National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for forms clouds precipitates

  1. Precipitating clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A suggestion for a new focus on cloud microphysical process study in the ARM program 1. Retrieving precipitating mixed- phase cloud properties Zhien Wang University of Wyoming zwang@uwyo.edu Retrieving Precipitating Mixed-phase Cloud Properties Global distribution of supercooled water topped stratiform clouds (top > 1 km and length> 14km) Most of them are mixed-phase with precipitation or virga An multiple sensor based approach to provide water phase as well as ice phase properties

  2. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

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    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  3. Clouds, Aerosols and Precipitation in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Graciosa Island, Azores, NE Atlantic Ocean Graciosa Island, Azores, NE Atlantic Ocean May 2009-December 2010 May 2009-December 2010 Rob Wood, University of Washington Rob Wood, University of Washington AMF Deployment Team Thanks to Mark Miller: AMF Site Scientist Mark Miller: AMF Site Scientist Kim Nitschke: AMF Site Manager CAP-MBL Proposal Team Importance of Low-Clouds for Climate Imperative that we understand the processes controlling the formation,

  4. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, L. R.; Prather, K.; Ralph, R.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, R.; DeMott, P.; Fairall, C.; Fan, J.; Hagos, S.; Hughes, M.; Long, C.; Rutledge, S.; Waliser, D.; Wang, H.

    2014-09-01

    The western U.S. receives precipitation predominantly during the cold season when storms approach from the Pacific Ocean. The snowpack that accumulates during winter storms provides about 70-90% of water supply for the region. Understanding and modeling the fundamental processes that govern the large precipitation variability and extremes in the western U.S. is a critical test for the ability of climate models to predict the regional water cycle, including floods and droughts. Two elements of significant importance in predicting precipitation variability in the western U.S. are atmospheric rivers and aerosols. Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow bands of enhanced water vapor associated with the warm sector of extratropical cyclones over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic enhancement during landfall on the U.S. West Coast. While ARs are responsible for a large fraction of heavy precipitation in that region during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in post-frontal clouds, which are typically quite shallow, with tops just high enough to pass the mountain barrier. Such clouds are inherently quite susceptible to aerosol effects on both warm rain and ice precipitation-forming processes.

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ACAPEX Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerosols and Ocean Science Expedition (AEROSE) 2015.01.14, Morris, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Ship-Based Ice Nuclei Collections 2015.01.14, DeMott, AMF ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14, Leung, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or

  6. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. ...

  7. Separating Cloud and Drizzle Radar Moments during Precipitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Onset using Doppler Spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Separating Cloud and Drizzle Radar Moments during Precipitation Onset using Doppler Spectra Authors: ...

  8. What Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die? What Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die? Simulations Show Raindrops Physics May Affect Climate Model Accuracy February 19, 2015 thunderstorm Brazil shuttle NASA 1984 540 PNNL scientists used real-world observations to simulate how small clouds are likely to stay shallow, while larger clouds grow deeper because they mix with less dry air. Pictured are small and large thunderstorms growing over southern Brazil, taken from the space shuttle. Image: NASA Johnson Space

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX): Aerial Observations 2015.01.14...

  10. Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2011-01-31

    Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) govCampaignsAzores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Campaign Links Azores Website Final Campaign Report Related Campaigns Azores: Above-Cloud Radiation Budget near Graciosa Island 2010.04.15, Miller, AMF Azores: Extension to Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 2010.01.01, Wood, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send

  12. Cloud and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Precipitation Fields Around Darwin in the Transition Season P. T. May Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Melbourne, 3001, Victoria, Australia Introduction An interesting, and very relevant question, for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is how cloud characteristics and their seasonal and diurnal variation changes across the tropics. In particular, how does he cloud field around the new SRCS site compare with nearby regions. Thus, the aim of this study is to look at the

  13. Evaluation of tropical cloud and precipitation statistics of CAM3 using CloudSat and CALIPSO data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Klein, S; Boyle, J; Mace, G G

    2008-11-20

    The combined CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite observations provide the first simultaneous measurements of cloud and precipitation vertical structure, and are used to examine the representation of tropical clouds and precipitation in the Community Atmosphere Model Version 3 (CAM3). A simulator package utilizing a model-to-satellite approach facilitates comparison of model simulations to observations, and a revised clustering method is used to sort the subgrid-scale patterns of clouds and precipitation into principal cloud regimes. Results from weather forecasts performed with CAM3 suggest that the model underestimates the horizontal extent of low and mid-level clouds in subsidence regions, but overestimates that of high clouds in ascending regions. CAM3 strongly overestimates the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime, but underestimates the horizontal extent of clouds and precipitation at low and middle levels when this regime occurs. This suggests that the model overestimates convective precipitation and underestimates stratiform precipitation consistent with a previous study that used only precipitation observations. Tropical cloud regimes are also evaluated in a different version of the model, CAM3.5, which uses a highly entraining plume in the parameterization of deep convection. While the frequency of occurrence of the deep convection with heavy precipitation regime from CAM3.5 forecasts decreases, the incidence of the low clouds with precipitation and congestus regimes increases. As a result, the parameterization change does not reduce the frequency of precipitating convection that is far too high relative to observations. For both versions of CAM, clouds and precipitation are overly reflective at the frequency of the CloudSat radar and thin clouds that could be detected by the lidar only are underestimated.

  14. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, Christine; Mann, Julia; O Connor, Ewan; Hogan, Robin; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palinkonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  15. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An ARM mobile facility deployment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wood, Robert; Luke, Ed; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Remillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; deSzoeke, S.; Yuter, Sandra; et al

    2014-04-27

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21-month (April 2009-December 2010) comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols, and precipitation using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer. Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulusmore » and cumulus occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of sources as indicated by back-trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging.The data from Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made with a variety of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to be a permanent fixed ARM site that became operational in October 2013.« less

  16. Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: An Arm Mobile Facility Deployment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert; Wyant, Matthew; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Rémillard, Jasmine; Kollias, Pavlos; Fletcher, Jennifer; Stemmler, Jayson; de Szoeke, Simone; Yuter, Sandra; Miller, Matthew; Mechem, David; Tselioudis, George; Chiu, J. Christine; Mann, Julian A. L.; O’Connor, Ewan J.; Hogan, Robin J.; Dong, Xiquan; Miller, Mark; Ghate, Virendra; Jefferson, Anne; Min, Qilong; Minnis, Patrick; Palikonda, Rabindra; Albrecht, Bruce; Luke, Ed; Hannay, Cecile; Lin, Yanluan

    2015-03-01

    The Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 38 deployment at Graciosa Island in the Azores generated a 21 month (April 2009-December 2010) 39 comprehensive dataset documenting clouds, aerosols and precipitation using the Atmospheric 40 Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The scientific aim of the deployment is 41 to gain improved understanding of the interactions of clouds, aerosols and precipitation in the 42 marine boundary layer. 43 Graciosa Island straddles the boundary between the subtropics and midlatitudes in the 44 Northeast Atlantic Ocean, and consequently experiences a great diversity of meteorological and 45 cloudiness conditions. Low clouds are the dominant cloud type, with stratocumulus and cumulus 46 occurring regularly. Approximately half of all clouds contained precipitation detectable as radar 47 echoes below the cloud base. Radar and satellite observations show that clouds with tops from 1-48 11 km contribute more or less equally to surface-measured precipitation at Graciosa. A wide 49 range of aerosol conditions was sampled during the deployment consistent with the diversity of 50 sources as indicated by back trajectory analysis. Preliminary findings suggest important two-way 51 interactions between aerosols and clouds at Graciosa, with aerosols affecting light precipitation 52 and cloud radiative properties while being controlled in part by precipitation scavenging. 53 The data from at Graciosa are being compared with short-range forecasts made a variety 54 of models. A pilot analysis with two climate and two weather forecast models shows that they 55 reproduce the observed time-varying vertical structure of lower-tropospheric cloud fairly well, 56 but the cloud-nucleating aerosol concentrations less well. The Graciosa site has been chosen to 57 be a long-term ARM site that became operational in October 2013.

  17. What Makes Clouds Form, Grow and Die?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were born and grew. Those formulas did not always reflect reality. With more advanced computers came the ability to explicitly simulate large-cloud systems instead of approximating...

  18. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equalmore » to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.« less

  19. Satellite estimates of precipitation susceptibility in low-level marine stratiform clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terai, C. R.; Wood, R.; Kubar, T. L.

    2015-09-05

    Quantifying the sensitivity of warm rain to aerosols is important for constraining climate model estimates of aerosol indirect effects. In this study, the precipitation sensitivity to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) in satellite retrievals is quantified by applying the precipitation susceptibility metric to a combined CloudSat/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data set of stratus and stratocumulus clouds that cover the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. We note that consistent with previous observational studies of marine stratocumulus, precipitation susceptibility decreases with increasing liquid water path (LWP), and the susceptibility of the mean precipitation rate R is nearly equal to the sum of the susceptibilities of precipitation intensity and of probability of precipitation. Consistent with previous modeling studies, the satellite retrievals reveal that precipitation susceptibility varies not only with LWP but also with Nd. Puzzlingly, negative values of precipitation susceptibility are found at low LWP and high Nd. There is marked regional variation in precipitation susceptibility values that cannot simply be explained by regional variations in LWP and Nd. This suggests other controls on precipitation apart from LWP and Nd and that precipitation susceptibility will need to be quantified and understood at the regional scale when relating to its role in controlling possible aerosol-induced cloud lifetime effects.

  20. The dependence of cloud particle size and precipitation probability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect Hongfei Shao and Guosheng Liu Meteorology Department, Florida State University INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Anthropogenic aerosols enhance cloud reflectance of solar...

  1. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  2. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Science Plan...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Because of the large lower-tropospheric water vapor content, strong atmospheric winds and neutral moist static stability, some ARs can produce heavy precipitation by orographic ...

  3. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, Jan; Feingold, Graham; Yamaguchi, Takanobu

    2016-05-12

    Observed and projected trends in large-scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how do marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to changes in large-scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds over the course of a diurnal cycle, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and strongermore » entrainment. The dynamical driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning–afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ≳50 gm–2, longwave emissions are insensitive to LWP. This leads to the general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. Here, we find that large-scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment and in part because shear from large-scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large-scale wind takes over from

  4. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, Jan; Feingold, Graham; Yamaguchi, Takanobu

    2016-05-12

    Observed and projected trends in large-scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how do marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to changes in large-scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds over the course of a diurnal cycle, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and strongermore » entrainment. The dynamical driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning–afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m−2, longwave emissions are insensitive to LWP. This leads to the general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find that large-scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment and in part because shear from large-scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large-scale wind takes over

  5. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-10-21

    Observed and projected trends in large scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how might marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to future changes in large scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum, and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamicalmoredriver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m?2, long wave emissions are very insensitive to LWP. This leads to the more general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find furthermore that large scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment, and in part because circulation driven by shear from large scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large scale

  6. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, R.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive coverage of low clouds over the subtropical eastern oceans greatly impacts the current climate. In addition, the response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols is a major source of uncertainty, which thwarts accurate prediction of future climate change. Low clouds are poorly simulated in climate models, partly due to inadequate long-term simultaneous observations of their macrophysical and microphysical structure, radiative effects, and associated aerosol distribution in regions where their impact is greatest. The thickness and extent of subtropical low clouds is dependent on tight couplings between surface fluxes of heat and moisture, radiative cooling, boundary layer turbulence, and precipitation (much of which evaporates before reaching the ocean surface and is closely connected to the abundance of cloud condensation nuclei). These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding sufficient for developing parameterizations, which adequately predict aerosol indirect effects and low cloud response to climate perturbations. This is especially true of the interactions between clouds, aerosol, and precipitation. These processes take place in an ever-changing synoptic environment that can confound interpretation of short time period observations.

  7. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during the MAGIC Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Kollias, Pavlos; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2015-03-01

    The recent ship-based MAGIC (Marine ARM GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds) field campaign with the marine-capable Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo container M/V Spirit provided nearly 200 days of intraseasonal high-resolution observations of clouds, precipitation, and marine boundary layer (MBL) structure on multiple legs between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii. During the deployment, MBL clouds exhibited a much higher frequency of occurrence than other cloud types and occurred more often in the warm season than in the cold season. MBL clouds demonstrated a propensity to produce precipitation, which often evaporated before reaching the ocean surface. The formation of stratocumulus is strongly correlated to a shallow MBL with a strong inversion and a weak transition, while cumulus formation is associated with a much weaker inversion and stronger transition. The estimated inversion strength is shown to depend seasonally on the potential temperature at 700 hPa. The location of the commencement of systematic MBL decoupling always occurred eastward of the locations of cloud breakup, and the systematic decoupling showed a strong moisture stratification. The entrainment of the dry warm air above the inversion appears to be the dominant factor triggering the systematic decoupling, while surface latent heat flux, precipitation, and diurnal circulation did not play major roles. MBL clouds broke up over a short spatial region due to the changes in the synoptic conditions, implying that in real atmospheric conditions the MBL clouds do not have enough time to evolve as in the idealized models. (auth)

  8. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during the MAGIC Field Campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Kollias, Pavlos; Lewis, Ernie R.

    2015-03-01

    The recent ship-based MAGIC (Marine ARM GCSS Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI) Investigation of Clouds) field campaign with the marine-capable Second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) deployed on the Horizon Lines cargo container M/V Spirit provided nearly 200 days of intraseasonal high-resolution observations of clouds, precipitation, and marine boundary layer (MBL) structure on multiple legs between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii. During the deployment, MBL clouds exhibited a much higher frequency of occurrence than other cloud types and occurred more often in the warm season than in the cold season. MBL clouds demonstrated a propensity to produce precipitation, which often evaporatedmore » before reaching the ocean surface. The formation of stratocumulus is strongly correlated to a shallow MBL with a strong inversion and a weak transition, while cumulus formation is associated with a much weaker inversion and stronger transition. The estimated inversion strength is shown to depend seasonally on the potential temperature at 700 hPa. The location of the commencement of systematic MBL decoupling always occurred eastward of the locations of cloud breakup, and the systematic decoupling showed a strong moisture stratification. The entrainment of the dry warm air above the inversion appears to be the dominant factor triggering the systematic decoupling, while surface latent heat flux, precipitation, and diurnal circulation did not play major roles. MBL clouds broke up over a short spatial region due to the changes in the synoptic conditions, implying that in real atmospheric conditions the MBL clouds do not have enough time to evolve as in the idealized models. (auth)« less

  9. Constructing a Merged Cloud-Precipitation Radar Dataset for Tropical Convective Clouds during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment at Addu Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; McFarlane, Sally A.; Schumacher, Courtney; Ellis, Scott; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Bharadwaj, Nitin

    2014-05-16

    To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden-Julian-Oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected four months of observations from three radars, the S-band Polarization Radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research & Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band Zenith Radar (KAZR) on Addu Atoll in the tropical Indian Ocean. This study compares the measurements from the S-Pol and SMART-R to those from the more sensitive KAZR in order to characterize the hydrometeor detection capabilities of the two scanning precipitation radars. Frequency comparisons for precipitating convective clouds and non-precipitating high clouds agree much better than non-precipitating low clouds for both scanning radars due to issues in ground clutter. On average, SMART-R underestimates convective and high cloud tops by 0.3 to 1.1 km, while S-Pol underestimates cloud tops by less than 0.4 km for these cloud types. S-Pol shows excellent dynamic range in detecting various types of clouds and therefore its data are well suited for characterizing the evolution of the 3D cloud structures, complementing the profiling KAZR measurements. For detecting non-precipitating low clouds and thin cirrus clouds, KAZR remains the most reliable instrument. However, KAZR is attenuated in heavy precipitation and underestimates cloud top height due to rainfall attenuation 4.3% of the time during DYNAMO/AMIE. An empirical method to correct the KAZR cloud top heights is described, and a merged radar dataset is produced to provide improved cloud boundary estimates, microphysics and radiative heating retrievals.

