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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions - Niue  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Oceania Niue Graphics Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Niue Data graphic Data Total Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Niue image Per Capita...

2

Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

metric tonnes of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have occurred...

3

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global, Regional, and National Annual Time Series (1751-2010) Latest Published Global Estimates (1751-2010) Preliminary 2011 Global & National Estimates...

4

India Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

India India India Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends India's 2008 total fossil-fuel CO2 emissions rose 8.1% over the 2007 level to 475 million metric tons of carbon. From 1950 to 2008, India experienced dramatic growth in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions averaging 5.7% per year and becoming the world's third largest fossil-fuel CO2-emitting country. Indian total emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement production have more than doubled since 1994. Fossil-fuel emissions in India continue to result largely from coal burning with India being the world's third largest producer of coal. Coal contributed 87% of the emissions in 1950 and 71% in 2008; at the same time, the oil fraction increased from 11% to 20%. Indian emissions data reveal little impact from the oil price increases that

5

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions - American Samoa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Oceania American Samoa Graphics Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from American Samoa Data graphic Data Total Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from...

6

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions - Marshall Islands  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Oceania Marshall Islands Graphics Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from the Marshall Islands Data graphic Data Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from...

7

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States Title High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States Publication...

8

Poland Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Europe Europe » Poland Poland Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends Carbon dioxide emissions from Poland's use of fossil-fuels and cement production climbed at a remarkably steady rate of 3.9% per year from 1800 until 1980, when they dropped abruptly (11.7%). Fossil-fuel CO2 emissions crept back up throughout the 1980s peaking in 1987 at 127 million metric tons of carbon. Since the 1987 high, CO2 emissions have plummeted 32% to early 1970s levels while per capita emissions have dropped to late 1960s levels. Poland is the world's ninth largest producer of coal and emissions are predominantly from coal burning: 97% in 1950 and 68% in 2008. The drop following 1980 is apparent in rates of liquid fuel burning but releases from consumption of petroleum products have returned and surpassed 1980s

9

Japan Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania » Japan Oceania » Japan Japan Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends The history of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from Japan is remarkable for the abrupt change that occurred in 1973. With postwar growth at 9.8% per year from 1950 to 1973, total emissions were virtually constant from 1974-1987. From 1987-96, emissions grew 25.3% reaching 329 million metric tons of carbon. Growth during this period was characterized by a return to mid-1970s consumption levels for liquid petroleum products and increased contributions from coal and natural gas use. Since 1996, Japan's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have vacilated and now total 329 million metric tons of carbon in 2008. Based on United Nations energy trade data for 2008, Japan is the world's largest importer of coal (184 million metric tons) and

10

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Africa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Africa Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data What countries constitute Africa? Map of Africa Trends Africa's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions are...

11

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Oceania  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Oceania Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data What countries constitute Oceania? Oceania map Trends Oceania consists of approximately...

12

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from North America  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North America Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from North America Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data What countries constitute North America? North America map Trends North America,...

13

Global Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Comma-delimited) Trends Since 1751 approximately 337 billion metric tonnes of carbon have been released to the atmosphere from the consumption of fossil fuels and cement production. Half of these emissions have occurred since the mid 1970s. The 2007 global fossil-fuel carbon emission estimate, 8365 million metric tons of carbon, represents an all-time high and a 1.7% increase from 2006. Globally, liquid and solid fuels accounted for 76.3% of the emissions from fossil-fuel burning and cement production in 2007. Combustion of gas fuels (e.g., natural gas) accounted for 18.5% (1551 million metric tons of carbon) of the total emissions from fossil fuels in 2007 and reflects a gradually increasing global utilization of natural gas. Emissions from

14

People's Republic of China Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asia Asia » People's Republic of China People's Republic of China Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends According to reported energy statistics, coal production and use in China has increased ten-fold since the 1960s. As a result, Chinese fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have more than doubled 2000 alone. At 1.92 billion metric tons of carbon in 2008, the People's Republic of China is the world's largest emitter of CO2 due to fossil-fuel use and cement production. Even with the reported decline in Chinese emissions from 1997 to 1999, China's industrial emissions of CO2 have grown phenomenally since 1950, when China stood tenth among nations based on annual fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. From 1970 to 1997, China's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions grew at an annual rate of

15

North Korea Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East » North Korea Far East » North Korea North Korea Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends The total fossil-fuel CO2 emissions for North Korea, or the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, averaged 11.2% growth from 1950-93, reaching 71 million metric tons of carbon. Since 1993 according to published UN energy statistics, fossil-fuel CO2 emissions have declined 70% to 21.4 million metric tons of carbon. As the world's 14th largest producer of coal, it is no surprise North Korea's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions record is dominated by emissions from coal burning. Coal consumption accounted for 93% of the 2008 CO2 emission total. With no natural gas usage, another 3.4% currently comes from liquid petroleum consumption, and the remainder is from cement

16

South Korea Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East » South Korea Far East » South Korea South Korea Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends South Korea, or the Republic of Korea, is the world's tenth largest emitter of CO2 based on 2008 fossil-fuel consumption and cement production with 139 million metric tons of carbon. From 1946-1997 South Korea experienced phenomenal growth in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions with a growth rate that averaged 11.5%. Initial growth in emissions was due to coal consumption, which still accounts for 46.9% of South Korea's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. Since the late 1960s oil consumption has been a major source of emissions. South Korea is the world's fifth largest importer of crude oil. Natural gas became a significant source of CO2 for the first time in 1987, as South

17

Kyoto-Related Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emission Totals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kyoto-Related Emissions Kyoto-Related Emissions Kyoto-Related Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emission Totals DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.007_V2012 world map Kyoto-Related Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emission Totals Year Annex B Countries Non Annex B Countries Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions (million metric tonnes C) Bunkers (million metric tonnes C) Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions (million metric tonnes C) Bunkers (million metric tonnes C) 1990 3894 90 2111 46 1991 3801 94 2299 38 1992 3750 109 2263 44 1993 3685 107 2339 48 1994 3656 107 2469 54 1995 3681 110 2570 59 1996 3704 111 2657 72 1997 3727 114 2737 74 1998 3746 118 2698 82 1999 3678 124 2718 90 2000 3725 130 2821 90 2001 3781 120 2936 92 2002 3764 128 3013 94 2003 3853 123 3347 98 2004 3888 135 3683 107 2005 3933 142 3926 106

18

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions by Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regional Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions by Region Map of the World Africa (1884-2008) Developing America (Central America, South America, and the Caribbean) (1884-2008) Centrally...

19

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interannual variations in fossil fuel emissions. J. Geophys.Treat CO 2 from fossil fuel burning: global distribution ofdioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement

Gurney, Kevin R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Production of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Burning by Fuel Type, 1860...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Historical Global Estimates Production of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Burning by Fuel Type, 1860-1982 (NDP-006) DOI: 10.3334CDIACffe.ndp006 image Data image...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Italy (including San Marino) Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Western Europe » Italy Western Europe » Italy (including San Marino) Italy (including San Marino) Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends As occurred in many industrialized nations, CO2 emissions from Italy rose steeply since the late 1940's until the growth was abruptly terminated in 1974. Since 1974, emissions from liquid fuels have vacillated, dropping from 76% to 46% of a static but varying total. Significant increases in natural gas consumption have compensated for the drop in oil consumption. In 2008, 35.8% of Italy's fossil-fuel CO2 emissions were due to natural gas consumption. Coal usage grew steadily until 1985 when CO2 emissions from coal consumption reached 16 million metric tons of carbon. Not until 2004 did coal usage exceed 1985 levels and now accounts for 13.9% of Italy's

22

Russia Federation Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Centrally Planned Europe » Russian Federation Russia Federation Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Graph graphic Graphics Data graphic Data Trends Since 1992 total fossil-fuel CO2 emissions from the Russian Federation have dropped 23% to 466 million metric tons of carbon, still the fourth largest emitting country in the world and the largest emitter of the republics comprising the former USSR. Emissions from gas consumption still represent the largest fraction (49.1%) of Russia's emissions and only recently have returned to the 1992 level. Emissions from coal consumption have dropped 25.5% since 1992 and presently account for 26.6% of Russia's emissions. Russia has the largest population of any Eastern European country with a population of 141 million people. From a per capita standpoint, Russia's

23

Reducing CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 Emissions From Fossil Fuel Power Plants Scott M. Klara - National Energy Technology Laboratory EPGA's 3 rd Annual Power Generation Conference October 16-17, 2002 Hershey, Pennsylvania EPGA - SMK - 10/17/02 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned/operated * Sites in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Oklahoma, Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees * FY 02 budget of $750 million National Energy Technology Laboratory EPGA - SMK - 10/17/02 * Diverse research portfolio - 60 external projects - Onsite focus area * Strong industry support - 40% cost share * Portfolio funding $100M 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003 2003 Budget (Million $) Fiscal Year Senate House Administration Request Carbon Sequestration: A Dynamic Program Separation & Capture From Power Plants Plays Key Role

24

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in fossil-fuel CO2 emissions over...

25

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Western Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

now contributes 28.1% of total CO2 emissions. All countries in the region with discrete energy statistics reported, except Montenegro, have per capita emission rates exceeding...

26

Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)-Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Agency/Company /Organization: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Sector: Energy, Climate Topics: GHG inventory, Background analysis Resource Type: Dataset Website: cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/emis/meth_reg.html Country: United States, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, Iran, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand

27

Evaluation of Innovative Fossil Fuel Power Plants with CO2 Removal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Fossil Fuel Power Innovative Fossil Fuel Power Plants with CO 2 Removal Technical Report EPRI Project Manager N. A. H. Holt EPRI * 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 * PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 * USA 800.313.3774 * 650.855.2121 * askepri@epri.com * www.epri.com Evaluation of Innovative Fossil Fuel Power Plants with CO 2 Removal 1000316 Interim Report, December 2000 Cosponsors U. S. Department of Energy - Office of Fossil Energy 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, Maryland 20874 U.S. Department of Energy/NETL 626 Cochrans Mill Road PO Box 10940 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236-0940 DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH

28

Evaluation of Innovative Fossil Fuel Power Plants with CO2 Removal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity (COE) produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO2) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO2 removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion ...

2000-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

29

Spatial Relationships of Sector-Specific Fossil-fuel CO2 Emissions in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quantification of the spatial distribution of sector-specific fossil fuel CO2 emissions provides strategic information to public and private decision-makers on climate change mitigation options and can provide critical constraints to carbon budget studies being performed at the national to urban scales. This study analyzes the spatial distribution and spatial drivers of total and sectoral fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the state and county levels in the United States. The spatial patterns of absolute versus per capita fossil fuel CO2 emissions differ substantially and these differences are sector-specific. Area-based sources such as those in the residential and commercial sectors are driven by a combination of population and surface temperature with per capita emissions largest in the northern latitudes and continental interior. Emission sources associated with large individual manufacturing or electricity producing facilities are heterogeneously distributed in both absolute and per capita metrics. The relationship between surface temperature and sectoral emissions suggests that the increased electricity consumption due to space cooling requirements under a warmer climate may outweigh the savings generated by lessened space heating. Spatial cluster analysis of fossil fuel CO2 emissions confirms that counties with high (low) CO2 emissions tend to be clustered close to other counties with high (low) CO2 emissions and some of the spatial clustering extends to multi-state spatial domains. This is particularly true for the residential and transportation sectors, suggesting that emissions mitigation policy might best be approached from the regional or multi-state perspective. Our findings underscore the potential for geographically focused, sector-specific emissions mitigation strategies and the importance of accurate spatial distribution of emitting sources when combined with atmospheric monitoring via aircraft, satellite and in situ measurements. Keywords: Fossil-fuel; Carbon dioxide emissions; Sectoral; Spatial cluster; Emissions mitigation policy

Zhou, Yuyu; Gurney, Kevin R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Progress in Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C. May 14-17, 2001 for the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C. May 14-17, 2001 US DoE-NETL Progress in Direct Experiments on the Ocean Disposal of Fossil Fuel CO 2 Peter G. Brewer (brpe@mbari.org; 831-626-6618) Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute 7700 Sandholdt Road Moss Landing CA 95039 Introduction. My laboratory has now been engaged in carrying out small scale controlled field experiments on the ocean sequestration of fossil fuel CO 2 for about five years, and the field has changed enormously in that time. We have gone from theoretical assessments to experimental results, and from cartoon sketches of imagined outcomes to high-resolution video images of experiments on the ocean floor shared around the world. It seems appropriate therefore to give a brief review, albeit one very much from a

31

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2012 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2009. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

32

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2013 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of δ 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2010. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric δ 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

33

Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 data Data image Documentation Contributors R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, and G. Marland The 2011 revision of this database contains estimates of the annual, global mean value of del 13C of CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel consumption and cement manufacture for 1751-2008. These estimates of the carbon isotopic signature account for the changing mix of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being consumed and for the changing mix of petroleum from various producing areas with characteristic isotopic signatures. This time series of global fossil-fuel del 13C signature provides an additional constraint for balancing the sources and sinks of the global carbon cycle and complements the atmospheric del 13C measurements that are used to partition the uptake of fossil carbon emissions among the ocean, atmosphere, and terrestrial

34

A Multi-Pollutant Framework for Evaluating CO2 Control Options for Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Pollutant Framework for Evaluating CO Multi-Pollutant Framework for Evaluating CO 2 Control Options for Fossil Fuel Power Plants Edward S. Rubin (rubin@cmu.edu; 412-268-5897) Anand B. Rao (abr@andrew.cmu.edu; 412-268-5605) Michael B. Berkenpas (mikeb@cmu.edu; 412-268-1088) Carnegie Mellon University EPP Department, Baker Hall 128A Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract As part of DOE/NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program, we are developing an integrated, multi-pollutant modeling framework to evaluate the costs and performance of alternative carbon capture and sequestration technologies for fossil-fueled power plants. The model calculates emissions, costs, and efficiency on a systematic basis at the level of an individual plant or facility. Both new and existing facilities can be modeled, including coal-based or natural gas-based combustion or gasification systems using air or oxygen.

35

Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the building/street scale for a large US city  

SciTech Connect

In order to advance the scientific understanding of carbon exchange with the land surface, build an effective carbon monitoring system and contribute to quantitatively-based U.S. climate change policy interests, fine spatial and temporal quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, the primary greenhouse gas, is essential. Called the Hestia Project, this research effort is the first to use bottom-up methods to quantify all fossil fuel CO2 emissions down to the scale of individual buildings, road segments, and industrial/electricity production facilities on an hourly basis for an entire urban landscape. a large city (Indianapolis, Indiana USA). Here, we describe the methods used to quantify the on-site fossil fuel CO2 emissions across the city of Indianapolis, Indiana. This effort combines a series of datasets and simulation tools such as a building energy simulation model, traffic data, power production reporting and local air pollution reporting. The system is general enough to be applied to any large U.S. city and holds tremendous potential as a key component of a carbon monitoring system in addition to enabling efficient greenhouse gas mitigation and planning. We compare our estimate of fossil fuel emissions from natural gas to consumption data provided by the local gas utility. At the zip code level, we achieve a bias adjusted pearson r correlation value of 0.92 (p<0.001).

Gurney, Kevin R.; Razlivanov, I.; Song, Yang; Zhou, Yuyu; Benes, Bedrich; Abdul- Massih, Michel

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

37

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emission fluxes for the United States  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of {approx}100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach.

Gurney, Kevin R.; Mendoza, Daniel L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Fischer, Marc L.; Miller, Chris C.; Geethakumar, Sarath; de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

38

Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel use and CO2 emissions, has resulted in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy Choice:Forest or Fuel? The demand for biofuels, driven by the desire to reduce fossil fuel, combined with the expanded demand for biofuels, will result in higher food prices, since less land by using biofuels (vegetable oils). But the use of biofuels may not reduce CO2 emissions, even when

39

Device for separating CO2 from fossil-fueled power plant emissions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas separation device includes an inner conduit, and a concentric outer conduit. An electrically conductive filter media, preferably a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve, is provided in the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit. Gas flows through the inner conduit and the annular space between the inner conduit and the outer conduit, so as to contact the filter media. The filter media preferentially adsorbs at least one constituent of the gas stream. The filter media is regenerated by causing an electric current to flow through the filter media. The inner conduit and outer conduit are preferably electrically conductive whereby the regeneration of the filter media can be electrically stimulated. The invention is particularly useful for the removal of CO.sub.2 from the exhaust gases of fossil-fueled power plants.

Burchell, Timothy D [Oak Ridge, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN; Wilson, Kirk A [Knoxville, TN

2002-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

Novel Electrochemical CO2 Removal Technology For Combustion of Fossil-Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical gas separation concepts are often neglected when discussing options to manage CO2 emissions. Electrochemical approaches are selective and do not require periodic regeneration. This paper will review prior work on electrochemical CO2 separation and compare the parasitic energy penalties of this approach to more conventional approaches of capturing CO2 from flue gas streams. A new concept to reduce the electrochemical parasitic energy penalties will be introduced and a preliminary analysis of the concept will be discussed. Relative to a conventional monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent approach, electrochemical CO2 capture does require less energy on a per-mole-of-CO2 basis. However, there are trade-offs since an electrochemical pumping approach requires electrical energy, instead of lower grade thermal energy. Although there are several issues with electrochemical CO2 capture, efforts to reduce parasitic losses of CO2 separation may need to consider such novel alternatives.

Douglas L. Straub; Maria Salazar-Villalpando

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State-Level Emission Estimates State-Level Emission Estimates Estimates of Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emitted for Each State in the U.S.A. and the District of Columbia for Each Year from 1960 through 2001 graphics Graphics data Data (ASCII comma-delimited) Investigators T.J. Blasing and Gregg Marland Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6335, U.S.A. Christine Broniak Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-3601 DOI 10.3334/CDIAC/00003 Period of Record 1960-2001 Methods Consumption data for coal, petroleum, and natural gas are multiplied by their respective thermal conversion factors, which are in units of heat energy per unit of fuel consumed (i.e., per cubic foot, barrel, or ton), to

42

Strategic Approaches for CO2 Reduction Rate from Fossil Fuel Use ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... generation are currently being aimed at minimization of CO2 emissions. ... and financial burden through adoption of policies and regulations including the...

43

An Intergrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO2 emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, the project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests have been performed. Field tests of char/fertilizer have been conducted.

Z. Wang; K. B. Bota

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO2 emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, literature review has been completed. The project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests are in operation phase. The experimental installations are discussed in this paper.

Z. Wang; K. B. Bota

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Central America, South America...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Venezuela (46.2), Chile (19.9), Columbia (18.5), Trinidad and Tobago (13.6), and Peru (11.1). This is a region of great diversity. Liquid fuels account for 60.8% of the 2008...

46

An Integrated Hydrogen Producton-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO2 emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, literature review has been completed. The project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests have been performed. Field tests of char/fertilizer have been conducted. The experimental results are discussed in this paper.

Z. Wang; K.B. Bota; D. Day

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Carbon Emission Estimates image image Global Per Capita Carbon Emission Estimates...

48

Global Fossil Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Global Graphics Global Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emissions - Graphics Data graphic Data (ASCII, Fixed Format) Data graphic Data (ASCII, Comma-delimited)...

49

Toward a Common Method of Cost Estimation for CO2 Capture and Storage at Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are significant differences in the methods employed by various organizations to estimate the cost of carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems for fossil fuel power plants. Such differences often are not readily apparent in publicly reported CCS cost estimates. As a consequence, there is a significant degree of misunderstanding, confusion, and mis-representation of CCS cost information, especially among audiences not familiar with the details of CCS costing. Given the international importance ...

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

50

The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nations CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

51

Electrochemical CO2 Capture and Instant Conversion into Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, burning fossil fuels produces CO2, emission of which to atmosphere causes global warming and climate change. A near-term realistic solution to...

52

Fossil fuels -- future fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Fossil Fuels News  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Fossil Fuels News. Fossil Fuels News. (showing 1 - 5 of 5). In Natural Gas Pipelines, NIST Goes with the Flow ...

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

54

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Can the envisaged reductions of fossil fuel CO2 emissions beGoulden. 2008. Where do Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissionsof season-averaged fossil fuel CO 2 emissions (Riley et

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air2004), Estimates of annual fossil-fuel CO 2 emitted for eachindependent budgeting of fossil fuel CO2 over Europe by (

Riley, W.J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Crop production without fossil fuel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this (more)

Ahlgren, Serina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

CO2 Emissions - Peninsular Malaysia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Far East Peninsular Malaysia CO2 Emissions from Peninsular Malaysia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Peninsular Malaysia image Per...

58

CO2 Emissions - United Korea  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Centrally Planned Asia United Korea CO2 Emissions from United Korea Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from United Korea...

59

Modeling the Canadian Electric System to Analyze the CO2 Content of Electric Transportation Fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Replacing fossil fuel with electricity for transportation can play an important role in reducing CO2 emissions provided the electricity can be used efficiently and can be produced without emitting significant amounts of CO2. Canada offers a particularly attractive opportunity to replace fossil fuels with electricity in the transportation sector because Canada has historically generated electricity with low emissions of CO2 and because the transportation sector is responsible for a larger percentage of na...

2010-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

60

CO2 Emissions - Namibia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Africa Namibia CO2 Emissions from Namibia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Namibia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Updated Cost and Performance Estimates for Clean Coal Technologies Including CO2 Capture - 2003: Updated Economics of Fossil Fuel Power Technologies Including an Assessment of CO2 Capture - 2003  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are considerable uncertainties about the emissions regulations that will be applicable to both existing and new coal-based power plants. However, most observers anticipate a progressive tightening of emissions regulation with regard to SOx, NOx, particulate, and mercury emissions. Since coal-fired power plants produce 31% of the U.S. CO2 emissions and they are the largest point sources, there is also the possibility of legislation requiring the reduction of CO2 emissions. The optimum choice of tech...

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Where do fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions from California go? An analysis based on radiocarbon observations and an atmospheric transport model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

independent budgeting of fossil fuel CO 2 over Europe by (COcontributions from fossil fuels, oceans, the stratosphere,15 of 16 G04002 RILEY ET AL. : FOSSIL FUEL CO 2 TRANSPORT IN

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

North American CO2 exchange: Inter comparison of modeled estimates with results from a fine scale atmospheric inversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009), High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO 2 high-?resolution global fossil fuel CO 2 emission land cover, point source fossil fuel emissions, and

Gourdji, Sharon M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Agency/Company /Organization: International Energy Agency Sector: Energy Topics: Baseline projection, GHG inventory Resource Type: Dataset, Publications Website: www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Screenshot References: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion[1] Overview "This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2008 selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information" Excel Spreadsheet References ↑ "CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion"

65

An Integrated Approach for Oxy-fuel Combustion with CO2 Capture...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ottawa The capture and storage or reuse of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the combustion of fossil fuels as well as industrial off gases represents an opportunity to achieve a...

66

World Fossil Fuel Economics - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 1, 1971 ... World Fossil Fuel Economics ... in world energy demand, particularly in the U. S. and Europe; the consumption patterns and cost patterns of oil,...

