are obtained, dissolved in steam and carried as dust--the latter as solid particles precipitating from the vapor en route from source to turbine, and not preexisting in the formations as is commonly considered. Choking or coating of subterranean rock near such dry steam wells due to exsolving silica, may be the principal cause of declining steam discharge under production. Silica from completely dry or superheated steam can also seal the cap and sides of steam reservoirs when expanding below the criticus temperature (236 C) in a way previously thought possible only by hot water or wet steam.

  20. Oxidation of alloys targeted for advanced steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Alman, D.E.

    2006-03-12

    Ultra supercritical (USC) power plants offer the promise of higher efficiencies and lower emissions. Current goals of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Power Systems Initiatives include coal generation at 60% efficiency, which would require steam temperatures of up to 760C. This research examines the steamside oxidation of alloys for use in USC systems, with emphasis placed on applications in high- and intermediate-pressure turbines.

  1. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  2. Fossil Energy Materials Program conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkins, R.R.

    1987-08-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy has recognized the need for materials research and development to assure the adequacy of materials of construction for advanced fossil energy systems. The principal responsibility for identifying needed materials research and for establishing a program to address these needs resides within the Office of Technical Coordination. That office has established the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Fossil Energy Materials Program to fulfill that responsibility. In addition to the AR and TD Materials Program, which is designed to address in a generic way the materials needs of fossil energy systems, specific materials support activities are also sponsored by the various line organizations such as the Office of Coal Gasification. A conference was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee on May 19-21, 1987, to present and discuss the results of program activities during the past year. The conference program was organized in accordance with the research thrust areas we have established. These research thrust areas include structural ceramics (particularly fiber-reinforced ceramic composites), corrosion and erosion, and alloy development and mechanical properties. Eighty-six people attended the conference. Papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  3. Design of Hybrid Steam-In Situ Combustion Bitumen Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Xiaomeng; Gates, Ian D.

    2009-09-15

    Given enormous capital costs, operating expenses, flue gas emissions, water treatment and handling costs of thermal in situ bitumen recovery processes, improving the overall efficiency by lowering energy requirements, environmental impact, and costs of these production techniques is a priority. Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is the most widely used in situ recovery technique in Athabasca reservoirs. Steam generation is done on surface and consequently, because of heat losses, the energy efficiency of SAGD can never be ideal with respect to the energy delivered to the sandface. An alternative to surface steam generation is in situ combustion (ISC) where heat is generated within the formation through injection of oxygen at a sufficiently high pressure to initiate combustion of bitumen. In this manner, the heat from the combustion reactions can be used directly to mobilize the bitumen. As an alternative, the heat can be used to generate steam within the formation which then is the agent to move heat in the reservoir. In this research, alternative hybrid techniques with simultaneous and sequential steam-oxygen injection processes are examined to maximize the thermal efficiency of the recovery process. These hybrid processes have the advantage that during ISC, steam is generated within the reservoir from injected and formation water and as a product of oxidation. This implies that ex situ steam generation requirements are reduced and if there is in situ storage of combustion gases, that overall gas emissions are reduced. In this research, detailed reservoir simulations are done to examine the dynamics of hybrid processes to enable design of these processes. The results reveal that hybrid processes can lower emitted carbon dioxide-to-oil ratio by about 46%, decrease the consumed natural gas-to-oil ratio by about 73%, reduce the cumulative energy-to-oil ratio by between 40% and 70% compared to conventional SAGD, and drop water consumption per unit oil produced. However, oil recovery is between 25% and 40% below that of SAGD. Design of successful hybrid steam-oxygen processes must take into account the balance between injected steam and amount of injected oxygen and combustion gas products that dilute injected and in situ-generated steam in the depletion chamber by lowering its partial pressure, and thus its saturation temperature which in turn impacts production rates and recovery.

  4. Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1995-07-01

    A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

  5. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  6. Optical steam quality measurement system and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, James R.; Partin, Judy K.

    2006-04-25

    An optical measurement system is presented that offers precision on-line monitoring of the quality of steam. Multiple wavelengths of radiant energy are passed through the steam from an emitter to a detector. By comparing the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the flow of steam for each wavelength, a highly accurate measurement of the steam quality can be determined on a continuous basis in real-time. In an embodiment of the present invention, the emitter, comprises three separate radiant energy sources for transmitting specific wavelengths of radiant energy through the steam. In a further embodiment, the wavelengths of radiant energy are combined into a single beam of radiant energy for transmission through the steam using time or wavelength division multiplexing. In yet a further embodiment, the single beam of radiant energy is transmitted using specialized optical elements.

  7. Steam Technical Brief: How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    This BestPractice Steam Technical Brief helps you calculate the true cost of steam. Knowing the correct cost is important for many reasons and all of them have to do with improving the company's bottom line.

  8. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  9. Application of solar energy for the generation and supply of industrial-process low-to intermediate-pressure steam ranging from 300/sup 0/F-550/sup 0/F (high-temperature steam). Final report, September 30, 1978-June 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteo, M.; Kull, J.; Luddy, W.; Youngblood, S.

    1980-12-01

    A detailed design was developed for a solar industrial process heat system to be installed at the ERGON, Inc. Bulk Oil Storage Terminal in Mobile, Alabama. The 1874 m/sup 2/ (20160 ft/sup 2/) solar energy collector field will generate industrial process heat at temperatures ranging from 150 to 290/sup 0/C (300 to 550/sup 0/F). The heat will be used to reduce the viscosity of stored No. 6 fuel oil, making it easier to pump from storage to transport tankers. Heat transfer oil is circulated in a closed system, absorbing heat in the collector field and delivering it through immersed heat exchangers to the stored fuel oil. The solar energy system will provide approximately 44 percent of the process heat required.

  10. Steam Technical Brief: Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-25

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  11. Covered Product Category: Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  12. Warm or Steaming Ground | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    causing steam to form when water is present. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Modern Geothermal Features Typical list of modern geothermal features Hot Springs Fumaroles...

  13. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer equipment for various steam systems and applications.

  15. Greenville Steam Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2006 Database Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleGreenvilleSteamBiomassFacility&oldid397532" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating...

  16. " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Relative Standard Errors for Table 8.3;" " Unit: Percents." " "," ",,," Steam Turbines Supplied by Either Conventional or Fluidized Bed Boilers",,,"Conventional Combusion ...

  17. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... or the steam system will not function prop- erly. A backup of condensate, known as waterlogging or flooding, can adversely affect heat transfer, promote corrosion of carbon ...

  18. Standard Steam Trust LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Name: Standard Steam Trust LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Sector: Geothermal energy Product: Subsidiary of Denver-based geothermal project developer, Terra...