  10. Evaluation of Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison Simulations Using TWP-ICE Observations: Precipitation and Cloud Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varble, Adam C.; Fridlind, Ann; Zipser, Ed; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Hill, Adrian; McFarlane, Sally A.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Shipway, Ben

    2011-06-24

    The Tropical Warm Pool - International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) provided high quality model forcing and observational datasets through which detailed model and observational intercomparisons could be performed. In this first of a two part study, precipitation and cloud structures within nine cloud-resolving model simulations are compared with scanning radar reflectivity and satellite infrared brightness temperature observations during an active monsoon period from 19 to 25 January 2006. Most simulations slightly overestimate volumetric convective rainfall. Overestimation of simulated convective area by 50% or more in several simulations is somewhat offset by underestimation of mean convective rain rates. Stratiform volumetric rainfall is underestimated by 13% to 53% despite overestimation of stratiform area by up to 65% because stratiform rain rates in every simulation are much lower than observed. Although simulations match the peaked convective radar reflectivity distribution at low levels, they do not reproduce the peaked distributions observed above the melting level. Simulated radar reflectivity aloft in convective regions is too high in most simulations. 29 In stratiform regions, there is a large spread in model results with none resembling 30 observed distributions. Above the melting level, observed radar reflectivity decreases 31 more gradually with height than simulated radar reflectivity. A few simulations produce 32 unrealistically uniform and cold 10.8-?m infrared brightness temperatures, but several 33 simulations produce distributions close to observed. Assumed ice particle size 34 distributions appear to play a larger role than ice water contents in producing incorrect 35 simulated radar reflectivity distributions aloft despite substantial differences in mean 36 graupel and snow water contents across models. 37

  11. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogenschutz, Peter; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    2015-10-13

    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.

  12. DOE/SC-ARM-14-030 ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... in that region during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in ... western U.S. during winter, much of the rest of the orographic precipitation occurs in ...

  13. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation during CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Singh, Balwinder; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Tomlinson, Jason M.; White, Allen B.; Prather, Kimberly; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. K.; Min, Qilong

    2014-01-03

    Mineral dust aerosols often observed over California in winter and spring, associated with long-range transport from Asia and Sahara, have been linked to enhanced precipitation based on observations. Local anthropogenic pollution, on the other hand, was shown in previous observational and modeling studies to reduce precipitation. Here we incorporate recent developments in ice nucleation parameterizations to link aerosols with ice crystal formation in a spectral-bin cloud microphysical model coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, to examine the relative and combined impacts of dust and local pollution particles on cloud properties and precipitation type and intensity. Simulations are carried out for two cloud cases with contrasting meteorology and cloud dynamics that occurred on February 16 (FEB16) and March 02 (MAR02) from the CalWater 2011 field campaign. In both cases, observations show the presence of dust and biological particles in a relative pristine environment. The simulated cloud microphysical properties and precipitation show reasonable agreement with aircraft and surface measurements. Model sensitivity experiments indicate that in the pristine environment, the dust and biological aerosol layers increase the accumulated precipitation by 10-20% from the Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountains for both FEB16 and MAR02 due to a ~40% increase in snow formation, validating the observational hypothesis. Model results show that local pollution increases precipitation over the windward slope of the mountains by few percent due to increased snow formation when dust is present but reduces precipitation by 5-8% if dust is removed on FEB16. The effects of local pollution on cloud microphysics and precipitation strongly depend on meteorology including the strength of the Sierra Barrier Jet, and cloud dynamics. This study further underscores the importance of the interactions between local pollution, dust, and environmental conditions for

  14. Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Science Objectives and Significance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Science Objectives and Significance Every cloud in the sky begins as a tiny droplet, which forms around an even smaller particle called an aerosol particle. Some clouds produce precipitation, and some don't. The relationship between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols is very complex and very important. Scientists use data about clouds, precipitation, and aerosols to develop computer codes, or models, that simulate what's happening in the atmosphere and

  15. DOE-SC-ARM-16-012 ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 14: 81-101, doi: 10.5194acp-14-81-2014. Givati, A, and D Rosenfeld. 2004. "Quantifying precipitation suppression due to air pollution." Journal ...

  16. Precipitation kinetics during aging of an alumina-forming austenitic stainless steel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trotter, Geneva; Hu, Bin; Sun, Annie Y.; Harder, Reed; Miller, Michael K.; Baker, Ian; Yao, Lan

    2016-04-28

    The microstructural evolution of DAFA26, an alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel, was investigated during aging. The effect of aging at 750 °C and 800 °C on the growth of spherical γ’-Ni3(Al, Ti) particles present in the as-processed state was studied extensively using X-ray diffraction, microhardness testing, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. The γ’ particles had a cube-on-cube orientation relationship with the matrix (i.e. ((010)(010)m//(010)(010)p, [100][100]m//[100][100]p)). The coarsening kinetics of γ’-Ni3Al particles were in agreement with the Lifshitz, Slyozof-Wagner theory. Coarse Laves phase particles were also present in the as-processed state, and during the aging processmore » both smaller Laves phase precipitates and B2-NiAl precipitates formed on both the grain boundaries and in the matrix. As a result, the γ’ precipitates were determined to have the most impact on the room temperature hardness.« less

  17. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer: Analysis of Results from the ARM Mobile Facility Deployment to the Azores (2009/2010)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Robert

    2013-05-31

    The project focuses upon dataset analysis and synthesis of datasets from the AMF deployment entitled “Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP‐MBL)” at Graciosa Island in the Azores. Wood is serving a PI for this AMF deployment.

  18. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  19. Structural characteristics of transition-iron-carbide precipitates formed during the first stage of tempering in 4340 steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, S.W.

    2015-08-15

    Microstructural and crystallographic characteristics of fine-scale transition-iron-carbide precipitates formed in martensite during tempering of 4340 steel at 200 °C for 3.6 ks were studied via transmission electron microscopy. Precipitates of near-equiaxed shapes and about 10 nm in size were observed, and rows of closely spaced precipitates were aligned predominantly along < 100 > martensite directions. Aggregates of aligned precipitates were up to 150 nm in length, although occasional kinks were present that disrupted the alignment, and some of the adjacent precipitates possessed somewhat different crystallographic orientations. Electron-diffraction results were analyzed in detail and found to be consistent with both epsilon-carbide and eta-carbide phases. Similarities between these two phases were highlighted and discussed. Experimental electron-diffraction data were compared with data from five different unit cells, and each was found to be consistent within uncertainty ranges of ± 0.003 nm for interplanar spacings, ± 2° for angles between plane normals, and a few degrees for the orientation relationship between precipitates and the matrix.

  20. Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Access Procedures for New Users Deposition Request Form Exit Form Flycutting Request Form Hot Embossing Request Form Metrology Request Form Microfabrication Project Proposal Form...

  1. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  2. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (first echo). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud field and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.

  3. ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment a NOAA ship in the Pacific Ocean and on a DOE- sponsored plane over land and sea. These researchers will study: (1) water sources, evolution and structure of...

  4. ARM Data Help Improve Precipitation in Global Climate Models...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    ARM Data Help Improve Precipitation in Global Climate Models Biological and Environmental ... ARM Data Help Improve Precipitation in Global Climate Models Cloud, radiation, and drizzle ...

  5. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator ...

  6. Clouds, Aerosols and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) AMF Deployment Graciosa Island, Azores, NE Atlantic Ocean May 2009-December 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) Graciosa Island, Azores, NE Atlantic Ocean May 2009-December 2010 Rob Wood, University of Washington CAP-MBL Proposal Team AMF Deployment Team Thanks to Mark Miller: AMF Site Scientist Kim Nitschke: AMF Site Manager Importance of Low-Clouds for Climate Imperative that we understand the processes controlling the formation, maintenance and dissipation of low clouds in order to improve their representation in climate models. Which clouds matter for climate

  7. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  8. Atmospheric Rivers Coming to a Cloud Near You

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Leung, Ruby

    2014-06-12

    Learn about the ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign in this short video. Ruby Leung, PNNL's lead scientist on this campaign's observational strategy to monitor precipitation.

  9. Atmospheric Rivers Coming to a Cloud Near You

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Ruby

    2014-03-29

    Learn about the ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign in this short video. Ruby Leung, PNNL's lead scientist on this campaign's observational strategy to monitor precipitation.

  10. Polluting of Winter Convective Clouds upon Transition from Ocean Inland Over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; Prather, Kimberly; Suski, Kaitlyn; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf

    2014-01-01

    In-situ aircraft measurements of aerosol chemical and cloud microphysical properties were conducted during the CalWater campaign in February and March 2011 over the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the coastal waters of central California. The main objective was to elucidate the impacts of aerosol properties on clouds and precipitation forming processes. In order to accomplish this, we compared contrasting cases of clouds that ingested aerosols from different sources. The results showed that clouds containing pristine oceanic air had low cloud drop concentrations and started to develop rain 500 m above their base. This occurred both over the ocean and over the Sierra Nevada, mainly in the early morning when the radiatively cooled stable continental boundary layer was decoupled from the cloud base. Supercooled rain dominated the precipitation that formed in growing convective clouds in the pristine air, up to the -21C isotherm level. A contrasting situation was documented in the afternoon over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, when the clouds ingested high pollution aerosol concentrations produced in the Central Valley. This led to slow growth of the cloud drop effective radius with height and suppressed and even prevented the initiation of warm rain while contributing to the development of ice hydrometeors in the form of graupel. Our results show that cloud condensation and ice nuclei were the limiting factors that controlled warm rain and ice processes, respectively, while the unpolluted clouds in the same air mass produced precipitation quite efficiently. These findings provide the motivation for deeper investigations into the nature of the aerosols seeding clouds.

  11. Star Forming Dense Cloud Cores in the TeV -ray SNR RX J1713.7-3946

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sano, H.; Sato, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Hayakawa, T.; Torii, K.; Moribe, N.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Maezawa, H.; Inoue, T.; Inutsuka, S.; Tanaka, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Stutzki, J.; Bertoldi, F.; Anderl, S.; Bronfman, L.; Koo, B.C.

    2010-10-27

    RX J1713.7-3946 is one of the TeV {gamma}-ray supernova remnants (SNRs) emitting synchrotron X rays. The SNR is associated with molecular gas located at {approx}1 kpc. We made new molecular observations toward the dense cloud cores, peaks A, C and D, in the SNR in the {sup 12}CO(J=2-1) and {sup 13}CO(J=2-1) transitions at angular resolution of 90 degrees. The most intense core in {sup 13}CO, peak C, was also mapped in the {sup 12}CO(J=4-3) transition at angular resolution of 38 degrees. Peak C shows strong signs of active star formation including bipolar outflow and a far-infrared protostellar source and has a steep gradient with a r{sup -2.2 {+-} 0.4} variation in the average density within radius r. Peak C and the other dense cloud cores are rim-brightened in synchrotron X rays, suggesting that the dense cloud cores are embedded within or on the outer boundary of the SNR shell. This confirms the earlier suggestion that the X rays are physically associated with the molecular gas (Fukui et al. 2003). We present a scenario where the densest molecular core, peak C, survived against the blast wave and is now embedded within the SNR. Numerical simulations of the shock-cloud interaction indicate that a dense clump can indeed survive shock erosion, since shock propagation speed is stalled in the dense clump. Additionally, the shock-cloud interaction induces turbulence and magnetic field amplification around the dense clump that may facilitate particle acceleration in the lower-density inter-clump space leading to the enhanced synchrotron X rays around dense cores.

  12. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    132014 10:58 AM Submitted by Anonymous User This message was created by a Microsoft InfoPath form. The form data may be included as an attachment. Freedom of Information Act...

  13. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9:27 PM Submitted by Anonymous User This message was created by a Microsoft InfoPath form. The form data may be included as an attachment. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)...

  14. Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forms and Checklists Download or view forms and checklists used at WNR. IWD Forms 2100 - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 1, Activity Specific Information (word version) 2100_con - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 1, Activity Specific Information Continuation Page (word version) 2101 - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 2, FOD Requirements and Approval for Entry and Area Hazards and Controls, Non-Tenant Activity Form (word version) 2102 - Integrated Work Document (IWD) Part 2, FOD

  15. First observations of tracking clouds using scanning ARM cloud radars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Borque, Paloma; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2014-12-01

    Tracking clouds using scanning cloud radars can help to document the temporal evolution of cloud properties well before large drop formation (‘‘first echo’’). These measurements complement cloud and precipitation tracking using geostationary satellites and weather radars. Here, two-dimensional (2-D) Along-Wind Range Height Indicator (AW-RHI) observations of a population of shallow cumuli (with and without precipitation) from the 35-GHz scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) at the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are presented. Observations from the ARM SGP network of scanning precipitation radars are used to provide the larger scale context of the cloud fieldmore » and to highlight the advantages of the SACR to detect the numerous, small, non-precipitating cloud elements. A new Cloud Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CITA) is developed to track cloud elements. In CITA, a cloud element is identified as a region having a contiguous set of pixels exceeding a preset reflectivity and size threshold. The high temporal resolution of the SACR 2-D observations (30 sec) allows for an area superposition criteria algorithm to match cloud elements at consecutive times. Following CITA, the temporal evolution of cloud element properties (number, size, and maximum reflectivity) is presented. The vast majority of the designated elements during this cumulus event were short-lived non-precipitating clouds having an apparent life cycle shorter than 15 minutes. The advantages and disadvantages of cloud tracking using an SACR are discussed.« less

  16. ARM Cloud Properties Working Group: Meeting Logistics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 1630: J. Comstock - Clouds with Low Optical Water Depth (CLOWD) 1630 to 1645: B. Albrecht - Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CLAP-MBL) 1645 to ...

  17. ARM - Evaluation Product - Cloud Classification VAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    properties includes cloud boundaries, thickness, phase, type, and precipitation information, and hence provides a useful tool for evaluation of model simulations and...

  18. Mountain-induced Dynamics Influence Cloud Phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2010-2011 via coordinated projects targeting clouds, precipitation, and dynamics in the Park Range of Colorado. The National Science Foundation sponsored aircraft measurements as...

  19. Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Privacy Act must be signed and, therefore, cannot be submitted : on this form. t Name Richard van Dijk Email , Orga nizati on Mailin g Addre ss city PA State I P Pion e Ex....

  20. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment Science Objective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment Science Objective Despite improvements in computing power, current weather and climate models are unable to accurately reproduce the formation, growth, and decay of clouds and precipitation associated with storm systems. Not only is this due to a lack of data about precipitation, but also about the 3-dimensional environment of the surrounding clouds, winds, and moisture, and how that affects the transfer of energy between the sun and Earth. To

  1. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN DISTANT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: TURBULENT PRESSURE, FRAGMENTATION, AND CLOUD SCALING RELATIONS IN A DENSE GAS DISK AT z = 2.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swinbank, A. M.; Smail, Ian; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Thomson, A. P.; Richard, J.; Ebeling, H.