67

CO2 Emissions - Wake Island  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Oceania Wake Island Graphics CO2 Emissions from Wake Island Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Wake Island image Per capita CO2...

68

An Integrated Approach for Oxy-fuel Combustion with CO2 Capture and Compression  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vent Stream Vent Stream (out) CO 2 Product Stream (out) Flue Gas Stream (in) CO 2 CCU Skid Government of Canada Gouvernement du Canada An Integrated Approach for Oxy An Integrated Approach for Oxy- -fuel Combustion with CO fuel Combustion with CO 2 2 Capture and Capture and Compression Compression Kourosh Zanganeh, Ahmed Shafeen, and Carlos Salvador Zero-Emission Technologies Group, Clean Electric Power Generation CANMET CO 2 R&D Consortium CANMET Energy Technology Centre - Ottawa The capture and storage or reuse of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the combustion of fossil fuels as well as industrial off gases represents an opportunity to achieve a significant reduction in anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Fossil fuel combustion is expected to dominate the energy structure in at least the next few decades.

69

Germany Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

now 22.3% of the total. The year 1991 marked the first year the United Nations published energy statistics for unified Germany. Through 1990 statistics were still published for...

70

Fossil fuel furnace reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

Parkinson, William J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

CO2 Emissions - Netherland Antilles and Aruba  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Netherland Antilles and Aruba Graphics CO2 Emissions from the Netherland...

72

CO2 Emissions - Kuwait Oil Fires  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions Regional Middle East Kuwait Oil Fires Graphics CO2 Emissions from the 1991 Kuwait Oil Fires Data graphic Data...

73

fossil fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fossil fuels fossil fuels Dataset Summary Description Energy intensity data and documentation published by the U.S. DOE's office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Energy intensity is defined as: amount of energy used in producing a given level of output or activity; expressed as energy per unit of output. This is the energy intensity of the the electricity sector, which is an energy consuming sector that generates electricity. Data are organized to separate electricity-only generators from combined heat and power (CHP) generators. Data is available for the period 1949 - 2004. Source EERE Date Released May 31st, 2006 (8 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Electricity Energy Consumption energy intensity fossil fuels renewable energy Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon electricity_indicators.xls (xls, 2.1 MiB)

74

Liquid Fuels from CO2, Water, and Solar Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management. Presentation Title, Liquid Fuels from CO2, Water, and Solar Energy. Author(s), Aldo...

75

Potential Energy Savings and CO2 Emissions Reduction of China's Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement2010a). Coal is the main fossil fuel used in Chinas cementdioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion, as well

Ke, Jing

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

FOSSIL ENERGY, CO2, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND THE AEROSOL PROBLEM Stephen E. Schwartz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FOSSIL ENERGY, CO2, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND THE AEROSOL PROBLEM Stephen E. Schwartz For presentation of Energy Office of Science ABSTRACT Climate change due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide differs2 is intrinsically coupled to production of the energy on which our industrial society relies

77

Carbon Capture by Fossil Fuel Power Plants: An Economic Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For fossil fuel power plants to be built in the future, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies offer the potential for significant reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. We examine the break-even value for CCS adoptions, that ... Keywords: accounting, cost--benefit analysis, energy, energy policies, environment, government, natural resources, pollution

zge ??legen; Stefan Reichelstein

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

SPATIAL AND SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION; GLOBAL, REGIONAL, AND NATIONAL POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOENERGY FROM RESIDUE BIOMASS AND MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Combustion of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere, and has led to an increase in the atmospheric concentration of CO2. CO2 is (more)

Gregg, Jay Sterling

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Definition: Fossil fuels | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Fossil fuels Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Fossil fuels Fuels formed in the Earth's crust over millions of years from decomposed organic matter. Common fossil fuels include petroleum, coal, and natural gas.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes exceeds 650 million years. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

HS_FossilFuels_Studyguide.indd  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels Fossil Energy Study Guide: Fossil Fuels C ontrary to what many people believe, fossil fuels are not the remains of dead dinosaurs. In fact, most of the fossil fuels found today were formed millions of years before the fi rst dinosaurs. Fossil fuels, however, were once alive. Th ey were formed from prehistoric plants and animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. Th ink about what the Earth must have looked like 300 million years or so ago. Th e land masses we live on today were just forming. Th ere were swamps and bogs everywhere. Th e climate was warmer. Trees and plants grew everywhere. Strange looking animals walked on the land, and just as weird looking fi sh swam in the rivers and seas. Tiny one-celled organisms called protoplankton fl

82

No Fossils in This Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan for Environmental Teaching Plan for Environmental Teaching GM Environmental Science Club No Fossils in This Fuel Your PlanET Sixth through Eighth Grades (Can be easily adapted to any elementary/middle school level) Ingredients: Yeast, sugar ... what are you making? Sweet rolls? Not in Science Class! You're blending these ingredients to make an innovative form of fuel! That's right ... when these two simple ingredients are mixed, the yeast  a simple, living organism  breaks the sugar down into ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, and carbon dioxide. While you won't be burning the fuel to prove its usefulness, you can share with your students how ethanol is being used right now to power some of today's vehicles! Students will be able to experiment with the activity, and they will see how the fermentation that occurs can blow up a

83

No Fossil Fuel - Kingston | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

No Fossil Fuel - Kingston No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Jump to: navigation, search Name No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Facility No Fossil Fuel - Kingston Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner No Fossil Fuel LLC Developer No Fossil Fuel LLC Energy Purchaser Net-metered Location Kingston MA Coordinates 41.97388106°, -70.72577477° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.97388106,"lon":-70.72577477,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

84

Electricity Without CO2 Emissions: Assessing the Costs of Carbon...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Johnson and Keith: Electricity without CO 2 ... 1 ELECTRICITY FROM FOSSIL FUELS WITHOUT CO 2 EMISSIONS: ASSESSING THE COSTS OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION IN US...

85

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption Reduction for New Construction and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings -- Docket No....

86

OpenEI Community - fossil fuels  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

communityblogfour-new-publications-help-advance-renewable-energy-developmentcomments energy scenarios fossil fuels OECD OpenEI policy Renewable Energy Tue, 16 Jul 2013...

87

Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuels Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School Fossil Fuels Study Guide - High School More Documents & Publications Coal Study Guide for Elementary School...

88

How much carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is produced when different ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy. ... (CO 2) is produced per kilowatt-hour when generating electricity with fossil fuels?

89

Hybrid solar-fossil fuel power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, a literature review of hybrid solar-fossil fuel power generation is first given with an emphasis on system integration and evaluation. Hybrid systems are defined as those which use solar energy and fuel ...

Sheu, Elysia J. (Elysia Ja-Zeng)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Novel Strategy for CO2 Sequestration and Clean Air Protection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

protection. Introduction The current CO 2 problem from fossil fuel consumption. Fossil fuels-coal, oil, and natural gas-have long been a prime "engine" of our...

91

FE annual Report Bioprocessing of Fossil Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FE annual Report July 2004 Bioprocessing of Fossil Fuels Abhijeet Borole, Life Sciences Division The overall objective of this research program is to develop novel technologies for processing fossil fuels energy-efficient. Processes based on oxidative as well as reductive reactions are being investigated

92

Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program 2012 Portfolio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

O ce of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Portfolio 2012 Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program 2012 Portfolio October 2012 DOE...

93

Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions » Gridded Estimates for Benchmark Years Geographic Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring on a One Degree by One Degree Grid Cell Basis: 1950 to 1990 (NDP-058) data Data image ASCII Text Documentation PDF file PDF file Contributors R. J. Andres, G. Marland, I. Fung, and E. Matthews (contributors) DOI DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058 This data package presents data sets recording 1° latitude by 1° longitude CO2 emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon per year from anthropogenic sources for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO2 emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions.

94

Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Two Promising Oxy-Fuel Power Cycles for CO2 Capture Presentation at the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Worldwide ever rising emissions of greenhouse gases to atmosphere-> global warming and environmental change Kyoto Protocol demands the reduction of greenhouse gases, mainly CO2 In EU: strong pressure on utilities and companies to reduce CO2 emissions Carbon capture and storage (CCS) as short and mid term solution Background- II (CCS Technologies) Post-combustion: CO2-Capture from exhaust gas (chemical absorbtion, membranes, ) Pre-combustion: Decarbonization of fossil fuel to produce pure hydrogen for power cycle (e.g. steam reforming of methane, ) Oxy-fuel power generation: Internal combustion with pure oxygen and CO2/H2O as working fluid enabling CO2 separation by condensation Which technology has the best chances to dominate future power generation?

Thermal Turbomaschinery; Asme Turbo Expo; Wolfgang Sanz; Herbert Jericha; Bernhard Bauer; Emil Gttlich

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

fossil fuels | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fossil fuels Home Graham7781's picture Submitted by Graham7781(1992) Super contributor 16 July, 2013 - 14:37 Four new publications help advance renewable energy development energy...

96

Chemical Characterization of Fossil Fuel Combustion Wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil fuel combustion wastes differ considerably in total composition and in the key chemical characteristics of their extracts, making leachate composition difficult to predict. A new mechanistic approach, however, shows promise for more-accurate prediction.

1987-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

97

Shell Future Fuels and CO2 | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Jump to: navigation, search Name Shell Future Fuels and CO2 Place Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Zip G1 9BG Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product UK-based division of Shell's Oil Products business active in the hydrogen & CCS sectors as a developer of technology. Coordinates 55.857809°, -4.242511° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":55.857809,"lon":-4.242511,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

98

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu

99

Field Demonstration of CO2 Capture from Coal-Derived Syngas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

change. A significant portion of these CO 2 emissions are caused by the combustion of fossil fuels. One approach to controlling CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants is...

100

The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Use in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refinements in the spatial and temporal resolution of North American fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions provide additional information about anthropogenic aspects of the carbon cycle. In North America, the seasonal and spatial patterns ...

J. S. Gregg; L. M. Losey; R. J. Andres; T. J. Blasing; G. Marland

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Use of experience curves to estimate the future cost of power plants with CO2 capture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2004. Experience curves for power plant emission controlassessments of fossil fuel power plants with CO 2 capturethe future cost of power plants with CO 2 capture Edward S.

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Antes, Matt; Berkenpas, Michael; Davison, John

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication...

103

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Germany  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

now 22.3% of the total. The year 1991 marked the first year the United Nations published energy statistics for unified Germany. Through 1990 statistics were still published for...

104

Global, Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

et al. (1991) published a summary compilation that tabulates coal, brown coal, peat, and crude oil production by nation and year. Footnotes in the Etemad et al.(1991) publication...

105

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from Centrally Planned Asia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Asia map Trends Centrally Planned Asia (CPA) includes Vietnam, North Korea (officially Democratic People's Republic of Korea), and Mongolia, but regional...

106

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions from the Far East  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

level. The emissions growth since 1948 reflects not only the growth in India, South Korea and Indonesia, but also in Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines,...

107

Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions by Nation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Czech Republic (1992-2010) Czechoslovakia (1860-1991) D Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) (1945-2010) Democratic Republic of the Congo (Former Zaire) (1920-2010)...

108

Comparative Assessment of Status and Opportunities for CO2 Capture and Storage and Radioactive Waste Disposal in North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are rapidly changing as fossil-fuel costs soar and changesgas emissions from current fossil-fuel combustion practices.dioxide (CO 2 ) from fossil-fuel combustion (Raupach et

Oldenburg, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Fuel from Bacteria, CO2, Water, and Solar Energy: Engineering a Bacterial Reverse Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: Harvard is engineering a self-contained, scalable Electrofuels production system that can directly generate liquid fuels from bacteria, carbon dioxide (CO2), water, and sunlight. Harvard is genetically engineering bacteria called Shewanella, so the bacteria can sit directly on electrical conductors and absorb electrical current. This current, which is powered by solar panels, gives the bacteria the energy they need to process CO2 into liquid fuels. The Harvard team pumps this CO2 into the system, in addition to water and other nutrients needed to grow the bacteria. Harvard is also engineering the bacteria to produce fuel molecules that have properties similar to gasoline or diesel fuelmaking them easier to incorporate into the existing fuel infrastructure. These molecules are designed to spontaneously separate from the water-based culture that the bacteria live in and to be used directly as fuel without further chemical processing once theyre pumped out of the tank.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

E.G. Gorlov [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 This...

112

Chapter 2. Consumption of Fossil Fuels - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

48 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 Chapter 2. Consumption of Fossil Fuels

113

Fossil Fuel Prices to Electric Utilities - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Fossil Fuel Prices to Electric Utilities. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, July 2000.

114

Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

31, 2013 Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Supported by Research Funding...

115

Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon capture technology: future fossil fuel use and mitigating climate change DR N FloRiN aND DR P FeNNell executive summary What is carbon capture and storage? Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) refers to the set of technologies devel- oped to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from the exhausts

116

Study of Regenerable Sorbents for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(CO 2 ) is a greenhouse gas that is customarily released to the environment during the usage of fossil fuels, including electric power generation. With the projected increase in...

117

Composition and Method for Rapid and Equimolar CO2 Capture ...  

The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from burning of fossil fuels has received worldwide attention because of its implication in climate change, which threatens ...

118

Strategies for Controlling Coal Permeability in CO2-Enhanced...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), caused primarily by combustion of fossil fuels for power generation and transportation, are considered to be leading...

119

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications Project Summary Full Title: CO2 Reduction Benefits Analysis for Fuel Cell Applications Project ID: 263 Principal Investigator: Chip Friley Brief Description: This analysis used the 10-region U.S. MARKAL model to quantify the impact of changes in production, distribution and vehicle costs and carbon prices on fuel cell vehicle penetration and overall carbon dioxide emissions. Keywords: Carbon dioxide (CO2); Hydrogen; Fuel cells Purpose Perform analysis of topics of interest to the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies program related to projected carbon dioxide reduction benefits of fuel cell applications. Performer Principal Investigator: Chip Friley Organization: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Address: Mail Stop 475C

120

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel use, CO 2 emissions, and CO 2 emission factors of ten largest California electricity generatingFuel use, CO 2 emissions, and CO 2 emission factors of ten largest California electricity generating

de la Rue du Can, Stephane

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Chapter 4. Receipts and Cost of Fossil Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

74 U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 Chapter 4. Receipts and Cost of Fossil Fuels

122

Chapter 3. Fossil-Fuel Stocks for Electricity Generation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Energy Information Administration/Electric Power Monthly June 2012 69 Chapter 3. Fossil-Fuel Stocks for Electricity Generation

123

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 208 Fluid...

124

Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-NETL...

125

Reference Materials and Standards for Fossil Fuels, Electric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of the energy consumed by the US Along with ... from the specification of fossil fuel raw materials ... relevant reference materials to support the emerging ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Three essays on biofuel's and fossil fuel's stochastic prices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dissertation consists of three essays on biofuel's and fossil fuel's stochastic prices focusing on the U.S. corn-based fuel-ethanol market. The research objectives include investigating (more)

Zhang, Zibin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility and initial development of an integrated, deterministic model of the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 1: Feasibility Study (1004931), published in 2004; Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 2: Initial Deterministic Model Development and Deposit Characterization (1012207) published in 2007; and Boiler Water Deposition ...

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

128

SECA Fuel Processing Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 3, 2003 SECA Fuel Processing National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Strategic Center for Natural Gas REFORMING * Focus - Heavy hydrocarbons - Minimal use of water - Simplified system - Reduced cost - Sulfur tolerance with conversion to hydrogen sulfide * Challenges - Carbon deposition - Sulfur poisoning - Thermal gradients - Vaporization * Approaches - Metal oxide catalysts - Nobal metal cPox or ATR - Decorated nickel surface - Complete system interactions Tubular cPox Reformer Strategic Center for Natural Gas NETL Fuel Processing Budget Summary Proj. # PROJECT PERSONNEL KEY TASKS COST EST. 1 Diesel Reforming Kinetic Fundamentals *Shekhawat Gardner Berry 1.) Bring Reforming Lab Online 2.) Conduct Diesel Compound Interaction Study 3.) Level 1

129

FOREST MANAGEMENT, BIOMASS FUELS, AND EMISSIONS OF CO2 TO THE...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Management, Biomass Fuels, and CO2 Emissions to the Atmosphere papers by Gregg Marland and Bernhard Schlamadinger Fax: +1 (865) 574-2232 E-mail: marlandgh@ornl.gov Email:...

130

Production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning by fuel type, 1860-1982  

SciTech Connect

Carbon dioxide emission calculations resulting from fossil fuel useage for the years 1860-1982 are presented.

Rotty, R.M.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States). Institute for Energy Analysis

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Synthetic fuel concept to steal CO2 from air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

concept, called Green Freedom(tm), for large-scale production of carbon-neutral, sulfur-free fuels and organic chemicals from air and water. February 12, 2008 Los Alamos National...

132

Biofuels from Bacteria, Electricity, and CO2: Biofuels from CO2 Using Ammonia or Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria in Reverse Microbial Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Electrofuels Project: Columbia University is using carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air, ammoniaan abundant and affordable chemical, and a bacteria called N. europaea to produce liquid fuel. The Columbia University team is feeding the ammonia and CO2 into an engineered tank where the bacteria live. The bacteria capture the energy from ammonia and then use that energy to convert CO2 into a liquid fuel. When the bacteria use up all the ammonia, renewable electricity can regenerate it and pump it back into the systemcreating a continuous fuel-creation cycle. In addition, Columbia University is also working with the bacteria A. ferrooxidans to capture and use energy from ferrous iron to produce liquid fuels from CO2.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

Greenbaum, E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Feasibility Study on a Two-Stage Benefits CO2 Sequestration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and attracts international society to pay attention. The power generation plants firing fossil fuels, which is the biggest polluter in the world, emit huge amount CO2 into...

136

Failing Drop CO2 Deposition (Desublimation) Heat Exchanger for the Cryogenic Carbon Capture Process.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Cryogenic carbon capture removes CO2 and other pollutants from flue and waste stream gases produced from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, natural (more)

James, David William

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Fuels from Water, CO2, and Solar Energy Prof. Aldo Steinfeld  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuels from Water, CO2, and Solar Energy Prof. Aldo Steinfeld Department of Mechanical and Process fuels make use of concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat Engineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland and Solar Technology Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland

Ponce, V. Miguel

138

Sensors and Controls Research Combustion of fossil fuels currently  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, aggressive environments and high temperatures. Sponsor: Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program. FeaturesSensors and Controls Research Combustion of fossil fuels currently generates most of the nation's energy, and 2008 forecasts by the Energy Information Agency predict this will continue to be the case

139

Production of fossil fuel from federal and Indian lands fell ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales of fossil fuels from production on federal and Indian lands in fiscal year (FY) 2012 dropped 4% from FY 2011, according to data from the Department of the ...

140

Optimization of fossil fuel sources: An exergy approach  

SciTech Connect

We performed linear programming for optimization of fossil fuel supply in 2000 in Turkey. For this, an exergy analysis is made because the second law of thermodynamics takes into account the quality of energy as well as quantity of energy. Our analyses showed that the interfuel substitution between different fossil fuels will lead to a best energy mix of the country. The total retail price of fossil fuels can be lowered to 11.349 billion US$ from 13.012 billion US$ by increasing the domestic production of oil, lignite, and hard coal and by decreasing imports. The remaining demand can be met by natural gas imports. In conclusion, our analysis showed that a reduction of 1.663 billion US$ in fossil fuel cost can be made possible by giving more emphasis on domestic production, particularly of oil, lignite and hard coal.

Camdali, U. [Development Bank of Turkey, Ankara (Turkey)

2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Brazil-NETL Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships (Redirected from Brazil-NETL Cooperation) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Brazil-NETL Cooperation Name Brazil-NETL Cooperation Agency/Company /Organization National Energy Technology Laboratory Partner Brazil Sector Energy Topics Background analysis Website http://www.netl.doe.gov/techno Program Start 2007 Program End 2012 Country Brazil South America References NETL Technologies Programs[1] This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Advanced Fossil Fuels Partnerships with Brazil ORD International Research Agreements Brazilian Coal Gasification and CCS MOUs References ↑ NETL Technologies Programs Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Brazil-NETL_Advanced_Fossil_Fuels_Partnerships&oldid=375248"

142

Fossil Fuel Emission Verification Modeling at LLNL  

SciTech Connect

We have an established project at LLNL to develop the tools needed to constrain fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions using measurements of the carbon-14 isotope in atmospheric samples. In Figure 1 we show the fossil fuel plumes from Los Angeles and San Francisco for two different weather patterns. Obviously, a measurement made at any given location is going to depend on the weather leading up to the measurement. Thus, in order to determine the GHG emissions from some region using in situ measurements of those GHGs, we use state-of-the-art global and regional atmospheric chemistry-transport codes to simulate the plumes: the LLNL-IMPACT model (Rotman et al., 2004) and the WRFCHEM community code (http://www.wrf-model.org/index.php). Both codes can use observed (aka assimilated) meteorology in order to recreate the actual transport that occurred. The measured concentration of each tracer at a particular spatio-temporal location is a linear combination of the plumes from each region at that location (for non-reactive species). The challenge is to calculate the emission strengths for each region that fit the observed concentrations. In general this is difficult because there are errors in the measurements and modeling of the plumes. We solve this inversion problem using the strategy illustrated in Figure 2. The Bayesian Inference step combines the a priori estimates of the emissions, and their uncertainty, for each region with the results of the observations, and their uncertainty, and an ensemble of model predicted plumes for each region, and their uncertainty. The result is the mathematical best estimate of the emissions and their errors. In the case of non-linearities, or if we are using a statistical sampling technique such as a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique, then the process is iterated until it converges (ie reaches stationarity). For the Bayesian inference we can use both a direct inversion capability, which is fast but requires assumptions of linearity and Gaussianity of errors, or one of several statistical sampling techniques, which are computationally slower but do not require either linearity or Gaussianity (Chow, et al., 2008; Delle Monache, et al., 2008). The emission regions we are using are based on the air-basins defined by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), see Figure 3. The only difference is that we have joined some of the smaller air basins together. The results of a test using 4 days of simulated observations using our ensemble retrieval system are shown in Figure 3 (right). The main source of the variation between the different model configurations arises from the uncertainty in the atmospheric boundary layer parameterization in the WRF model. We are currently developing a capability to constrain the boundary layer height in our carbon-14 work either by weighting the ensemble member results by the accuracy of their boundary layer height (using commercial aircraft observations), or as part of the retrieval process using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) capability.

Cameron-Smith, P; Kosovic, B; Guilderson, T; Monache, L D; Bergmann, D

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

143

Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

University of Central Florida

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

How much carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is produced per kilowatt-hour ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

How much carbon dioxide (CO 2) is produced per kilowatt-hour when generating electricity with fossil fuels? You can calculate the amount of CO2 produced per kWh for ...