  19. Application of advanced austenitic alloys to fossil power system components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Most power and recovery boilers operating in the US produce steam at temperatures below 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) and pressures below 24 MPa (3500 psi). For these operating conditions, carbon steels and low alloy steels may be used for the construction of most of the boiler components. Austenitic stainless steels often are used for superheater/reheater tubing when these components are expected to experience temperatures above 565{degrees}C (1050{degrees}F) or when the environment is too corrosive for low alloys steels. The austenitic stainless steels typically used are the 304H, 321H, and 347H grades. New ferritic steels such as T91 and T92 are now being introduced to replace austenitic: stainless steels in aging fossil power plants. Generally, these high-strength ferritic steels are more expensive to fabricate than austenitic stainless steels because the ferritic steels have more stringent heat treating requirements. Now, annealing requirements are being considered for the stabilized grades of austenitic stainless steels when they receive more than 5% cold work, and these requirements would increase significantly the cost of fabrication of boiler components where bending strains often exceed 15%. It has been shown, however, that advanced stainless steels developed at ORNL greatly benefit from cold work, and these steels could provide an alternative to either conventional stainless steels or high-strength ferritic steels. The purpose of the activities reported here is to examine the potential of advanced stainless steels for construction of tubular components in power boilers. The work is being carried out with collaboration of a commercial boiler manufacturer.

  20. Designing an ultrasupercritical steam turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klotz, H.; Davis, K.; Pickering, E.

    2009-07-15

    Carbon emissions produced by the combustion of coal may be collected and stored in the future, but a better approach is to reduce the carbon produced through efficient combustion technologies. Increasing the efficiency of new plants using ultrasupercritical (USC) technology will net less carbon released per megawatt-hour using the world's abundant coal reserves while producing electricity at the lowest possible cost. The article shows how increasing the steam turbine operating conditions for a new USC project in the USA and quantify the potential CO{sub 2} reduction this advanced design makes possible. 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Implementing Agreement - U.S.-UK Collaboration in Fossil Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Implementing Agreement - U.S.-UK Collaboration in Fossil Energy R&D Implementing Agreement - U.S.-UK Collaboration in Fossil Energy R&D PDF icon Implementing Agreement - U.S.-UK ...

  2. DOE - Fossil Energy: A Brief Overview of Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Fossil Energy Study Guides Coal - General Info America has more coal than any other fossil fuel resource. The United States also has more coal reserves than any other ...

  3. Adv. Fossil Solicitation Part II Due Date | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    January 29, 2016 12:01AM to 11:59PM EST ADVANCED FOSSIL ENERGY PROJECTS SOLICITATION PART II DUE DATE Learn more about the Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation...

  4. Fossil Energy FY 2013 Budget | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Fossil Energy FY 2013 Budget More Documents & Publications Details of the FY 2014 Budget Request for FE Fossil Energy FY 2012 Budget FY 2014 Budget Request Statistical ...

  5. Hanford Generating Project (HGP) Repowering Analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fluor Daniel Fernald

    1988-12-01

    The Hanford Generating Project (HGP), owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System, consists of two low pressure steam turbines, generators, and associated equipment located adjacent to the Department of Energy's (DOE) N-Reactor. HGP has been able to produce approximately 800 MWe with low pressure steam supplied by N-Reactor. DOE has placed N-Reactor in cold standby status for an undetermined length of time. This results in the idling of the HGP since no alternative source of steam is available. Bonneville Power Administration contracted with Fluor Daniel, Inc. to investigate the feasibility and cost of constructing a new source of steam for (repowering) one of the HGP turbines. The steam turbine is currently operated with 135 psia steam. The turbines can be rebuilt to operate with 500 psia steam pressure by adding additional stages, buckets, nozzles, and diaphragms. Because of the low pressure design, this turbine can never achieve the efficiencies possible in new high pressure turbines by the presences of existing equipment reduces the capital cost of a new generating resource. Five repowering options were investigated in this study. Three cases utilizing gas turbine combined cycle steam generation equipment, one case utilizing a gas fired boiler, and a case utilizing a coal fired boiler. This report presents Fluor Daniel's analysis of these repowering options.

  6. Christopher A. Smith Confirmed as Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Christopher A. Smith Confirmed as Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy Christopher A. Smith Confirmed as Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy December 16, 2014 - 10:15pm Addthis News Media Contact 202 586 4940 Christopher A. Smith Confirmed as Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy WASHINGTON - Christopher A. Smith was confirmed by the Senate on Tuesday, December 16th, 2014, as the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy. "Chris Smith's depth

  7. Contacts for the Assistant General Counsel for Electricity and Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy | Department of Energy Electricity and Fossil Energy Contacts for the Assistant General Counsel for Electricity and Fossil Energy Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Electricity & Fossil Energy (GC-76) The attorneys in the GC-76 office provide counsel to the Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis, Office of Fossil Energy, and the Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs. GC-76 handles the

  8. Fossil Energy Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request Fossil Energy Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request March 30, 2011 - 2:40pm Addthis Statement of Dr. Victor Der, Acting Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy before the House Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development. Mr. Chairman, Members of the Committee, it is my pleasure to appear before you today to present the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) proposed Budget for Fiscal Year 2012. The Office of Fossil Energy's primary objective is to

  9. Launching the Next Wave of Clean Fossil Energy Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advancing fossil energy projects across the United States, with support from a new $8 billion loan guarantee.

  10. Draft Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation Public Comments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy Loan Programs Office: Draft Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation Public Comments

  11. Analysis of pure electrical and cogeneration steam power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albar, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    General Electric's method of steam turbine performance was used with pure electrical and with cogeneration power plants at various flow rates. Comparisons were made for two cases: (1) the same amount of heat is added to each boiler and the amount of electrical power generated is compared; and (2) when each plant should produce the same amount of electric power and the amount of heat added to each boiler is compared. Cogeneration is energetically more efficient than pure electrical plant. Correlations for the dependence of heat rate, power generated, heat added to throttle flow ratio were obtained from this work.

  12. Table N13.2. Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Electricity: Components of Onsite Generation, 1998;" " Level: National and Regional ... use of energy." "Cogeneration includes electricity generated from fossil fuels, such as ...

  13. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  14. New era for fossil power plant simulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, S.

    1995-09-01

    At a time when the utility industry is focusing on products and services that can enhance competitiveness, affordable fossil plant simulators are a welcome technology. In just a few years, these simulators have progressed from being an expensive tool that few utilities could afford to being a technology that many utilities feel they can`t do without. Offering a variety of benefits in the areas of fossil plant training and engineering, today`s simulators are flexible, effective, and much less expensive than their counterparts in the 1980s. A vigorous EPRI development and demonstration effort has advanced simulators beyond operator issues to a new era of application, ranging from the training of engineers to the design and testing of power plant technologies. And the technologies that have resulted from simulator development and enhancement will have beneficial uses beyond plant simulation. 8 figs.