    2011-11-20

    We have used the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Expanded Very Large Array to obtain a high-resolution map of the CO(6-5) and CO(1-0) emission in the lensed, star-forming galaxy SMM J2135-0102 at z = 2.32. The kinematics of the gas are well described by a model of a rotationally supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v{sub rot} = 320 {+-} 25 km s{sup -1}, a ratio of rotational-to-dispersion support of v/{sigma} = 3.5 {+-} 0.2, and a dynamical mass of (6.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} within a radius of 2.5 kpc. The disk has a Toomre parameter, Q = 0.50 {+-} 0.15, suggesting that the gas will rapidly fragment into massive clumps on scales of L{sub J} {approx} 400 pc. We identify star-forming regions on these scales and show that they are {approx}10 Multiplication-Sign denser than those in quiescent environments in local galaxies, and significantly offset from the local molecular cloud scaling relations (Larson's relations). The large offset compared to local molecular cloud line-width-size scaling relations implies that supersonic turbulence should remain dominant on scales {approx}100 Multiplication-Sign smaller than in the kinematically quiescent interstellar medium (ISM) of the Milky Way, while the molecular gas in SMM J2135 is expected to be {approx}50 Multiplication-Sign denser than that in the Milky Way on all scales. This is most likely due to the high external hydrostatic pressure we measure for the ISM, P{sub tot}/k{sub B} {approx} (2 {+-} 1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K cm{sup -3}. In such highly turbulent ISM, the subsonic regions of gravitational collapse (and star formation) will be characterized by much higher critical densities, n{sub crit} > = 10{sup 8} cm{sup -3}, a factor {approx}>1000 Multiplication-Sign more than the quiescent ISM of the Milky Way.

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) govCampaignsIntegrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX): Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) 2014.03.01 - 2014.07.01 Lead Scientist : Gerald Mace For data sets, see below. Abstract IPHEX -

  3. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO: From AMIE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Global-Cloud Permitting Models Final Report Version 1 Methods of convectivestratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the ...

  4. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 Methods of convectivestratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the ...

  5. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  6. Posters Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Radiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Takahashi, T., and K. Kuhara. 1993. Precipitation mechanisms of cumulonimbus clouds at Pohnpei, Micronesia. Meteor. Soc. Japan 71:21-31. Takano, Y., and K. N. Liou. 1989. Radiative ...

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Measuring Clouds at SGP with Stereo Photogramme...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the form of the Point Cloud of Cloud Points Product (PCCPP). The PCCPP will: provide context on life-cycle stage and cloud position for vertically pointing radars, lidars, and...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Cloud size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measurements as cloud thickness, cloud area, and cloud aspect ratio. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  9. What Goes Up Must Come Down: The Lifecycle of Convective Clouds (492nd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael

    2014-02-19

    Some clouds look like cotton balls and others like anvils. Some bring rain, some snow and sleet, and others, just shade. But, whether big and billowy or dark and stormy, clouds affect far more than the weather each day. Armed with measurements of clouds’ updrafts and downdrafts—which resemble airflow in a convection oven—and many other atmospheric interactions, scientists from Brookhaven Lab and other institutions around the world are developing models that are crucial for understanding Earth’s climate and forecasting future climate change. During his lecture, Dr. Jensen provides an overview of the importance of clouds in the Earth’s climate system before explaining how convective clouds form, grow, and dissipate. His discussion includes findings from the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a major collaborative experiment between U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and NASA scientists to document precipitation, clouds, winds, and moisture in 3-D for a holistic view of convective clouds and their environment.

  10. ARM - Evaluation Product - Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the CSAPR ProductsQuantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Quantitative Precipitation Estimates (QPE) from the CSAPR Precipitation rates from cloud systems can give a fundamental insight into the processes occurring in-cloud. While rain

  11. ARM - Measurement - Cloud type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement : Cloud type Cloud type such as cirrus, stratus, cumulus etc Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  12. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 Methods of convective/stratiform precipitation classification and

  13. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2014-05-19

    role in terms of aerosol-precipitation interaction. • Two of the three cloud systems presented in this paper formed a line structure (squall system). A 2D simulation, therefore, gives a good approximation to such a line of convective clouds. Since the real atmosphere is 3D, further 3D cloud-resolving simulations are needed to address aerosol-precipitation interactions. 4. REFERENCES Tao, W.-K., X. Li, A. Khain, T. Matsui, S. Lang, and J. Simpson, 2007: The role of atmospheric aerosol concentration on deep convective precipitation: Cloud-resolving model simulations. J. Geophy. Res., 112, D24S18, doi:10.1029/2007JD008728. All other references can be found in above paper. 5. Acknowledgements The GCE model is mainly supported by the NASA Headquarters Atmospheric Dynamics and Thermodynamics Program and the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The research was also supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy/Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (DOE/ARM) Interagency. The authors acknowledge NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for computer time used in this research.

  14. Dispelling Clouds of Uncertainty

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, Ernie; Teixeira, João

    2015-06-15

    How do you build a climate model that accounts for cloud physics and the transitions between cloud regimes? Use MAGIC.

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (CACTI) govCampaignsCloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) 2018.08.15 - 2019.04.30 Lead Scientist : Adam Varble Abstract General circulation models and downscaled regional models exhibit persistent biases in deep convective initiation location and timing, cloud top height, stratiform area and precipitation

  16. Mechanisms of Convective Cloud Organization by Cold Pools over Tropical Warm Ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Rowe, Angela; Burleyson, Casey D.; Martini, Matus; de Szoeke, S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms of convective cloud organization by precipitation-driven cold pools over the warm tropical Indian Ocean during the 2011 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Investigation Experiment / Dynamics of the MJO (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign. A high-resolution regional model simulation is performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting model during the transition from suppressed to active phases of the November 2011 MJO. The simulated cold pool lifetimes, spatial extent and thermodynamic properties agree well with the radar and ship-borne observations from the field campaign. The thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the outflow boundaries of isolated and intersecting cold pools in the simulation and the associated secondary cloud populations are examined. Intersecting cold pools last more than twice as long, are twice as large, 41% more intense (measured by buoyancy), and 62% deeper than isolated cold pools. Consequently, intersecting cold pools trigger 73% more convective clouds than isolated ones. This is possibly due to stronger outflows that enhance secondary updraft velocities by up to 45%. However, cold pool-triggered convective clouds grow into deep convection not because of the stronger secondary updrafts at cloud base, but rather due to closer spacing (aggregation) between clouds and larger cloud clusters that formed along the cold pool boundaries when they intersect. The close spacing of large clouds moistens the local environment and reduces entrainment drying, allowing the clouds to further develop into deep convection. Implications to the design of future convective parameterization with cold pool-modulated entrainment rates are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  18. Process-model Simulations of Cloud Albedo Enhancement by Aerosols in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.; Morrison, H.; Solomon, Amy

    2014-11-17

    A cloud-resolving model is used to simulate the effectiveness of Arctic marine cloud brightening via injection of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). An updated cloud microphysical scheme is employed, with prognostic CCN and cloud particle numbers in both liquid and mixed-phase marine low clouds. Injection of CCN into the marine boundary layer can delay the collapse of the boundary layer and increase low-cloud albedo. Because nearly all of the albedo effects are in the liquid phase due to the removal of ice water by snowfall when ice processes are involved, albedo increases are stronger for pure liquid clouds than mixed-phase clouds. Liquid precipitation can be suppressed by CCN injection, whereas ice precipitation (snow) is affected less; thus the effectiveness of brightening mixed-phase clouds is lower than for liquid-only clouds. CCN injection into a clean regime results in a greater albedo increase than injection into a polluted regime, consistent with current knowledge about aerosol-cloud interactions. Unlike previous studies investigating warm clouds, dynamical changes in circulation due to precipitation changes are small.

  19. Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiative Influences on Glaciation Time-Scales of Mixed-Phase Clouds Harrington, Jerry The Pennsylvania State University Category: Modeling Mixed-phase stratus clouds are dominant in the Arctic during much of the year. These clouds typically have liquid tops that precipitate ice. Time scales for the complete glaciation of such clouds (the Bergeron process) are typically computed using the classical mass growth equations for crystals and liquid drops. However, mixed phase arctic stratus have

  20. Dispelling Clouds of Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Ernie; Teixeira, João

    2015-06-15

    How do you build a climate model that accounts for cloud physics and the transitions between cloud regimes? Use MAGIC.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Cloud location

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    point in space and time, typically expressed as a binary cloud mask. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  2. Science Cloud 2011

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Cloud 2011 Science Cloud 2011 June 17, 2011 The Magellan teams at NERSC and Argonne recently presented a joint paper detailing their progress and conclusions. At Science Cloud 2011: The Second Workshop on Scientific Cloud Computing, in a paper titled "Magellan: Experiences from a Science Cloud" (PDF, 320KB), lead author Lavanya Ramakrishnan outlined the groups' most recent achievements and conclusions, including a successful run of real-time data analysis for the STAR

  3. A unified parameterization of clouds and turbulence using CLUBB and subcolumns in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thayer-Calder, K.; Gettelman, A.; Craig, C.; Goldhaber, S.; Bogenschutz, P. A.; Chen, C.-C.; Morrison, H.; Höft, J.; Raut, E.; Griffin, B. M.; et al

    2015-06-30

    Most global climate models parameterize separate cloud types using separate parameterizations. This approach has several disadvantages, including obscure interactions between parameterizations and inaccurate triggering of cumulus parameterizations. Alternatively, a unified cloud parameterization uses one equation set to represent all cloud types. Such cloud types include stratiform liquid and ice cloud, shallow convective cloud, and deep convective cloud. Vital to the success of a unified parameterization is a general interface between clouds and microphysics. One such interface involves drawing Monte Carlo samples of subgrid variability of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud ice, and feeding the sample points into amore » microphysics scheme. This study evaluates a unified cloud parameterization and a Monte Carlo microphysics interface that has been implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5.3. Results describing the mean climate and tropical variability from global simulations are presented. The new model shows a degradation in precipitation skill but improvements in short-wave cloud forcing, liquid water path, long-wave cloud forcing, precipitable water, and tropical wave simulation. Also presented are estimations of computational expense and investigation of sensitivity to number of subcolumns.« less

  4. A unified parameterization of clouds and turbulence using CLUBB and subcolumns in the Community Atmosphere Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thayer-Calder, K.; Gettelman, A.; Craig, C.; Goldhaber, S.; Bogenschutz, P. A.; Chen, C.-C.; Morrison, H.; Höft, J.; Raut, E.; Griffin, B. M.; et al

    2015-12-01

    Most global climate models parameterize separate cloud types using separate parameterizations. This approach has several disadvantages, including obscure interactions between parameterizations and inaccurate triggering of cumulus parameterizations. Alternatively, a unified cloud parameterization uses one equation set to represent all cloud types. Such cloud types include stratiform liquid and ice cloud, shallow convective cloud, and deep convective cloud. Vital to the success of a unified parameterization is a general interface between clouds and microphysics. One such interface involves drawing Monte Carlo samples of subgrid variability of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud ice, and feeding the sample points into amore » microphysics scheme. This study evaluates a unified cloud parameterization and a Monte Carlo microphysics interface that has been implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) version 5.3. Model computational expense is estimated, and sensitivity to the number of subcolumns is investigated. Results describing the mean climate and tropical variability from global simulations are presented. The new model shows a degradation in precipitation skill but improvements in shortwave cloud forcing, liquid water path, long-wave cloud forcing, precipitable water, and tropical wave simulation.« less

  5. ARM - Word Seek: Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precipitation Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Precipitation

  6. PRECIPITATION OF PROTACTINIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1958-07-15

    An lmprovement in the separation of protactinium from aqueous nitric acid solutions is described. 1t covers the use of lead dioxide and tin dioxide as carrier precipitates for the protactinium. In carrying out the process, divalent lead or divalent tin is addcd to the solution and oxidized, causing formation of a carrier precipitate of lead dioxide or stannic oxide, respectively.

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a distinctly different INP population in comparison to long range transported desert or urban and regional land-sourced INP, and that the layering of marine within other...

  8. Clouds, Precipitation, and Marine Boundary Layer Structure during...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Zhou, Xiaoli 1 ; Kollias, Pavlos 1 ; Lewis, Ernie R. 2 + Show Author Affiliations McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences ...

  9. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    These couplings have been documented as a result of past field programs and model studies. However, extensive research is still required to achieve a quantitative understanding ...

  10. Aerosol Impacts on California Winter Clouds and Precipitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust Citation Details ... CalWater 2011: Local Pollution versus Long-Range Transported Dust Mineral dust ...

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    remote sensing for resolving and studying the above processes? (i.e., Satellite CalVal) We have recently added a fourth study focused on the transport and evolution of...

  12. Clouds, Aerosol, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  13. Clouds, Aerosols, and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Stemmler, Jayson ; de Szoeke, Simone ; Yuter, Sandra ; Miller, Matthew ; Mechem, David ; Tselioudis, George ; Chiu, J. Christine ; Mann, Julian A. L. ; O'Connor, Ewan J. ; ...

  14. Clouds, aerosol, and precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Jayson 1 ; deSzoeke, S. 5 ; Yuter, Sandra 6 ; Miller, Matthew 6 ; Mechem, David 7 ; Tselioudis, George 3 ; Chiu, Christine 8 ; Mann, Julia 8 ; O Connor, ...

  15. Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Min; Kollias, Pavlos; Feng, Zhe; Zhang, Chidong; Long, Charles N.; Kalesse, Heike; Chandra, Arunchandra; Kumar, Vickal; Protat, Alain

    2014-11-01

    The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification is equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.

  16. Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Properties Working Group Low Clouds Update Low Clouds Update Jennifer Comstock Jennifer Comstock Dave Turner Dave Turner Andy Andy Vogelmann Vogelmann Instruments Instruments 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer 90/150 GHz microwave radiometer Deployed during COPS AMF Deployed during COPS AMF Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Exploring calibration w/ DPR ( Crewell Crewell & & L L ö ö hnert hnert ) ) See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening See COPS Breakout, Wednesday evening 183 GHz (GVR)

  17. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part I: Operational Sampling Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, Pavlos; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Jo, Ieng; Johnson, Karen

    2014-03-01

    Probing clouds in three-dimensions has never been done with scanning millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars in a continuous operating environment. The acquisition of scanning cloud radars by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and research institutions around the world generate the need for developing operational scan strategies for cloud radars. Here, the first generation of sampling strategies for the Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) is discussed. These scan strategies are designed to address the scientific objectives of the ARM program, however, they introduce an initial framework for operational scanning cloud radars. While the weather community uses scan strategies that are based on a sequence of scans at constant elevations, the SACRs scan strategies are based on a sequence of scans at constant azimuth. This is attributed to the cloud properties that are vastly different for rain and snow shafts that are the primary target of precipitation radars. A cloud surveillance scan strategy is introduced (HS-RHI) based on a sequence of horizon-to-horizon Range Height Indicator (RHI) scans that sample the hemispherical sky (HS). The HS-RHI scan strategy is repeated every 30 min to provide a static view of the cloud conditions around the SACR location. Between HS-RHI scan strategies other scan strategies are introduced depending on the cloud conditions. The SACRs are pointing vertically in the case of measurable precipitation at the ground. The radar reflectivities are corrected for water vapor attenuation and non-meteorological detection are removed. A hydrometeor detection mask is introduced based on the difference of cloud and noise statistics is discussed.

  18. ARM - Measurement - Precipitable water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitable water Total amount ...

  19. ARM - Measurement - Precipitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsPrecipitation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Precipitation All liquid or solid phase aqueous particles that originate in the atmosphere and fall to the earth's surface. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  20. ARM - Measurement - Cloud extinction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud extinction The removal of radiant energy from an incident beam by the process of cloud absorption andor ...