146

Microsoft Word - CO2 Supplement.doc  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Understanding the Decline in Carbon Dioxide Understanding the Decline in Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2009 1 EIA projects carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels in 2009 to be 5.9 percent below the 2008 level in the Short-Term Energy Outlook, October 2009 (STEO) (Table 1). Projected coal CO2 emissions fall by 10.1 percent in 2009, primarily because of lower consumption for electricity generation. Coal accounts for 63 percent of the total decline in CO2 emissions from fossil fuels this year. Forecast lower natural gas and petroleum emissions this year make up 7 percent and 30 percent of the projected total decline in CO2 emissions from fossil fuels, respectively. Table 1. Short-Term Energy Outlook CO

147

Adaptable Sensor Packaging for High Temperature Fossil Fuel Energy System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adaptable Sensor Packaging for High Adaptable Sensor Packaging for High Temperature Fossil Fuel Energy Systems Background The Advanced Research Sensors and Controls Program is leading the effort to develop sensing and control technologies and methods to achieve automated and optimized intelligent power systems. The program is led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and is implemented through research and development agreements with other

148

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility and initial development of an integrated, deterministic model of the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in the following Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports: 1004931, Boiler Water Deposition Model: Part 1: Feasibility Study, published in 2004; 1012207, Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil Fuel Plants, Part 2: Initial Deterministic Model Development and Deposit Characterization, published in 2007; 1014128, Boiler Water Deposition Model fo...

2010-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

149

Table 3.7 Value of Fossil Fuel Imports, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 3.7 Value of Fossil Fuel Imports, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars) Year: Coal: Coal Coke: Natural Gas: Crude Oil 1: Petroleum ... Office of Fossil Energy.

150

Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emissions Data and Data Plots from Project Vulcan  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Explore the Vulcan website for the Vulcan gridded data, methodological details, publications, plots and analysis.[Taken from "About Project Vulcan" at http://www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/index.php]Also, see the peer-reviewed paper that provides a "core" description for this project: Gurney, K.R., D. Mendoza, Y. Zhou, M Fischer, S. de la Rue du Can, S. Geethakumar, C. Miller (2009) The Vulcan Project: High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO2 emissions fluxes for the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, doi:10.1021/es900,806c.

Gurney, Kevin [PI and spokesperson for the Vulcan Collaboration

151

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

152

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption Reduction for New Construction and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings -- Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031; RIN 1904-AB96 Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Fossil Fuel Energy Consumption Reduction for New Construction and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings -- Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-STD-0031; RIN 1904-AB96 This memo provides an overview of communications made to DOE staff on the subject of the rulemaking referenced above. The communications occurred at a meeting held on February 13, 2013. DOE 433 ex parte memo.pdf More Documents & Publications Disclosure of Permitted Communication Concerning Regional Standards Enforcement Framework Document -- Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-CE-0077

153

The dilemma of fossil fuel use and global climate change  

SciTech Connect

The use of fossil fuels and relationship to climate change is discussed. As the use of fossil fuels has grown, the problems of protecting the environment and human health and safety have also grown, providing a continuing challenge to technological and managerial innovation. Today that challenge is to control atmospheric emissions from combustion, particularly those emissions that cause acidic deposition, urban pollution, and increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases. Technology for reducing acidic deposition is available and needs only to be adopted, and the remedies for urban pollution are being developed and tested. How effective or expensive these will be remains to be determined. The control of emissions of the greenhouse gas, CO{sub 2}, seems possible only be reducing the total amounts of fossil fuels used worldwide, and by substituting efficient natural gas technologies for coal. Long before physical depletion forces the transition away from fossil fuels, it is at least plausible and even likely that the greenhouse effect will impose a show-stopping constraint. If such a transition were soon to be necessary, the costs would be very high because substitute energy sources are either limited or expensive or undesirable for other reasons. Furthermore, the costs would be unevenly felt and would be more oppressive for developing nations because they would be least able to pay and, on average, their use rates of fossil fuels are growing much faster than those of many industrialized countries. It is prudent, therefore, to try to manage the use of fossil fuels as if a greenhouse constraint is an important possibility.

Judkins, R.R.; Fulkerson, W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Sanghvi, M.K. (Amoco Corp., Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration … Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* NREL/TP-510-32575 * NREL/TP-510-32575 Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO 2 Sequestration - Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 January 2004 * NREL/TP-510-32575 Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO 2 Sequestration - Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics Pamela L. Spath Margaret K. Mann Prepared under Task No. BB04.4010 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393

155

Fossil Fuel Prices to Electric Utilities  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural gas for power generation is projected to yield its apparent average price advantage over residual fuel oil by the fourth quarter of this year.

156

Modeling the release of CO2 in the deep ocean  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The idea of capturing and disposing of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants has recently received attention as a possible mitigation strategy to counteract potential global warming due ...

Liro, Christopher R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Feasibility of Large-Scale CO2 Ocean Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gas emissions, due in large part to the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, has spawned debate over global climate change and...

158

CO2.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

STORAGE & ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY STORAGE & ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY Objective R MOTC can play a signifi cant role in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage and enhanced oil recovery technology development and fi eld demonstra- tions. RMOTC completed a scoping engineering study on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3's (NPR-3) CO 2 enhanced oil recovery potential. More recent character- ization studies indicate geologic carbon storage would also be an excellent use of NPR-3 resources beyond their economic life in conventional production. Geologic Storage Fossil fuels will remain the mainstay of energy production well into the 21st century. Availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is es- sential for the prosperity and security of the United States. However, increased atmospheric concentrations

159

Liquid Fuel From Microbial Communities: Electroalcoholgenesis: Bioelectrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Butanol  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: MUSC is developing an engineered system to create liquid fuels from communities of interdependent microorganisms. MUSC is first pumping carbon dioxide (CO2) and renewable sources of electricity into a battery-like cell. A community of microorganisms uses the electricity to convert the CO2 into hydrogen. That hydrogen is then consumed by another community of microorganisms living in the same system. These new microorganisms convert the hydrogen into acetate, which in turn feed yet another community of microorganisms. This last community of microorganisms uses the acetate to produce a liquid biofuel called butanol. Similar interdependent microbial communities can be found in some natural environments, but theyve never been coupled together in an engineered cell to produce liquid fuels. MUSC is working to triple the amount of butanol that can be produced in its system and to reduce the overall cost of the process.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

New Optical Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants and solid oxide fuel cells are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring.

John Coggin; Tom Flynn; Jonas Ivasauskas; Daniel Kominsky; Carrie Kozikowski; Russell May; Michael Miller; Tony Peng; Gary Pickrell; Raymond Rumpf; Kelly Stinson-Bagby; Dan Thorsen; Rena Wilson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Changing Biomass, Fossil, and Nuclear Fuel Cycles for Sustainability  

SciTech Connect

The energy and chemical industries face two great sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace crude oil as the basis of our transport and chemical industries. These challenges can be met by changing and synergistically combining the fossil, biomass, and nuclear fuel cycles.

Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Beef production options and requirements for fossil fuel  

SciTech Connect

A large percentage of the feed resources used in beef production cannot be used by man or most other animals. These noncompetitive feeds could be used in different ways to increase beef production, but fossil fuel consumption by the beef industry would not be greatly reduced.

Ward, G.M.; Knox, P.L.; Hobson, B.W.

1977-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

163

FY 2010 Annual Report Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FY 2010 Annual Report Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program I. IntroductIon 2 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program FY 2010 Annual Report 3 FY 2010 Annual Report Office of...

164

Figure 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Figure 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices Prices, 1949-2011 Fossil Fuel Composite Price, Change From Previous Year, 1950-2011 68 U.S. Energy Information ...

165

Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method  

SciTech Connect

A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

Labinov, Solomon D. (Knoxville, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

166

CO2 MITIGATION VIA ACCELERATED LIMESTONE WEATHERING  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The climate and environmental impacts of our current, carbon-intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO2 mitigation strategies be found. As part of this effort, various means of capturing and storing CO2 generated from fossil-fuel-based energy production are being investigated. One of the proposed methods involves a geochemistry-based capture and sequestration process that hydrates point-source, waste CO2 with water to produce a carbonic acid solution. This in turn is reacted and neutralized with limestone, thus converting the original CO2 gas to calcium bicarbonate in solution, the overall reaction being:

Rau, G H; Knauss, K G; Langer, W H; Caldeira, K G

2004-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

167

Fossil fuel decarbonization technology for mitigating global warming  

SciTech Connect

It has been understood that production of hydrogen from fossil and carbonaceous fuels with reduced CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere is key to the production of hydrogen-rich fuels for mitigating the CO{sub 2} greenhouse gas climate change problem. The conventional methods of hydrogen production from fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas and biomass) include steam reforming and water gas shift mainly of natural gas (SRM). In order to suppress CO{sub 2} emission from the steam reforming process, CO{sub 2} must be concentrated and sequestered either in or under the ocean or underground (in aquifers, or depleted oil or gas wells). Up to about 40% of the energy is lost in this process. An alternative process is the pyrolysis or the thermal decomposition of methane, natural gas (TDM) to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon can either be sequestered or sold on the market as a materials commodity or used as a fuel at a later date under less severe CO{sub 2} restraints. The energy sequestered in the carbon amounts to about 42% of the energy in the natural gas resource which is stored and not destroyed. A comparison is made between the well developed conventional SRM and the less developed TDM process including technological status, efficiency, carbon management and cost. The TDM process appears to have advantages over the well developed SRM process. It is much easier to sequester carbon as a stable solid than CO{sub 2} as a reactive gas or low temperature liquid. It is also possible to reduce cost by marketing the carbon as a filler or construction material. The potential benefits of the TDM process justifies its further efficient development. The hydrogen can be used as a transportation fuel or converted to methanol by reaction with CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel fired power plant stack gases, thus allowing reuse of the carbon in conventional IC automobile engines or in advanced fuel cell vehicles.

Steinberg, M.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Justification of Simulators for Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cost benefit analysis of simulator use at fossil fuel power plants identifies benefits in four categories: availability savings, thermal performance savings, component life savings, and environmental compliance savings. The study shows that a 500 MW plant, over 15 years, can realize a total present value saving of over $24 million, easily justifying the purchase of a simulator that typically costs about $600,000.

1993-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

170

Decommissioning Process for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a staged process for the decommissioning and possible demolition of fossil-fueled power generating facilities. Drawn from experience with power and major industrial facilities, the report provides the owner/operator of a plant that is approaching the end of its useful life with an overview of the key elements necessary to successfully implement decommissioning. The process is applicable to full decommissioning, demolition, and closure; to partial scenarios (that is, partial dismantl...

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

171

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Fossil Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Fossil Energy Nuclear Energy Science U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > DOE Participants > Fossil Energy Printable Version Fossil...

172

Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

CO2 Incentives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Crude Fuel Air Separation Plant Air N2 Coal, Refinery Residues, or Biomass NG, Oil or Landfill Gas HP IP LP O 2 Fuel* CO2 Recovery ...

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

174

Supported polyethylenimine adsorbents for CO2 capture from flue gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions produced from fossil fuel combustion are believed to contribute to undesired consequences in global climate. Major contributors towards CO2 emissions are fossil fuel-fired power plants for electricity production. For this reason, CO2 capture from flue gas streams together with permanent sequestration in geologic formations is being considered a viable solution towards mitigation of the major greenhouse gas1. Technologies based on chemical absorption with alkanolamines have been assessed for first generation CO2 post-combustion capture primarily due to its advanced stage of development. However, limitations associated with these chemical solvents (i.e., low CO2 loadings, amine degradation by oxygen, equipment corrosion) manifest themselves in high capital and operating costs with reduced thermal efficiencies. Therefore, necessary design and development of alternative, lower cost approaches for CO2 capture from coal-fired combustion streams are warranted.

Fauth, D.J.; Gray, M.L.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

SECA Core Technology Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 3, 2003 June 3, 2003 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy SECA Core Technology IAPG, GPPD-DWC 4/30/03 SECA CORE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM W. Nernst "Electrical Glow-Light" U.S. Patent 623,811 April 25, 1899 C C IAPG, GPPD-DWC 4/30/03 SECA SECA Program Structure Program Management Research Topics Needs Industry Integration Teams Technology Transfer Small Business University National Lab Industry Power Electronics Modeling & Simulation Materials Controls & Diagnostics Fuel Processing Fuel Processing Manufacturing Modeling & Simulation Power Electronics Controls & Diagnostics Manufacturing Materials Core Technology Program Fuel Cell Core Technology Project Management Industry Input IAPG, GPPD-DWC 4/30/03 Core Technology Program Powering All Ships Siemens Westinghouse

176

Integrated capture of fossil fuel gas pollutants including CO.sub.2 with energy recovery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reducing pollutants exhausted into the atmosphere from the combustion of fossil fuels. The disclosed process removes nitrogen from air for combustion, separates the solid combustion products from the gases and vapors and can capture the entire vapor/gas stream for sequestration leaving near-zero emissions. The invention produces up to three captured material streams. The first stream is contaminant-laden water containing SO.sub.x, residual NO.sub.x particulates and particulate-bound Hg and other trace contaminants. The second stream can be a low-volume flue gas stream containing N.sub.2 and O.sub.2 if CO2 purification is needed. The final product stream is a mixture comprising predominantly CO.sub.2 with smaller amounts of H.sub.2O, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, SO.sub.X, NO.sub.X, Hg, and other trace gases.

Ochs, Thomas L. (Albany, OR); Summers, Cathy A. (Albany, OR); Gerdemann, Steve (Albany, OR); Oryshchyn, Danylo B. (Philomath, OR); Turner, Paul (Independence, OR); Patrick, Brian R. (Chicago, IL)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

177

Figure 3.8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports - U.S. Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Figure 3.8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports Total, 1949-2011 By Fuel, 1949-2011 By Fuel, 2011 82 U.S. Energy Information Administration / Annual Energy Review 2011

178

16th North American Waste to Energy Conference-May 2008 CO2 Enhanced Steam Gasification of Biomass Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

16th North American Waste to Energy Conference-May 2008 CO2 Enhanced Steam Gasification of Biomass of the decomposition of various biomass feedstocks and their conversion to gaseous fuels such as hydrogen. The steam temperatures: above 500o C for the herbaceous and non-wood samples and above 650o C for the wood biomass fuels

179

Large historical changes of fossil-fuel black carbon aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Anthropogenic emissions of fine black carbon (BC) particles, the principal light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol, have varied during the past century in response to changes of fossil-fuel utilization, technology developments, and emission controls. We estimate historical trends of fossil-fuel BC emissions in six regions that represent about two-thirds of present day emissions and extrapolate these to global emissions from 1875 onward. Qualitative features in these trends show rapid increase in the latter part of the 1800s, the leveling off in the first half of the 1900s, and the re-acceleration in the past 50 years as China and India developed. We find that historical changes of fuel utilization have caused large temporal change in aerosol absorption, and thus substantial change of aerosol single scatter albedo in some regions, which suggests that BC may have contributed to global temperature changes in the past century. This implies that the BC history needs to be represented realistically in climate change assessments.

Novakov, T.; Ramanathan, V.; Hansen, J.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Sato, M.; Sinton, J.E.; Sathaye, J.A.

2002-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

180

Synthetic fossil fuel technologies: health problems and intersociety cooperation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential health impacts of synthetic fossil fuel products are considered mainly in terms of complex and potentially carcinogenic mixtures of polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds. These components of oils and tars present an especially perplexing range of problems to those concerned with health protection. The nature of these problems, such as multifactorial exposure, are discussed within a framework of current and future standards to regulate human exposure. Some activities of government agencies, national laboratories, and professional societies are described. A case can be made for pooling the resources of these groups to achieve better solutions for assessing the acceptability of the various technologies and safeguarding human health.

Gammage, R B; Turner, J E

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be benchmarked with IGCC polygen costs for plants of similar size. Sorbent attrition and lifetime will be addressed via bench-scale experiments that monitor sorbent performance over time and by assessing materials interactions at operating conditions. The product gas from the third reactor (high-temperature vitiated air) will be evaluated to assess the concentration of particulates, pollutants and other impurities relative to the specifications required for gas turbine feed streams. This is the eighteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the Phase II period starting July 01, 2005 and ending September 30, 2005. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including process modeling, scale-up and economic analysis.

George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the capital and operating costs for fossil fuel-fired peak heating systems in geothermally (direct use) heated greenhouses. Issues covered include equipment capital costs, fuel requirements, maintenance and operating costs, system control and integration into conventional hot water greenhouse heating systems. Annual costs per square foot of greenhouse floor area are developed for three climates: Helena, MT; Klamath Falls, OR and San Bernardino, CA, for both boiler and individual unit heater peaking systems. In most applications, peaking systems sized for 60% of the peak load are able to satisfy over 95% of the annual heating requirements and cost less than $0.15 per square foot per year to operate. The propane-fired boiler system has the least cost of operation in all but Helena, MT climate.

Rafferty, K.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Update on CO2 emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emissions of CO2 are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. Here we present updated information on their present and near-future estimates. We calculate that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning decreased by 1.3% in 2009 owing to the global financial and economic crisis that started in 2008; this is half the decrease anticipated a year ago1. If economic growth proceeds as expected2, emissions are projected to increase by more than 3% in 2010, approaching the high emissions growth rates that were observed from 2000 to 20081, 3, 4. We estimate that recent CO2 emissions from deforestation and other land-use changes (LUCs) have declined compared with the 1990s, primarily because of reduced rates of deforestation in the tropics5 and a smaller contribution owing to forest regrowth elsewhere.

Friedingstein, P. [University of Exeter, Devon, England; Houghton, R.A. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Hackler, J. [Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Raupach, Mike [GCP, Canberra, Australia; Ciais, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environement, France; Le Quere, Corrine [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Oxy-fuel Combustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal as Retrofit Technologies for Removing CO2 from Coal Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One third of the US installed capacity is coal-fired, producing 49.7% of net electric generation in 20051. Any approach to curbing CO2 production must consider the installed capacity and provide a mechanism for preserving this resource while meeting CO2 reduction goals. One promising approach to both new generation and retrofit is oxy-fuel combustion. Using oxygen instead of air as the oxidizer in a boiler provides a concentrated CO2 combustion product for processing into a sequestration-ready fluid.... Post-combustion carbon capture and oxy-fuel combustion paired with a compression capture technology such as IPR are both candidates for retrofitting pc combustion plants to meet carbon emission limits. This paper will focus on oxy-fuel combustion as applied to existing coal power plants.

Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.B.; Summers, C.A.; Gerdemann, S.J.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Table 3.1 Fossil Fuel Production Prices, 1949-2011 (Dollars per ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual ... excluding freight or shipping and insurance costs. ... 4 Derived by multiplying the price per Btu of each fossil fuel by the ...

186

June 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Fossil Fuels Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. (1997) 78 EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER...

187

Japan is the second largest net importer of fossil fuels in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Japan ranked as the second largest net importer of fossil fuels in the world in 2012, trailing only China. This follows the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, after ...

188

Table 1.14 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 1.14 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and American Indian Lands, Fiscal Years 2003-2011: Fiscal Year 7: Crude Oil and Lease Condensate

189

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)

190

Projection of world fossil fuel production with supply and demand interactions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Research Doctorate - Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Historically, fossil fuels have been vital for our global energy needs. However climate change is prompting renewed interest (more)

Mohr, Steve

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

AN INTEGRATED HYDROGEN PRODUCTION-CO2 CAPTURE PROCESS FROM FOSSIL FUEL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The major project objective is to determine the feasibility of using the char from coal and/or biomass pyrolysis, ammonia and CO{sub 2} emissions at smokestacks to produce clean hydrogen and a sequestered carbon fertilizer. During this work period, literature review has been completed. The project plan, design and test schedules were made on the basis of discussion with partner in experimental issues. Installation of pilot scale units was finished and major units tests were fully performed. Modification of the pyrolyzer, reformer and gas absorption tank have been done. Integration testing is performing recently. Lab scale tests are in operation phase. The experimental installations are discussed in this paper.

Z. Wang; K.B. Bota; D. Day

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

Zhicheng Wang

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Top 20 Emitting Countries by Total Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(7) Islamic Republic of Iran (1902-2008) (8) Canada (1785-2008) (9) Republic of Korea (South Korea) (1945-2008) (10) South Africa (1884-2008) (11) United Kingdom...

195

ENHANCING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND RECLAMATION OF DEGRADED LANDS WITH FOSSIL-FUEL COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

represents an opportunity to couple carbon sequestration with the utilization of fossil fuel #12;and energy of fossil energy byproducts to stimulate carbon sequestration in those terrestrial ecosystems. GOALS C sequestration through optimal utilization of fossil energy byproducts and management of degraded

196

Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

197

Fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon. Phase I final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project involves the simultaneous production of clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon and sulfur, along with value-added carbon nanofibers. This can be accomplished because the nanofiber production process removes carbon via a catalyzed pyrolysis reaction, which also has the effect of removing 99.9% of the sulfur, which is trapped in the nanofibers. The reaction is mildly endothermic, meaning that net energy production with real reductions in greenhouse emissions are possible. In Phase I research, the feasibility of generating clean fossil fuel derivatives with reduced carbon was demonstrated by the successful design, construction and operation of a facility capable of utilizing coal as well as natural gas as an inlet feedstock. In the case of coal, for example, reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions can be as much as 70% (normalized according to kilowatts produced), with the majority of carbon safely sequestered in the form of carbon nanofibers or coke. Both of these products are value-added commodities, indicating that low-emission coal fuel can be done at a profit rather than a loss as is the case with most clean-up schemes. The main results of this project were as follows: (1) It was shown that the nanofiber production process produces hydrogen as a byproduct. (2) The hydrogen, or hydrogen-rich hydrocarbon mixture can be consumed with net release of enthalpy. (3) The greenhouse gas emissions from both coal and natural gas are significantly reduced. Because coal consumption also creates coke, the carbon emission can be reduced by 75% per kilowatt-hour of power produced.

Kennel, E.B.; Zondlo, J.W.; Cessna, T.J.