  15. Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam Use Vapor Recompression to Recover Low-Pressure Waste Steam This tip sheet on recovering low-pressure waste steam provides ...

  16. Energy Department Awards $22 Million to Support Next Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Electric Machines for Manufacturing Energy Department Awards 22 Million ... such as the transportation of fossil fuels and industrial-scale compression systems. ...

  17. WWTP Power Generation Station Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    WWTP Power Generation Station Sector Biomass Facility Type Non-Fossil Waste Location Alameda County, California Coordinates 37.6016892, -121.7195459 Show Map Loading map......

  18. 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Laboratory, RMOTC, and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office | Department of Energy Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, RMOTC, and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, RMOTC, and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements for 2012 and 2013 within Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology

  19. Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation Informational Materials Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Solicitation Solicitation and Supplements I through V (December 4, 2015). Applicants should review the final solicitation and all supplements before submitting an application. The full download above contains the following documents listed below: Solicitation (December 12, 2013) Supplement I regarding Application Fee and Facility Fee (July 8, 2014)

  20. The Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) Clean

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (1986-1993) laid the foundation for effective technologies now in use that have helped significantly lower emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and airborne particulates (PM 10 ). The program forged cost-sharing partnerships between the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, universities and technology suppliers and users. The U.S. General Accounting Office said the program demonstrated "how the

  1. Compact simulators can improve fossil plant operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fray, R.; Divakaruni, S.M. )

    1995-01-01

    This article examines new and affordable technology that can simulate operations in real time and is finding application across a broad spectrum of power plant designs. A significant breakthrough for utilities, compact simulator technology, has reduced the cost of replica simulators by a factor of five to 10. This affordable technology, combined with innovative software developments, can realistically simulate the operation of fossil power plants in real time on low-cost PC or workstation platforms.

  2. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate steam traps should be considered for use in new or existing steam systems. It presents background information about different types of steam traps and defines their unique functional and operational characteristics. The advantages and disadvantages associated with using orifice plate steam traps are provided to highlight

  3. Process steam production from cotton gin trash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LePori, W.A.; Carney, D.B.; Lalk, T.R.; Anthony, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A steam producing system based on fluidized-bed gasification of biomass materials is discussed. Limited experimental results are discussed and show that steam has been produced at rates of 334.3 kg/hr. (737 lbs/hr.) with 2.8 kg of stream produced for each kilogram of cotton gin trash (2.8 lb/lb.). ref.

  4. Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STEAM TIP SHEET 18 PDF icon Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems (January 2012) More ... Second Edition Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer CIBO Energy Efficiency Handbook

  5. Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes (July 2003) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems CIBO ...

  6. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam ... sterilizer condensate retrofit kits as a water-saving technology that is relevant to the ...

  7. Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a ...

  8. Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 Jump to: navigation, search To encourage the development of geothermal energy, the United States government passed the Geothermal Steam Act in 1970...

  9. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems Use Steam Jet Ejectors or Thermocompressors to Reduce Venting of Low-Pressure ...

  10. BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  11. U.S. DOE fossil energy fuel cell program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Surdoval

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, in partnership with private industry, educational institutions, and national laboratories, is leading the research, development, and demonstration of high efficiency, fuel flexible solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and coal based SOFC power generation systems for stationary markets. This Fuel Cell Program has three parts: Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) cost reduction, SECA fuel cell coal based systems, and advanced SECA systems. The SECA cost reduction goal is to have SOFCs capable of being mass manufactured at $400 per kilowatt by 2010. Concurrently, the scale-up, aggregation, and integration of the technology will progress in parallel leading to prototype validation of megawatt class products by 2012 with potential testing at FutureGen. The SECA coal-based and advanced systems goals are the development of megawatt-class fuel cell power systems that will enable affordable, reliable, efficient, and environmentally-friendly electrical power from coal.

  12. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breazeale, K.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  13. Life extension system for fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isreb, M.

    1996-11-01

    A general, multi-disciplinary life extension system for new and existing power plants has been absent in the literature. The present paper presents a general, multi-disciplinary life extension system for new and existing fossil power plants. The paper formulates the optimization problem framework for plants` components. The paper discusses the framework of the iterative process, objective functions, plant components, life extension constraints, new life or remnant life parameters and optimization techniques. Other system attributes discussed in the paper include: design invariant parameters, relationships between plant components and objective functions and a strategy for system sizing and simulation.

  14. System studies guiding fossil energy RD & D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    The article describes the following recently completed studies, all of which may be accessed on NETL's website: http://netl.doe.gov/energy-analyses/ref-shelf.html: Cost and performance baseline for fossil energy power plants - volume 1: bituminous coal and natural gas to electricity (May 2007); Increasing security and reducing carbon emissions of the US transportation sector: a transformational role for coal with biomass (August 2007); Industrial size gasification for syngas, substitute natural gas, and power production (April 2007); and Carbon dioxide capture from existing coal-fired power plants (December 2006). 2 figs.

  15. Fossil plant cycling impacts on feedwater heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, D.

    1995-12-01

    As the U.S. electric utility industry faces the most challenging period in its history, EPRI research is focused on providing products and services that help utilities meet these challenges. Currently, a dominant issue for fossil plants is the need to reduce operation and maintenance costs in order to maintain their profitability in an increasingly competitive business environment. Cycling operation can significantly effect plant O&M costs and must, therefore be done in the most effective and efficient manner. Ongoing R&D is providing new products and strategies addressing cycling operation that utilities can implement to optimize O&M costs for least-cost power production.

  16. Fossil fuel conversion--measurement and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, P.R.; Smoot, L.D.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Brewster, B.S.; Radulovic, P.T.

    1994-10-01

    The main objective of this program is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms in coal conversion processes and incorporate this knowledge in computer-aided reactor engineering technology for the purposes of development, evaluation, design, scale-up, simulation, control and feedstock evaluation in advanced coal conversion devices. To accomplish this objective, this program will: (1) provide critical data on the physical and chemical processes in fossil fuel gasifiers and combustors; (2) further develop a set of comprehensive codes; and (3) apply these codes to model various types of combustors and gasifiers (fixed-bed, transport reactor, and fluidized-bed for coal and gas turbines for natural gas).

  17. Relative Economic Incentives for Hydrogen from Nuclear, Renewable, and Fossil Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL] [ORNL; Gorensek, M. B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL)

    2007-01-01

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  18. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  19. Internal combustion engine injection superheated steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahoney, F.G.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a method for introducing water vapor to the combustion chambers of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing a metered amount of liquid water into a heat exchanger; contacting the heat exchanger directly with hot exhaust gases emanating from the exhaust manifold; maintaining the water in the heat exchanger for a period sufficient to vaporize the water into steam and superheat same; reducing pressure and increasing temperature to create superheated steam; introducing the superheated steam into the air supply proximate to the air induction system, upstream of any carburetion, of the internal combustion engine.