  1. Scientific Cloud Computing Misconceptions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Cloud Computing Misconceptions Scientific Cloud Computing Misconceptions July 1, 2011 Part of the Magellan project was to understand both the possibilities and the limitations of cloud computing in the pursuit of science. At a recent conference, Magellan investigator Shane Canon outlined some persistent misconceptions about doing science in the cloud - and what Magellan has taught us about them. » Read the ISGTW story. » Download the slides (PDF, 4.1MB

  2. Icy Cirrus Clouds to Be Studied This Spring

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Icy Cirrus Clouds to Be Studied This Spring Mid-latitude cirrus clouds, which are composed solely of ice crystals, will be the focus of an intensive operational period (IOP) in April and May 2004 at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) SGP site. Researchers will be probing the clouds with aircraft-based instruments to gather detailed information about the clouds' physical characteristics. To make measurements in cirrus clouds, which generally form in the atmosphere at and above 20,000 feet

  3. IMPROVED PROCESS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faris, B.F.

    1959-06-30

    This patent relates to an improvement in the bismuth phosphate process for separating and recovering plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium, resulting in improved decontamination even without the use of scavenging precipitates in the by-product precipitation step and subsequently more complete recovery of the plutonium in the product precipitation step. This improvement is achieved by addition of fluomolybdic acid, or a water soluble fluomolybdate, such as the ammonium, sodium, or potassium salt thereof, to the aqueous nitric acid solution containing tetravalent plutonium ions and contaminating fission products, so as to establish a fluomolybdate ion concentration of about 0.05 M. The solution is then treated to form the bismuth phosphate plutonium carrying precipitate.

  4. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer clouds using ground-based radar, lidar and zenith radiances

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fielding, M. D.; Chiu, J. C.; Hogan, R. J.; Feingold, G.; Eloranta, E.; O'Connor, E. J.; Cadeddu, M. P.

    2015-07-02

    Active remote sensing of marine boundary-layer clouds is challenging as drizzle drops often dominate the observed radar reflectivity. We present a new method to simultaneously retrieve cloud and drizzle vertical profiles in drizzling boundary-layer clouds using surface-based observations of radar reflectivity, lidar attenuated backscatter, and zenith radiances under conditions when precipitation does not reach the surface. Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and drizzle is characterised throughout the cloud. An ensemble optimal estimation approach provides full error statistics given the uncertainty in the observations. To evaluate the new method, we first perform retrievalsmore » using synthetic measurements from large-eddy simulation snapshots of cumulus under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g m-2. The method also performs well in non-drizzling clouds where no assumption of the cloud profile is required. We then apply the method to observations of marine stratocumulus obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MAGIC deployment in the Northeast Pacific. Here, retrieved cloud water path agrees well with independent three-channel microwave radiometer retrievals, with a root mean square difference of 10–20 g m-2.« less

  5. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  6. Airborne soil organic particles generated by precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Bingbing; Harder, Tristan H.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Piens, Dominique S.; China, Swarup; Kovarik, Libor; Keiluweit, Marco; Arey, Bruce W.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-05-02

    Airborne organic particles play a critical role in Earth’s climate1, public health2, air quality3, and hydrological and carbon cycles4. However, sources and formation mechanisms for semi-solid and solid organic particles5 are poorly understood and typically neglected in atmospheric models6. Laboratory evidence suggests that fine particles can be formed from impaction of mineral surfaces by droplets7. Here, we use chemical imaging of particles collected following rain events in the Southern Great Plains, Oklahoma, USA and after experimental irrigation to show that raindrop impaction of soils generates solid organic particles. We find that after rain events, sub-micrometre solid particles, with a chemicalmore » composition consistent with soil organic matter, contributed up to 60% of atmospheric particles. Our irrigation experiments indicate that intensive water impaction is sufficient to cause ejection of airborne soil organic particles from the soil surface. Chemical imaging and micro-spectroscopy analysis of particle physico-chemical properties suggest that these particles may have important impacts on cloud formation and efficiently absorb solar radiation. Lastly, we suggest that raindrop-induced formation of solid organic particles from soils may be a widespread phenomenon in ecosystems such as agricultural systems and grasslands where soils are exposed to strong, episodic precipitation events8.« less

  7. Service Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Service Forms Beamtime Request Form Deposition Request Form Exposure Request Form - pdf Fly Cutting Request Form Hot Embossing Request Form Metrology Request Form

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Azores: Above-Cloud Radiation Budget near Graciosa

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Island Above-Cloud Radiation Budget near Graciosa Island Campaign Links "Clouds, aerosols, and precipitation in the marine boundary layer: An ARM Mobile Facility deployment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(3), doi: 10.1175/bams-d-13-00180.1 ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Azores: Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) 2009.05.01, Wood, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call

  9. ARM - Measurement - Cloud fraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flux Analysis SWFLUXANAL : Shortwave Flux Analysis TSI : Total Sky Imager UAV-EGRETT : UAV-Egrett WSI : Whole Sky Imager WSICLOUD : Whole Sky Imager Cloud Products ...

  10. Finance Idol Word Cloud

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This word cloud represents the topics discussed during the Big and Small Ideas: How to Lower Solar Financing Costs breakout session at the SunShot Grand Challenge.

  11. ARM - Measurement - Cloud phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that involves property descriptors such as stratus, cumulus, and cirrus. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  12. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. themore » different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.« less

  13. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-07-17

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over the southeastern China (105°-125°E, 20°-35°N) are explained by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of cloud, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in the normal condition. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which enhances updraft consequently. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance.

  14. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rather than external precipitates, cells may not have been entombed within mineral shells, and so calcified cyanobacteria microfossils may not have formed, explaining the...

  15. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-01

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earths energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and subsequent impacts on the hydrologic cycle. Global observation and accurate representation of these processes in numerical models is vital to improving our current understanding and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales that are associated with convective and stratiform precipitation processes; therefore, they must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, the physical basis for these parameterization schemes needs to be evaluated for general application under a variety of atmospheric conditions. Analogously, space-based remote sensing algorithms designed to retrieve related cloud and precipitation information for use in hydrological, climate, and numerical weather prediction applications often rely on physical parameterizations that reliably translate indirectly related instrument measurements to the physical quantity of interest (e.g., precipitation rate). Importantly, both spaceborne retrieval algorithms and model convective parameterization schemes traditionally rely on field campaign data sets as a basis for evaluating and improving the physics of their respective approaches. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with

  16. Drizzle formation in stratocumulus clouds: Effects of turbulent mixing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Magaritz-Ronen, L.; Pinsky, M.; Khain, A.

    2016-02-17

    The mechanism of drizzle formation in shallow stratocumulus clouds and the effect of turbulent mixing on this process are investigated. A Lagrangian–Eularian model of the cloud-topped boundary layer is used to simulate the cloud measured during flight RF07 of the DYCOMS-II field experiment. The model contains ~ 2000 air parcels that are advected in a turbulence-like velocity field. In the model all microphysical processes are described for each Lagrangian air volume, and turbulent mixing between the parcels is also taken into account. It was found that the first large drops form in air volumes that are closest to adiabatic andmore » characterized by high humidity, extended residence near cloud top, and maximum values of liquid water content, allowing the formation of drops as a result of efficient collisions. The first large drops form near cloud top and initiate drizzle formation in the cloud. Drizzle is developed only when turbulent mixing of parcels is included in the model. Without mixing, the cloud structure is extremely inhomogeneous and the few large drops that do form in the cloud evaporate during their sedimentation. Lastly, it was found that turbulent mixing can delay the process of drizzle initiation but is essential for the further development of drizzle in the cloud.« less

  17. Precipitation hardening austenitic superalloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Korenko, Michael K. (Wexford, PA)

    1985-01-01

    Precipitation hardening, austenitic type superalloys are described. These alloys contain 0.5 to 1.5 weight percent silicon in combination with about 0.05 to 0.5 weight percent of a post irradiation ductility enhancing agent selected from the group of hafnium, yttrium, lanthanum and scandium, alone or in combination with each other. In addition, when hafnium or yttrium are selected, reductions in irradiation induced swelling have been noted.

  18. METHOD FOR RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM SOLUTION USING A BISMUTH HYDROXIDE CARRIER PRECIPITATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faris, B.F.

    1961-04-25

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from aqueous solutions are described. In accordance with the invention a bismuth hydroxide precipitate is formed in the plutonium-containing solution, thereby carrying plutonium values from the solution.

  19. Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary Layer Cloud Turbulence Characteristics Virendra Ghate Bruce Albrecht Parameter Observational Readiness (/10) Modeling Need (/10) Cloud Boundaries 9 9 Cloud Fraction Variance Skewness Up/Downdraft coverage Dominant Freq. signal Dissipation rate ??? Observation-Modeling Interface

  20. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  1. Cloud computing security.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Dongwan; Claycomb, William R.; Urias, Vincent E.

    2010-10-01

    Cloud computing is a paradigm rapidly being embraced by government and industry as a solution for cost-savings, scalability, and collaboration. While a multitude of applications and services are available commercially for cloud-based solutions, research in this area has yet to fully embrace the full spectrum of potential challenges facing cloud computing. This tutorial aims to provide researchers with a fundamental understanding of cloud computing, with the goals of identifying a broad range of potential research topics, and inspiring a new surge in research to address current issues. We will also discuss real implementations of research-oriented cloud computing systems for both academia and government, including configuration options, hardware issues, challenges, and solutions.

  2. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  3. TC_CLOUD_REGIME.cdr

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    intensity (e.g. May and Ballinger, 2007) Resulting Cloud Properties Examine rain DSD using polarimetric radar Examine ice cloud properties using MMCR and MPL Expect...

  4. ARM - Measurement - Cloud effective radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the number size distribution of cloud particles, whether liquid or ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  5. Cirrus clouds in a global climate model with a statistical cirrus cloud scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Penner, Joyce E.

    2010-06-21

    A statistical cirrus cloud scheme that accounts for mesoscale temperature perturbations is implemented in a coupled aerosol and atmospheric circulation model to better represent both subgrid-scale supersaturation and cloud formation. This new scheme treats the effects of aerosol on cloud formation and ice freezing in an improved manner, and both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are included. The scheme is able to better simulate the observed probability distribution of relative humidity compared to the scheme that was implemented in an older version of the model. Heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) are shown to decrease the frequency of occurrence of supersaturation, and improve the comparison with observations at 192 hPa. Homogeneous freezing alone can not reproduce observed ice crystal number concentrations at low temperatures (<205 K), but the addition of heterogeneous IN improves the comparison somewhat. Increases in heterogeneous IN affect both high level cirrus clouds and low level liquid clouds. Increases in cirrus clouds lead to a more cloudy and moist lower troposphere with less precipitation, effects which we associate with the decreased convective activity. The change in the net cloud forcing is not very sensitive to the change in ice crystal concentrations, but the change in the net radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere is still large because of changes in water vapor. Changes in the magnitude of the assumed mesoscale temperature perturbations by 25% alter the ice crystal number concentrations and the net radiative fluxes by an amount that is comparable to that from a factor of 10 change in the heterogeneous IN number concentrations. Further improvements on the representation of mesoscale temperature perturbations, heterogeneous IN and the competition between homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous freezing are needed.

  6. Effects of Aerosols on Autumn Precipitation over Mid-Eastern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, J.; Qian, Yun; Ge, Jinming; Su, Jing

    2014-09-20

    Long-term observational data indicated a decreasing trend for the amount of autumn precipitation (i.e. 54.3 mm per decade) over Mid-Eastern China, especially after 1980s (~ 5.6% per decade). To examine the cause of the decreasing trend, the mechanisms associated with the change of autumn precipitation were investigated from the perspective of water vapor transportation, atmospheric stability and cloud microphysics. Results show that the decrease of convective available potential energy (i.e. 12.81 J kg-1/ decade) and change of cloud microphysics, which were closely related to the increase of aerosol loading during the past twenty years, were the two primary factors responsible for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Ours results showed that increased aerosol could enhance the atmospheric stability thus weaken the convection. Meanwhile, more aerosols also led to a significant decline of raindrop concentration and to a delay of raindrop formation because of smaller size of cloud droplets. Thus, increased aerosols produced by air pollution could be one of the major reasons for the decrease of autumn precipitation. Furthermore, we found that the aerosol effects on precipitation in autumn was more significant than in other seasons, partly due to the relatively more stable synoptic system in autumn. The impact of large-scale circulation dominated in autumn and the dynamic influence on precipitation was more important than the thermodynamic activity.

  7. BAECC Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Moisseev, Dmitri; Sinclair, Victoria; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Manninen, Antti J.; Levula, Janne; Väänänen, Riikka; Heikkinen, Liine; Äijälä, Mikko; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana

    2015-11-01

    “Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)”, featured the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s 2nd Mobile Facility (AMF2) in Hyytiälä, Finland. It operated for an 8-month intensive measurement campaign from February to September 2014. The main research goal was to understand the role of biogenic aerosols in cloud formation. One of the reasons to perform BAECC study in Hyytiälä was the fact that it hosts SMEAR-II (Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations), which is one of the world’s most comprehensive surface in-situ observation sites in a boreal forest environment. The station has been measuring atmospheric aerosols, biogenic emissions and an extensive suite of parameters relevant to atmosphere-biosphere interactions continuously since 1996. The BAECC enables combining vertical profiles from AMF2 with surface-based in-situ SMEAR-II observations and allows the processes at the surface to be directly related to processes occurring throughout the entire tropospheric column. With the inclusion of extensive surface precipitation measurements, and intensive observation periods involving aircraft flights and novel radiosonde launches, the complementary observations of AMF2 and SMEAR-II provide a unique opportunity for investigating aerosol-cloud interactions, and cloud-to-precipitation processes. The BAECC dataset will initiate new opportunities for evaluating and improving models of aerosol sources and transport, cloud microphysical processes, and boundary-layer structures.

  8. Microphysical Consequences of the Spatial Distribution of Ice Nucleation in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Fan; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-07-28

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds can persist even with steady ice precipitation fluxes, and the origin and microphysical properties of the ice crystals are of interest. Vapor deposition growth and sedimentation of ice particles along with a uniform volume source of ice nucleation, leads to a power law relation between ice water content wi and ice number concentration ni with exponent 2.5. The result is independent of assumptions about the vertical velocity structure of the cloud and is therefore more general than the related expression of Yang et al. [2013]. The sensitivity of the wi-ni relationship to the spatial distribution of ice nucleation is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking and ice growth with cloud-volume, cloud-top, and cloud-base sources of ice particles through a time-dependent cloud field. Based on observed wi and ni from ISDAC, a lower bound of 0.006 m^3/s is obtained for the ice crystal formation rate.

  9. Minimalist Model of Ice Microphysics in Mixed-phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2013-07-28

    The question of whether persistent ice crystal precipitation from super cooled layer clouds can be explained by time-dependent, stochastic ice nucleation is explored using an approximate, analytical model, and a large-eddy simulation (LES) cloud model. The updraft velocity in the cloud defines an accumulation zone, where small ice particles cannot fall out until they are large enough, which will increase the residence time of ice particles in the cloud. Ice particles reach a quasi-steady state between growth by vapor deposition and fall speed at cloud base. The analytical model predicts that ice water content (wi) has a 2.5 power law relationship with ice number concentration ni. wi and ni from a LES cloud model with stochastic ice nucleation also confirm the 2.5 power law relationship. The prefactor of the power law is proportional to the ice nucleation rate, and therefore provides a quantitative link to observations of ice microphysical properties.