1999-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

Complex Flow and Composition Path in CO2 Injection Schemes from Density Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for many years. The first large-scale, commercial CO2 IOR project began operation in 1972 at the SACROC concentration in the atmosphere because of the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation may be one of the main causes for acceleration in global warming. Because fossil fuels will be a critical component of the world

Firoozabadi, Abbas

199

Possible future environmental issues for fossil fuel technologies. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The work reported here was carried out for the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy to identify and assess 15 to 20 major environmental issues likely to affect the implementation of fossil energy technologies between 1985 and 2000. The energy technologies specifically addressed are: oil recovery and processing; gas recovery and processing; coal liquefaction; coal gasification (surface); in situ coal gasification; direct coal combustion; advanced power systems; magnetohydrodynamics; surface oil shale retorting; and true and modified in situ oil shale retorting. Environmental analysis of these technologies included, in addition to the main processing steps, the complete fuel cycle from resource extraction to end use. The 16 environmental issues identified as those most likely for future regulatory actions and the main features of, and the possible regulatory actions associated with, each are as follows: disposal of solid waste from coal conversion and combustion technologies; water consumption by coal and oil shale conversion technologies; siting of coal conversion facilities; the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect; emission of polycyclic organic matter (POM); impacts of outer continental shelf (OCS) oil development; emission of trace elements; groundwater contamination; liquefied natural gas (LNG), safety and environmental factors; underground coal mining - health and safety; fugitive emissions from coal gasification and liquefaction - health and safety; boomtown effects; emission of fine particulates from coal, oil and oil shale technologies; emission of radioactivity from the mining and conversion of coal; emission of nitrogn oxides; and land disturbance from surface mining. (LTN)

Attaway, L.D.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Viscosity virtual sensor to control combustion in fossil fuel power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermo-electrical power plants utilize fossil fuel oil to transform the calorific power of fuel into electric power. An optimal combustion in the boiler requires the fuel oil to be in its best conditions. One of fuel's most important properties to consider ... Keywords: Automatic learning, Bayesian networks, Fuel oil, Power plants, Virtual sensors

Pablo H. Ibargengoytia, Miguel Angel Delgadillo, Uriel A. Garca, Alberto Reyes

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activities and progress are reported in: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (enhanced recovery of oil and gas), processing (of petroleum and alternate fuels), utilization (transportation and energy conversion), and systems integration. BETC publications and finances are listed in appendices. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Monthly, global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines available data, develops a strategy and presents a monthly, global time series of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions for the years 1950 2006. This monthly time series was constructed from detailed study of monthly data from the 21 countries that account for approximately 80% of global total emissions. These data were then used in a Monte Carlo approach to proxy for all remaining countries. The proportional-proxy methodology estimates by fuel group the fraction of annual emissions emitted in each country and month. Emissions from solid, liquid and gas fuels are explicitly modelled by the proportional-proxy method. The primary conclusion from this study is the global monthly time series is statistically significantly different from a uniform distribution throughout the year. Uncertainty analysis of the data presented show that the proportional-proxy method used faithfully reproduces monthly patterns in the data and the global monthly pattern of emissions is relatively insensitive to the exact proxy assignments used. The data and results presented here should lead to a better understanding of global and regional carbon cycles, especially when the mass data are combined with the stable carbon isotope data in atmospheric transport models.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Gregg, JS [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Losey, London M [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels | Advanced Photon Source  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels MAY 29, 2007 Bookmark and Share S-XANES absorbance and third derivative absorbance edge spectra of Duvernay (A) Type II kerogen and the results of curve fits using spectra from model compounds. Notice that sharp features appear in the thrid derivative spectrum that are easily associated with FeS2, aliphatic sulfur and

204

Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONF-9 O O 255 --I CONF-9 O O 255 --I DE90 008741 Formulating Energy Policies Related to Fossil Fuel Use: i Critical Uncertainties in the Global Carbon Cycle. W. M. Post, V. H. Dale, D. L. DeAngelis, L. K. Mann, P. J. Mulholland, R. V. O'Neill, T. -H. Peng, M. P. Farrell Environmental Sciences Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Post Office Box 2008 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 The global carbon cycle is the dynamic interaction among the earth's carbon sources and sinks. Understanding the global carbon cycle requires knowledge of the carbon exchanges between major carbon reservoirs by various chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes (Bolin et al., 1979; Rosenberg, 1981; and Solomon et al., 1985). Four reservoirs can be identified, including the atmosphere, terrestrial biosphere (usually

205

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

206

Aromatic nitrogen compounds in fossil fuels: a potential hazard  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To achieve energy independence in the United States, converting coal to oil or extracting oil from shale will be required. Before commercial scale fossil fuel conversion facilities become a reality, chemical and biological studies of currently available synfuel samples derived from coal or shale are urgently needed in order to determine what the potential health problems, such as from occupational exposure, might be. Aromatic nitrogen compounds such as basic aza-arenes, neutral aza-arenes, and aromatic amines are considered environmentally important and several members of these classes of compounds possess biological activity. For example, dibenz(a,h)acridine, 7 H-dibenzo(c,g)carbazole, and 2-naphthylamine, are well known as carcinogens. The methods used to isolate the basic aromatic nitrogen compounds and neutral aza-arenes from one shale oil and one coal-derived oil are discussed. The mutagenic activities of these fractions, based on the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test, are compared.

Ho, C H; Clark, B R; Guerin, M R; Ma, C Y; Rao, T K

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

New Optimal Sensor Suite for Ultrahigh Temperature Fossil Fuel Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments during Phase II of a program to develop and demonstrate photonic sensor technology for the instrumentation of advanced powerplants are described. The goal of this project is the research and development of advanced, robust photonic sensors based on improved sapphire optical waveguides, and the identification and demonstration of applications of the new sensors in advanced fossil fuel power plants, where the new technology will contribute to improvements in process control and monitoring. During this program work period, major progress has been experienced in the development of the sensor hardware, and the planning of the system installation and operation. The major focus of the next work period will be the installation of sensors in the Hamilton, Ohio power plant, and demonstration of high-temperature strain gages during mechanical testing of SOFC components.

John Coggin; Jonas Ivasauskas; Russell G. May; Michael B. Miller; Rena Wilson

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

208

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels contributes far more to global warming Researchers ScienceDaily (July 30, 2010) -- Soot from the burning of fossil fuels and solid biofuels biofuels, such as wood, manure, dung, and other solid biomass used for home heating and cooking in many

209

Implications of "peak oil" for atmospheric CO2 and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Peaking of global oil production may have a large effect on future atmospheric CO2 amount and climate change, depending upon choices made for subsequent energy sources. We suggest that, if estimates of oil and gas reserves by the Energy Information Administration are realistic, it is feasible to keep atmospheric CO2 from exceeding approximately 450 ppm, provided that future exploitation of the huge reservoirs of coal and unconventional fossil fuels incorporates carbon capture and sequestration. Existing coal-fired power plants, without sequestration, must be phased out before mid-century to achieve this limit on atmospheric CO2. We also suggest that it is important to "stretch" oil reserves via energy efficiency, thus avoiding the need to extract liquid fuels from coal or unconventional fossil fuels. We argue that a rising price on carbon emissions is probably needed to keep CO2 beneath the 450 ppm ceiling.

Kharecha, P A

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 This paper was prepared in response to recent requests that the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) provide updated summary information regarding fossil fuel production on federal and Indian lands in the United States. It provides EIA's current best estimates of fossil fuels sales from production on federal and Indian lands for fiscal year 2003 through 2011. eia-federallandsales.pdf More Documents & Publications Testimony Before the House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources Before the House Natural Resources Committee Before the Energy and Power Subcommittee - House Energy and Commerce

211

Hopewell Beneficial CO2 Capture for Production of Fuels, Fertilizer and Energy  

SciTech Connect

For Phase 1 of this project, the Hopewell team developed a detailed design for the Small Scale Pilot-Scale Algal CO2 Sequestration System. This pilot consisted of six (6) x 135 gallon cultivation tanks including systems for CO2 delivery and control, algal cultivation, and algal harvesting. A feed tank supplied Hopewell wastewater to the tanks and a receiver tank collected the effluent from the algal cultivation system. The effect of environmental parameters and nutrient loading on CO2 uptake and sequestration into biomass were determined. Additionally the cost of capturing CO2 from an industrial stack emission at both pilot and full-scale was determined. The engineering estimate evaluated Amine Guard technology for capture of pure CO2 and direct stack gas capture and compression. The study concluded that Amine Guard technology has lower lifecycle cost at commercial scale, although the cost of direct stack gas capture is lower at the pilot scale. Experiments conducted under high concentrations of dissolved CO2 did not demonstrate enhanced algae growth rate. This result suggests that the dissolved CO2 concentration at neutral pH was already above the limiting value. Even though dissolved CO2 did not show a positive effect on biomass growth, controlling its value at a constant set-point during daylight hours can be beneficial in an algae cultivation stage with high algae biomass concentration to maximize the rate of CO2 uptake. The limited enhancement of algal growth by CO2 addition to Hopewell wastewater was due at least in part to the high endogenous CO2 evolution from bacterial degradation of dissolved organic carbon present at high levels in the wastewater. It was found that the high level of bacterial activity was somewhat inhibitory to algal growth in the Hopewell wastewater. The project demonstrated that the Honeywell automation and control system, in combination with the accuracy of the online pH, dissolved O2, dissolved CO2, turbidity, Chlorophyll A and conductivity sensors is suitable for process control of algae cultivation in an open pond systems. This project concluded that the Hopewell wastewater is very suitable for algal cultivation but the potential for significant CO2 sequestration from the plant stack gas emissions was minimal due to the high endogenous CO2 generation in the wastewater from the organic wastewater content. Algae cultivation was found to be promising, however, for nitrogen remediation in the Hopewell wastewater.

UOP; Honeywell Resins & Chemicals; Honeywell Process Solutions; Aquaflow Bionomics Ltd

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

212

Refractory failure in IGCC fossil fuel power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Current generation refractory materials used in slagging gasifiers employed in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) fossil fuel power systems have unacceptably short service lives, limiting the reliability and cost effectiveness of gasification as a means to generate power. The short service life of the refractory lining results from exposure to the extreme environment inside the operating gasifier, where the materials challenges include temperatures to 1650 C, thermal cycling, alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, and the presence of corrosive slags and gases. Compounding these challenges is the current push within the industry for fuel flexibility, which results in slag chemistries and operating conditions that can vary widely as the feedstock for the gasifier is supplemented with alternative sources of carbon, such as petroleum coke and biomass. As a step toward our goal of developing improved refractory materials for this application, we have characterized refractory-slag interactions, under a variety of simulated gasifier conditions, utilizing laboratory exposure tests such as the static cup test and a gravimetric test. Combining this information with that gained from the post-mortem analyses of spent refractories removed from working gasifiers, we have developed a better understanding of refractory failure in gasifier environments. In this paper, we discuss refractory failures in slagging gasifiers and possible strategies to reduce them. Emphasis focuses on the refractories employed in gasifier systems which utilize coal as the primary feedstock.

Dogan, Cynthia P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for membranes of this thickness. The sintered membranes were greater than 95% dense, but the phase purity decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The quantity of dopant incorporated into the perovskite phase was roughly constant, with excess dopant forming an additional phase. Composite materials with distinct ceramic and metallic phases, and thin film perovskites (100 {micro}m) also were successfully prepared, but have not yet been tested for hydrogen transport. Finally, porous platinum was identified as a excellent catalyst for evaluation of membrane materials, however, lower cost nickel catalyst systems are being developed.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

214

FY 2010 Annual Report Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FY 2010 Annual Report FY 2010 Annual Report Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program I. IntroductIon 2 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program FY 2010 Annual Report 3 FY 2010 Annual Report Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Competitive Innovation: Accelerating Technology Development The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and in collaboration with private industry, universities and national laboratories, has forged Government-industry partnerships under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) to reduce the cost of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This fuel cell technology shall form the basis for integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems utilizing coal for clean and efficient

215

Structural changes between models of fossil-fuel demand by steam-electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

A consumption function for multi-fuel steam-electric power plants is used to investigate fossil-fuel demand behavior. The input consumption equations for a plant's primary and alternate fossil fuels are derived by Shepard's lemma from a generalized Cobb-Douglas cost function reflecting average variable cost minimization constrained by technology and the demand for electricity. These equations are estimated by primary and alternate fuel subsets with ordinary least squares and seemingly unrelated regression techniques for 1974, 1977, and 1980. The results of the regression analysis show the importance of consumer demand in the fossil fuel consumption decision; it has the only significant parameter in all of the estimated equations. The estimated own- and cross-price elasticities are small, when they are statistically significant. The results for the primary fuel equations are better than those for the alternate fuel equations in all of the fuel pair subsets.

Gerring, L.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies  

SciTech Connect

Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

INNOVATIVE FOSSIL FUEL FIRED VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SOIL REMEDIATION  

SciTech Connect

This Summary Report summarizes the progress of Phases 3, 3A and 4 of a waste technology Demonstration Project sponsored under a DOE Environmental Management Research and Development Program and administered by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory-Morgantown (DOE-NETL) for an ''Innovative Fossil Fuel Fired Vitrification Technology for Soil Remediation''. The Summary Reports for Phases 1 and 2 of the Program were previously submitted to DOE. The total scope of Phase 3 was to have included the design, construction and demonstration of Vortec's integrated waste pretreatment and vitrification process for the treatment of low level waste (LLW), TSCA/LLW and mixed low-level waste (MLLW). Due to funding limitations and delays in the project resulting from a law suit filed by an environmental activist and the extended time for DOE to complete an Environmental Assessment for the project, the scope of the project was reduced to completing the design, construction and testing of the front end of the process which consists of the Material Handling and Waste Conditioning (MH/C) Subsystem of the vitrification plant. Activities completed under Phases 3A and 4 addressed completion of the engineering, design and documentation of the Material Handling and Conditioning System such that final procurement of the remaining process assemblies can be completed and construction of a Limited Demonstration Project be initiated in the event DOE elects to proceed with the construction and demonstration testing of the MH/C Subsystem.

J. Hnat; L.M. Bartone; M. Pineda

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this final quarter of the no cost extension several planar membranes of a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase were prepared and permeability testing was performed.

Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (i) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (ii) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (iii) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (iv) hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report describes resent results for long-term hydrogen permeation and chemical stability measurements, new mixed conducting cermets, progress in cermet, thin film, and thin-walled tube fabrication, hydrogen absorption measurements for selected compositions, and membrane facilitated alkane to olefin conversion.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

CO2 Europipe | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » CO2 Europipe Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: CO2 Europipe Focus Area: Clean Fossil Energy Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.co2europipe.eu/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/co2-europipe Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Project Development Regulations: "Emissions Mitigation Scheme,Emissions Standards,Enabling Legislation" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

222

Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles Fossil Energy-Developed Fuel Cell Technology Being Adapted by Navy for Advanced Unmanned Undersea Vehicles January 31, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis An unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) being deployed during a U.S. Office of Naval Research demonstration near Panama City. Solid oxide fuel cell technology being developed by the Office of Fossil Energy for coal-fueled central power generation is being adapted to power UUVs. U.S. Navy photo by Mr. John F. Williams/Released. An unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) being deployed during a U.S. Office of Naval Research demonstration near Panama City. Solid oxide fuel cell technology being developed by the Office of Fossil Energy for coal-fueled

223

Automobile Fuel; Economy and CO2 Emissions in Industrialized Countries: Troubling Trends through 2005/6  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K. , 1993b, Fuel Prices and Economy: Factors Effecting LandCar Test and Actual Fuel Economy: Yet Another Gap? Transportof automobile fuel economy in Europe. Energy Policy 34 14.

Schipper, Lee

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

1. The Challenge Concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have increased by more than 35% since industrialisation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficiency and Renewable Energy can go some way to reducing CO2 emissions but the technology gap and time lag concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere traps more reflected heat, leading to enhanced climate changes. Energy is significant. Burning fossil fuels for energy is still the primary method of producing energy. It is therefore

225

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of modeling the various processes governing deposition in fossil boilers was assessed in EPRI report 1004931, Boiler Water Deposition Model: Part 1: Feasibility Study, published in 2004. This report presents findings of follow-up activities directed toward the ultimate goal of developing an aggregate model that is applicable to the important deposition phenomena in fossil drum-type boilers.

2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

226

Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Instructions for CEC-1250E-4 Biomass and Fossil Fuel Usage Report for Biomass Facilities Biomass energy input basis in the upcoming calendar year? - Please check "yes" or "no." 12. Types of Biomass Fuel Used - Please report the quantity and supplier of the following types of biomass fuel used

227

>Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis (NDP-058a) Prepared by Antoinette L. Brenkert Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290 Date Published: February 1998 (Revised for the Web: 2003) CONTENTS Abstract Documentation file for Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Data Base NDP-058a (2-1998) Abstract Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Hydraulic Cement Production, and Gas Flaring for 1995 on a One Degree Grid Cell Basis. (March 1998) Antoinette L. Brenkert DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/ffe.ndp058.2003 This data package presents the gridded (one degree latitude by one degree longitude) summed emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement

228

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators Preprint D. Lew and G. Brinkman National Renewable Energy Laboratory N. Kumar, P. Besuner, D. Agan, and S. Lefton Intertek...

229

Japans fossil-fueled generation remains high because of ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Japan's use of fossil-fueled generationthe combined amount of electricity generated from natural gas, oil, and coalwas up 21% in 2012, compared to the level in ...

230

Impacts of Renewable Generation on Fossil Fuel Unit Cycling: Costs and Emissions (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prepared for the Clean Energy Regulatory Forum III, this presentation looks at the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and reexamines the cost and emissions impacts of fossil fuel unit cycling.

Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Generic Guidelines for the Life Extension of Fossil Fuel Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An increasing number of utilities are deciding to keep aging fossil fuel plants operating beyond their original economic lives. These guidelines provide a systematic approach to planning and implementing a life-extension program for such plants.

1986-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

232

Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burning Effect on ClimateHeating or Cooling?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Emission from burning of fossil fuels and biomass (associated with deforestation) generates a radiative forcing on the atmosphere and a possible climate chaw. Emitted trace gases heat the atmosphere through their greenhouse effect, while ...

Yoram J. Kaufman; Robert S. Fraser; Robert L. Mahoney

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress accomplished for the quarter ending December 1982 is reported for the following research areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (technology assessment, gas research, oil research); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U national estimates of energy intensities and greenhouse gas (GHG) production are of less relevance than the ANL Greenhouse gas, Regulated Emissions and Energy in Transportation (GREET) full-fuel-cycle analysis

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

236

Operator Certification Standards for Fossil Fuel Fired Plants: Survey of State and Regional Requirements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Protection Agency has only started addressing the issue of certification for fossil fuel power plant operators within the last two years. This report, which includes data collected from research of state and local authorities that currently require power plant operators to be certified or licensed, is the first phase of a certification program for Fossil Fuel Fired Power Plants. The report also addresses the possible future shortage of skilled workers needed by the power plants and the ...

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

237

METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Specific Considerations Fossil Fuel Coal r. a. b. Normalliquid dominated) and fossil-fuel fired (either coal, oil,Specific Cons iderations Fossil Fuel Coal Oil 1. 1. 3. L 1

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion  

SciTech Connect

This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are calculated; the major global efforts on inventorying them; their global, regional, and national totals at different spatial and temporal scales; how they are distributed on global grids (i.e. maps); how they are transported in models; and the uncertainties associated with these different aspects of the emissions. The magnitude of emissions 10 from the combustion of fossil fuels has been almost continuously increasing with time since fossil fuels were first used by humans. Despite events in some nations specifically designed to reduce emissions, or which have had emissions reduction as a byproduct of other events, global total emissions continue their general increase with time. Global total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are known to within 10% uncertainty (95% 15 confidence interval). Uncertainty on individual national total fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions range from a few percent to more than 50 %. The information discussed in this manuscript synthesizes global, regional and national fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions, their distributions, their transport, and the associated uncertainties.

Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Boden, Thomas A [ORNL; Breon, F.-M. [CEA/DSM/LSCE, Gif sur Yvette, France; Ciais, P. [LSCE/CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Davis, S. [Carnegie Institution of Washington; Erickson, D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gregg, J. S. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Marland, Gregg [Appalachian State University; Miller, J. [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Oda, T [NOAA ESRL/Boulder, CO/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State Univ.; Oliver, J. G. J. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Raupach, Michael [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Rayner, P [University of Melbourne, Australia; Treanton, K. [Energy Statistics Division, International Energy Agency, Paris, France

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the beginning of the commercial steam and power generation industry, deposits on heat transfer surfaces of the steam-water cycle equipment in fossil plant units have been a challenge. Deposits form at nearly all locations within the steam-water cycle, particularly in boiler tubes where failures can have substantial negative impacts on unit availability and reliability. Accumulation of internal deposits can adversely affect the performance and availability of boilers and turbines in fossil steam-wat...

2012-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Co Co 2 SequeStration Potential of texaS low-rank CoalS Background Fossil fuel combustion is the primary source of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), a major greenhouse gas. Sequestration of CO 2 by injecting it into geologic formations, such as coal seams, may offer a viable method for reducing atmospheric CO 2 emissions. Injection into coal seams has the potential added benefit of enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The potential for CO 2 sequestration in low-rank coals, while as yet undetermined, is believed to differ significantly from that for bituminous coals. To evaluate the feasibility and the environmental, technical, and economic impacts of CO 2 sequestration in Texas low-rank coal beds, the Texas Engineering Experimental Station is conducting a four-year study

242

Combustion-Assisted CO2 Capture Using MECC Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO2 from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO2 capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO2 driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO2 in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO2 product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO2 capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE s goal that deployment of a CO2 capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

Sherman, Steven R [ORNL; Gray, Dr. Joshua R. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Brinkman, Dr. Kyle S. [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Aiken, S.C.; Huang, Dr. Kevin [University of South Carolina, Columbia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

244

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight-months of continuous operation, and permeation results as a function of operating conditions at high pressure for layered composite membranes. Additional progress with cermet and thin film membranes also is presented.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize hydrogen permeation without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, a composite metal membrane based on an inexpensive hydrogen permeable metal achieved permeation rates in excess of 25 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary attempts to incorporate this metal into a cermet were successful, and a thick cermet membrane (0.83 mm) with 40 vol.% metal phase achieved a permeation rate of nearly 0.4 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Increasing the metal phase content and decreasing membrane thickness should significantly increase permeation, while maintaining the benefits derived from cermets. Two-phase ceramic/ceramic composite membranes had low hydrogen permeability, likely due to interdiffusion of constituents between the phases. However, these materials did demonstrate high resistance to corrosion, and might be good candidates for other composite membranes. Temperature-programmed reduction measurements indicated that model cermet materials absorbed 2.5 times as much hydrogen than the pure ceramic analogs. This characteristic, in addition to higher electron conductivity, likely explains the relatively high permeation for these cermets. Incorporation of catalysts with ceramics and cermets increased hydrogen uptake by 800 to more than 900%. Finally, new high-pressure seals were developed for cermet membranes that maintained a pressure differential of 250 psi. This result indicated that the approach for high-pressure seal development could be adapted for a range of compositions. Other items discussed in this report include mechanical testing, new proton conducting ceramics, supported thin films, and alkane to olefin conversion.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart R. Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

246

Engine performance and particulate matter speciation for compression ignition engines powered by a range of fossil and biofuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fuels: Non-renewable fossil fuels are the largest man-made contributor to global warming. Biofuel market share will increase, promoted by renewability, inherent lower net CO(2) emissions, (more)

Rounce, Paul Lindsey

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

2004 Office of Fossil Energy Fuel Cell Program Annual Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Annual report of fuel cell projects sponsored by Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory.

NETL

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

55Home Power #21 February / March 1991 ALTERNATIVES TO FOSSIL FUELED  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be handled by the same devices that regulate natural gas and it will work in burners or as a fuel is a simple hydrocarbon gas which occurs in natural gas and can also be obtained from anaerobic bacterial replacement for fossil fuel gases (natural gas or liquified petroleum gases such as propane or butane). It can

249

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The in-house results at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center on the liquid fossil fuel cycle are presented. The cycle covers extraction, processing, utilization, and environmental technology of the liquid fuels derived from petroleum, heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Table H.1co2  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

AC Argentina AR Aruba AA Bahamas, The BF Barbados BB Belize BH Bolivia BL ... Table H.1co2 World Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Consumption and Flaring of Fossil ...