  20. Outage project productivity improvement of TVA fossil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picard, H.E.; Seay, C.R. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    Competition in the utility industry forces management to look closely at the cost effectiveness of power plant outage projects. At TVA Fossil and Hydro Power, innovative work measurement is proving effective as a project management tool to do more with less. Labor-hours to complete outage work scopes are reduced by some 20 to 30%, not by working harder or sacrificing safety, or quality, but by working and managing smarter. Fossil power plant outages and shutdowns are costly. They are labor-intensive construction projects, often with expanding work scope, and executed on a fast track. Outage work is inherently complex and dynamic, and often unpredictable. Many activities and tasks must be integrated, coordinated and completed safely and efficiently by multiple crafts and work groups. As a result, numerous productivity factors can influence the cost and schedule of outage completion. This provides owners, contractors and labor with unique opportunities for competitive advantage--by making radical changes in how they manage labor-hours and time.

  1. A Novel Solar-Fossil Hybrid Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2014-01-01

    This is a short article prepared for Power Magazine about our development of a solar-powered steam-methane reformer.

  2. General purpose steam table library : CASL L3:THM.CFD.P7.04 milestone report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  3. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. Steam turbine upgrading: low-hanging fruit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    The thermodynamic performance of the steam turbine, more than any other plant component, determines overall plant efficiency. Upgrading steam path components and using computerized design tools and manufacturing techniques to minimise internal leaks are two ways to give tired steam turbines a new lease on life. The article presents three case studies that illustrate how to do that. These are at Unit 1 of Dairyland's J.P. Madgett Station in Alma, WI, a coal-fired subcritical steam plant; the four units at AmerenUE's 600 MW coal-fired Labadie plant west of St. Louis; and Unit 3 of KeyPlan Corp's Northport Power Station on Long Island. 8 figs.

  5. Hartford Steam Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hartford Steam Co Place: Connecticut Phone Number: 860-725-7005 Website: www.hartfordsteam.com Outage Hotline: 860-725-7005 References: EIA...

  6. Fossil energy biotechnology: A research needs assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Program Analysis of the US Department of Energy commissioned this study to evaluate and prioritize research needs in fossil energy biotechnology. The objectives were to identify research initiatives in biotechnology that offer timely and strategic options for the more efficient and effective uses of the Nation`s fossil resource base, particularly the early identification of new and novel applications of biotechnology for the use or conversion of domestic fossil fuels. Fossil energy biotechnology consists of a number of diverse and distinct technologies, all related by the common denominator -- biocatalysis. The expert panel organized 14 technical subjects into three interrelated biotechnology programs: (1) upgrading the fuel value of fossil fuels; (2) bioconversion of fossil feedstocks and refined products to added value chemicals; and, (3) the development of environmental management strategies to minimize and mitigate the release of toxic and hazardous petrochemical wastes.

  7. Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

    1999-06-30

    This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

  8. Mist/steam cooling in a heated horizontal tube -- Part 1: Experimental system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, T.; Wang, T.; Gaddis, J.L.

    2000-04-01

    To improve the airfoil cooling significantly for the future generation of advanced turbine systems (ATS), a fundamental experimental program has been developed to study the heat transfer mechanisms of mist/steam cooling under highly superheated wall temperatures. The mist/steam mixture was obtained by blending fine water droplets (3 {approximately} 15 {micro}m in diameter) with the saturated steam at 1.5 bars. Two mist generation systems were tested by using the pressure atomizer and the steam-assisted pneumatic atomizer, respectively. The test section, heated directly by a DC power supply, consisted of a thin-walled ({approximately} 0.9 mm), circular stainless steel tube with an ID of 20 mm and a length of 203 mm. Droplet size and distribution were measured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) system through view ports grafted at the inlet and the outlet of the test section. Mist transportation and droplet dynamics were studied in addition to the heat transfer measurements. The experiment was conducted with steam Reynolds numbers ranging from 10,000 to 35,000, wall superheat up to 300 C, and droplet mass ratios ranging from 1 {approximately} 6%.

  9. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate (GHRR) equal to the original boiler design. Boiler efficiencies (cogeneration-steam plus air) is increased from the original design value of 70% to 78.9% due to a combination of improved burnout, operation with lower excess air, and drier fuel. For the fully implemented plant, the thermal efficiency of fuel to electricity conversion is 79.8% in the cogeneration mode, 5% above the design goal. Finally, self-generated electricity will be increased from the 10.8 MW currently attributable to No.2 Boiler to 46.7MW, an increase of 332%. Environmental benefits derived from the system include a reduction in NOx emissions from the boiler of about 30-50% (90-130 tons/year) through syngas reburning, improved carbon burnout and lower excess air. This does not count NOx reduction that may be associated with replacement of purchased electricity. The project would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the generation of electricity to meet the mill's power requirements, including 50,000 tons/yr from a net reduction in gas usage in the mill and an additional 410,000 tons/yr reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions due to a 34 MW reduction of purchased electricity. The total CO{sub 2} reduction amounts to about 33% of the CO{sub 2} currently generated to meet the mills electricity requirement. The overall conclusion of the study is that while significant engineering challenges are presented by the proposed system, they can be met with operationally acceptable and cost effective solutions. The benefits of the system can be realized in an economic manner, with a simple payback period on the order of 6 years. The results of the study are applicable to many paper mills in the U.S. firing woodwastes and other solid fuels for steam and power production.