  10. JLF Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    jlf forms JLF Forms JLF Target Fab Request JLF Experiment Worksheet JLF-Experimental Team Registration Form JLF-LLNL Participant Registration Form JLF-External Participant Registration Form JLF-Debriefing Form

  11. Magellan: A Cloud Computing Testbed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Magellan News & Announcements Archive Petascale Initiative Exascale Computing APEX Home » R & D » Archive » Magellan: A Cloud Computing Testbed Magellan: A Cloud Computing Testbed Cloud computing is gaining a foothold in the business world, but can clouds meet the specialized needs of scientists? That was one of the questions NERSC's Magellan cloud computing testbed explored between 2009 and 2011. The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oce

  12. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  13. Scanning Cloud Radar Observations at Azores: Preliminary 3D Cloud Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Johnson, K.; Jo, I.; Tatarevic, A.; Giangrande, S.; Widener, K.; Bharadwaj, N.; Mead, J.

    2010-03-15

    The deployment of the Scanning W-Band ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) during the AMF campaign at Azores signals the first deployment of an ARM Facility-owned scanning cloud radar and offers a prelude for the type of 3D cloud observations that ARM will have the capability to provide at all the ARM Climate Research Facility sites by the end of 2010. The primary objective of the deployment of Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACRs) at the ARM Facility sites is to map continuously (operationally) the 3D structure of clouds and shallow precipitation and to provide 3D microphysical and dynamical retrievals for cloud life cycle and cloud-scale process studies. This is a challenging task, never attempted before, and requires significant research and development efforts in order to understand the radar's capabilities and limitations. At the same time, we need to look beyond the radar meteorology aspects of the challenge and ensure that the hardware and software capabilities of the new systems are utilized for the development of 3D data products that address the scientific needs of the new Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. The SWACR observations at Azores provide a first look at such observations and the challenges associated with their analysis and interpretation. The set of scan strategies applied during the SWACR deployment and their merit is discussed. The scan strategies were adjusted for the detection of marine stratocumulus and shallow cumulus that were frequently observed at the Azores deployment. Quality control procedures for the radar reflectivity and Doppler products are presented. Finally, preliminary 3D-Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Locations (3D-ARSCL) products on a regular grid will be presented, and the challenges associated with their development discussed. In addition to data from the Azores deployment, limited data from the follow-up deployment of the SWACR at the ARM SGP site will be presented. This effort provides a blueprint for the effort required for the

  14. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, S A; McCoy, R B; Morrison, H; Ackerman, A; Avramov, A; deBoer, G; Chen, M; Cole, J; DelGenio, A; Golaz, J; Hashino, T; Harrington, J; Hoose, C; Khairoutdinov, M; Larson, V; Liu, X; Luo, Y; McFarquhar, G; Menon, S; Neggers, R; Park, S; Poellot, M; von Salzen, K; Schmidt, J; Sednev, I; Shipway, B; Shupe, M; Spangenberg, D; Sud, Y; Turner, D; Veron, D; Falk, M; Foster, M; Fridlind, A; Walker, G; Wang, Z; Wolf, A; Xie, S; Xu, K; Yang, F; Zhang, G

    2008-02-27

    Results are presented from an intercomparison of single-column and cloud-resolving model simulations of a cold-air outbreak mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The observed cloud occurred in a well-mixed boundary layer with a cloud top temperature of -15 C. The observed liquid water path of around 160 g m{sup -2} was about two-thirds of the adiabatic value and much greater than the mass of ice crystal precipitation which when integrated from the surface to cloud top was around 15 g m{sup -2}. The simulations were performed by seventeen single-column models (SCMs) and nine cloud-resolving models (CRMs). While the simulated ice water path is generally consistent with the observed values, the median SCM and CRM liquid water path is a factor of three smaller than observed. Results from a sensitivity study in which models removed ice microphysics indicate that in many models the interaction between liquid and ice-phase microphysics is responsible for the large model underestimate of liquid water path. Despite this general underestimate, the simulated liquid and ice water paths of several models are consistent with the observed values. Furthermore, there is some evidence that models with more sophisticated microphysics simulate liquid and ice water paths that are in better agreement with the observed values, although considerable scatter is also present. Although no single factor guarantees a good simulation, these results emphasize the need for improvement in the model representation of mixed-phase microphysics. This case study, which has been well observed from both aircraft and ground-based remote sensors, could be a benchmark for model simulations of mixed-phase clouds.

  15. Thermodynamic micellization model of asphaltene precipitation from petroleum fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victorov, A.I.; Firoozabadi, A.

    1996-06-01

    A thermodynamic micellization model is proposed for the description of asphaltene precipitation from petroleum fluids. It describes the solubilization of asphaltene polar species by resin bipolar molecules in the micelles. A simple form of the standard Gibbs free energy of micellization is used. The petroleum fluid is assumed to be a dilute solution with respect to the monomeric asphaltenes, resins, and micelles. The Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR-EOS) is applied to describe the fugacity of monomeric asphaltene in the bulk of the petroleum fluid. Intermicellar interactions as well as osmotic pressure effects are neglected. The proposed model shows promising results to describe asphaltene deposition from crude mixtures. It predicts the change in precipitation power of different alkane precipitants and the effect of pressure on asphaltene precipitation. The amount and the onset of predicted asphaltene precipitation are sensitive to the amount of resins in the crude. All these results are in line with laboratory observations and oil-field data.

  16. PURIFICATION OF PLUTONIUM USING A CERIUM PRECIPITATE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faris, B.F.; Olson, C.M.

    1961-07-01

    Bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation processes are described for the separation of plutonium from fission products wherein in at least one step bismuth phosphate is precipitated in the presence of hexavalent plutonium thereby carrying a portion of the fission products from soluble plu tonium values. In this step, a cerium phosphate precipitate is formed in conjunction with the bismuth phosphate precipitate, thereby increasing the amount of fission products removed from solution.

  17. Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane cloud hunting Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting Los Alamos researchers go ... Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting When our team from Los Alamos National ...

  18. Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, MP; Petersen, WA; Del Genio, AD; Giangrande, SE; Heymsfield, A; Heymsfield, G; Hou, AY; Kollias, P; Orr, B; Rutledge, SA; Schwaller, MR; Zipser, E

    2010-04-10

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) will take place in central Oklahoma during the AprilMay 2011 period. The experiment is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The field campaign leverages the unprecedented observing infrastructure currently available in the central United States, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, NASA GPM ground validation remote sensors, and new ARM instrumentation purchased with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding. The overarching goal is to provide the most complete characterization of convective cloud systems, precipitation, and the environment that has ever been obtained, providing constraints for model cumulus parameterizations and space-based rainfall retrieval algorithms over land that have never before been available.

  19. Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David D.

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

  20. Precipitation Process and Apparatus Therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stang, Jr, L C

    1950-12-05

    This invention concerns an apparatus for remotely-controlled precipitation and filtration operations. Liquid within a precipitation chamber is maintained above a porous member by introducing air beneath the member; pressure beneath the porous member is reduced to suck the liquid through the member and effect filtration.

  1. A Multiscale Modeling Framework Model (Superparameterized CAM5) with a Higher-Order Turbulence Closure: Model Description and Low-Cloud Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Minghuai; Larson, Vincent E.; Ghan, Steven J.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Schanen, D.; Xiao, Heng; Liu, Xiaohong; Rasch, Philip J.; Guo, Zhun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a higher-order turbulence closure scheme, called Cloud Layers Unified by Binormals (CLUBB), is implemented into a Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) model to improve low cloud simulations. The performance of CLUBB in MMF simulations with two different microphysics configurations (one-moment cloud microphysics without aerosol treatment and two-moment cloud microphysics coupled with aerosol treatment) is evaluated against observations and further compared with results from the Community Atmosphere Model, Version 5 (CAM5) with conventional cloud parameterizations. CLUBB is found to improve low cloud simulations in the MMF, and the improvement is particularly evident in the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition regions. Compared to the single-moment cloud microphysics, CLUBB with two-moment microphysics produces clouds that are closer to the coast, and agrees better with observations. In the stratocumulus-to cumulus transition regions, CLUBB with two-moment cloud microphysics produces shortwave cloud forcing in better agreement with observations, while CLUBB with single moment cloud microphysics overestimates shortwave cloud forcing. CLUBB is further found to produce quantitatively similar improvements in the MMF and CAM5, with slightly better performance in the MMF simulations (e.g., MMF with CLUBB generally produces low clouds that are closer to the coast than CAM5 with CLUBB). Improved low cloud simulations in MMF make it an even more attractive tool for studying aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions.

  2. Evaluation of high‐level clouds in cloud resolving model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model 10.10022015MS000478 simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations Key Points: * Two-moment microphysics improves simulated ...

  3. Opaque cloud detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2009-01-20

    A method of detecting clouds in a digital image comprising, for an area of the digital image, determining a reflectance value in at least three discrete electromagnetic spectrum bands, computing a first ratio of one reflectance value minus another reflectance value and the same two values added together, computing a second ratio of one reflectance value and another reflectance value, choosing one of the reflectance values, and concluding that an opaque cloud exists in the area if the results of each of the two computing steps and the choosing step fall within three corresponding predetermined ranges.

  4. Bringing Clouds into Focus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bringing Clouds into Focus Bringing Clouds into Focus A New Global Climate Model May Reduce the Uncertainty of Climate Forecasting May 11, 2010 Contact: John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov , +1 510 486 6008 Randall-fig4.png The large data sets generated by the GCRM require new analysis and visualization capabilities. This 3D plot of vorticity isosurfaces was developed using VisIt, a 3D visualization tool with a parallel distributed architecture, which is being extended to support the geodesic grid used

  5. METHOD OF IMPROVING THE CARRIER PRECIPITATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamack, H.J.; Balthis, J.H.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium values can be recovered from acidic solutlons by adding lead nitrate, hydrogen fluoride, lantha num nitrate, and sulfurlc acid to the solution to form a carrler preclpitate. The lead sulfate formed improves the separatlon characteristics of the lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate,

  6. Cloud Based Applications and Platforms (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2014-05-15

    Presentation to the Cloud Computing East 2014 Conference, where we are highlighting our cloud computing strategy, describing the platforms on the cloud (including Smartgrid.gov), and defining our process for implementing cloud based applications.

  7. TWP Island Cloud Trail Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    These island cloud trails have been observed from both the islands of Nauru and Manus, Papua New Guinea. Figure 2 shows an island cloud at Manus observed from MTI and from the ...

  8. Online Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microfabrication | Safety Online Forms, Guidelines & Policies Questions of How to Get Started? - Click here! User Forms: Beamtime Request Form - pdf CAMD Gas Cylinder Request Form - pdf Compressed Gas Purchase Order - pdf Exposure Request Form - pdf (How To Fill the Exposure Request Form?) Format for Annual User Reports - pdf Microfabrication Project Proposal Form - pdf Synchrotron Project Proposal Form - pdf Registration & Test Application for Facility Access & Radiation Badge - pdf

  9. ARM - Measurement - Images of Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsImages of Clouds ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Images of Clouds Digital images of cloud scenes (various formats) from satellite, aircraft, and ground-based platforms. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  10. ARM - Measurement - Total cloud water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud water ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Total cloud water The total concentration (mass/vol) of ice and liquid water particles in a cloud; this includes condensed water content (CWC). Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a

  11. INFERENCE OF INHOMOGENEOUS CLOUDS IN AN EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; De Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole; Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Heng, Kevin; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Gillon, Michael; Barclay, Thomas; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2013-10-20

    We present new visible and infrared observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b to determine its atmospheric properties. Our analysis allows us to (1) refine Kepler-7b's relatively large geometric albedo of Ag = 0.35 0.02, (2) place upper limits on Kepler-7b thermal emission that remains undetected in both Spitzer bandpasses and (3) report a westward shift in the Kepler optical phase curve. We argue that Kepler-7b's visible flux cannot be due to thermal emission or Rayleigh scattering from H{sub 2} molecules. We therefore conclude that high altitude, optically reflective clouds located west from the substellar point are present in its atmosphere. We find that a silicate-based cloud composition is a possible candidate. Kepler-7b exhibits several properties that may make it particularly amenable to cloud formation in its upper atmosphere. These include a hot deep atmosphere that avoids a cloud cold trap, very low surface gravity to suppress cloud sedimentation, and a planetary equilibrium temperature in a range that allows for silicate clouds to potentially form in the visible atmosphere probed by Kepler. Our analysis does not only present evidence of optically thick clouds on Kepler-7b but also yields the first map of clouds in an exoplanet atmosphere.

  12. Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Johannesson, G.; Klein, Stephen A.; Lucas, Donald; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Swiler, Laura P.; Tannahill, John; et al

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the sensitivity of precipitation characteristics (mean, extreme and diurnal cycle) to a set of uncertain parameters that influence the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the cloud and aerosol processes in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). We adopt both the Latin hypercube and quasi-Monte Carlo sampling approaches to effectively explore the high-dimensional parameter space and then conduct two large sets of simulations. One set consists of 1100 simulations (cloud ensemble) perturbing 22 parameters related to cloud physics and convection, and the other set consists of 256 simulations (aerosol ensemble) focusing on 16 parameters related to aerosols and cloud microphysics.more » Results show that for the 22 parameters perturbed in the cloud ensemble, the six having the greatest influences on the global mean precipitation are identified, three of which (related to the deep convection scheme) are the primary contributors to the total variance of the phase and amplitude of the precipitation diurnal cycle over land. The extreme precipitation characteristics are sensitive to a fewer number of parameters. The precipitation does not always respond monotonically to parameter change. The influence of individual parameters does not depend on the sampling approaches or concomitant parameters selected. Generally the GLM is able to explain more of the parametric sensitivity of global precipitation than local or regional features. The total explained variance for precipitation is primarily due to contributions from the individual parameters (75-90% in total). The total variance shows a significant seasonal variability in the mid-latitude continental regions, but very small in tropical continental regions.« less

  13. Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yan, Huiping; Hou, Zhangshuan; Johannesson, G.; Klein, Stephen A.; Lucas, Donald; Neale, Richard; Rasch, Philip J.; Swiler, Laura P.; Tannahill, John; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Zhao, Chun

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the sensitivity of precipitation characteristics (mean, extreme and diurnal cycle) to a set of uncertain parameters that influence the qualitative and quantitative behavior of the cloud and aerosol processes in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). We adopt both the Latin hypercube and quasi-Monte Carlo sampling approaches to effectively explore the high-dimensional parameter space and then conduct two large sets of simulations. One set consists of 1100 simulations (cloud ensemble) perturbing 22 parameters related to cloud physics and convection, and the other set consists of 256 simulations (aerosol ensemble) focusing on 16 parameters related to aerosols and cloud microphysics. Results show that for the 22 parameters perturbed in the cloud ensemble, the six having the greatest influences on the global mean precipitation are identified, three of which (related to the deep convection scheme) are the primary contributors to the total variance of the phase and amplitude of the precipitation diurnal cycle over land. The extreme precipitation characteristics are sensitive to a fewer number of parameters. The precipitation does not always respond monotonically to parameter change. The influence of individual parameters does not depend on the sampling approaches or concomitant parameters selected. Generally the GLM is able to explain more of the parametric sensitivity of global precipitation than local or regional features. The total explained variance for precipitation is primarily due to contributions from the individual parameters (75-90% in total). The total variance shows a significant seasonal variability in the mid-latitude continental regions, but very small in tropical continental regions.