251

CO2 Intensity in Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prior to the launch of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) in 2005, the electricity sector was widely proclaimed to have more low-cost emission abatement opportunities than other sectors. If this were true, effects of the EU ETS on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions would likely be visible in the electricity sector. Our study looks at the effect of the price of emission allowances (EUA) on CO2 emissions from Swedish electricity generation, using an econometric time series analysis for the period 20042008. We control for effects of other input prices and hydropower reservoir levels. Our results do not indicate any link between the price of EUA and the CO2 emissions of Swedish electricity production. A number of reasons may explain this result and we conclude that other determinants of fossil fuel use in Swedish electricity generation probably diminished the effects of the EU ETS.

Anna Widerberg; Markus Wrke; Anna Widerberg; Markus Wrke

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Biomass Power and Conventional Fossil Systems with and without CO2 Sequestration -- Comparing the Energy Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lifecycle analysis of coal-, natural gas- and biomass-based power generation systems with and without CO2 sequestration. Compares global warming potential and energy balance of these systems.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Fuel Supply Investigation for an Externally Fired Microturbine based Micro CHP System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Sudden change on earths climate, which is a result of an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere, is mainlycaused by burning of fossil fuels (more)

Aga, Aboma Emiru

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Fossil fuel gasification technical evaluation services. Topical report 1978-80  

SciTech Connect

The Exxon, Mountain Fuel, Cities Service/Rockwell, Westinghouse, BGC slagging Lurgi and Peatgas processes for fossil fuel gasification were evaluated. The Lurgi and HYGAS processes had been evaluated in earlier studies. For producing SNG from coal, only the Westinghouse conceptual design appeared competitive with HYGAS on eastern coal. All coal gasification processes were competitive with or better than Lurgi on eastern coal. The Mountain Fuel process was more costly than Lurgi or HYGAS on a western coal.

Detman, R.F.

1982-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13- Particulate Emissions from Fossil Fuel Fired Steam or Hot Water Generating Units (Rhode Island)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and wood-fired steam or hot water generating units.

256

Boiler Water Deposition Model for Fossil-Fueled Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accumulation of internal deposits can adversely affect the performance and availability of boilers and turbines in fossil steam-water cycles. Deposition in drum boilers has been identified as the area of broadest concern to the industry; therefore, an improved understanding of deposition in drum boilers is expected to represent the greatest source of benefits and value to end users. The overall objective of the modeling described here is to develop a comprehensive, integrated model for deposition process...

2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

257

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 March 2012 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or

258

renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply s  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, renewable sources of power. Demand for fossil fuels surely will overrun supply sooner or later, as indeed it already has in the casc of United States domestic oil drilling. Recognition also is growing that our air and land can no longer absorb unlimited quantities of waste from fossil fuel extraction and combustion. As that day draws nearer, policymakers will have no realistic alternative but to turn to sources of power that today make up a viable but small part of America's energy picture. And they will be forced to embrace energy efficiencies - those that are within our reach today, and those that will be developed tomorrow. Precisely when they come lo grips with that reality - this year, 10 years from now, or 20 years from now - will determine bow smooth the transition will be for consumers and industry alike.

259

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling with best-case scenario assumptions, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the eleventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2003 and ending June 30, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale assembly, and program management.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on process modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of 68%, based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal, and an estimated equivalent electrical efficiency of 60%. The Phase I R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the ninth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision 21 UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2002 and ending December 31, 2002. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab- and bench-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale design and assembly, and program management.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Research on CO2 Emission Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Clean Energy Utilization of Clean Energy Utilization Zhejing University 29 th May, 2008 Status of CCS in China 2 nd U.S.-China Symposium on CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology, Hangzhou China 28 th -30 th , May, 2008 Prof. Zhongyang Luo Global CO 2 Emissions Country CO 2 Emissions (Million Tons Carbon) 1990 1997 2001 2010 USA 1345 1480 1559 1800 China 620 822 832 1109 Former USSR 1034 646 654 825 Japan 274 297 316 334 World 5836 6175 6522 8512 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2001 Global CO 2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in 2006 11.72 3,330 EU-15 5.75 1,620 Russia 4.3 1,210 Japan 20.17 5,680 China 20.42 5,750 USA 100 28,160 Total Percentage (%) CO 2 Emissions (1 million metric tons CO 2 ) Country BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2007 (http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=6914&contentI

262

Commerce study looks at cost of pollution control for fossil-fuel power industry  

SciTech Connect

Environmental controls for fossil-fuel power plants consumed 1.3 percent of the national fuel used in 1974, with the largest demand going for sulfur dioxide emission control. Projections for power plant consumption to meet environmental standards range as high as eight percent in the 1980s. Less-energy-consuming systems include coal blending, tall stacks, and supplementary control systems; while high consumers are using coal washing operations in place of scrubbers, fuel transportation, conversion to acceptable fuels, waste heat disposal, and particulate controls. A summary table presents sulfur dioxide regulations in terms of their goals and their anticipated minimum and maximum fuel consumption. (DCK)

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research (GEGR) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GEGR (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GEGR, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on Aspen Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the third annual technical progress report for the UFP program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2002 and ending September 30, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, bench-scale experimental testing, process modeling, pilot-scale system design and assembly, and program management.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program has determined the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrated experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fifteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2004 and ending June 30, 2004. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale testing, kinetic modeling, program management and technology transfer.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; K. Mondal; L. Stonawski; Krzysztof Piotrowski; T. Szymanski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6 percentage points higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the fourteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974) and GE. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting January 1, 2004 and ending March 31, 2004. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale shakedown and performance testing, program management and technology transfer.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE Global Research (prime contractor) was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on this Phase I program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE Global Research, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIU-C), California Energy Commission (CEC), and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on ASPEN Plus process modeling, has an estimated process efficiency of 6% higher than IGCC with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The current R&D program will determine the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through pilot-scale testing, and will investigate operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates experimental testing, modeling and economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. This is the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report for the UFP program, which is supported by U.S. DOE NETL under Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974. This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2003 and ending December 31, 2003. The report includes an introduction summarizing the UFP technology, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale assembly, pilot-scale demonstration and program management and technology transfer.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Krzysztof Piotrowski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE-EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE-EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R and D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the 1st quarterly progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2000. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of initial program activities covering program management and preliminary progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and process/kinetic modeling. More over, the report presents and discusses preliminary results particularly form the bench-scale design and process modeling efforts including a process flow diagram that incorporates the AGC module with other vision-21 plant components with the objective of maximizing H{sub 2} production and process efficiency.

George Rizeq; Ravi Kumar; Janice West; Vitali Lissianski; Neil Widmer; Vladimir Zamansky

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the third quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2001 and ending June 30, 2001. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, objectives of this program, and provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in first year tasks including lab- and bench-scale design, facilities preparation, and engineering studies.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Vladimir Zamansky; Linda Denton; Hana Loreth; Tomasz Wiltowski

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision 21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the second annual technical progress report for the Vision 21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract No. DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2001 and ending September 30, 2002. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities and accomplishments covering progress in tasks including lab- and bench-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale design and assembly, and program management.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Lubor Stonawski; Tomasz Wiltowski; Edwin Hippo; Shashi Lalvani

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the seventh quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting April 1, 2002 and ending June 30, 2002. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in tasks including lab-/bench-scale experimental testing and pilot-scale design.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Hana Loreth; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

FUEL-FLEXIBLE GASIFICATION-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF H2 AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the thermodynamic efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE EER) has developed an innovative fuel-flexible Advanced Gasification-Combustion (AGC) concept to produce H{sub 2} and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from solid fuels. The AGC module offers potential for reduced cost and increased energy efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems. GE EER was awarded a Vision-21 program from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the AGC technology. Work on this three-year program started on October 1, 2000. The project team includes GE EER, California Energy Commission, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, and T. R. Miles, Technical Consultants, Inc. In the AGC technology, coal/opportunity fuels and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) pure hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure oxygen-depleted air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions and, based on preliminary modeling work in the first quarter of this program, has an estimated process efficiency of approximately 67% based on electrical and H{sub 2} energy outputs relative to the higher heating value of coal. The three-year R&D program will determine the operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The program integrates lab-, bench- and pilot-scale studies to demonstrate the AGC concept. This is the fifth quarterly technical progress report for the Vision-21 AGC program supported by U.S. DOE NETL (Contract: DE-FC26-00FT40974). This report summarizes program accomplishments for the period starting October 1, 2001 and ending December 31, 2001. The report includes an introduction summarizing the AGC concept, main program tasks, and program objectives; it also provides a summary of program activities covering program management and progress in tasks including lab- and bench-scale experimental testing, pilot-scale design, and economic studies.

George Rizeq; Janice West; Arnaldo Frydman; Raul Subia; Vladimir Zamansky; Tomasz Wiltowski; Tom Miles; Bruce Springsteen

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Production of high density fuel through low temperature devolatilization of fossil fuels with hydrogen and iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing high-energy high-density fuels and valuable co-products from fossil fuel sources which comprises the low temperature devolatilization of a fossil fuel such as coal in a moving fluid-bed reactor at a temperature of about 450-650C in the presence of hydrogen and iron oxides. The method is advantageous in that high quality liquid fuels are obtained in addition to valuable co-products such as elemental iron, elemental sulfur and carbon black, and the process is carried out efficiently with a large number of recyclable steps. In addition, the hydropyrolysis of the present invention can produce a highly reactive low-sulfur char which is convertible into a slurry fuel. 1 fig.

Khan, M.R.

1990-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

273

Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

2001-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

274

High resolution fossil fuel combustion CO{sub 2} emission fluxes for the United States  

SciTech Connect

Quantification of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions at fine space and time resolution is emerging as a critical need in carbon cycle and climate change research. As atmospheric CO{sub 2} measurements expand with the advent of a dedicated remote sensing platform and denser in situ measurements, the ability to close the carbon budget at spatial scales of about 100 km{sup 2} and daily time scales requires fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventories at commensurate resolution. Additionally, the growing interest in U.S. climate change policy measures are best served by emissions that are tied to the driving processes in space and time. Here we introduce a high resolution data product (the 'Vulcan' inventory: www.purdue.edu/eas/carbon/vulcan/) that has quantified fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions for the contiguous U.S. at spatial scales less than 100 km{sup 2} and temporal scales as small as hours. This data product, completed for the year 2002, includes detail on combustion technology and 48 fuel types through all sectors of the U.S. economy. The Vulcan inventory is built from the decades of local/regional air pollution monitoring and complements these data with census, traffic, and digital road data sets. The Vulcan inventory shows excellent agreement with national-level Department of Energy inventories, despite the different approach taken by the DOE to quantify U.S. fossil fuel CO{sub 2} emissions. Comparison to the global 1{sup o} x 1{sup o} fossil fuel CO{sub 2} inventory, used widely by the carbon cycle and climate change community prior to the construction of the Vulcan inventory, highlights the space/time biases inherent in the population-based approach. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Kevin R. Gurney; Daniel L. Mendoza; Yuyu Zhou; Marc L. Fischer; Chris C. Miller; Sarath Geethakumar; Stephane de la Rue du Can [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences/Department of Agronomy

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Western fossil fuels R and D public meeting: Summary proceedings  

SciTech Connect

A public meeting was convened by the Department of Energy (DOE) in Denver, Colorado, on Wednesday, July 26, 1989, at The Registry Hotel, in order to obtain public views and comments on the development of techniques which could offer the potential to improve the economic competitiveness and increased utilization of Western Fossil Energy Resources. In the sections that follow, brief descriptions are provided of background issues and how the meeting was conducted. Subsequent chapters of this report present the discussions that ensued at the meeting, and the views, recommendations, and concerns that were expressed by attendees. Finally, the report includes a summary of the written comments that were received, and an appendix which contains a list of the organizations that were represented at the public meeting.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels - Technology Management, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels-Technology Management, Inc. Background In this congressionally directed project, Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) will develop and demonstrate a residential scale prototype solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system at end-user sites. These small-scale systems would operate continuously on either conventional or renewable biofuels, producing cost effective, uninterruptible

277

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base - major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Drum type fossil fueled power plant control based on fuzzy inverse MIMO model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a new fuzzy controller is proposed based on inverse model of boiler-turbine system. Gain scheduling scheme is used to keep feedback rule as close as possible to optimal condition while generating plant Input/Output data. Interaction between ... Keywords: ANFIS, drum type fossil fueled power plant (FFPP), interaction, inverse model control, nonlinear model, robustness

Ali Ghaffari; Mansour Nikkhah Bahrami; Hesam Parsa

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke: A Neglected Case of Fossil-fuel Dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Iron Age & Coal-based Coke: A Neglected Case of Fossil-fuel Dependence by Vaclav Smil September share of their primary energies from renewable sources. Steel & Coal-Derived Coke Here is another important: steel's fundamental dependence on coal-derived coke with no practical substitutes on any rational

Smil, Vaclav

280

New improved standard for electron probe determination of organic sulfur in fossil fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on petroleum coke that is stable under an electron beam and contains a uniform sulfur content. Hence, it is a suitable standard for analysis of organic sulfur content of coal. It should be as applicable for analysis of organic sulfur in other fossil fuels. This standard is available for distribution.

Harris, L.A.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Gooley, R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2007-No54-BoilingPoint Theme Health and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy nations. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), biomass provides more than 90% of household energy needs in many nations. The combustion of biomass emits pollutants that currently cause over 1.6 million annual deaths

Kammen, Daniel M.

282

Impacts of Wind and Solar on Fossil-Fueled Generators: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High penetrations of wind and solar power will impact the operations of the remaining generators on the power system. Regional integration studies have shown that wind and solar may cause fossil-fueled generators to cycle on and off and ramp down to part load more frequently and potentially more rapidly. Increased cycling, deeper load following, and rapid ramping may result in wear-and-tear impacts on fossil-fueled generators that lead to increased capital and maintenance costs, increased equivalent forced outage rates, and degraded performance over time. Heat rates and emissions from fossil-fueled generators may be higher during cycling and ramping than during steady-state operation. Many wind and solar integration studies have not taken these increased cost and emissions impacts into account because data have not been available. This analysis considers the cost and emissions impacts of cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generation to refine assessments of wind and solar impacts on the power system.

Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Agan, D.; Lefton, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Inorganic and Organic Constituents in Fossil Fuel Combustion Residues, Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate prediction of groundwater contamination from solid-waste disposal sites requires leaching rates for fossil fuel combustion waste chemicals. In a wide-ranging literature review, this study obtained data on 28 inorganic constituents and identified the need for new data to improve leachate composition prediction models.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Emission Factors Handbook: Guidelines for Estimating Trace Substance Emissions from Fossil Fuel Steam Electric Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The "Emission Factors Handbook" provides a tool for estimating trace substances emissions from fossil-fuel-fired power plants. The suggested emission factors are based on EPRI and Department of Energy (DOE) field measurements conducted at over 50 power plants using generally consistent sampling and analytical protocols. This information will help utility personnel estimate air toxic emissions for permitting purposes.

2002-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center's research activities are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction which is subdivided into resource assessment and production; liquid processing which includes characterization of liquids from petroleum, coal, shale and other alternate sources, thermodynamics and process technology; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities at BETC during the past quarter are summarized in this document. Major research areas include: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer.

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Related Standards for Fossil-Fuel and Geo- thermal Powerposed Nuclear, Geothermal, and Fossil-Fuel Sites and Facili-NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

CONTROL OF POPULATION DENSITIES SURROUNDING NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS. VOLUME 5 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Related Standards for Fossil-Fuel and Geo- thermal Powerposed Nuclear, Geothermal, and Fossil-Fuel Sites and Facili-and RelatedStandards for Fossil-Fuel and Geothermal Power

Nero, jA.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Technical considerations in repowering a nuclear plant for fossil fueled operation  

SciTech Connect

Repowering involves replacement of the reactor by a fossil fuel source of steam. This source can be a conventional fossil fueled boiler or the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) on a gas turbine exhaust. The existing steam turbine plant is used to the extent possible. Alternative fuels for repowering a nuclear plant are coal, natural gas and oil. In today`s world oil is not usually an alternative. Selection of coal or natural gas is largely a matter of availability of the fuel near the location of the plant. Both the fossil boiler and the HRSG produce steam at higher pressures and temperatures than the throttle conditions for a saturated steam nuclear turbine. It is necessary to match the steam conditions from the new source to the existing turbine as closely as possible. Technical approaches to achieve a match range from using a topping turbine at the front end of the cycle to attemperation of the throttle steam with feedwater. The electrical output from the repowered plant is usually greater than that of the original nuclear fueled design. This requires consideration of the ability to use the excess electricity. Interfacing of the new facility with the existing turbine plant requires consideration of facility layout and design. Site factors must also be considered, especially for a coal fired boiler, since rail and coal handling facilities must be added to a site for which these were not considered. Additional site factors that require consideration are ash handling and disposal.

Patti, F.J.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

prevent serious damage to the nuclear fuel, since it is thetransportation: for nuclear plants, fuel handling is carriedSpecific Fossil Fuel Geothermal Nuclear Solid Waste Disposal

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Development of Novel CO2 Adsorbents for Capture of CO2 from Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

Capturing CO2 emissions generated from fossil fuel-based power plants has received widespread attention and is considered a vital course of action for CO2 emission abatement. Efforts are underway at the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop viable energy technologies enabling the CO2 capture from large stationary point sources. Solid, immobilized amine sorbents (IAS) formulated by impregnation of liquid amines within porous substrates are reactive towards CO2 and offer an alternative means for cyclic capture of CO2 eliminating, to some degree, inadequacies related to chemical absorption by aqueous alkanolamine solutions. This paper describes synthesis, characterization, and CO2 adsorption properties for IAS materials previously tested to bind and release CO2 and water vapor in a closed loop life support system. Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), acrylonitrile-modified tetraethylenepentamine (TEPAN), and a single formulation consisting of TEPAN and N, N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (BED) were individually supported on a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate and examined. CO2 adsorption profiles leading to reversible CO2 adsorption capacities were obtained using thermogravimetry. Under 10% CO2 in nitrogen at 25C and 1 atm, TEPA supported on PMMA over 60 minutes adsorbed ~3.2 mmol/g{sorbent} whereas, TEPAN supported on PMMA along with TEPAN and BED supported on PMMA adsorbed ~1.7 mmol/g{sorbent} and ~2.3 mmol/g{sorbent} respectively. Cyclic experiments with a 1:1 weight ratio of TEPAN and BED supported on poly (methyl methacrylate) beads utilizing a fixed-bed flow system with 9% CO2, 3.5% O2, nitrogen balance with trace gas constituents were studied. CO2 adsorption capacity was ~ 3 mmols CO2/g{sorbent} at 40C and 1.4 atm. No beneficial effect on IAS performance was found using a moisture-laden flue gas mixture. Tests with 750 ppmv NO in a humidified gas stream revealed negligible NO sorption onto the IAS. A high SO2 concentration resulted in incremental loss in IAS performance and revealed progressive degrees of staining upon testing. Adsorption of SO2 by the IAS necessitates upstream removal of SO2 prior to CO2 capture.

Fauth, D.J.; Filburn, T.P. (University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT); Gray, M.L.; Hedges, S.W.; Hoffman, J.; Pennline, H.W.; Filburn, T.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Summary of research on hydrogen production from fossil fuels conducted at NETL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this presentation we will summarize the work performed at NETL on the production of hydrogen via partial oxidation/dry reforming of methane and catalytic decomposition of hydrogen sulfide. We have determined that high pressure resulted in greater carbon formation on the reforming catalysts, lower methane and CO2 conversions, as well as a H2/CO ratio. The results also showed that Rh/alumina catalyst is the most resistant toward carbon deposition both at lower and at higher pressures. We studied the catalytic partial oxidation of methane over Ni-MgO solid solutions supported on metal foams and the results showed that the foam-supported catalysts reach near-equilibrium conversions of methane and H2/CO selectivities. The rates of carbon deposition differ greatly among the catalysts, varying from 0.24 mg C/g cat h for the dipped foams to 7.0 mg C/g cat h for the powder-coated foams, suggesting that the exposed Cr on all of the foam samples may interact with the Ni-MgO catalyst to kinetically limit carbon formation. Effects of sulfur poisoning on reforming catalysts were studies and pulse sulfidation of catalyst appeared to be reversible for some of the catalysts but not for all. Under pulse sulfidation conditions, the 0.5%Rh/alumina and NiMg2Ox-1100C (solid solution) catalysts were fully regenerated after reduction with hydrogen. Rh catalyst showed the best overall activity, less carbon deposition, both fresh and when it was exposed to pulses of H2S. Sulfidation under steady state conditions significantly reduced catalyst activity. Decomposition of hydrogen sulfide into hydrogen and sulfur was studied over several supported metal oxides and metal oxide catalysts at a temperature range of 650-850C. H2S conversions and effective activation energies were estimated using Arrhenius plots. The results of these studies will further our understanding of catalytic reactions and may help in developing better and robust catalysts for the production of hydrogen from fossil fuels

Shamsi, Abolghasem

2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

CO2 Utilization | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CO2 CO2 Utilization CO2 Utilization Carbon dioxide (CO2) use and reuse efforts focus on the conversion of CO2 to useable products and fuels that will reduce CO2 emissions in areas where geologic storage may not be an optimal solution. These include: Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery - Injecting CO2 into depleting oil or gas bearing fields to maximize the amount of CO2 that could be stored as well as maximize hydrocarbon production. CO2 as Feedstock - Use CO2 as a feedstock to produce chemicals (including fuels and polymers) and find applications for the end products. Non-Geologic Storage of CO2 - Use CO2 from an effluent stream to immobilize the CO2 permanently by producing stable solid material that are either useful products with economic value or a low cost produced material.

295

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Timing is everything : along the fossil fuel transition pathway.  

SciTech Connect

People save for retirement throughout their career because it is virtually impossible to save all you'll need in retirement the year before you retire. Similarly, without installing incremental amounts of clean fossil, renewable or transformative energy technologies throughout the coming decades, a radical and immediate change will be near impossible the year before a policy goal is set to be in place. Therefore, our research question is,To meet our desired technical and policy goals, what are the factors that affect the rate we must install technology to achieve these goals in the coming decades?' Existing models do not include full regulatory constraints due to their often complex, and inflexible approaches to solve foroptimal' engineering instead ofrobust' and multidisciplinary solutions. This project outlines the theory and then develops an applied software tool to model the laboratory-to-market transition using the traditional technology readiness level (TRL) framework, but develops subsequent and a novel regulatory readiness level (RRL) and market readiness level (MRL). This tool uses the ideally-suited system dynamics framework to incorporate feedbacks and time delays. Future energy-economic-environment models, regardless of their programming platform, may adapt this software model component framework ormodule' to further vet the likelihood of new or innovative technology moving through the laboratory, regulatory and market space. The prototype analytical framework and tool, called the Technology, Regulatory and Market Readiness Level simulation model (TRMsim) illustrates the interaction between technology research, application, policy and market dynamics as they relate to a new or innovative technology moving from the theoretical stage to full market deployment. The initial results that illustrate the model's capabilities indicate for a hypothetical technology, that increasing the key driver behind each of the TRL, RRL and MRL components individually decreases the time required for the technology to progress through each component by 63, 68 and 64%, respectively. Therefore, under the current working assumptions, to decrease the time it may take for a technology to move from the conceptual stage to full scale market adoption one might consider expending additional effort to secure regulatory approval and reducing the uncertainty of the technology's demand in the marketplace.