  10. Office of Fossil Energy Continues Long-Running Minority Educational

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research Program | Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy Continues Long-Running Minority Educational Research Program Office of Fossil Energy Continues Long-Running Minority Educational Research Program April 19, 2012 - 11:41am Addthis Annie Whatley Annie Whatley Deputy Director, Office of Minority Education and Community Development Editor's Note: This article is cross-posted from the Office of Fossil Energy. Four projects that will strengthen and promote U.S. energy security,

  11. Department of Energy Releases $8 Billion Solicitation for Advanced Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Projects | Department of Energy Releases $8 Billion Solicitation for Advanced Fossil Energy Projects Department of Energy Releases $8 Billion Solicitation for Advanced Fossil Energy Projects December 12, 2013 - 1:40pm Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 Washington, D.C. - As part of President Obama's Climate Action Plan, the Energy Department published a solicitation today, making up to $8 billion in loan guarantee authority available to support innovative advanced fossil energy

  12. Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Year Awards | Department of Energy Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of the Year Awards Fossil Energy Acting Assistant Secretary Recognized at Black Engineer of the Year Awards February 19, 2013 - 8:54am Addthis Director Dot Harris presents Chris Smith, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary and Acting Assistant Secretary of Fossil Energy, with a professional achievement award at the Black Engineer of the Year Awards conference this February. Photo

  13. Fossil Energy Research Efforts in Carbon Capture and Storage | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fossil Energy Research Efforts in Carbon Capture and Storage Fossil Energy Research Efforts in Carbon Capture and Storage May 14, 2009 - 1:54pm Addthis Statement of Dr. Victor K. Der, Acting Assistant Secretary, Office of Fossil Energy before the Energy and Natural Resources Committee, United States Senate. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and members of the Committee. I appreciate this opportunity to provide testimony on the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) research efforts in

  14. Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Research | Department of Energy Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research Historically Black Colleges and Universities Receive Funds for Fossil Energy Research August 15, 2013 - 1:18pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Five fossil energy-related projects that will help maintain the nation's energy portfolio while also providing educational and research training opportunities for tomorrow's scientists and engineers have been selected for funding by

  15. NETL Launches a University Coalition for Fossil Energy Research at

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pennsylvania State University | Department of Energy Launches a University Coalition for Fossil Energy Research at Pennsylvania State University NETL Launches a University Coalition for Fossil Energy Research at Pennsylvania State University May 11, 2016 - 9:00am Addthis The Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has selected Pennsylvania State University as the lead institution to establish the University Coalition for Fossil Energy Research. The Coalition

  16. President's FY 2017 Budget Includes $878 Million for Fossil Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Programs | Department of Energy President's FY 2017 Budget Includes $878 Million for Fossil Energy Programs President's FY 2017 Budget Includes $878 Million for Fossil Energy Programs February 9, 2016 - 2:33pm Addthis President Obama's Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 Budget includes a programmatic level of $878 million for the Office of Fossil Energy (FE), including the use of $240 million in prior year funds, to advance technologies related to the reliable, efficient, affordable and environmentally

  17. Fossil Energy Today - Fourth Quarter, 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Fossil Energy Today - Fourth Quarter, 2012 Topics In This Issue.... National Sequestration Education Center Opens in Illinois Environment, Security, Safety & Health in the Office of Fossil Energy AVESTAR Center Deploys 3-D Virtual Training System FE Teams Earn Secretary of Energy Achievement Awards NETL Organizes Coal and Power Training Course for State Department Risk Profiles Help Predict CO2 Storage Site Obstacles PDF icon Fossil Energy Today, Issue No. 8, Fourth Quarter, 2012 More

  18. Steam generator with integral downdraft dryer. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hochmuth, F.W.

    1992-02-01

    On June 30, 1989, a financial assistance award was granted by the United State Department of Energy, the purpose of which was to study and evaluate the technical aspect, the economic viability, and commercial possibilities of a new furnace design for burning high moisture cellulose type fuels. The new design is an invention by F.W. Hochmuth, P.Eng. and has received United States Patents Nos. 4,480, 557 and 4,502,397. It was conceived as a method to improve the general operation and efficiency of waste wood burning boilers, to avoid the use of stabilizing fuels such as oil or gas, and to reduce objectionable stack emissions. A further objective was to obtain such benefits at relatively low cost by integrating all new material requirements within the furnace itself thereby avoiding the need for costly external equipment. The proposed integral down-draft dryer avoids the use of external dryer systems that are very expensive, have high power consumption, and require a large amount of maintenance. This document provides the details of this invention.

  19. DOE Leverages Fossil Energy Expertise to Develop And Explore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy will combine ... offices to support state-of-the-art research and development ... This hybridization combines traditional fossil energy ...

  20. Launching the Next Wave of Clean Fossil Energy Innovation | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    an advanced power plant that cuts carbon pollution, or building an efficient microgrid network that better utilizes fossil fuels, loan guarantees under this solicitation...

  1. Fossil Energy Technical Assistance Topic Areas | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contact: Christopher Freitas Carbon Utilization in Your State or Region Contact: Dani Petrucci Advanced Fossil Energy Technology Solutions Contact: Regis Conrad Financing Solutions ...

  2. 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Fossil Energy, National Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field Office 2012 Annual Planning Summary for Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, RMOTC, and Strategic Petroleum Reserve Field ...

  3. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Moreover, they assert, investment in LNG exports will take away from potential investment in renewable energy supplies, which will compound this country's dependency on fossil ...

  4. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... meet domestic demand, many LNG import facilities were proposed, but few were constructed. ... renewable energy supplies, which will compound this country's dependency on fossil fuels. ...

  5. Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships (Redirected from Brazil-NETL Cooperation) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-NETL Cooperation Name Brazil-NETL Cooperation...

  6. Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-NETL Cooperation Name Brazil-NETL Cooperation AgencyCompany Organization National Energy...

  7. Register for Fossil Energy NewsAlerts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Register for Fossil Energy NewsAlerts Register for Fossil Energy NewsAlerts newsalert.jpg Fossil Energy NewsAlerts is a free, e-mail notification service of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy. Each time we update our web site in your area of interest, we will send you a brief e-mail alerting you to the new posting and providing you with a link to additional information. Subscribe to our mailing list * indicates required Email Address * First Name Last Name Send me

  8. Energy Department Releases Draft Advanced Fossil Energy Solicitation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    today a draft loan guarantee solicitation for innovative and advanced fossil energy projects and facilities that substantially reduce greenhouse gas and other air pollution. ...

  9. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions AgencyCompany...

  10. Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William L 09 BIOMASS FUELS biofuels, glycerin, glycerol,...

  11. President Requests $842.1 Million for Fossil Energy Programs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FE also conducts R&D related to prudent and sustainable development of our unconventional domestic resources. In FY 2016, Fossil Energy Research and Development will continue to ...

  12. Office of Fossil Energy's Technical Assistance | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The goal of our technical assistance program is to provide help with strategic energy planning and project development. Need Technical Assistance: The Office of Fossil Energy is ...

  13. Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NETL's High Speed Imaging System Welcome to Fossil Energy Today Carbon Sequestration Atlas Coal-Fired Project of the Year National Risk Assessment Program Storage Retention Goals ...

  14. Mitigating environmental pollution and impacts from fossil fuels: The role of alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, L.; Cheng, S.Y.; Li, J.B.; Huang, Y.F.