  14. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mechem, David B.; Giangrande, Scott E.; Wittman, Carly S.; Borque, Paloma; Toto, Tami; Kollias, Pavlos

    2015-03-13

    A case of shallow cumulus and precipitating cumulus congestus sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) supersite is analyzed using a multi-sensor observational approach and numerical simulation. Observations from a new radar suite surrounding the facility are used to characterize the evolving statistical behavior of the precipitating cloud system. This is accomplished using distributions of different measures of cloud geometry and precipitation properties. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with size-resolved (bin) microphysics is employed to determine the forcings most important in producing the salient aspects of the cloud system captured in the radar observations. Our emphasis ismore » on assessing the importance of time-varying vs. steady-state large-scale forcing on the model's ability to reproduce the evolutionary behavior of the cloud system. Additional consideration is given to how the characteristic spatial scale and homogeneity of the forcing imposed on the simulation influences the evolution of cloud system properties. Results indicate that several new scanning radar estimates such as distributions of cloud top are useful to differentiate the value of time-varying (or at least temporally well-matched) forcing on LES solution fidelity.« less

  15. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mechem, David B.; Giangrande, Scott E.; Wittman, Carly S.; Borque, Paloma; Toto, Tami; Kollias, Pavlos

    2015-03-13

    A case of shallow cumulus and precipitating cumulus congestus sampled at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) supersite is analyzed using a multi-sensor observational approach and numerical simulation. Observations from a new radar suite surrounding the facility are used to characterize the evolving statistical behavior of the precipitating cloud system. This is accomplished using distributions of different measures of cloud geometry and precipitation properties. Large-eddy simulation (LES) with size-resolved (bin) microphysics is employed to determine the forcings most important in producing the salient aspects of the cloud system captured in the radar observations. Our emphasis is on assessing the importance of time-varying vs. steady-state large-scale forcing on the model's ability to reproduce the evolutionary behavior of the cloud system. Additional consideration is given to how the characteristic spatial scale and homogeneity of the forcing imposed on the simulation influences the evolution of cloud system properties. Results indicate that several new scanning radar estimates such as distributions of cloud top are useful to differentiate the value of time-varying (or at least temporally well-matched) forcing on LES solution fidelity.

  16. HOT HYDROGEN IN DIFFUSE CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Duley, Walt W.; Williams, David A. E-mail: wwduley@uwaterloo.ca

    2012-08-20

    Laboratory evidence suggests that recombination of adsorbed radicals may cause an abrupt temperature excursion of a dust grain to about 1000 K. One consequence of this is the rapid desorption of adsorbed H{sub 2} molecules with excitation temperatures of this magnitude. We compute the consequences of injection of hot H{sub 2} into cold diffuse interstellar gas at a rate of 1% of the canonical H{sub 2} formation rate. We find that the level populations of H{sub 2} in J = 3, 4, and 5 are close to observed values, and that the abundances of CH{sup +} and OH formed in reactions with hot hydrogen are close to the values obtained from observations of diffuse clouds.

  17. Study of Mechanisms of Aerosol Indirect Effects on Glaciated Clouds: Progress during the Project Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-18

    This 3-year project has studied how aerosol pollution influences glaciated clouds. The tool applied has been an 'aerosol-cloud model'. It is a type of Cloud-System Resolving Model (CSRM) modified to include 2-moment bulk microphysics and 7 aerosol species, as described by Phillips et al. (2009, 2013). The study has been done by, first, improving the model and then performing sensitivity studies with validated simulations of a couple of observed cases from ARM. These are namely the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) over the tropical west Pacific and the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over Oklahoma. During the project, sensitivity tests with the model showed that in continental clouds, extra liquid aerosols (soluble aerosol material) from pollution inhibited warm rain processes for precipitation production. This promoted homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets and aerosols. Mass and number concentrations of cloud-ice particles were boosted. The mean sizes of cloud-ice particles were reduced by the pollution. Hence, the lifetime of glaciated clouds, especially ice-only clouds, was augmented due to inhibition of sedimentation and ice-ice aggregation. Latent heat released from extra homogeneous freezing invigorated convective updrafts, and raised their maximum cloud-tops, when aerosol pollution was included. In the particular cases simulated in the project, the aerosol indirect effect of glaciated clouds was twice than of (warm) water clouds. This was because glaciated clouds are higher in the troposphere than water clouds and have the first interaction with incoming solar radiation. Ice-only clouds caused solar cooling by becoming more extensive as a result of aerosol pollution. This 'lifetime indirect effect' of ice-only clouds was due to higher numbers of homogeneously nucleated ice crystals causing a reduction in their mean size, slowing the ice-crystal process of snow production and slowing sedimentation. In addition

  18. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  19. pCloud: A Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudkevich, Aleksandr; Goldis, Evgeniy

    2012-12-02

    This research conducted by the Newton Energy Group, LLC (NEG) is dedicated to the development of pCloud: a Cloud-based Power Market Simulation Environment. pCloud is offering power industry stakeholders the capability to model electricity markets and is organized around the Software as a Service (SaaS) concept -- a software application delivery model in which software is centrally hosted and provided to many users via the internet. During the Phase I of this project NEG developed a prototype design for pCloud as a SaaS-based commercial service offering, system architecture supporting that design, ensured feasibility of key architecture's elements, formed technological partnerships and negotiated commercial agreements with partners, conducted market research and other related activities and secured funding for continue development of pCloud between the end of Phase I and beginning of Phase II, if awarded. Based on the results of Phase I activities, NEG has established that the development of a cloud-based power market simulation environment within the Windows Azure platform is technologically feasible, can be accomplished within the budget and timeframe available through the Phase II SBIR award with additional external funding. NEG believes that pCloud has the potential to become a game-changing technology for the modeling and analysis of electricity markets. This potential is due to the following critical advantages of pCloud over its competition: - Standardized access to advanced and proven power market simulators offered by third parties. - Automated parallelization of simulations and dynamic provisioning of computing resources on the cloud. This combination of automation and scalability dramatically reduces turn-around time while offering the capability to increase the number of analyzed scenarios by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000. - Access to ready-to-use data and to cloud-based resources leading to a reduction in software, hardware, and IT costs

  20. Radiosonde observations at Pt. Reyes and cloud properties retrieved from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GOES-WEST Radiosonde observations at Pt. Reyes and cloud properties retrieved from GOES-WEST Inoue, Toshiro MRI/JMA Category: Field Campaigns Low-level cloud formed off the west coast of continents plays an important role in general circulation and climate. Marine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) was conducted at the ARM mobile site deployed at Pt Reyes, California during April to September. Here, we studied the relationship between meteorological parameters observed by GPS

  1. Acidity dependence on cloud drop sizes, enhancement of sulfate production in clouds and its climatic implications from cloud water collected at a remote eastern US site. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logie, B.D.

    1995-09-10

    Two different cloud water collectors were operated simultaneously on a mountain-top platform in Mt. Mitchell State Park, North Carolina (35 deg 44` 05 N 82 deg 17` 15W) to assess differences, if any, in measured acidity, ionic concentrations, and liquid water collection efficiencies during the summer, 1994. The cloud water collectors used were the Daube California Institute of Technology active-string collector (CALTECH) and the non-rotating passive Atmospheric Sciences Research Center string collector. Both collectors transfer cloud water into their sampling bottles by a process analogous to the collision-coalescence process in precipitation initiation by which cloud droplets accumulate on the collector strings and are then transferred to collection bottles as the droplets become large enough to fall. These large drops, in turn, acquire smaller droplets along their path.

  2. The Magellan Final Report on Cloud Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ,; Coghlan, Susan; Yelick, Katherine

    2011-12-21

    The goal of Magellan, a project funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), was to investigate the potential role of cloud computing in addressing the computing needs for the DOE Office of Science (SC), particularly related to serving the needs of mid- range computing and future data-intensive computing workloads. A set of research questions was formed to probe various aspects of cloud computing from performance, usability, and cost. To address these questions, a distributed testbed infrastructure was deployed at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). The testbed was designed to be flexible and capable enough to explore a variety of computing models and hardware design points in order to understand the impact for various scientific applications. During the project, the testbed also served as a valuable resource to application scientists. Applications from a diverse set of projects such as MG-RAST (a metagenomics analysis server), the Joint Genome Institute, the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), were used by the Magellan project for benchmarking within the cloud, but the project teams were also able to accomplish important production science utilizing the Magellan cloud resources.

  3. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations: HIGH CLOUD IN CRM Authors: Liu, Zheng 1 ; Muhlbauer, Andreas 2 ; ...

  4. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Bansemer, A.; Bharadwaj, N.; Carey, L. D.; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, S. M.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dolan, B.; Gerlach, J.; et al

    2015-12-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deepmore » convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. As a result, data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.« less

  5. The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Bansemer, A.; Bharadwaj, N.; Carey, L. D.; Cecil, D. J.; Collis, S. M.; DelGenio, A. D.; Dolan, B.; Gerlach, J.; Giangrande, S. E.; Heymsfield, A.; Heymsfield, G.; Kollias, P.; Lang, T. J.; Nesbitt, S. W.; Neumann, A.; Poellot, M.; Rutledge, S. A.; Schwaller, M.; Tokay, A.; Williams, C. R.; Wolff, D. B.; Xie, S.; Zipser, E. J.

    2015-12-18

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), a field program jointly led by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission, was conducted in south-central Oklahoma during April – May 2011. MC3E science objectives were motivated by the need to improve understanding of midlatitude continental convective cloud system lifecycles, microphysics, and GPM precipitation retrieval algorithms. To achieve these objectives a multi-scale surface- and aircraft-based in situ and remote sensing observing strategy was employed. A variety of cloud and precipitation events were sampled during the MC3E, of which results from three deep convective events are highlighted. Vertical structure, air motions, precipitation drop-size distributions and ice properties were retrieved from multi-wavelength radar, profiler, and aircraft observations for an MCS on 11 May. Aircraft observations for another MCS observed on 20 May were used to test agreement between observed radar reflectivities and those calculated with forward-modeled reflectivity and microwave brightness temperatures using in situ particle size distributions and ice water content. Multi-platform observations of a supercell that occurred on 23 May allowed for an integrated analysis of kinematic and microphysical interactions. A core updraft of 25 ms-1 supported growth of hail and large rain drops. As a result, data collected during the MC3E campaign is being used in a number of current and ongoing research projects and is available through the DOE ARM and NASA data archives.

  6. Aircraft-measured indirect cloud effects from biomass burning smoke in the Arctic and subarctic

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zamora, L. M.; Kahn, R. A.; Cubison, M. J.; Diskin, G. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Kondo, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.; Nenes, A.; Thornhill, K. L.; Wisthaler, A.; et al

    2016-01-21

    The incidence of wildfires in the Arctic and subarctic is increasing; in boreal North America, for example, the burned area is expected to increase by 200–300% over the next 50–100 years, which previous studies suggest could have a large effect on cloud microphysics, lifetime, albedo, and precipitation. However, the interactions between smoke particles and clouds remain poorly quantified due to confounding meteorological influences and remote sensing limitations. Here, we use data from several aircraft campaigns in the Arctic and subarctic to explore cloud microphysics in liquid-phase clouds influenced by biomass burning. Median cloud droplet radii in smoky clouds were ~40–60% smallermore » than in background clouds. Based on the relationship between cloud droplet number (Nliq) and various biomass burning tracers (BBt) across the multi-campaign data set, we calculated the magnitude of subarctic and Arctic smoke aerosol–cloud interactions (ACIs, where ACI = (1/3) × dln(Nliq)/dln(BBt)) to be ~0.16 out of a maximum possible value of 0.33 that would be obtained if all aerosols were to nucleate cloud droplets. Interestingly, in a separate subarctic case study with low liquid water content (~0.02gm–3) and very high aerosol concentrations (2000–3000 cm–3) in the most polluted clouds, the estimated ACI value was only 0.05. In this case, competition for water vapor by the high concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) strongly limited the formation of droplets and reduced the cloud albedo effect, which highlights the importance of cloud feedbacks across scales. Using our calculated ACI values, we estimate that the smoke-driven cloud albedo effect may decrease local summertime short-wave radiative flux by between 2 and 4 Wm–2 or more under some low and homogeneous cloud cover conditions in the subarctic, although the changes should be smaller in high surface albedo regions of the Arctic. Furthermore, we lastly explore evidence suggesting that

  7. Assessing Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Spatial and Vertical Distribution with Infrared Cloud Analyzer I. Genkova and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington T. Besnard ATMOS SARL Le Mans, France D. Gillotay Institute d'Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique Brussels, Belgium Introduction In the effort to resolve uncertainties about global climate change, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (www.arm.gov) is improving the treatment of cloud radiative forcing and feedbacks in general

  8. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  9. Water clouds in Y dwarfs and exoplanets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark S.; Lupu, Roxana; Greene, Tom; Saumon, Didier; Lodders, Katharina

    2014-05-20

    The formation of clouds affects brown dwarf and planetary atmospheres of nearly all effective temperatures. Iron and silicate condense in L dwarf atmospheres and dissipate at the L/T transition. Minor species such as sulfides and salts condense in mid- to late T dwarfs. For brown dwarfs below T {sub eff} ∼ 450 K, water condenses in the upper atmosphere to form ice clouds. Currently, over a dozen objects in this temperature range have been discovered, and few previous theoretical studies have addressed the effect of water clouds on brown dwarf or exoplanetary spectra. Here we present a new grid of models that include the effect of water cloud opacity. We find that they become optically thick in objects below T {sub eff} ∼ 350-375 K. Unlike refractory cloud materials, water-ice particles are significantly nongray absorbers; they predominantly scatter at optical wavelengths through the J band and absorb in the infrared with prominent features, the strongest of which is at 2.8 μm. H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} CIA are dominant opacity sources; less abundant species may also be detectable, including the alkalis, H{sub 2}S, and PH{sub 3}. PH{sub 3}, which has been detected in Jupiter, is expected to have a strong signature in the mid-infrared at 4.3 μm in Y dwarfs around T {sub eff} = 450 K; if disequilibrium chemistry increases the abundance of PH{sub 3}, it may be detectable over a wider effective temperature range than models predict. We show results incorporating disequilibrium nitrogen and carbon chemistry and predict signatures of low gravity in planetary mass objects. Finally, we make predictions for the observability of Y dwarfs and planets with existing and future instruments, including the James Webb Space Telescope and Gemini Planet Imager.

  10. TURBULENCE DECAY AND CLOUD CORE RELAXATION IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.; Xu, Haitao

    2015-02-01

    The turbulent motion within molecular clouds is a key factor controlling star formation. Turbulence supports molecular cloud cores from evolving to gravitational collapse and hence sets a lower bound on the size of molecular cloud cores in which star formation can occur. On the other hand, without a continuous external energy source maintaining the turbulence, such as in molecular clouds, the turbulence decays with an energy dissipation time comparable to the dynamic timescale of clouds, which could change the size limits obtained from Jean's criterion by assuming constant turbulence intensities. Here we adopt scaling relations of physical variables in decaying turbulence to analyze its specific effects on the formation of stars. We find that the decay of turbulence provides an additional approach for Jeans' criterion to be achieved, after which gravitational infall governs the motion of the cloud core. This epoch of turbulence decay is defined as cloud core relaxation. The existence of cloud core relaxation provides a more complete understanding of the effect of the competition between turbulence and gravity on the dynamics of molecular cloud cores and star formation.

  11. Efficacy of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Under Varying Meteorological Conditions: Southern Great Plains Vs. Pt. Reyes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, M.; Schwartz, S.; Kim, B.-G.; Miller, M.; Liu, Y.; Min, Q.