Kobos, Peter Holmes; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Malczynski, Leonard A.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Why we need the and in CO2 utilization and storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate crisis continues as fossil-fuel use grows, causingand with abundant fossil-fuel-combustion point sources of COanthropogenic sources (mostly fossil fuel combustion), and

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 2 May 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012 ii This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other federal agencies. May 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2012 1

299

Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 1 March 2012 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or other Federal agencies. March 2012 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced on Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 1

300

Browse by Discipline -- E-print Network Subject Pathways: Fossil Fuels --  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels Go to Research Groups Preprints Provided by Individual Scientists: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi (Sidqi Abu-Khamsin) - Department of Petroleum Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman (Sulaiman Al-Khattaf) - Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah (Abdulaziz Abdullah Al-Majed) - Center for Petroleum and Minerals at the Research Institute & Department of Petroleum Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals Ali, Mohammed (Mohammed Ali) - Petroleum Institute (Abu Dhabi) Go back to Individual Researchers Collections: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Fossil Fuels | OSTI, US Dept of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DETERMINATION OF HEAVY OIL VISCOSITY UNDER RESERVOIR CONDITIONS Dr. Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet (2003) 42 Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. (1996) 36 Fluid Dynamics in Sucker Rod Pumps Cutler, R.P.; Mansure, A.J. (1999) 35 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. (1997) 35 Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations Michael S. Bruno (2005) 35 Autothermal Reforming of Natural Gas to Synthesis Gas Steven F. Rice; David P. Mann (2007) 34 Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of

302

Cycling Operation of Fossil-Fueled Plants: Volume 6: Evaluation and Strategy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report, the sixth volume in a series (GS-7219), describes tools to help utilities define and evaluate strategies for cycling fossil-fueled power plants. To assist companies in their cycling decisions, the report describes far-reaching guidelines on cycling units, including economics, the effects on equipment life, and operations and maintenance. In developing a stepwise plant to cycling operation, EPRI investigators reviewed an extensive database of worldwide and U.S. experience with cycling. The re...

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains a minimum of 92 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions from fossil fuels. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the removal of nitrogen compounds from fossil fuels and their post-combustion emissions. Removal methods include biological denitrification, fluidized bed combustion, and flue gas denitrification. Applications to utilities, petroleum refineries, and other industries are presented. The design of nitrogen control systems and process optimization are described. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

3. Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Data from Other Sources Often Conflicts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A review of current gaps and needed changes to achieve success By Doug Koplow with contributions from Steve KretzmannAcknowledgments Thanks to Ronald Steenblik (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and Patricia Lerner (Greenpeace International) for their valuable suggestions and input on earlier drafts of this document. All remaining errors and omissions are the responsibility of the authors. 2010, Earth Track, Inc., and Oil Change International For more information on fossil fuel subsidies please visit:

G Fossil-fuel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Preliminary Guidelines for Integrated Controls and Monitoring for Fossil Fuel Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Modern digital distributed control systems offer a large number of advantages to operators of fossil fuel plants, and many utilities will be replacing their existing control systems with them. This report, consisting of the preliminary guidelines developed by the Southern California Edison Company during the first phase of its El Segundo power plant, units 3 and 4, retrofit project, offers advice applicable to other phased upgrades, complete changeouts, or new installations.

1990-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

308

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress rport, April-June 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities for the quarter ending June 1983 are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel; extraction; processing; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. Titles of featured articles are: (1) chemical flooding field test produces 975,000 barrels of oil; (2) chemicals boost recovery in steam-drive tests; (3) North Dakota carbon dioxide minitest successful; (4) carbon dioxide EOR reports issued; and (5) BETC slated for new management and new name. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Liquid-fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports for the quarter ending September 1982 are presented for the following major tasks: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum, coal liquids, thermodynamics, process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: new laboratory enhances BETC capability in mass spectrometry; and BETC tests on diesel particulate extracts indicate potential health risks. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Recent world fossil-fuel and primary energy production and consumption trends  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide fossil fuel and primary electric power production figures since 1973 show a recent drop in oil production similar to the 1975 decline after recession. Crude oil consumption has declined since 1978, while production has increased. Natural gas production and consumption continue to increase as does power generation from all energy sources. Differences are noted between data sources and comparisons made of the validity of the data. 13 references, 7 figures, 12 tables. (DCK)

Parent, J.D.

1982-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

311

Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The escalating energy prices and the increasing environmental impact posed by the industrial usage of energy have spurred industry to adopt various approaches to conserving energy and mitigating negative environmental impact. This work aims at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels, process waste heat) to guarantee providing a stable energy supply, as industrial process energy sources must be a stable and reliable system. The thermal energy transform systems (turbines, refrigerators, heat exchangers) must be selected and designed carefully to provide the energy demand at the different forms (heat, cool, power). This dissertation introduces optimization-based approaches to address the following problems: Design of cogeneration systems with solar and fossil systems Design and integration of solar-biofuel-fossil cogeneration systems Design of solar-assisted absorption refrigeration systems and integration with the processing facility Development of thermally-coupled dual absorption refrigeration systems, and Design of solar-assisted trigeneration systems Several optimization formulations are introduced to provide methodical and systematic techniques to solve the aforementioned problems. The approach is also sequenced into interacting steps. First, heat integration is carried out to minimize industrial heating and cooling utilities. Different forms of external-energy sources (e.g., solar, biofuel, fossil fuel) are screened and selected. To optimize the cost and to overcome the dynamic fluctuation of the solar energy and biofuel production systems, fossil fuel is used to supplement the renewable forms of energy. An optimization approach is adopted to determine the optimal mix of energy forms (fossil, bio fuels, and solar) to be supplied to the process, the system specifications, and the scheduling of the system operation. Several case studies are solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the devised procedure. The results show that solar trigeneration systems have higher overall performance than the solar thermal power plants. Integrating the absorption refrigerators improves the energy usage and it provides the process by its cooling demand. Thermal coupling of the dual absorption refrigerators increases the coefficient of performance up to 33 percent. Moreover, the process is provided by two cooling levels.

Tora, Eman

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs were benchmarked with IGCC polygen plants with similar level of CO{sub 2} capture. Based on the promising economic analysis comparison results (performed with the help from Worley Parsons), GE recommended a 'Go' decision in April 2006 to continue the experimental investigation of the UFP technology to address the remaining risks i.e. solids lifetime and the impact of impurities in the coal on overall system. Solids attrition and lifetime risk was addressed via bench-scale experiments that monitor solids performance over time and by assessing materials interactions at operating conditions. The product gas under the third reactor (high-temperature vitiated air) operating conditions was evaluated to assess the concentration of particulates, pollutants and other impurities relative to the specifications required for gas turbine feed streams. During this investigation, agglomeration of solids used in the UFP process was identified as a serious risk that impacts the lifetime of the solids and in turn feasibility of the UFP technology. The main causes of the solids agglomeration were the combination of oxygen transfer material (OTM) reduction at temperatures {approx}1000 C and interaction between OTM and CO{sub 2} absorbing material (CAM) at high operating temperatures (>1200 C). At the end of phase II, in March 2008, GEGR recommended a 'No-go' decision for taking the UFP technology to the next level of development, i.e. development of a 3-5 MW prototype system, at this time. GEGR further recommended focused materials development research programs on improving the performance and lifetime of solids materials used in UFP or chemical looping technologies. The scale-up activities would be recommended only after mitigating the risks involved with the agglomeration and overall lifetime of the solids. This is the final report for the phase II of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program entitled 'Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H{sub 2} and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2}' (DOE Award No.

Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the near future, the nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It is necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact of fossil fuel utilization including greenhouse gas management. GE Global Research (GEGR) investigated an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology with potential to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP technology offers the long-term potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to investigate and develop the UFP technology. Work started on the Phase I program in October 2000 and on the Phase II effort in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal, water and air are simultaneously converted into (1) hydrogen rich stream that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air stream to produce electricity in a gas turbine expander. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) process with conventional CO{sub 2} separation. The Phase I R&D program established the chemical feasibility of the major reactions of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing. A risk analysis session was carried out at the end of Phase I effort to identify the major risks in the UFP technology and a plan was developed to mitigate these risks in the Phase II of the program. The Phase II effort focused on three high-risk areas: economics, lifetime of solids used in the UFP process, and product gas quality for turbines (or the impact of impurities in the coal on the overall system). The economic analysis included estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs were benchmarked with IGCC polygen plants with similar level of CO{sub 2} capture. Based on the promising economic analysis comparison results (performed with the help from Worley Parsons), GE recommended a 'Go' decision in April 2006 to continue the experimental investigation of the UFP technology to address the remaining risks i.e. solids lifetime and the impact of impurities in the coal on overall system. Solids attrition and lifetime risk was addressed via bench-scale experiments that monitor solids performance over time and by assessing materials interactions at operating conditions. The product gas under the third reactor (high-temperature vitiated air) operating conditions was evaluated to assess the concentration of particulates, pollutants and other impurities relative to the specifications required for gas turbine feed streams. During this investigation, agglomeration of solids used in the UFP process was identified as a serious risk that impacts the lifetime of the solids and in turn feasibility of the UFP technology. The main causes of the solids agglomeration were the combination of oxygen transfer material (OTM) reduction at temperatures {approx}1000 C and interaction between OTM and CO{sub 2} absorbing material (CAM) at high operating temperatures (>1200 C). At the end of phase II, in March 2008, GEGR recommended a 'No-go' decision for taking the UFP technology to the next level of development, i.e. development of a 3-5 MW prototype system, at this time. GEGR further recommended focused materials development research programs on improving the performance and lifetime of solids materials used in UFP or chemical looping technologies. The scale-up activities would be recommended only after mitigating the risks involved with the agglomeration and overall lifetime of the solids. This is the final report for the phase II of the DOE-funded Vision 21 program entitled 'Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H{sub 2} and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2}' (DOE Award No.

Parag Kulkarni; Jie Guan; Raul Subia; Zhe Cui; Jeff Manke; Arnaldo Frydman; Wei Wei; Roger Shisler; Raul Ayala; om McNulty; George Rizeq; Vladimir Zamansky; Kelly Fletcher

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

General Circulation Model Calculations of the Direct Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Sulfate and Fossil-Fuel Soot Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new radiation code within a general circulation model is used to assess the direct solar and thermal radiative forcing by sulfate aerosol of anthropogenic origin and soot aerosol from fossil-fuel burning. The radiative effects of different ...

J. M. Haywood; D. L. Roberts; A. Slingo; J. M. Edwards; K. P. Shine

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fuels through use at refinery Energy: other industrialas a process fuel by refineries) (see discussion above); i)residual fuel produced by refineries that produce mainly

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of fuels through use at refinery Energy: other industrialas a process fuel by refineries) (see discussion above); i)residual fuel produced by refineries that produce mainly

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

EA-1778: Proposed Rule, 10 CFR 433 and 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of DOE's Proposed Rule, 10 CFR Part 433, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings and 10 CFR Part 435, Energy Conservation and Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction Standards for the Design and Construction of New Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

318

EPRI Ergonomics Handbook for the Electric Power Industry: Ergonomic Interventions for Electrical Workers in Fossil-Fueled Power Plan ts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Research Program has provided ergonomic information to the electric energy industry workforce since 1999. This is the fourth EPRI ergonomics handbook; it specifically focuses on tasks performed by electricians who work in fossil-fueled electric power plants. Fossil-fueled power plant electrical work is physically strenuous and can expose workers to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), such as carpal tunnel syndrome, low-back pain, or shoulder tendonitis. In an e...

2008-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

319

Use of Ionic Liquids as Physical Solvents for Selective Capture of CO2 from Fuel Gas Streams  

SciTech Connect

This study is to investigate the potential use of ionic liquids (ILs) as physical solvents for selective CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams at elevated pressures and temperatures. The equilibrium gas solubility (x*) and the volumetric mass transfer coefficients (kLa) for CO2 and H2 in two different ILs (TEGO IL K5 and TEGO IL P51P) were determined. The data were obtained in an agitated reactor, equipped with sight-windows, in wide ranges of pressures, temperatures, mixing speeds, and liquid heights. Under the operating conditions investigated, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs increased with pressure at constant temperature and decreased with temperature at constant pressure. Also, the volumetric liquid-side mass transfer coefficients of CO2 increased with mixing speed, pressure, and temperature and decreased with liquid height. The CO2 solubilities in the TEGO IL K5 were greater than those in the other two ILs at 500 K. Under similar operating conditions, the CO2 solubilities in the two ILs were greater than those of H2, which reflects the selective nature of ILs for CO2 capture. In addition, the ILs appeared to have negligible vapor pressure up to 500 K, which presents an advantage over conventional physical solvents currently employed for CO2 capture from post water-gas-shift reactor streams. This study demonstrated the thermal stability of the ILs and highlighted their ability to selectively capture CO2 at temperatures up to 500 K and pressures as high as 30 bars.

Heintz, Y.J.; Sehabiague, L.; Morsi, B.I.; Jones, K.L.; Pennline, H.W.

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Inverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite observations of CO2 from TES and surface flask measurements  

SciTech Connect

We infer CO2 surface fluxes using satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and measurements of CO2 from surface flasks in a time-independent inversion analysis based on the GEOS-Chem model. Using TES CO2 observations over oceans, spanning 40 S 40 N, we find that the horizontal and vertical coverage of the TES and flask data are complementary. This complementarity is demonstrated by combining the datasets in a joint inversion, which provides better constraints than from either dataset alone, when a posteriori CO2 distributions are evaluated against independent ship and aircraft CO2 data. In particular, the joint inversion offers improved constraints in the tropics where surface measurements are sparse, such as the tropical forests of South America. Aggregating the annual surface-to-atmosphere fluxes from the joint inversion for the year 2006 yields 1.13 0.21 PgC for the global ocean, 2.77 0.20 PgC for the global land biosphere and 3.90 0.29 PgC for the total global natural flux (defined as the sum of all biospheric, oceanic, and biomass burning contributions but excluding CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion). These global ocean and global land fluxes are shown to be near the median of the broad range of values from other inversion results for 2006. To achieve these results, a bias in TES CO2 in the Southern Hemisphere was assessed and corrected using aircraft flask data, and we demonstrate that our results have low sensitivity to variations in the bias correction approach. Overall, this analysis suggests that future carbon data assimilation systems can benefit by integrating in situ and satellite observations of CO2 and that the vertical information provided by satellite observations of mid-tropospheric CO2 combined with measurements of surface CO2, provides an important additional constraint for flux inversions.

Nassar, Ray [University of Toronto; Jones, DBA [University of Toronto; Kulawik, SS [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Worden, JR [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Bowman, K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Suntharalingam, P [University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Chen, j. [University of Toronto; Brenninkmeijer, CAM [Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz; Schuck, TJ [Max Planck Institut fur Chemie, Mainz; Conway, T.J. [NOAA, Boulder, CO; Worthy, DE [Environment Canada

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Long-term tradeoffs between nuclear- and fossil-fuel burning  

SciTech Connect

A global energy/economics/environmental (E{sup 3}) model has been adapted with a nuclear energy/materials model to understand better {open_quotes}top-level{close_quotes}, long-term trade offs between civilian nuclear power, nuclear-weapons proliferation, fossil-fuel burning, and global economic welfare. Using a {open_quotes}business-as-usual{close_quotes} (BAU) point-of-departure case, economic, resource, proliferation-risk implications of plutonium recycle in LAIRs, greenhouse-gas-mitigating carbon taxes, and a range of nuclear energy costs (capital and fuel) considerations have been examined. After describing the essential elements of the analysis approach being developed to support the Los Alamos Nuclear Vision Project, preliminary examples of parametric variations about the BAU base-case scenario are presented. The results described herein represent a sampling from more extensive results collected in a separate report. The primary motivation here is: (a) to compare the BAU basecase with results from other studies; (b) to model on a regionally resolved global basis long-term (to year {approximately}2100) evolution of plutonium accumulation in a variety of forms under a limited range of fuel-cycle scenarios; and (c) to illustrate a preliminary connectivity between risks associated with nuclear proliferation and fossil-fuel burning (e.g., greenhouse-gas accumulations).

Krakowski, R.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

Sayer, J.H.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Key Technologies for the Development of Fossil Fuels in the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

As the world faces growing economic and environmental challenges, the energy mix that fuels the global economy is undergoing rapid change. Yet how this change will evolve in the future is uncertain. What will be the sources of primary energy in twenty years? In fifty years? In different regions of the globe? How will this energy be utilized? Fossil energy currently supplies about ninety percent of the world's primary energy. In Japan this number is closer to eighty percent. It is clear that fossil energy will be a major supplier of global energy for some time to come, but what is not clear is the types of fossil energy and how it will be utilized. The degree to which the abundant supplies of fossil energy, especially coal, will continue to play a major role will depend on whether technology will provide safe, clean and affordable fuel for electricity and transportation. Technology will not only assist in finding more fossil energy in varying regions of the globe but, most importantly, will play a strong role in efficient utilization and in determining the cost of delivering that energy. Several important questions will have to be answered: (1) Will cost effective technologies be found to burn coal more cleanly? Can this be done with drastically reduced or no emitted carbon? (2) Can enough oil be found outside the Middle East to ensure more adequate and secure supplies to fuel the transportation and industrial needs? (3) Will the transportation sector, so heavily dependent on oil, be fueled on another source? (4) Can enough natural gas be assured from enough secure places to ensure investment in the utilization of this lowest-carbon fossil fuel? (5) What will these options cost in research and in the price of energy? The answers to these and other questions challenge leaders and researchers in the fossil energy industry. A World Energy Council (WEC) study of those technologies that might be key sheds some light on what might happen in terms of a wide range of possible scenarios. Also on what might be necessary in expenditure, time, and policies to help bring these technologies to market. This study should be helpful to energy executives in planning for future technologies, either as new ventures or as competition for existing technologies. The emphasis in this ongoing study is on what is possible from today's vantage, not what will happen--actual developments are unpredictable and it is, of course, impossible to foresee the course of actual technology development or economic growth. Nevertheless, it is possible to look at what could happen in a number of scenarios using (1) knowledge about current technologies and (2) their projected development, investment costs, and likely time to commercialization based on historical energy technology development. A comprehensive set of possible technologies was available from the WEC in conjunction with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and studies as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Schock, R

2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

324

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of generating fuels displaced by the exported electricity.generating fuels through combustion at power plant Energy: electricityelectricity generation are estimated by multiplying uncontrolled emissions by an emission-reduction factor, for each generating technology and fuel.

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of generating fuels displaced by the exported electricity.generating fuels through combustion at power plant Energy: electricityelectricity generation are estimated by multiplying uncontrolled emissions by an emission-reduction factor, for each generating technology and fuel.

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Capturing and Sequestering CO2 from a Coal-Fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing and Sequestering CO Capturing and Sequestering CO 2 from a Coal-fired Power Plant - Assessing the Net Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Pamela L. Spath (pamela_spath @nrel.gov; (303) 275-4460) Margaret K. Mann (margaret_mann @nrel.gov; (303) 275-2921) National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, CO 80401 INTRODUCTION It is technically feasible to capture CO 2 from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant and various researchers are working to understand the fate of sequestered CO 2 and its long term environmental effects. Sequestering CO 2 significantly reduces the CO 2 emissions from the power plant itself, but this is not the total picture. CO 2 capture and sequestration consumes additional energy, thus lowering the plant's fuel to electricity efficiency. To compensate for this, more fossil fuel must be

327

Historic Patterns of CO{sub 2} Emissions from Fossil Fuels: Implications for Stabilization of Emissions  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R. J.; Marland, G.

1994-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

328

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Why we need the and in CO2 utilization and storage.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Secretary for Fossil Energy, Office of Sequestration,the energy-climate crisis continues as fossil-fuel useif our energy supply remains dominated by fossil fuels used

Oldenburg, C.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Geophysical consequences of carbon dioxide generation by fossil fuels. [Melting of polar icecaps  

SciTech Connect

The recent National Academy of Sciences Report ''Energy and Climate'' asserts that the greenhouse effect of CO/sub 2/ generated by the burning of fossil fuels would increase the temperature of the earth by 11/sup 0/F. It is argued and calculations have been carried out to show that the principal effect is the complete melting of the polar icecaps in a few centuries; the resulting inundation of the populated land areas and the coastal cities of the world is even more disastrous. The calculated increase of temperature is only 1.4/sup 0/C.

Fong, P.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments for the quarter ending March 1983 are presented under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: (1) abandoned oil field reports issued; (2) oilfield water data bank report published; (3) microbial enhanced recovery report issued; (4) polymer-augmented project could be economic today; (5) carbon dioxide EOR estimates given; (6) BETC passes 65th milestone; and (7) fifty achievements for fifty years (1918-1968). BETC publications are also listed. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Comparative analysis of monetary estimates of external environmental costs associated with combustion of fossil fuels  

SciTech Connect

Public utility commissions in a number of states have begun to explicitly treat costs of environmental externalities in the resource planning and acquisition process (Cohen et al. 1990). This paper compares ten different estimates and regulatory determinations of external environmental costs associated with fossil fuel combustion, using consistent assumptions about combustion efficiency, emissions factors, and resource costs. This consistent comparison is useful because it makes explicit the effects of various assumptions. This paper uses the results of the comparison to illustrate pitfalls in calculation of external environmental costs, and to derive lessons for design of policies to incorporate these externalities into resource planning. 38 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

Koomey, J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress accomplished during the quarter ending September 1981 is reported under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (reservoir characterization and evaluation, recovery projects, reservoir access, extraction technology, recovery processes and process implementation); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization (energy conversion - adaptive engineering, combustion systems assessment, and heat engines/heat recovery); and project integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: air drilling research; fluid injection in reservoirs; target reservoirs in Permian Basin suitable for CO/sub 2/ flooding; heavy oil technology; and the fate of used motor oil/results of a survey.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Synthetic fuels, carbon dioxide and climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observed increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has been attributed to the use of fossil fuels. There is concern that the generation and use of synthetic fuels derived from oil shale and coal will accelerate the increase of CO2.