    2007-07-01

    In order to meet the rising global demand for energy, rapid development of conventional fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas) have been experienced by many nations, bringing dramatic economic benefit and prosperity to fossil-fuel industries as well as well being of human society. However, various fossil-fuel related activities emit huge quantities of gaseous, liquid, and solid waste materials, posing a variety of impacts, risks, and liabilities to the environment. Therefore, on the one hand, control measures are desired for effectively managing pollution issues; on the other hand, it becomes extremely critical to invest efforts in finding promising alternative energy sources as solutions to the possible energy shortage crisis in future. This article focuses on both aspects through: (1) a discussion of waste materials generated from fossil-fuel industries and waste management measures; and (2) an exploration of some well-recognized alternative fuels in terms of their nature, availability, production, handling, environmental performances, and current and future applications. The conclusion restates the urgency of finding replaceable long-term alternatives to the conventional fuels.

  15. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 1. Fossil energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume I contains papers relating to coal preparation, oil shales, coal combustion, advanced coal utilization (fluidized bed combustion, MHD generators, OCGT, fuel cells), coal gasification, coal liquefaction, and fossil resource extraction (enhanced recovery). Separate abstracts for individual papers are prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  16. Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

  17. Second Generation PFBC Systems R&D (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS; BURNERS; GAS TURBINES; PILOT PLANTS; STEAM GENERATION; SULFUR; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN Word Cloud More Like This ...

  18. Second-Generation PFBC Systems R&D (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS; BURNERS; EFFICIENCY; GAS TURBINES; PILOT PLANTS; STEAM GENERATION; SULFUR; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; DESIGN Word Cloud More ...

  19. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet outlines the benefits of high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems.

  20. Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer SolutionsL: A BestPractices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Technical Brief Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions U.S. Department of ... performance Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions 1 Introduction This ...

  1. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  2. Office of Fossil Energy Organization Chart | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Fossil Energy Organization Chart Office of Fossil Energy Organization Chart PDF icon FE Org Chart April 2016.pdf More Documents & Publications Our Organization and Employees SEMI-ANNUAL REPORTS FOR DOWNEAST LNG, INC. - FT DKT. NO. 14-172-LNG - ORDER NO. 3600 (FTA) Zero Energy Ready Home Newsletter: April 2016

  3. Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fuels Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School PDF icon Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School Coal Study Guide - Middle School Secondary Energy Infobook and Secondary Infobook Activities (19 Activities)

  4. Fossil Energy Announces Addition of Two Key Staff Members

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy today announced the recent appointment of two key senior staff members to the Office of Fossil Energy – Julio Friedmann, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal, and Paula Gant, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and Natural Gas.

  5. Fossil Energy Announces New Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy today announced the appointment of Doug Hollett as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary (PDAS) in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Hollett replaces Dr. Julio Friedmann, who is returning to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory after two and half years with FE.

  6. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  7. VAPORIZATION OF TUNGSTEN-METAL IN STEAM AT HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GREENE,G.A.; FINFROCK,C.C.

    2000-10-01

    The vaporization of tungsten from the APT spallation target dominates the radiological source term for unmitigated target overheating accidents. Chemical reactions of tungsten with steam which persist to tungsten temperatures as low as 800 C result in the formation of a hydrated tungsten-oxide which has a high vapor pressure and is readily convected in a flowing atmosphere. This low-temperature vaporization reaction essentially removes the oxide film that forms on the tungsten-metal surface as soon as it forms, leaving behind a fresh metallic surface for continued oxidation and vaporization. Experiments were conducted to measure the oxidative vaporization rates of tungsten in steam as part of the effort to quantify the MT radiological source term for severe target accidents. Tests were conducted with tungsten rods (1/8 inch diameter, six inches long) heated to temperatures from approximately 700 C to 1350 C in flowing steam which was superheated to 140 C. A total of 19 experiments was conducted. Fifteen tests were conducted by RF induction heating of single tungsten rods held vertical in a quartz glass retort. Four tests were conducted in a vertically-mounted tube furnace for the low temperature range of the test series. The aerosol which was generated and transported downstream from the tungsten rods was collected by passing the discharged steam through a condenser. This procedure insured total collection of the steam along with the aerosol from the vaporization of the rods. The results of these experiments revealed a threshold temperature for tungsten vaporization in steam. For the two tests at the lowest temperatures which were tested, approximately 700 C, the tungsten rods were observed to oxidize without vaporization. The remainder of the tests was conducted over the temperature range of 800 C to 1350 C. In these tests, the rods were found to have lost weight due to vaporization of the tungsten and the missing weight was collected in the downstream condensate system. The aerosol formed a fine white smoke of tungsten-oxide which was visible to the eye as it condensed in the laminar boundary layer of steam which flowed along the surface of the rod. The aerosol continued to flow as a smoke tube downstream of the rod, flowing coaxially along the centerline axis of the quartz glass tube and depositing by impaction along the outside of a bend and at sudden area contractions in the piping. The vaporization rate data from the 17 experiments which exceeded the vaporization threshold temperature are shown in Figure 5 in the form of vaporization rates (g/cm{sup 2} s) vs. inverse temperature (K{sup {minus}1}). Two correlations to the present data are presented and compared to a published correlation by Kilpatrick and Lott. The differences are discussed.

  8. Fossil-energy program. Progress report for June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    This report - the eighty-third of series - is a compendium of monthly progress reports for the ORNL research and development programs that are in support of the increased utilization of coal and other fossil fuel alternatives as sources of clean energy. The projects reported this month include those for coal conversion development, chemical research and development, materials technology, component development and process evaluation, technical support to major liquefaction projects, process analysis and engineering evaluations, fossil energy environmental analysis, flue gas desulfurization, coal preparation waste utilization, atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustor for cogeneration, TVA FBC demonstration plant program technical support, PFBC systems analysis, fossil fuel applications assessments, performance assurance system support for fossil energy projects, international energy technology assessment, generalized equilibrium models for liquid and gaseous fuel supplies, analyses of coal production goals, and fossil energy information center.

  9. System and method for coproduction of activated carbon and steam/electricity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasachar, Srivats; Benson, Steven; Crocker, Charlene; Mackenzie, Jill

    2011-07-19

    A system and method for producing activated carbon comprising carbonizing a solid carbonaceous material in a carbonization zone of an activated carbon production apparatus (ACPA) to yield a carbonized product and carbonization product gases, the carbonization zone comprising carbonaceous material inlet, char outlet and carbonization gas outlet; activating the carbonized product via activation with steam in an activation zone of the ACPA to yield activated carbon and activation product gases, the activation zone comprising activated carbon outlet, activation gas outlet, and activation steam inlet; and utilizing process gas comprising at least a portion of the carbonization product gases or a combustion product thereof; at least a portion of the activation product gases or a combustion product thereof; or a combination thereof in a solid fuel boiler system that burns a solid fuel boiler feed with air to produce boiler-produced steam and flue gas, the boiler upstream of an air heater within a steam/electricity generation plant, said boiler comprising a combustion zone, a boiler-produced steam outlet and at least one flue gas outlet.