    2008-03-10

    Several studies have demonstrated that cloud dynamical processes such as entrainment mixing may be the primary modulator of cloud optical properties in certain situations. For example, entrainment of dry air alters the cloud drop size distribution by enhancing drop evaporation. However, the effect of entrainment mixing and other forms or turbulence is still quite uncertain. Although these factors and aerosol-cloud interactions should be considered together when evaluating the efficacy of aerosol indirect effects, the underlying mechanisms appear to be dependent upon each other. In addition, accounting for them is impossible with the current understanding of aerosol indirect effect. Therefore, careful objective screening and analysis of observations are needed to determine the extent to which mixing related properties affect cloud optical properties, apart from the aerosol first indirect effect. This study addresses the role of aerosol-cloud interactions in the context of varying meteorological conditions based on ARM data obtained at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma and at Pt. Reyes, California. Previous analyses of the continental stratiform clouds at the SGP site have shown that the thicker clouds of high liquid water path (LWP) tend to contain sub adiabatic LWPs. These sub adiabatic LWPs, which result from active mixing processes, correspond to a lower susceptibility of the clouds to aerosol-cloud interactions, and, hence, to reduced aerosol indirect effects. In contrast, the consistently steady and thin maritime stratus clouds observed at Pt. Reyes are much closer to adiabatic. These clouds provide an excellent benchmark for the study of the aerosol influence on modified marine clouds relative to continental clouds, since they form in a much more homogeneous meteorological environment than those at the continental site.

  12. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  13. COOLING TIME, FREEFALL TIME, AND PRECIPITATION IN THE CORES OF ACCEPT GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voit, G. Mark; Donahue, Megan

    2015-01-20

    Star formation in the universe's largest galaxiesthe ones at the centers of galaxy clustersdepends critically on the thermodynamic state of their hot gaseous atmospheres. Central galaxies with low-entropy, high-density atmospheres frequently contain multiphase star-forming gas, while those with high-entropy, low-density atmospheres never do. The dividing line between these two populations in central entropy, and therefore central cooling time, is amazingly sharp. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the dichotomy. One points out that thermal conduction can prevent radiative cooling of cluster cores above the dividing line. The other holds that cores below the dividing line are subject to thermal instability that fuels the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) through a cold-feedback mechanism. Here we explore those hypotheses with an analysis of the H? properties of ACCEPT galaxy clusters. We find that the two hypotheses are likely to be complementary. Our results support a picture in which cold clouds inevitably precipitate out of cluster cores in which cooling outcompetes thermal conduction and rain down on the central black hole, causing AGN feedback that stabilizes the cluster core. In particular, the observed distribution of the cooling-time to freefall-time ratio is nearly identical to that seen in simulations of this cold-feedback process, implying that cold-phase accretion, and not Bondi-like accretion of hot-phase gas, is responsible for the AGN feedback that regulates star formation in large galaxies.

  14. An Improved Plutonium Trifluoride Precipitation Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, H.D.

    2001-06-26

    This report discusses results of the plutonium trifluoride two-stage precipitation study. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitation performance. A mathematical model of the precipitation process was developed which is based on the formation of plutonium fluoride complexes. The precipitation model relates all process variables, in a single equation, to a single parameter which can be used to control the performance of the plutonium trifluoride precipitation process. Recommendations have been made which will optimize the FB-Line plutonium trifluoride precipitation process.

  15. Precipitates in a quasicrystal-strengthened Al–Mn–Be–Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zupanič, Franc; Wang, Di; Gspan, Cristian; Bončina, Tonica

    2015-08-15

    In this work, an Al–Mn–Be–Cu alloy was studied containing a primary and eutectic icosahedral quasicrystalline phase in the as-cast microstructure. Special attention was given to a transmission electron microscopy investigation of precipitates formed within the aluminium solid solution (Al{sub ss}) at different temperatures. At 200 °C, only binary Al–Cu precipitates (θ′) were formed. At 300 °C, icosahedral quasicrystalline (IQC) precipitates prevailed with a crystallographic orientation relationship with the Al{sub ss.} The rods of the T-phase (Al{sub 20}Mn{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}) which were precipitated above 400 °C, also had a specific orientation relationship with the Al{sub ss}. The primary and eutectic IQC microstructural constituent started to transform rapidly to the T-phase and Be{sub 4}Al(Mn,Cu) at 500 °C. - Highlights: • In a quasicrystal-strengthened Al-alloy several types of precipitates can form. • At 200 °C, only binary Al–Cu precipitates formed (Al{sub 2}Cu-θ′). • The icosahedral quasicrystalline (IQC) precipitates prevailed at 300 °C. • T-phase (Al{sub 20}Mn{sub 3}Cu{sub 2}) precipitated at temperatures above 400 °C. • The precipitation of different phases did not have a strong effect on hardness.

  16. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems Research Instrumentation HI-SCALE will utilize the ARM Aerial Facility's Gulfstream-159 (G-1), as well as ground instrumentation located at the SGP megasite. 7e G-1 will complete transects over the site at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer, within clouds, and above clouds. 7e payload on the G-1 includes: * high frequency meteorological and radiation (both up and downwelling) measurements that also permit computing

  17. Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight from Landsat ETM+ G. Wen and L. Oreopoulos National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center University of Maryland Baltimore County Joint Center of Earth System Technology Greenbelt, Maryland R. F. Cahalan and S. C. Tsay National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Cumulus clouds attenuate solar radiation casting shows on the ground. Cumulus clouds can also enhance solar

  18. V-041: Red Hat CloudForms Multiple Vulnerabilities | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    installed as world readable can be exploited to disclose e.g. the administrative password. 4) An error due to grinder having insecure permissions for the cache folder (var...

  19. Competition Not Concentration Matters when Forming Cloud-Influencing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Acquisition Management Competition Advocates and Task-Order and Delivery Order Ombudsman There are two senior agency positions dedicated to ensuring full and open competition as a part of the federal contracting process: Competition Advocates and Task-Order and Delivery Order Ombudsman. Competition Advocates are responsible for: Promoting full and open competition; Promoting the acquisition of commercial items; Removing barriers to full and

  20. ARM - Measurement - Cloud ice particle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    : Lear Jet PARTIMG : Particle imager UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics ... particle imager MET : Surface Meteorological Instrumentation UAV-PROTEUS : UAV Proteus

  1. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park ...

  2. ARM - Measurement - Cloud optical depth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TWST : Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique Sensor WRF-CHEM : Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Output Value-Added Products LBTM-MINNIS : Minnis Cloud Products...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Cloud condensation nuclei

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CCN : Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Field Campaign Instruments AMT : Aerosol Modeling...

  4. ARM - Measurement - Cloud top height

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RUC : Rapid Update Cycle Model Data Field Campaign Instruments CO2LIDAR : Carbon Dioxide Doppler Lidar MPLCMASK : Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar VARANAL : Constrained...

  5. Parametric Sensitivity Analysis for the Asian Summer Monsoon Precipitation Simulation in the Beijing Climate Center AGCM Version 2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ben; Zhang, Yaocun; Qian, Yun; Wu, Tongwen; Huang, Anning; Fang, Yongjie

    2015-07-15

    In this study, we apply an efficient sampling approach and conduct a large number of simulations to explore the sensitivity of the simulated Asian summer monsoon (ASM) precipitation, including the climatological state and interannual variability, to eight parameters related to the cloud and precipitation processes in the Beijing Climate Center AGCM version 2.1 (BCC_AGCM2.1). Our results show that BCC_AGCM2.1 has large biases in simulating the ASM precipitation. The precipitation efficiency and evaporation coefficient for deep convection are the most sensitive parameters in simulating the ASM precipitation. With optimal parameter values, the simulated precipitation climatology could be remarkably improved, e.g. increased precipitation over the equator Indian Ocean, suppressed precipitation over the Philippine Sea, and more realistic Meiyu distribution over Eastern China. The ASM precipitation interannual variability is further analyzed, with a focus on the ENSO impacts. It shows the simulations with better ASM precipitation climatology can also produce more realistic precipitation anomalies during El Niño decaying summer. In the low-skill experiments for precipitation climatology, the ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies are most significant over continents (vs. over ocean in observation) in the South Asian monsoon region. More realistic results are derived from the higher-skill experiments with stronger anomalies over the Indian Ocean and weaker anomalies over India and the western Pacific, favoring more evident easterly anomalies forced by the tropical Indian Ocean warming and stronger Indian Ocean-western Pacific tele-connection as observed. Our model results reveal a strong connection between the simulated ASM precipitation climatological state and interannual variability in BCC_AGCM2.1 when key parameters are perturbed.

  6. Microphysical Properties of Single and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds Derived from AERI Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, David D.

    2003-06-01

    A novel new approach to retrieve cloud microphysical properties from mixed-phase clouds is presented. This algorithm retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective size of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance observations. The theoretical basis is that the absorption coefficient of ice is stronger than that of liquid water from 10-13 mm, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16-25 um. However, due to strong absorption in the rotational water vapor absorption band, the 16-25 um spectral region becomes opaque for significant water vapor burdens (i.e., for precipitable water vapor amounts over approximately 1 cm). The Arctic is characterized by its dry and cold atmosphere, as well as a preponderance of mixed-phase clouds, and thus this approach is applicable to Arctic clouds. Since this approach uses infrared observations, cloud properties are retrieved at night and during the long polar wintertime period. The analysis of the cloud properties retrieved during a 7 month period during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment demonstrates many interesting features. These results show a dependence of the optical depth on cloud phase, differences in the mode radius of the water droplets in liquid-only and mid-phase clouds, a lack of temperature dependence in the ice fraction for temperatures above 240 K, seasonal trends in the optical depth with the clouds being thinner in winter and becoming more optically thick in the late spring, and a seasonal trend in the effective size of the water droplets in liquid-only and mixed-phase clouds that is most likely related to aerosol concentration.

  7. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmez, Gilberto C.; Vzquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ?15 pc and masses ?600 M {sub ?} above density n ? 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} (?2 10{sup 3} M {sub ?} at n > 50 cm{sup 3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ?0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup 2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ?30 M {sub ?} Myr{sup 1} pc{sup 1}.

  8. PRECIPITATION METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATING ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-24

    S>A method is described for separating plutonium, in a valence state of less than five, from an aqueous solution in which it is dissolved. The niethod consists in adding potassium and sulfate ions to such a solution while maintaining the solution at a pH of less than 7.1, and isolating the precipitate of potassium plutonium sulfate thus formed.

  9. Method of precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Kim, Yongman; Wan, Jiamin

    2013-08-20

    A method for precipitating uranium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium is presented. The method includes precipitating uranium as a uranyl vanadate through mixing an aqueous solution and/or sediment comprising uranium and/or vanadium and a solution comprising a monovalent or divalent cation to form the corresponding cation uranyl vanadate precipitate. The method also provides a pathway for extraction of uranium and vanadium from an aqueous solution and/or sediment.

  10. Widget:LogoCloud | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LogoCloud Jump to: navigation, search This widget adds css selectors and javascript for the Template:LogoCloud. For example: Widget:LogoCloud Retrieved from "http:...

  11. Testing cloud microphysics parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu X.; Lin W.; Xie, S.; Boyle, J.; Klein, S. A.; Shi, X.; Wang, Z.; Ghan, S. J.; Earle, M.; Liu, P. S. K.; Zelenyuk, A.

    2011-12-24

    Arctic clouds simulated by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic spring and fall seasons performed under the Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary-layer mixed-phase stratocumulus and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level stratocumulus, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m{sup -2}. Introducing a new ice nucleation parameterization slightly improves the model performance for low-level mixed-phase clouds by increasing cloud liquid water content through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process. The CAM5 single-column model testing shows that changing the instantaneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C causes a large increase in modeled cloud liquid water content through the slowing down of cloud liquid and rain-related processes (e.g., autoconversion of cloud liquid to rain). The underestimation of aerosol concentrations in CAM5 in the Arctic also plays an important role in the low bias of cloud liquid water in the single-layer mixed-phase clouds. In addition, numerical issues related to the coupling of model physics and time stepping in CAM5 are responsible for the model biases and will be explored in future studies.

  12. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Xie, Shaocheng; Boyle, James; Klein, Stephen A.; Shi, Xiangjun; Wang, Zhien; Lin, Wuyin; Ghan, Steven J.; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter; Zelenyuk, Alla

    2011-12-24

    Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) are evaluated with observations from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) and Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), which were conducted at its North Slope of Alaska site in April 2008 and October 2004, respectively. Model forecasts for the Arctic Spring and Fall seasons performed under the Cloud- Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAPT) framework generally reproduce the spatial distributions of cloud fraction for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase stratocumulus, and multilayer or deep frontal clouds. However, for low-level clouds, the model significantly underestimates the observed cloud liquid water content in both seasons and cloud fraction in the Spring season. As a result, CAM5 significantly underestimates the surface downward longwave (LW) radiative fluxes by 20-40 W m-2. The model with a new ice nucleation parameterization moderately improves the model simulations by increasing cloud liquid water content in mixed-phase clouds through the reduction of the conversion rate from cloud liquid to ice by the Wegener-Bergeron- Findeisen (WBF) process. The CAM5 single column model testing shows that change in the homogeneous freezing temperature of rain to form snow from -5 C to -40 C has a substantial impact on the modeled liquid water content through the slowing-down of liquid and rain-related processes. In contrast, collections of cloud ice by snow and cloud liquid by rain are of minor importance for single-layer boundary layer mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic.

  13. Zenith Radiance Retrieval of Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    retrievals of cloud properties from the AMF/COPS campaign Preliminary retrievals of cloud properties from the AMF/COPS campaign Christine Chiu, UMBC/JCET Alexander Marshak, GSFC Yuri Knyazikhin, Boston University Warren Wiscombe, GSFC Christine Chiu, UMBC/JCET Alexander Marshak, GSFC Yuri Knyazikhin, Boston University Warren Wiscombe, GSFC The cloud optical properties of interest are: The cloud optical properties of interest are: * Cloud optical depth τ - the great unknown * Radiative cloud

  14. [Multifractal cloud properties data assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, C.; Ricchiazzi, P.; Peterson, P.; Lavallee, D. ); Frouin, R.; Lubin, D. ); Lovejoy, S. ); Schertzer, D. )

    1992-05-06

    Our group has been very active over the last year, analyzing a number of data sets to characterize multifractal cloud properties and assess the effects of clouds on surface radiation properties (spectral and broadband). The data sets analyzed include: AVHRR observations of clouds over the ocean, SPOT observations of clouds over the ocean, SSM/I observations of clouds over the ocean, pyranometer data with all-sky photographs, pyrgeometer data all-sky photographs, and spectral surface irradiance all-sky photographs. A number of radiative transfer computations have been performed to help in the interpretation of these observations or provide theoretical guidance for their analysis. Finally 4 number of radiative transfer models have been acquired and tested to prepare for the interpretation of ARM/CART data.

  15. Satellite determination of stratus cloud microphysical properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of liquid water path from SSMI, broadband albedo from ERBE, and cloud characteristics from ISCCP are used to study stratus regions. An average cloud liquid water path of ...

  16. Clouds Environmental Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clouds Environmental Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clouds Environmental Ltd Place: Portsmouth, United Kingdom Zip: PO3 5EG Product: Independent consultancy specialising in...

  17. Radiative Effects of Cloud Inhomogeneity and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ackerman et al. 1999), to develop cloud statistics and improve the treatment of subgrid ... and Curry 1989; Liang and Wang 1997). Statistics of Subgrid Cloud Variability We have ...

  18. SUPERGIANT SHELLS AND MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, J. R.; Dickey, John M.; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Wong, T.; Hughes, A.; Fukui, Y.; Kawamura, A.

    2013-01-20

    We investigate the influence of large-scale stellar feedback on the formation of molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Examining the relationship between H I and {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) in supergiant shells (SGSs), we find that the molecular fraction in the total volume occupied by SGSs is not enhanced with respect to the rest of the LMC disk. However, the majority of objects ({approx}70% by mass) are more molecular than their local surroundings, implying that the presence of a supergiant shell does on average have a positive effect on the molecular gas fraction. Averaged over the full SGS sample, our results suggest that {approx}12%-25% of the molecular mass in supergiant shell systems was formed as a direct result of the stellar feedback that created the shells. This corresponds to {approx}4%-11% of the total molecular mass of the galaxy. These figures are an approximate lower limit to the total contribution of stellar feedback to molecular cloud formation in the LMC, and constitute one of the first quantitative measurements of feedback-triggered molecular cloud formation in a galactic system.