Alex R. Sapre; John R. Hummel; Ruth A. Reck

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Distributed Optical Sensor for CO2 Leak Detection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Sensor for CO Optical Sensor for CO 2 Leak Detection Opportunity Research is active on the technology "Distributed Optical Sensor for CO 2 Leak Detection," for which a Patent Application has been filed. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Overview The availability of fossil fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, there are concerns over the impacts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere-particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon capture and storage in geologic formations is a promising technology to reduce the impact of CO

336

A plot study of the potential for Navy utilization of solid waste derived fuels to offset fossil fuels consumption. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A brief study was made to define problems that would be encountered in estimating potential Navy markets for various forms of waste derived fuels. Fossil fuel consumption estimates for boiler plants at several Navy activities were converted to waste derived fuel (WDF) estimates using a set of assumed rules judged technically feasible regarding boiler conversions and confirming fossil fuels and WDF. The results of this first study are presented indicating Navy boilers might represent a significant market for all the WDF a region could produce if the WDF were available in liquid as well as solid forms. The economic feasibility of conversions and WDF production are not addressed in this brief paper.

Capps, A.G.; Duffey-Armstrong, M.; Freeman, R.E.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Fossil Energy | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fossil Energy Fossil Energy Below are resources for Tribes on fossil energy. Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2011 This paper...

338

CO2 Emissions - Gibraltar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gibraltar CO2 Emissions from Gibraltar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Gibraltar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Gibraltar...

339

CO2 Emissions - Mozambique  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mozambique Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mozambique Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mozambique image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mozambique...

340

CO2 Emissions - Macau  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Macau CO2 Emissions from Macau Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Macau image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Macau...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CO2 Emissions - Guadeloupe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guadeloupe Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guadeloupe Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guadeloupe image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guadeloupe...

342

CO2 Emissions - Ghana  

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Africa Ghana Graphics CO2 Emissions from Ghana Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Ghana image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Ghana...

343

CO2 Emissions - Ireland  

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Ireland CO2 Emissions from Ireland Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Ireland image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Ireland...

344

CO2 Emissions - Malta  

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Western Europe Malta CO2 Emissions from Malta Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Malta image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Malta...

345

CO2 Emissions - Montserrat  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Montserrat Graphics CO2 Emissions from Montserrat Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Montserrat image Per capita CO2...

346

CO2 Emissions - Kyrgyzstan  

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Centrally Planned Europe Kyrgyzstan CO2 Emissions from Kyrgyzstan Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kyrgyzstan image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kyrgyzstan...

347

CO2 Emissions - Mali  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Mali Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mali Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mali image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mali...

348

CO2 Emissions - Martinique  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Martinique Graphics CO2 Emissions from Martinique Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Martinique image Per capita CO2...

349

CO2 Emissions - Portugal  

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Western Europe Portugal CO2 Emissions from Portugal Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Portugal image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Portugal...

350

CO2 Emissions - Honduras  

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Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Honduras Graphics CO2 Emissions from Honduras Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Honduras image Per capita CO2...

351

CO2 Emissions - Paraguay  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Paraguay Graphics CO2 Emissions from Paraguay Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Paraguay image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Paraguay...

352

CO2 Emissions - Macedonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Western Europe Macedonia CO2 Emissions from Macedonia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Macedonia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Macedonia...

353

CO2 Emissions - Malawi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Malawi Graphics CO2 Emissions from Malawi Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Malawi image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Malawi...

354

CO2 Emissions - Gabon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Gabon Graphics CO2 Emissions from Gabon Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Gabon image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Gabon...

355

CO2 Emissions - Grenada  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Grenada Graphics CO2 Emissions from Grenada Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Grenada image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Grenada...

356

CO2 Emissions - Kiribati  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania Kiribati Graphics CO2 Emissions from Kiribati Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kiribati image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kiribati...

357

CO2 Emissions - Israel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Israel Graphics CO2 Emissions from Israel Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Israel image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Israel...

358

CO2 Emissions - Phillippines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Phillippines CO2 Emissions from Phillippines Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Phillippines image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Phillippines...

359

CO2 Emissions - Niger  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Niger Graphics CO2 Emissions from Niger Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Niger image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Niger...

360

CO2 Emissions - Mauritius  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Mauritius Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mauritius Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mauritius image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mauritius...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

CO2 Emissions - Malaysia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Malaysia CO2 Emissions from Malaysia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Malaysia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Malaysia...

362

CO2 Emissions - Reunion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reunion Graphics CO2 Emissions from Reunion Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Reunion image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Reunion...

363

CO2 Emissions - Guatemala  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guatemala Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guatemala Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guatemala image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guatemala...

364

CO2 Emissions - Iceland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iceland CO2 Emissions from Iceland Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Iceland image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Iceland...

365

CO2 Emissions - Mongolia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Asia Mongolia CO2 Emissions from Mongolia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mongolia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mongolia...

366

CO2 Emissions - Romania  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Romania CO2 Emissions from Romania Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Romania image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Romania...

367

CO2 Emissions - Panama  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Panama Graphics CO2 Emissions from Panama Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Panama image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Panama...

368

CO2 Emissions - Madagascar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Madagascar Graphics CO2 Emissions from Madagascar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Madagascar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Madagascar...

369

CO2 Emissions - Netherlands  

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Netherlands CO2 Emissions from Netherlands Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Netherlands image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Netherlands...

370

CO2 Emissions - Greenland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Greenland Graphics CO2 Emissions from Greenland Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Greenland image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Greenland...

371

CO2 Emissions - Nicaragua  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Nicaragua Graphics CO2 Emissions from Nicaragua Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nicaragua image Per capita CO2...

372

CO2 Emissions - Norway  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Norway CO2 Emissions from Norway Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Norway image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Norway...

373

CO2 Emissions - Guyana  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guyana Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guyana Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guyana image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guyana...

374

CO2 Emissions - Mauritania  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Mauritania Graphics CO2 Emissions from Mauritania Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Mauritania image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Mauritania...

375

CO2 Emissions - Lithuania  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Lithuania CO2 Emissions from Lithuania Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Lithuania image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Lithuania...

376

CO2 Emissions - Kenya  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Kenya Graphics CO2 Emissions from Kenya Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kenya image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kenya...

377

CO2 Emissions - Latvia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Latvia CO2 Emissions from Latvia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Latvia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Latvia...

378

CO2 Emissions - Georgia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Georgia CO2 Emissions from Georgia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Georgia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Georgia...

379

CO2 Emissions - Gambia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gambia Graphics CO2 Emissions from Gambia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Gambia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Gambia...

380

CO2 Emissions - Montenegro  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Montenegro CO2 Emissions from Montenegro Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Montenegro image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Montenegro...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

CO2 Emissions - Oman  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Oman Graphics CO2 Emissions from Oman Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Oman image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Oman...

382

CO2 Emissions - Kuwait  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Kuwait Graphics CO2 Emissions from Kuwait Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Kuwait image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Kuwait...

383

CO2 Emissions - Lebanon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Lebanon Graphics CO2 Emissions from Lebanon Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Lebanon image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Lebanon...

384

CO2 Emissions - Nigeria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Nigeria Graphics CO2 Emissions from Nigeria Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nigeria image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Nigeria...

385

CO2 Emissions - Maldives  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Maldives CO2 Emissions from Maldives Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Maldives image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Maldives...

386

CO2 Emissions - Morocco  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Morocco Graphics CO2 Emissions from Morocco Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Morocco image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Morocco...

387

CO2 Emissions - Pakistan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Pakistan CO2 Emissions from Pakistan Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Pakistan image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Pakistan...

388

CO2 Emissions - Palau  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania Palau CO2 Emissions from Palau Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Palau image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Palau...

389

CO2 Emissions - Qatar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Qatar Graphics CO2 Emissions from Qatar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Qatar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Qatar...

390

CO2 Emissions - Guam  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oceania Guam Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guam Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guam image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guam...

391

CO2 Emissions - Rwanda  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Rwanda Graphics CO2 Emissions from Rwanda Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Rwanda image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Rwanda...

392

CO2 Emissions - Guinea  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Guinea Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guinea Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guinea image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guinea...

393

CO2 Emissions - Luxembourg  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Western Europe Luxembourg CO2 Emissions from Luxembourg Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Luxembourg image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Luxembourg...

394

CO2 Emissions - Liberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Liberia Graphics CO2 Emissions from Liberia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Liberia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Liberia...

395

CO2 Emissions - Haiti  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Haiti Graphics CO2 Emissions from Haiti Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Haiti image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Haiti...

396

CO2 Emissions - Iraq  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iraq Graphics CO2 Emissions from Iraq Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Iraq image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Iraq...

397

CO2 Emissions - Hungary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Centrally Planned Europe Hungary CO2 Emissions from Hungary Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Hungary image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Hungary...

398

CO2 Emissions - Nepal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Far East Nepal CO2 Emissions from Nepal Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nepal image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Nepal...

399

CO2 Emissions - Nauru  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nauru Graphics CO2 Emissions from Nauru Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Nauru image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Nauru...

400

CO2 Emissions - Myanmar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Myanmar CO2 Emissions from Myanmar Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Myanmar image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Myanmar...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

CO2 Emissions - Jordan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Middle East Jordan Graphics CO2 Emissions from Jordan Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Jordan image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Jordan...

402

CO2 Emissions - Greece  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Western Europe Greece CO2 Emissions from Greece Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Greece image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Greece...

403

Ways Electricity Can Be Used To Replace Fossil Fuels in The French Chemical Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

France energy policy for the year 1990 foresees the following breakdown between various energy sources : renewable sources (including hydraulic) : 11%, coal + natural gas : 30.5%, nuclear : 26.5%, oil : 32%. The electricity will be produced mainly by nuclear: 66 % and by hydraulic : 14%, coal : 15%, fuel oil : 5%. Electricity and coal will then be the two major energy sources at the disposal of the French Industry. The new tariff structure of electricity proposed by Electricite de France will be given briefly explaining why and how electricity used to replace fossil fuels are seriously considered by the French Chemical Industry and by Rhone-Poulenc. Examples of various new utilisations of electrical equipment in chemical processes (thermal, heat pumps, filtration, electrolysis . . .) will be given. Emphasis will be put on research and development for new equipment and on the importance of good information and relationship between utilities suppliers, manufacturers and industrial consumers.

Mongon, A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Optimal design and integration of solar systems and fossil fuels for process cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of the fluctuations in incident solar power, outlet power also changes over time (e.g., on an hourly basis or seasonally). If there is a need for a stable power outlet, there are options towards a steady state output of the system. This work is aimed at the development of systematic design procedures for two solar-based power generation strategies. The first is integration of fossil-fuel with the solar system to provide a compensation effect (power backup to supplement the power main source from solar energy). The second is the use of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to save solar energy in a thermal form and use it when solar input decreases. A common TES configuration is the two-tank system which allows the use of the collector heat transfer fluid (HTF) as a storing medium. For the two tanks, one tank has the hot medium (e.g., a molten salt) and the second has the cold storage media. Specifically, the following design challenges are addressed: 1. What is the optimal mix of energy forms to be supplied to the process? 2. What are the optimal scenario and integration mode to deliver the selected energy forms? How should they be integrated among themselves and with the process? 3. What is the optimal design of the energy systems? 4. What is the optimal dynamic strategy for operating the various energy systems? 5. What is the feasibility of using thermal energy storage to this optimum fossil fuel system? The developed procedure includes gathering and generation of relevant solar and climatic data, modeling of the various components of the solar, fossil, and power generation systems, and optimization of several aspects of the hybrid system. A case study is solved to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the devised procedure.

Tora, Eman Abdel-Hakim Aly Mohamed

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

POWER PLANT RELIABILITY-AVAILABILITY AND STATE REGULATION. VOLUME 7 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

which steam is raised. nuclear fuel generates heat that isattention to nuclear and fossil-fuel plants, and these areFor all the fossil-fuel and nuclear (However, categories,

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity (e.g. , fuel oil for home heating; gasoline forthan does oil used for home heating (different commodity,derived from crude oil, such as home heating fuel. a) to f)

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

commodity (e.g. , fuel oil for home heating; gasoline forthan does oil used for home heating (different commodity,derived from crude oil, such as home heating fuel. a) to f)

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of biomass (lignin) and biogas for process heat. Theylignin/BTU- fuel) and emission factors for biogas (g/BTU-gas) by biogas-use factors (BTU-gas/BTU-fuel). The emission

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants. Volume 6 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. [In California  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report reviews health effects and related standards for fossil-fuel and geothermal power plants, emphasizing impacts which may occur through emissions into the atmosphere, and treating other impacts briefly. Federal regulations as well as California state and local regulations are reviewed. Emissions are characterized by power plant type, including: coal-fired, oil-fired, gas-fired, combined cycle and advanced fossil-fuel plants; and liquid and vapor geothermal systems. Dispersion and transformation of emissions are treated. The state of knowledge of health effects, based on epidemiological, physiological, and biomedical studies, is reviewed.

Case, G.D.; Bertolli, T.A.; Bodington, J.C.; Choy, T.A.; Nero, A.V.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have beenEERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been jointly

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Linear regression analysis of emissions factors when firing fossil fuels and biofuels in a commercial water-tube boiler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares the emissions factors for a suite of liquid biofuels (three animal fats, waste restaurant grease, pressed soybean oil, and a biodiesel produced from soybean oil) and four fossil fuels (i.e., natural gas, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, and pulverized coal) in Penn State's commercial water-tube boiler to assess their viability as fuels for green heat applications. The data were broken into two subsets, i.e., fossil fuels and biofuels. The regression model for the liquid biofuels (as a subset) did not perform well for all of the gases. In addition, the coefficient in the models showed the EPA method underestimating CO and NOx emissions. No relation could be studied for SO{sub 2} for the liquid biofuels as they contain no sulfur; however, the model showed a good relationship between the two methods for SO{sub 2} in the fossil fuels. AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels were also compared to the mass balance emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Overall, the AP-42 emissions factors for the fossil fuels did not compare well with the mass balance emissions factors or the EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors. Regression analysis of the AP-42, EPA, and mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels showed a significant relationship only for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}. However, the regression models underestimate the SO{sub 2} emissions by 33%. These tests illustrate the importance in performing material balances around boilers to obtain the most accurate emissions levels, especially when dealing with biofuels. The EPA emissions factors were very good at predicting the mass balance emissions factors for the fossil fuels and to a lesser degree the biofuels. While the AP-42 emissions factors and EPA CFR Title 40 emissions factors are easier to perform, especially in large, full-scale systems, this study illustrated the shortcomings of estimation techniques. 23 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Sharon Falcone Miller; Bruce G. Miller [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

same end use) or natural gas used for power generation (samepower generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal Natural gas

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

same end use) or natural gas used for power generation (samepower generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal Natural gas

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

policy promoting private-sector production of diesel-like fuels from natural gaspolicies that change commodity prices directly (e.g. , a carbon tax on natural gas,

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

policy promoting private-sector production of diesel-like fuels from natural gaspolicies that change commodity prices directly (e.g. , a carbon tax on natural gas,

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quick, "Advances in Biomass Fuel Preparation, Combustion andarise from the combustion of biomass (lignin) for processarise from the combustion of biomass (lignin) and biogas for

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Overcoming phase instability of RBaCo2O5+ (R = Y and Ho) by Sr substitution for application as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phase instabilities of the RBaCo2O5+ (R = Y and Ho) layered-perovskites and their decompositions into RCoO3 and BaCoO3-z at 800 oC in air were investigated. This will restrict their high temperature applications such as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). However, appropriate amount of Sr substitution ( 60 % for R = Y and 70 % for R = Ho) for Ba successfully stabilized the R(Ba1-xSrx)Co2O5+ phase at elevated temperatures. This can be explained by decreasing oxygen vacancies at R-O layer, decreasing R-O bonding length, and consequent improvement of structural integrity. In addition, the Sr substitution (x = 0.6 - 1.0) for Ba provided added benefit with respect to the chemical stability against Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte, which is a critical requirement for the cathodes in SOFC. Among the various compositions investigated, the Y(Ba0.3Sr0.7)Co2O5+ + GDC composite cathode delivered the optimum electrochemical performances with a stable phase demonstrating the potential as a cathode in SOFC.

Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas at Austin; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas at Austin; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Small Scale SOFC Demonstration Using Bio-Based and Fossil Fuels  

SciTech Connect

Technology Management, Inc. (TMI) of Cleveland, Ohio, has completed the project entitled ??Small Scale SOFC Demonstration using Bio-based and Fossil Fuels.? Under this program, two 1-kW systems were engineered as technology demonstrators of an advanced technology that can operate on either traditional hydrocarbon fuels or renewable biofuels. The systems were demonstrated at Patterson's Fruit Farm of Chesterland, OH and were open to the public during the first quarter of 2012. As a result of the demonstration, TMI received quantitative feedback on operation of the systems as well as qualitative assessments from customers. Based on the test results, TMI believes that > 30% net electrical efficiency at 1 kW on both traditional and renewable fuels with a reasonable entry price is obtainable. The demonstration and analysis provide the confidence that a 1 kW entry-level system offers a viable value proposition, but additional modifications are warranted to reduce sound and increase reliability before full commercial acceptance.

Michael Petrik; Robert Ruhl

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported for the second year of this project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in-situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project objectives for Year 2 were pursued through five tasks: literature reviews on process water constituents, possible environmental impacts and potential control technologies; toxicity bioassays on the effects of coal gasification and oil shale retorting process waters and six process water constituents on aquatic biota; biodegradation studies on process water constituents; bioaccumulation factor estimation for the compounds tested in the toxicity bioassays; and recommendations on maximum exposure concentrations for process water constituents based on data from the project and from the literature. Results in each of the five areas of research are reported.

Bergman, H.L.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Performance of Light-Duty CNG and Dual-Fuel Vehicles, EPA/and Driving Cycle Effects on CNG Emissions," Society offrom tests of nine 1992 CNG vans from three manufacturers.

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and R. Regdon, Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle PerformanceTwo Vehicles to Compressed Natural Gas Fuel, EnvironmentalNOx H2O CFCs CNG = compressed natural gas; LNG = liquefied

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit shift in the natural-gas demand curve (as an example)of natural gas); b) estimate the supply and demand curveslike fuels from natural gas will shift the demand curve for

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unit shift in the natural-gas demand curve (as an example)of natural gas); b) estimate the supply and demand curveslike fuels from natural gas will shift the demand curve for

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

INCORPORATING THE EFFECT OF PRICE CHANGES ON CO2- EQUIVALENT EMSSIONS FROM ALTERNATIVE-FUEL LIFECYCLES: SCOPING THE ISSUES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to changes in the price of coal brought about by the usegas, coal, electricity), one estimates the price effect ofPrice-affected commodity Energy: power generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

due to changes in the price of coal brought about by the usegas, coal, electricity), one estimates the price effect ofPrice-affected commodity Energy: power generation use COMMODITIES TO Input commodity Residual fuel Coal

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Strategic backdrop analysis for fossil fuel planning. Task 1. Default Case. Report 468-117-07/03  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents data describing a default case analysis performed using the strategic backdrop analytical framework developed to facilitate fossil fuel planning within the DOE. Target years are 1985, 2000, and 2025. Residential, commercial, and industrial energy demands and impacts of energy technology implementation and market penetration are forecast using a set of energy technology assumptions.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Emission Factors Handbook Addendum 2: Guidelines for Estimating Trace Substance Emissions from Fossil Fuel Steam Electric Power Plan ts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This handbook provides a tool for estimating trace substances emissions from fossil-fuel-fired power plants. The suggested emission factors are based on EPRI and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) field measurements conducted at 51 power plants using generally consistent sampling and analytical protocols. This information will help utility personnel estimate air toxic emissions for permitting purposes.

2000-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

428

Assessing the health risks of natural CO2 seeps in Italy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrialized societies which continue to use fossil fuel energy sources are considering adoption of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology to meet carbon emission reduction targets. Deep geological storage of CO2 onshore faces opposition regarding potential health effects of CO2 leakage from storage sites. There is no experience of commercial scale CCS with which to verify predicted risks of engineered storage failure. Studying risk from natural CO2 seeps can guide assessment of potential health risks from leaking onshore CO2 stores. Italy and Sicily are regions of intense natural CO2 degassing from surface seeps. These seeps exhibit a variety of expressions, characteristics (e.g., temperature/ flux), and location environments. Here we quantify historical fatalities from CO2 poisoning using a database of 286 natural CO2 seeps in Italy and Sicily. We find that risk of human death is strongly influenced by seep surface expression, local conditions (e.g., topography and wind speed), CO2 flux, and human behavior. Risk of accidental human death from these CO2 seeps is calculated to be 10-8 year-1 to the exposed population. This value is significantly lower than that of many socially accepted risks. Seepage from future storage sites is modeled to be less than Italian natural flux rates. With appropriate hazard management, health risks from unplanned seepage at onshore storage sites can be adequately minimized.

Roberts, J.J.; Wood, R.A.; Haszeldine, R.S. [Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage, School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW, Scotland (United Kingdom)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

429

Separation and Capture of CO2 from Large Stationary Sources and Sequestration in Geological Formations: A Summary of the 2003 Critical Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, and the resulting global warming effect, is a major air quality concern. CO2 is the most abundant greenhouse gas emitted by fossil-fuel combustion for power generation, transportation, and heating. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 will require many mitigation measures, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, renewable energy sources, and carbon sequestration. The feasibility of capturing CO2 from large point sources and subsequent geological sequestration is the subject of this years Critical Review.

White, C.M.; Strazisar, B.R.; Granite, E.J.; Hoffman, J.S.; Pennline, H.W.

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Materials for CO2 Capture and Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scope, Our present dependence on fossil fuels means that, as our demand for energy inevitably increases, so do emissions of greenhouse gases, notably...

431

CO2 Use and Other Metal Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 3, 2011 ... Due to concerns of global climate change and depleting fossil fuel ... has drastically reduced its energy consumption in the last fifty years, and...

432

CO2 Emissions - Peru  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Peru Graphics CO2 Emissions from Peru Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Peru image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates...

433

CO2 Emissions - Bolivia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Bolivia Graphics CO2 Emissions from Bolivia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Bolivia image Per capita CO2 Emission...

434

CO2 Emissions - Jamaica  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central America, South America, and the Caribbean Nations Jamaica Graphics CO2 Emissions from Jamaica Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Jamaica image Per capita CO2 Emission...