  10. Emissions from ethanol-blended fossil fuel flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akcayoglu, Azize

    2011-01-15

    A fundamental study to investigate the emission characteristics of ethanol-blended fossil fuels is presented. Employing a heterogeneous experimental setup, emissions are measured from diffusion flames around spherical porous particles. Using an infusion pump, ethanol-fossil fuel blend is transpired into a porous sphere kept in an upward flowing air stream. A typical probe of portable digital exhaust gas analyzer is placed in and around the flame with the help of a multi-direction traversing mechanism to measure emissions such as un-burnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Since ethanol readily mixes with water, emission characteristics of ethanol-water blends are also studied. For comparison purpose, emissions from pure ethanol diffusion flames are also presented. A simplified theoretical analysis has been carried out to determine equilibrium surface temperature, composition of the fuel components in vapor-phase and heat of reaction of each blend. These theoretical predictions are used in explaining the emission characteristics of flames from ethanol blends. (author) This paper presents the results of an experimental study of flow structure in horizontal equilateral triangular ducts having double rows of half delta-wing type vortex generators mounted on the duct's slant surfaces. The test ducts have the same axial length and hydraulic diameter of 4 m and 58.3 mm, respectively. Each duct consists of double rows of half delta wing pairs arranged either in common flow-up or common flow-down configurations. Flow field measurements were performed using a Particle Image Velocimetry Technique for hydraulic diameter based Reynolds numbers in the range of 1000-8000. The secondary flow field differences generated by two different vortex generator configurations were examined in detail. The secondary flow is found stronger behind the second vortex generator pair than behind the first pair but becomes weaker far from the second pair in the case of Duct1. However, the strength of the secondary flow is found nearly the same behind the first and the second vortex generator pair as well as far from the second vortex generator pair in the case of Duct2. Both ducts are able to create a counter-rotating and a second set of twin foci. Duct2 is able to create the second set of twin foci in an earlier streamwise location than Duct1, as these foci are well-known to their heat transfer augmentation. A larger vortex formation area and a greater induced vorticity field between vortex pairs are observed for Duct2 compared with Duct1. As the induced flow field between the vortex pairs increases the heat transfer, and as the flow field between the vortex cores is found larger in the case of Duct2, therefore, it is expected to obtain better heat transfer characteristics for Duct2 compared with Duct1. (author)

  11. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources.

  12. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Shiaguo; Lu, Yonggi; Rostam-Abadi, Massoud

    2011-11-22

    Methods and systems for separating a targeted gas from a gas stream emitted from a power plant. The gas stream is brought into contact with an absorption solution to preferentially absorb the targeted gas to be separated from the gas stream so that an absorbed gas is present within the absorption solution. This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the stripper with the gas-rich solution. The absorbed gas from the gas-rich solution is stripped in the stripper using the injected low pressure steam to provide a gas stream containing the targeted gas. The stripper is at or near vacuum. Water vapor in a gas stream from the stripper is condensed in a condenser operating at a pressure lower than the stripper to concentrate the targeted gas. Condensed water is separated from the concentrated targeted gas.

  13. PREDICTION OF OXIDE SCALE EXFOLIATION IN STEAM TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Wright, Ian G

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulation results are presented for the prediction of the likelihood of oxide scale exfoliation from superheater tubes. The scenarios considered involved alloys T22, TP347H, and TP347HFG subjected to a simplified operating cycle in a power plant generating supercritical steam. The states of stress and strain of the oxides grown in steam were based solely on modeling the various phenomena experienced by superheater tubes during boiler operation, current understanding of the oxidation behavior of each alloy in steam, and consideration of operating parameters such as heat flux, tube dimensions, and boiler duty cycle. Interpretation of the evolution of strain in these scales, and the approach to conditions where scale failure (hence exfoliation) is expected, makes use of the type of Exfoliation Diagrams that incorporate various cracking and exfoliation criteria appropriate for the system considered. In these diagrams, the strain accumulation with time in an oxide is represented by a strain trajectory derived from the net strain resulting from oxide growth, differences in coefficients of thermal expansion among the components, and relaxation due to creep. It was found that an oxide growing on a tube subjected to routine boiler load cycling conditions attained relatively low values of net strain, indicating that oxide failure would not be expected to occur during normal boiler operation. However, during a boiler shut-down event, strains sufficient to exceed the scale failure criteria were developed after times reasonably in accord with plant experience, with the scales on the ferritic steel failing in tension, and those on the austenitic steels in compression. The results presented illustrate that using this approach to track the state of strain in the oxide scale through all phases of boiler operation, including transitions from full-to-low load and shut-down events, offers the possibility of identifying the phase(s) of boiler operation during which oxide failure is most likely to occur.

  14. Comparison of emissions from landfills, municipal waste combustors, and fossil fuel-fired utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    Landfilling is the most popular disposal method for managing municipal solid waste (MSW). However, air emissions from MSW landfills have generally been unregulated until recently. Instead, EPA has focused on emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs), even though they only manage 15% of MSW generated in the United States. In the past, little data have been available comparing landfill and MWC air emissions. Such information is provided by this paper. It also compares emissions from waste-to-energy MWCs and fossil fuel-fired utilities with equivalent electrical generation capacity. 1 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Cycling fossil-fired units proves costly business

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefton, S.; Grimsrud, P.; Besuner, P.

    1997-07-01

    Competition in the electric utility business is having a far-reaching impact. Cost-cutting measures have in major downsizing efforts in virtually every utility in the country. After several cost-cutting rounds to reduce the low hanging fruit of inefficiency, utilities are still challenged to become leaner and meaner in order to compete in a deregulated environment. The problem for many power utilities, however, is they have not precisely determined their costs in every aspect of the plant`s operation. Naturally, obtaining an accurate understanding of expenditures is the starting point for utilities that wish to develop strategic plans to better manage assets, minimize costs and maximize return on investment better understand plant O&M costs and take measures to use this knowledge to their advantage. Cycling is a major reason for the increase in O&M costs of many fossil units. Cycling, in this context, refers to the operation of generating units at varying load levels in response to changes in system-load requirements.

  16. Install and Automatic Blowdown Control System - Steam Tip Sheet #23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on installing automatic blowdown controls provide how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  17. Cover Heated, Open Vessels - Steam Tip Sheet #19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO steam tip sheet on covering heated, open vessels provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps Review of Orifice Plate Steam Traps This guide was prepared to serve as a foundation for making informed decisions about when orifice plate...

  19. Integrated vacuum absorption steam cycle gas separation (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This provides a gas-rich solution, which is introduced into a stripper. Low pressure exhaust steam from a low pressure steam turbine of the power plant is injected into the ...