435

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices, (3) externally generated oil price forecasts, and (4) the historical difficulty in accurately forecasting oil prices. Overall, a spread between the FE-EERE High Oil Price and Reference scenarios of well over $8/bbl is supported by the literature. We conclude that a wide range of carbon regulation scenarios are possible, especially within the time frame considered by EERE and FE (through 2050). The Working Group's Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario is found to be less aggressive than many Kyoto-style targets that have been analyzed, and similar in magnitude to the proposed Climate Stewardship Act. The proposed scenario is more aggressive than some other scenarios found in the literature, however, and ignores carbon banking and offsets and does not allow nuclear power to expand. We are therefore somewhat concerned that the stringency of the proposed carbon regulation scenario in the 2010 to 2025 period will lead to a particularly high estimated cost of carbon reduction. As described in more detail later, we encourage some flexibility in the Working Group's ultimate implementation of the Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. We conclude by identifying additional scenarios that might be considered in future analyses, describing a concern with the proposed specification of the High Fuel Price Scenario, and highlighting the possible difficulty of implementing extreme scenarios with current energy modeling tools.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

METHODOLOGIES FOR REVIEW OF THE HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF PROPOSED NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL SITES AND FACILITIES. VOLUME 9 OF THE FINAL REPORT ON HEALTH AND SAFETY IMPACTS OF NUCLEAR, GEOTHERMAL, AND FOSSIL-FUEL ELECTRIC GENERATION IN CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fossil-Fuel-Fired Steam Generators," U.S. Environmentalbasin Boiler or PWR Steam Generator Blowdown Transmissionreactor coolant pumps, steam generators, piping, main stream

Nero, A.V.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Essays on Efficiency of the Farm Credit System and Dynamic Correlations in Fossil Fuel Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Markets have always changed in response to either exogenous or endogenous shocks. Many large events have occurred in financial and energy markets the last ten years. This dissertation examines market behavior and volatility in agricultural credit and fossil fuel markets under exogenous and endogenous changes in the last ten years. The efficiency of elements within the United States Farm Credit System, a major agricultural lender in the United States, and the dynamic correlation between coal, oil and natural gas prices, the three major fossil fuels, are examined. The Farm Credit system is a key lender in the U.S. agricultural sector, and its performance can influence the performance of the agricultural sector. However, its efficiency in providing credit to the agricultural sector has not been recently examined. The first essay of the dissertation provides assessments on the performance of elements within the Farm Credit System by measuring their relative efficiency using a stochastic frontier model. The second essay addresses the changes in relationship in coal, oil, and natural gas markets with respect to changes and turbulence in the last decade, which has also not been fully addressed in literature. The updated assessment on the relative performance of entities within the Farm Credit System provides information that the Farm Credit Administration and U.S. policy makers can use in their management of and policy toward the Farm Credit System. The measurement of the changes in fossil fuel markets relationships provides implications for energy investment, energy portfolio anagement, energy risk management, and energy security. It can also be used as a foundation for structuring forecasting models and other models related to energy markets. The dynamic correlations between coal, oil, and natural gas prices are examined using a dynamic conditional correlation multivariate autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH DCC) model. The estimated results show that the FCSs five banks and associations with large assets have more efficiently produced credit to the U.S. agricultural sector than smaller sized associations. Management compensation is found to be positively associated with the systems efficiency. More capital investment and monitoring along with possible consolidation are implied for smaller sized associations to enhance efficiency. On average, the results show that the efficiency of the associations is increasing over time while the average efficiency of the five large banks is more stable. Overall, the associations exhibit a higher variation of efficiency than the five banks. In terms of energy markets the estimates from the MGARCH DCC model indicate significant and changing dynamic correlations and related volatility between the coal, oil, and natural gas prices. The coal price was found to experience more volatility and become more closely related to oil and natural gas prices in recent periods. The natural gas price was found to become more stable and drift away from its historical relationship with oil.

Dang, Trang Phuong Th 1977-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

The Effects of CO2 Disposal on Marine Nitrification Processes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effects of CO Effects of CO 2 Disposal on Marine Nitrification Processes Michael H. Huesemann (michael.huesemann@pnl.gov, 360-681-3618) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Marine Sciences Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 Ann D. Skillman (ann.skillman@pnl.gov, 360-681-3649) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Marine Sciences Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 Eric A. Crecelius (eric.crecelius@pnl.gov, 360-681-3604) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - Marine Sciences Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 Abstract In an attempt to reduce the threat of global warming, it has been proposed that the rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations be reduced by the ocean disposal of CO 2 from the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power plants. The release of large amounts of

439

Documentarary Series from the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership and Prairie Public Broadcasting  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

\tManaging Carbon Emissions: The Geologic Solution: Natural CO2 tapped from underground geologic formations has been used for more than 30 years to help recover more oil from reservoirs in West Texas. Anthropogenic or human-derived CO2 from a coal gasification plant has been doing the same in southern Saskatchewan. Using this same technique called CO2 enhanced oil recovery, scientists and engineers are developing safe, practical ways of permanently storing CO2 from fossil fuel-fired power plants in natural sealed containers deep underground. This practice is called geologic sequestration. It is the storage component of carbon capture and storage (CCS). The concepts of CCS and geologic sequestration will be explained to show how these strategies can help manage carbon in our world.

440

Electrolysis byproduct D2O provides a third way to mitigate CO2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid atomic power deployment may be possible without using fast breeder reactors or making undue demands on uranium resource. Using by-product D2O and thorium-U233 in CANDU and RBMK piles may circumvent need for either fast breeder reactors or seawater uranium. Atmospheric CO2 is presently increasing 2.25%/year in proportion to 2.25%/year exponential fossil fuel consumption increase. Roughly 1/3 anthropologic CO2 is removed by various CO2 sinks. CO2 removal is modelled as being proportional to 45-year-earlier CO2 amount above 280 ppm-C Water electrolysis produces roughly 0.1 kg-D20/kWe-y. Material balance assumes each electrolysis stage increases D2O bottoms concentration times 3. Except for first two electrolysis stages, all water from hydrogen consumption is returned to electrolysis. The unique characteristic of this process is the ability to economically burn all deuterium-enriched H2 in vehicles. Condensate from vehicles returns to appropriate electrolysis stage. Fuel cell condensate originally from reformed natural gas may augment second-sage feed. Atomic power expansion is 5%/year, giving 55000 GWe by 2100. World primary energy increases 2.25%/y, exceeding 4000 EJ/y by 2100. CO2 maximum is roughly 600 ppm-C around year 2085. CO2 declines back below 300 ppm-C by 2145 if the 45-year-delay seawater sink remains effective.

Schenewerk, William Ernest [self, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Program on Technology Innovation: Evaluation of Amine-Based, Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In response to concerns over global warming, technologies need to be developed that capture and store the CO2 released by fossil- fueled power plants. A study carried out in 2000 by Parsons and co-funded by the US-DOE and EPRI investigated the thermal and economic performance of supercritical pulverized coal (PC) combustion, E-Gas integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and natural gas combined cycle power plants with and without CO2 removal. The general conclusion was that for power plants with C...

2005-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

442

The coprocessing of fossil fuels and biomass for CO{sub 2} emission reduction in the transportation sector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is underway to evaluate the Hydrocarb process for conversion of carbonaceous raw material to clean carbon and methanol products. These products are valuable in the market either as fuel or as chemical commodities. As fuel, methanol and carbon can be used economically, either independently or in slurry form, in efficient heat energies (turbines and internal combustion engines) for both mobile and stationary single and combined cycle power plants. When considering CO{sub 2} emission control in the utilization of fossil fuels, the copressing of those fossil fuels with biomass (which may include, wood, municipal solid waste and sewage sludge) is a viable mitigation approach. By coprocessing both types of feedstock to produce methanol and carbon while sequestering all or part of the carbon, a significant net CO{sub 2} reduction is achieved if the methanol is substituted for petroleum fuels in the transportation sector. The Hydrocarb process has the potential, if the R&D objectives are achieved, to produce alternative transportation fuel from indigenous resources at lower cost than any other biomass conversion process. These comparisons suggest the resulting fuel can significantly displace gasoline at a competitive price while mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions and reducing ozone and other toxics in urban atmospheres.

Steinberg, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dong, Yuanji [Hydrocarb Corp., New York, NY (United States); Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

444

Nuclear Energy R&D Imperative 3: Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuel in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As described in the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energys Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, nuclear energy can play a significant role in supplying energy for a growing economy while reducing both our dependence on foreign energy supplies and emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. The industrial and transportation sectors are responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S., and imported oil supplies 70% of the energy used in the transportation sector. It is therefore important to examine the various ways nuclear energy can facilitate a transition away from fossil fuels to secure environmentally sustainable production and use of energy in the transportation and manufacturing industry sectors. Imperative 3 of the Nuclear Energy R&D Roadmap, entitled Enable a Transition Away from Fossil Fuels by Producing Process Heat for use in the Transportation and Industrial Sectors, addresses this need. This document presents an Implementation Plan for R&D efforts related to this imperative. The expanded use of nuclear energy beyond the electrical grid will contribute significantly to overcoming the three inter-linked energy challenges facing U.S. industry: the rising and volatile prices for premium fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas, dependence on foreign sources for these fuels, and the risks of climate change resulting from carbon emissions. Nuclear energy could be used in the industrial and transportation sectors to: Generate high temperature process heat and electricity to serve industrial needs including the production of chemical feedstocks for use in manufacturing premium fuels and fertilizer products, Produce hydrogen for industrial processes and transportation fuels, and Provide clean water for human consumption by desalination and promote wastewater treatment using low-grade nuclear heat as a useful additional benefit. Opening new avenues for nuclear energy will significantly enhance our nations energy security through more effective utilization of our countrys resources while simultaneously providing economic stability and growth (through predictable energy prices and high value jobs), in an environmentally sustainable and secure manner (through lower land and water use, and decreased byproduct emissions). The reduction in imported oil will also increase the retention of wealth within the U.S. economy while still supporting economic growth. Nuclear energy is the only non-fossil fuel that has been demonstrated to reliably supply energy for a growing industrial economy.

David Petti; J. Stephen Herring

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

LDRD final report on "fundamentals of synthetic conversion of CO2 to simple hydrocarbon fuels" (LDRD 113486).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Energy production is inextricably linked to national security and poses the danger of altering the environment in potentially catastrophic ways. There is no greater problem than sustainable energy production. Our purpose was to attack this problem by examining processes, technology, and science needed for recycling CO{sub 2} back into transportation fuels. This approach can be thought of as 'bio-inspired' as nature employs the same basic inputs, CO{sub 2}/energy/water, to produce biomass. We addressed two key deficiencies apparent in current efforts. First, a detailed process analysis comparing the potential for chemical and conventional engineering methods to provide a route for the conversion of CO{sub 2} and water to fuel has been completed. No apparent 'showstoppers' are apparent in the synthetic route. Opportunities to improve current processes have also been identified and examined. Second, we have also specifically addressed the fundamental science of the direct production of methanol from CO{sub 2} using H{sub 2} as a reductant.

Maravelias, Christos T. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kemp, Richard Alan; Mavrikakis, Manos (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Miller, James Edward; Stewart, Constantine A.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains fly ash and other particulates. The fly ash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The fly ash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured fly ash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled. 11 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Lippert, T.E.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

447

Separation of particulate from flue gas of fossil fuel combustion and gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gas from combustion or gasification of fossil fuel contains flyash and other particulate. The flyash is separated from the gas in a plurality of standleg moving granular-bed filter modules. Each module includes a dipleg through which the bed media flows into the standleg. The bed media forms a first filter bed having an upper mass having a first frusto-conical surface in a frusto-conical member at the entrance to the standleg and a lower mass having a second frusto-conical surface of substantially greater area than the first surface after it passes through the standleg. A second filter media bed may be formed above the first filter media bed. The gas is fed tangentially into the module above the first surface. The flyash is captured on the first frusto-conical surface and within the bed mass. The processed gas flows out through the second frusto-conical surface and then through the second filter bed, if present. The bed media is cleaned of the captured flyash and recirculated to the moving granular bed filter. Alternatively, the bed media may be composed of the ash from the combustion which is pelletized to form agglomerates. The ash flows through the bed only once; it is not recycled.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Murrysville, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Lippert, Thomas E. (Murrysville, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following major areas of investigation: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum and synthetic crude, thermodynamics; process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Highlights for this period in research studies are listed as those in extraction research and processing and thermodynamics research. Searches for microorganisms that will be useful in enhanced oil recovery have produced two promising leads. At Oklahoma State University, bacteria of the genus Clostridia have been found which can live in a brine solution as found in most petroleum reservoirs. These bacteria produce carbon dioxide, acetic acid, alcohols, and ketones as metabolic products. At the University of Georgia, a culture of bacteria has been found which will reduce the viscosity of a 10/sup 0/ API gravity oil by 95 percent. The analysis of heavy oils requires differentiation of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen-containing compounds from hydrocarbons. The most effective way to do this is with a high-resolution mass spectrometer that can distinguish between compounds having molecular weights only a fractional unit apart. These molecular weights are calculated from the computer acquired time-moments of the various ions in a mass spectrum. Thus, the accuracy of results reflects, in part, the numerical methods used in data processing. Consequently, the effect of the mathematical functions on the accuracy of mass measurement is being determined.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Challenges and opportunities in accounting for non-energy use CO2 emissions: an editorial comment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M (2009) Non-energy use of fossil fuels and resulting carbonThe combustion of fossil fuels for energy purposes is by farGHG) emissions. However, fossil fuels also contribute to GHG

Masanet, Eric; Sathaye, Jayant

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar capacity. Non-fossil fuels (renewable plus hydro andthe CIS scenario fossil fuels have the highest capacityof total generation and non-fossil fuels account for 31%, as

G. Fridley, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

A Framework for Environmental Assessment of CO2 Capture and Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbonS. Life cycle modelling of fossil fuel power generation withto enjoy the benefits of fossil fuel energy sources while

Sathre, Roger

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

EPRI Ergonomics Handbook for the Electric Power Industry: Ergonomic Design Handbook for Fossil-Fueled Electric Generating Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Research Program has provided ergonomic information to the electric energy industry workforce since 1999. This is the fifth EPRI ergonomics handbook; it provides a framework and specific guidelines for decisionmaking that will apply ergonomic principles to the design of electric generating stations. Fossil-fueled power plant operation and maintenance is physically strenuous, and it may contribute to development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as carp...

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

453

Emissions of CO/sub 2/ to the atmosphere due to U. S. A. fossil fuel consumption  

SciTech Connect

Analysis and projection of carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere are estimated based on the Brookhaven reference energy system. Some new results are given on carbon dioxide contribution to the atmosphere from US fossil fuel consumption by different sectors including residential, commercial, industrial and transportation. The total weight of carbon as carbon dioxide emitted to the atmosphere and the additional CO/sub 2/ concentration over background by different subsectors in the years 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990, 2000 and 2020 are presented.

Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Definition: Algae fuel | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

fuel fuel Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Algae fuel A specific type of biofuel, made by chemically processing oils from algae.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Algae fuel or Algal biofuel is an alternative to fossil fuel that uses algae as its source of natural deposits. Several companies and government agencies are funding efforts to reduce capital and operating costs and make algae fuel production commercially viable. Harvested algae, like fossil fuel, releases CO2 when burnt but unlike fossil fuel the CO2 is taken out of the atmosphere by the growing of algae and other biofuel sources. The energy crisis and the world food crisis have ignited interest in algaculture (farming algae) for making vegetable oil, biodiesel, bioethanol, biogasoline, biomethanol, biobutanol and other biofuels, using

455

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: A procedure for estimation and results for 1950-1982. Tellus 36B  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work briefly discusses four of the current research emphases at Oak Ridge National Laboratory regarding the emission of carbon dioxide (C02) from fossil fuel consumption, natural gas flaring and cement manufacture. These emphases include: 1) updating the 1950 to present time series of C02 emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 2) extending this time series back to 1751, 3) gridding the data at 1 ' by 1 ' resolution, and 4) estimating the isotopic signature of these emissions. In 1991, global emissions of C02 from fossil fuel and cement increased 1.5 % over 1990 levels to 6188 x lo6 metric tonnes C. The Kuwaiti oil fires can account for all of the increase. Recently published energy data (Etemad et al., 1991) allow extension of the CO emissions time series back to 1751. Preliminary examination shows good agreement wit % two other, but shorter, energy time series. A latitudinal distriiution of carbon emissions is being completed. A southward shift in the major mass of C02 emissions is occurring from European-North American latitudes towards central-southeast Asian latitudes, reflecting the growth of population

Robert J. Andres; Gregg Marl; Tom Boden; Steve Bischof

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

CO2 Emissions Determined by HadGEM2-ES to be Compatible with the Representative Concentration Pathway Scenarios and Their Extensions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the fossil fuelderived CO2 emissions simulated by the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, Earth System (HadGEM2-ES) to be compatible with four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) from 2006 to 2100. ...

Spencer Liddicoat; Chris Jones; Eddy Robertson

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Peak CO2? China's Emissions Trajectories to 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development Plan for Renewable Energy in China. Availablerenewable and non-fossil fuel generation prior to References China

Zhou, Nan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the more-polluting fossil fuels being consumed abroaddomestic fuel consumers and fossil fuel suppliers. Numericalequivalent quantity of fossil fuel but may replace more or

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Gateway Pages to Carbon Dioxide Data Modern records and ice core records back 2000 years 800,000 year records from ice cores Other...

460

EPRI Ergonomics Handbook for the Electric Power Industry: Ergonomic Interventions for Plant Operators and Mechanics in Fossil-Fueled Generating Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The EPRI Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Committee Research Program has provided ergonomic information to the electric energy industry workforce since 1999. This is the sixth EPRI ergonomics handbook; it specifically focuses on tasks performed by plant operators and mechanics working in fossil-fueled generating stations and also addresses some tasks performed by steam services technicians. Fossil-fueled generating station operational and mechanical work is physically strenuous and can expose workers...

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "fossil fuel co2" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Table 11.6 Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment, 1985-2010 (Megawatts)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," Installed Nameplate Capacity of Fossil-Fuel Steam-Electric Generators With Environmental Equipment," " 1985-2010 (Megawatts)" "Year","Coal",,,,"Petroleum and Natural Gas",,,,"Total 1" ,,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2",,,"Flue Gas","Total 2" ,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization",,"Particulate","Cooling","Desulfurization" ,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)",,"Collectors","Towers","(Scrubbers)"

462

FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of coal--the most abundant fossil fuel in the United States with supplies projected to last 250 years. FutureGen's co-production of power and hydrogen will also serve as a stepping-stone to an environmentally sustainable energy future.

Zitney, S.E.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

A global coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model and 1 1 km CO2 surface flux dataset for high-resolution atmospheric CO2 transport simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract. We designed a method to simulate atmospheric CO2 concentrations at several continuous observation sites around the globe using surface fluxes at a very high spatial resolution. The simulations presented in this study were performed using the Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric model (GELCA), comprising a Lagrangian particle dispersion model coupled to a global atmospheric tracer transport model with prescribed global surface CO2 flux maps at a 1 1 km resolution. The surface fluxes used in the simulations were prepared by assembling the individual components of terrestrial, oceanic and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes. This experimental setup (i.e. a transport model running at a medium resolution, coupled to a high-resolution Lagrangian particle dispersion model together with global surface fluxes at a very high resolution), which was designed to represent high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO2 concentration, has not been reported at a global scale previously. Two sensitivity experiments were performed: (a) using the global transport model without coupling to the Lagrangian dispersion model, and (b) using the coupled model with a reduced resolution of surface fluxes, in order to evaluate the performance of Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and the role of high-resolution fluxes in simulating high-frequency variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A correlation analysis between observed and simulated atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected locations revealed that the inclusion of both Eulerian-Lagrangian coupling and highresolution fluxes improves the high-frequency simulations of the model. The results highlight the potential of a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian model in simulating high-frequency atmospheric CO2 concentrations at many locations worldwide. The model performs well in representing observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at high spatial and temporal resolutions, especially for coastal sites and sites located close to sources of large anthropogenic emissions. While this study focused on simulations of CO2 concentrations, the model could be used for other atmospheric compounds with known estimated emissions.

Ganshin, A [Central Aerological Observatory; Oda, T [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Saito, M [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Maksyutov, S [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Valsala, V [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Andres, Robert Joseph [ORNL; Fischer, R [University of London; Lowry, D [University of London; Lukyanov, A [Central Aerological Observatory; Matsueda, H [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Nisbet, E [University of London; Rigby, M [University of Bristol, UK; Sawa, Y [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Toumi, R [Imperial College, London; Tsuboi, K [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Varlagin, A [A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russia; Zhuravlev, R [Central Aerological Observatory

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Table 3.8 Value of Fossil Fuel Exports, 1949-2011 (Billion Dollars)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Crude Oil and Petroleum Products: - 1949-1988-Bureau of the Census, U.S. Exports, FT410. - 1989 forward-Bureau of the Census, Foreign ...

465

Fossil Energy - Idaho National Laboratory - Technology Transfer ...  

Idaho National Laboratory Technologies Available for Licensing ... Fossil Energy Catalysts for Alcohol Production from CO2 and CO. Related Patents: 7,879,749 ...

466

Supplementary Material for the ACP manuscript "CO2 and its1 correlation with CO at a rural site near Beijing: implications for2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://cdiac.ornl.gov/pns/faq.html]10 Per capita fossil fuel consumption in China = 1.1 MgC yr-1 , or 0.25 kmol CO211 d-1 [Marland et al Ridge Natl. Lab., U.S. Dep. of6 Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., 2007.7 Zhang, Q., Streets, D. G., Carmichael respiration on dCO2/dCO8 Human respiration per day = 1 kg CO2 d-1 , or 0.023 kmol CO2 d-1 9 [http

Meskhidze, Nicholas

467

An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reaction of energy markets to higher fuel prices. Combinedreaction of energy markets to higher fuel prices. Other Highin spot market prices (note California Energy Commission.

Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Geologic CO2 Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Geologic CO2 Sequestration Geologic CO2 Sequestration Geologic reservoirs offer promising option for long- term storage of captured CO 2 Accumulations of gases (including CO 2 ) in geologic reservoirs, by natural processes or through enhanced oil recovery operations, demonstrate that gas can be stored for long periods of time and provide insights to the efficacy and impacts of geological gas storage. Los Alamos scientists in the Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) Division have been involved in geologic CO 2 storage research for over a decade. Research Highlights * Led first-ever US field test on CO 2 sequestration in depleted oil reservoirs * Participant in two Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (Southwest Regional and Big Sky) * Part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) for CO

469

NETL: CO2 Compression  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO2 Compression CO2 Compression The CO2 captured from a power plant will need to be compressed from near atmospheric pressure to a pressure between 1,500 and 2,200 psi in order to be transported via pipeline and then injected into an underground sequestration site. Read More! CO2 Compression The compression of CO2 represents a potentially large auxiliary power load on the overall power plant system. For example, in an August 2007 study conducted for DOE/NETL, CO2 compression was accomplished using a six-stage centrifugal compressor with interstage cooling that required an auxiliary load of approximately 7.5 percent of the gross power output of a subcritical pressure, coal-fired power plant. As a result, DOE/NETL is sponsoring R&D to develop novel methods that can significantly decrease the

470

CO2 Emissions - Guinea Bissau  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Guinea Bissau Graphics CO2 Emissions from Guinea Bissau Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from Guinea Bissau image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for Guinea Bissau...

471

CO2 Emissions - New Caledonia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Caledonia Graphics CO2 Emissions from New Caledonia Data graphic Data CO2 Emissions from New Caledonia image Per capita CO2 Emission Estimates for New Caledonia...

472

A Novel CO2 Separation System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel CO Novel CO 2 Separation System Robert J. Copeland (copeland@tda.com 303-940-2323) Gokhan Alptekin (galtpekin@tda.com 303 940-2349) Mike Cesario (czar@tda.com 303-940-2336) Yevgenia Gershanovich (ygershan@tda.com 303-940-2346) TDA Research, Inc. 12345 West 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, Colorado 80033-1917 Project Summary NEED Concern over global climate change has led to a need to reduce CO 2 emissions from power plants. Unfortunately, current CO 2 capture processes reduce the efficiency with which fuel can be converted to electricity by 9-37%, and CO 2 capture costs can exceed $70 per