  20. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... This also allows for the production of low pressure steam, which can be returned to the steam system or used in the de-aeration of boiler feed water. Replacement Options The ...

  1. Steam Pressure-Reducing Station Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lower, Mark D; Christopher, Timothy W; Oland, C Barry

    2011-06-01

    The Facilities and Operations (F&O) Directorate is sponsoring a continuous process improvement (CPI) program. Its purpose is to stimulate, promote, and sustain a culture of improvement throughout all levels of the organization. The CPI program ensures that a scientific and repeatable process exists for improving the delivery of F&O products and services in support of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Management Systems. Strategic objectives of the CPI program include achieving excellence in laboratory operations in the areas of safety, health, and the environment. Identifying and promoting opportunities for achieving the following critical outcomes are important business goals of the CPI program: improved safety performance; process focused on consumer needs; modern and secure campus; flexibility to respond to changing laboratory needs; bench strength for the future; and elimination of legacy issues. The Steam Pressure-Reducing Station (SPRS) Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project, which is under the CPI program, focuses on maintaining and upgrading SPRSs that are part of the ORNL steam distribution network. This steam pipe network transports steam produced at the ORNL steam plant to many buildings in the main campus site. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project promotes excellence in laboratory operations by (1) improving personnel safety, (2) decreasing fuel consumption through improved steam system energy efficiency, and (3) achieving compliance with applicable worker health and safety requirements. The SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project being performed by F&O is helping ORNL improve both energy efficiency and worker safety by modifying, maintaining, and repairing SPRSs. Since work began in 2006, numerous energy-wasting steam leaks have been eliminated, heat losses from uninsulated steam pipe surfaces have been reduced, and deficient pressure retaining components have been replaced. These improvements helped ORNL reduce its overall utility costs by decreasing the amount of fuel used to generate steam. Reduced fuel consumption also decreased air emissions. These improvements also helped lower the risk of burn injuries to workers and helped prevent shrapnel injuries resulting from missiles produced by pressurized component failures. In most cases, the economic benefit and cost effectiveness of the SPRS Safety and Energy Efficiency Improvement Project is reflected in payback periods of 1 year or less.

  2. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental Benefits October 29, 2015 - 12:10pm Addthis An aerial view of the package boilers installed into the site’s existing steam system. An aerial view of the package boilers installed into the site's existing steam system. Pipefitters Mike Askren, left, and Ron Parrot install the water inlet on one of the package boilers. Pipefitters

  3. Office of Fossil Energy Continues Long-Running Minority Educational...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    University of Texas at El Paso (El Paso, Texas)-The high-temperature environments of AUSC coal-fired boilers and steam and gas turbines require corrosion-resistant coatings with ...

  4. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today’s high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings and valves, and to perform scale-up studies to establish a design basis for commercial scale components. A supplemental program funded by the Ohio Coal Development Office will undertake supporting tasks such as testing and trials using existing atmospheric, vacuum and developmental pressure furnaces to define specific metal casting techniques needed for producing commercial scale components.

  5. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  6. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  7. Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hines, W.R.

    1991-10-08

    This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

  8. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  9. Y-12 Steam Plant Project Received National Recognition for Project

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Management Excellence | National Nuclear Security Administration Steam Plant Project Received National Recognition for Project Management Excellence March 23, 2011 Y-12 steam plant project receives national recognition for project management excellence. Y-12's Steam Plant Life Extension Project (SPLE) has received the Secretary of Energy's Project Management Improvement Award. Microsoft Office document icon NR-03-28.doc

  10. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Steam, Steam Tip Sheet #20c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This English/Chinese ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Fossil power plant layup and reactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsou, J.L.

    1996-07-01

    In recent years, many utilities have developed excess generation capacity problems during period of low system load growth, particularly with new generation units coming on-line. System load studies may indicate that the situation is temporary and higher generation capacity will be needed in the near future. The objective of layup is to prevent component deterioration during the long shut down periods. This paper discusses equipment preservation practices in use in the industry and the advantages/disadvantages of various layup methods. Other issues related to plant layup and reactivation are also presented.

  12. Consider Steam Turbine Drives for Rotating Equipment - Steam Tip Sheet #21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on steam turbine drives for rotating equipment provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers - Steam Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial Steam Cookers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial steam cookers, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  15. Gas turbine row #1 steam cooled vane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunha, Frank J.

    2000-01-01

    A design for a vane segment having a closed-loop steam cooling system is provided. The vane segment comprises an outer shroud, an inner shroud and an airfoil, each component having a target surface on the inside surface of its walls. A plurality of rectangular waffle structures are provided on the target surface to enhance heat transfer between each component and cooling steam. Channel systems are provided in the shrouds to improve the flow of steam through the shrouds. Insert legs located in cavities in the airfoil are also provided. Each insert leg comprises outer channels located on a perimeter of the leg, each outer channel having an outer wall and impingement holes on the outer wall for producing impingement jets of cooling steam to contact the airfoil's target surface. Each insert leg further comprises a plurality of substantially rectangular-shaped ribs located on the outer wall and a plurality of openings located between outer channels of the leg to minimize cross flow degradation.

  16. New developments in aircooled steam condensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonger, R.; Chandron, R.

    1995-02-01

    The Single Row Condenser (SRC) tube, developed in cooperation with Modine of Racine will prevent many common problems experienced with the operation of aircooled steam condensers, particularly in cold climates. Application of the SRC tube will also bring the Natural Draft Condenser (NDC) in the realm of economic viability.

  17. Natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Wallman, P. Henrik; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method of producing hydrogen by high temperature steam electrolysis that will lower the electricity consumption to an estimated 65 percent lower than has been achievable with previous steam electrolyzer systems. This is accomplished with a natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer, which significantly reduces the electricity consumption. Since this natural gas-assisted steam electrolyzer replaces one unit of electrical energy by one unit of energy content in natural gas at one-quarter the cost, the hydrogen production cost will be significantly reduced. Also, it is possible to vary the ratio between the electricity and the natural gas supplied to the system in response to fluctuations in relative prices for these two energy sources. In one approach an appropriate catalyst on the anode side of the electrolyzer will promote the partial oxidation of natural gas to CO and hydrogen, called Syn-Gas, and the CO can also be shifted to CO.sub.2 to give additional hydrogen. In another approach the natural gas is used in the anode side of the electrolyzer to burn out the oxygen resulting from electrolysis, thus reducing or eliminating the potential difference across the electrolyzer membrane.

  18. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  19. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  20. Statement of Christopher Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Christopher Smith Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy Before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power Committee on Energy and Commerce U.S. House of ...