  19. ARM - Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send Forms To assist researchers in the conduct of field campaigns or required administrative procedures (such as Baseline Change Requests), we provide a number of...

  20. Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign: The Impact of Arctic Aerosols on Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Ghan, Steven J.; Verlinde, J.; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Mengistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Fan, Jiwen; Flynn, Connor J.; Gultepe, Ismail; Hubbe, John M.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander; Lawson, Paul; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter S.; Liu, Xiaohong; Lubin, Dan; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Macdonald, A. M.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Morrison, H.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zelenyuk, Alla; Bae, Kenny; Freer, Matthew; Glen, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the arctic boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) sponsored by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and Atmospheric Science Programs. The primary aim of ISDAC was to examine indirect effects of aerosols on clouds that contain both liquid and ice water. The experiment utilized the ARM permanent observational facilities at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) in Barrow. These include a cloud radar, a polarized micropulse lidar, and an atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer as well as instruments specially deployed for ISDAC measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation and spectral shortwave radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties during ISDAC, collecting data using an unprecedented 42 cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 hours on 12 different days. Data were obtained above, below and within single-layer stratus on 8 April and 26 April 2008. These data enable a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect the microphysical and radiative properties of arctic clouds influenced by different surface conditions. Observations acquired on a heavily polluted day, 19 April 2008, are enhancing this understanding. Data acquired in cirrus on transit flights between Fairbanks and Barrow are improving our understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Ultimately the ISDAC data will be used to improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and to determine the extent to which long-term surface-based measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation and radiative heating in the Arctic.

  1. A New WRF-Chem Treatment for Studying Regional Scale Impacts of Cloud-Aerosol Interactions in Parameterized Cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Larry K.; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Easter, Richard C.; Fast, Jerome D.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    A new treatment of cloud-aerosol interactions within parameterized shallow and deep convection has been implemented in WRF-Chem that can be used to better understand the aerosol lifecycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model to represent cloud-aerosol interactions include treatment of the cloud dropletnumber mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. Thesechanges have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain-Fritsch cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Preliminary testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) as well as a high-resolution simulation that does not include parameterized convection. The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the regional scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column integrated BC can be as large as -50% when cloud-aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +35% for sulfate in non-precipitating conditions due to the sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem version 3.2.1 are found to account for changes in the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud-drop residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to WRF-Chem version 3.5, and it is anticipated that they

  2. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-02-25

    The works supported by this ASR project lay the solid foundation for improving the parameterization of convection and clouds in the NCAR CCSM and the climate simulations. We have made a significant use of CRM simulations and ARM observations to produce thermodynamically and dynamically consistent multi-year cloud and radiative properties; improve the GCM simulations of convection, clouds and radiative heating rate and fluxes using the ARM observations and CRM simulations; and understand the seasonal and annual variation of cloud systems and their impacts on climate mean state and variability. We conducted multi-year simulations over the ARM SGP site using the CRM with multi-year ARM forcing data. The statistics of cloud and radiative properties from the long-term CRM simulations were compared and validated with the ARM measurements and value added products (VAP). We evaluated the multi-year climate simulations produced by the GCM with the modified convection scheme. We used multi-year ARM observations and CRM simulations to validate and further improve the trigger condition and revised closure assumption in NCAR GCM simulations that demonstrate the improvement of climate mean state and variability. We combined the improved convection scheme with the mosaic treatment of subgrid cloud distributions in the radiation scheme of the GCM. The mosaic treatment of cloud distributions has been implemented in the GCM with the original convection scheme and enables the use of more realistic cloud amounts as well as cloud water contents in producing net radiative fluxes closer to observations. A physics-based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm was developed by parameterizing the physical linkages of observed hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water.

  3. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations. The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.

  4. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations.more » The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.« less

  5. Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Climate and Clouds. Cloud Optical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A good range of cloud conditions were observed from clear sky to heavy rainfall. Authors: Niple, E. R. 1 ; Scott, H. E. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Aerodyne Research, Inc., ...

  6. Form Approved

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OGE Form 450, 5 CFR Part 2634, Subpart I U.S. Office of Government Ethics (January 2007) (Replaces September 2002 edition) Form Approved OMB NO. 3209-0006 CONFIDENTIAL FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE REPORT Executive Branch Why Must I File? The duties and responsibilities of your position require you to file the Confidential Financial Disclosure Report to avoid involvement in a real or apparent conflict of interest. The purpose of this report is to assist employees and their agencies in avoiding conflicts

  7. Theoretical studies of Ir5Th and Ir5Ce nanoscale precipitates in Ir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, James R; Averill, Frank; Cooper, Valentino R

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally, it is known that very small amounts of thorium and/or cerium added to iridium metal form a precipitate, Ir5Th / Ir5Ce, which improves the high temperature mechanical properties of the resulting alloys. We demonstrate that there are low-energy configurations for nano-scale precipitates of these phases in Ir, and that these coherent arrangements may assist in producing improved mechanical properties. One precipitate/matrix orientation gives a particularly low interfacial energy, and a low lattice misfit. Nanolayer precipitates with this orientation are found to be likely to form, with little driving force to coarsen. The predicted morphology of the precipitates and their orientation with the matrix phase provide a potential experiment that could be used to test these predictions.

  8. ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Precipitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precipitation Datastream Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Precipitation Datastream 1290-MHz Beam-Steered Radar Wind Profiler: Precipitation Datastream ...

  9. ARM: 1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments data Title: ARM: 1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments data 1290-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, precipitation moments ...

  10. cloud | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 13:42 How cleantech-as-a-service will drive renewable energy adoption 2015 adoption Big Data clean tech clean-tech cleantech cleantech forum cleantech-as-a-service cloud...

  11. Precipitation of calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate under diffusion controlled mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsigabu Gebrehiwet; James R. Henriksen; Luanjing Guo; Don T. Fox; Hai Huang; Lee Tu; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith; George Redden

    2014-07-01

    Multi-component mineral precipitation in porous, subsurface environments is challenging to simulate or engineer when in situ reactant mixing is controlled by diffusion. In contrast to well-mixed systems, the conditions that favor mineral precipitation in porous media are distributed along chemical gradients, which evolve spatially due to concurrent mineral precipitation and modification of solute transport in the media. The resulting physical and chemical characteristics of a mixing/precipitation zone are a consequence of coupling between transport and chemical processes, and the distinctive properties of individual chemical systems. We examined the spatial distribution of precipitates formed in “double diffusion” columns for two chemical systems, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate. Polyacrylamide hydrogel was used as a low permeability, high porosity medium to maximize diffusive mixing and minimize pressure- and density-driven flow between reactant solutions. In the calcium phosphate system, multiple, visually dense and narrow bands of precipitates were observed that were reminiscent of previously reported Liesegang patterns. In the calcium carbonate system, wider precipitation zones characterized by more sparse distributions of precipitates and a more open channel structure were observed. In both cases, formation of precipitates inhibited, but did not necessarily eliminate, continued transport and mixing of the reactants. A reactive transport model with fully implicit coupling between diffusion, chemical speciation and precipitation kinetics, but where explicit details of nucleation processes were neglected, was able to qualitatively simulate properties of the precipitation zones. The results help to illustrate how changes in the physical properties of a precipitation zone depend on coupling between diffusion-controlled reactant mixing and chemistry-specific details of precipitation kinetics.

  12. Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KB Widener; K Johnson

    2005-01-30

    The millimeter cloud radar (MMCR) systems probe the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The MMCR is a zenith-pointing radar that operates at a frequency of 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar will also report radar reflectivity (dBZ) of the atmosphere up to 20 km. The radar possesses a doppler capability that will allow the measurement of cloud constituent vertical velocities.

  13. Indirect and semi-direct aerosol campaign: The impact of Arctic aerosols on clouds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.; Ghan, Steven; Verlinde, Johannes; Korolev, Alexei; Strapp, J. Walter; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Wolde, Menqistu; Brooks, Sarah D.; Cziczo, Dan; et al

    2011-02-01

    A comprehensive dataset of microphysical and radiative properties of aerosols and clouds in the boundary layer in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska, was collected in April 2008 during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). ISDAC's primary aim was to examine the effects of aerosols, including those generated by Asian wildfires, on clouds that contain both liquid and ice. ISDAC utilized the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pro- gram's permanent observational facilities at Barrow and specially deployed instruments measuring aerosol, ice fog, precipitation, and radiation. The National Research Council of Canada Convair-580 flew 27 sorties and collected data using an unprecedented 41more » stateof- the-art cloud and aerosol instruments for more than 100 h on 12 different days. Aerosol compositions, including fresh and processed sea salt, biomassburning particles, organics, and sulfates mixed with organics, varied between flights. Observations in a dense arctic haze on 19 April and above, within, and below the single-layer stratocumulus on 8 and 26 April are enabling a process-oriented understanding of how aerosols affect arctic clouds. Inhomogeneities in reflectivity, a close coupling of upward and downward Doppler motion, and a nearly constant ice profile in the single-layer stratocumulus suggests that vertical mixing is responsible for its longevity observed during ISDAC. Data acquired in cirrus on flights between Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska, are improving the understanding of the performance of cloud probes in ice. Furthermore, ISDAC data will improve the representation of cloud and aerosol processes in models covering a variety of spatial and temporal scales, and determine the extent to which surface measurements can provide retrievals of aerosols, clouds, precipitation, and radiative heating.« less

  14. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of high-level clouds in ...

  15. The Mechanism of First Raindrops Formation in Deep Convective Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khain, Alexander; Prabha, Thara; Benmoshe, Nir; Pandithurai, G.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail

    2013-08-22

    The formation of first raindrops in deep convective clouds is investigated. A combination of observational data analysis and 2-D and 3-D numerical bin microphysical simulations of deep convective clouds suggests that the first raindrops form at the top of undiluted or slightly diluted cores. It is shown that droplet size distributions in these regions are wider and contain more large droplets than in diluted volumes. The results of the study indicate that the initial raindrop formation is determined by the basic microphysical processes within ascending adiabatic volumes. It allows one to predict the height of the formation of first raindrops considering the processes of nucleation, diffusion growth and collisions. The results obtained in the study explain observational results reported by Freud and Rosenfeld (2012) according to which the height of first raindrop formation depends linearly on the droplet number concentration at cloud base. The results also explain why a simple adiabatic parcel model can reproduce this dependence. The present study provides a physical basis for retrieval algorithms of cloud microphysical properties and aerosol properties using satellites proposed by Rosenfeld et al. ( 2012). The study indicates that the role of mixing and entrainment in the formation of the first raindrops is not of crucial importance. It is also shown that low variability of effective and mean volume radii along horizontal traverses, as regularly observed by in situ measurements, can be simulated by high-resolution cloud models, in which mixing is parameterized by a traditional 1.5 order turbulence closure scheme.

  16. Precipitation in 18 wt% Ni maraging steel of grade 350

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, R.; Mazumder, S.; Batra, I.S.; Dey, G.K.; Banerjee, S.

    2000-03-14

    The evolution of precipitates in maraging steel of grade 350 was studied using the complementary techniques of small angle X-ray scattering (SACS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These investigations revealed that ageing the steel at 703 K involved a rhombohedral distortion of the supersaturated b.c.c. martensite accompanied by the appearance of diffuse {omega}-like structures. This was followed by the appearance of well-defined {omega} particles containing chemical order. At the ageing temperature of 783 K, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates were the first to appear with a growth exponent of 1/3. The values of the Pored exponent obtained from the SAXS profiles indicated that the {omega} particles, formed below 723 K, had diffuse interfaces up to an ageing time of 48 h. On the other hand, Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) precipitates, formed above 723 K, developed sharp interfaces in just about an hour. Also, the steel exhibited scaling in phase separation both at 703 and 783 K, but only during the early stages. Through this study it was established that at temperatures of ageing less than 723 K, evolution of {omega} particles takes place through the collapse of the unstable b.c.c. lattice and, at temperatures above 723 K, precipitation of A{sub 3}B type of phases through the mechanism of clustering and ordering of atomic species. Sharp interfaces develop rather quickly when the mechanism of precipitation involves development and amplification of a concentration wave along as in the nucleation of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo) at 783 K than when an interplay of both the displacement and concentration waves is required as in the evolution of {omega} at 703 K. These results indicate towards the possibility of existence of two separate time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curves, one for the evolution of {omega}-phase and another for nucleation and growth of Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo).

  17. Preliminary Studies on the Variational Assimilation of Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Studies on the Variational Assimilation of Cloud-Radiation Observations Using ARM ... A linearized cloud scheme and a radiation scheme including cloud effects have been ...

  18. A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A novel approach for introducing cloud spatial structure into cloud radiative transfer ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United Kingdom Language: English Word Cloud ...

  19. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud ...

  20. Evaluation of Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in these Arctic clouds, which affect modeled cloud phase, cloud lifetime and radiative properties. ...

  1. METATHESIS OF PLUTONIUM CARRIER LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATE WITH AN ALKALI

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1960-04-01

    A plutonium fluoride precipitate is converted to plutonium hydroxide by digesting the precipitate with an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide solution.

  2. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  3. Administrative Forms/Policies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Administrative Forms Microfab Project Proposal Form Exit Form After Hours Request Form

  4. Roles of Wind Shear at Different Vertical Levels, Part I: Cloud System Organization and Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qian; Fan, Jiwen; Hagos, Samson M.; Gustafson, William I.; Berg, Larry K.

    2015-07-16

    Understanding of critical processes that contribute to the organization of mesoscale convective systems is important for accurate weather forecast and climate prediction. In this study, we investigate the effects of wind shear at different vertical levels on the organization and properties of cloud systems using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model with a spectral-bin microphysical scheme. The sensitivity experiments are performed by increasing wind shear at the lower (0-5 km), middle (5-10 km), upper (> 10 km) and the entire troposphere, respectively, based on a control run for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) with weak wind shear. We find that increasing wind shear at the both lower and middle vertical levels reduces the domain-accumulated precipitation and the occurrence of heavy rain, while increasing wind shear at the upper levels changes little on precipitation. Although increasing wind shear at the lower-levels is favorable for a more organized quasi-line system which leads to enlarged updraft core area, and enhanced updraft velocities and vertical mass fluxes, the precipitation is still reduced by 18.6% compared with the control run due to stronger rain evaporation induced by the low-level wind shear. Strong wind shear in the middle levels only produces a strong super-cell over a narrow area, leading to 67.3% reduction of precipitation over the domain. By increasing wind shear at the upper levels only, the organization of the convection is not changed much, but the increased cloudiness at the upper-levels leads to stronger surface cooling and then stabilizes the atmosphere and weakens the convection. When strong wind shear exists over the entire vertical profile, a deep dry layer (2-9 km) is produced and convection is severely suppressed. There are fewer very-high (cloud top height (CTH) > 15 km) and very-deep (cloud thickness > 15 km) clouds, and the precipitation is only about 11.8% of the control run. The changes in cloud microphysical

  5. METHOD FOR REMOVING CONTAMINATION FROM PRECIPITATES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, G.W.

    1959-01-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process is presented for the recovery and purification of plutonium. When plutonium, in the tetravalent state, is carried on a bismuth phosphate precipitate, amounts of centain of the fission products are carried along with the plutonium. The improvement consists in washing such fission product contaminated preeipitates with an aqueous solution of ammonium hydrogen fluoride. since this solution has been found to be uniquely effective in washing fission production contamination from the bismuth phosphate precipitate.

  6. ARM - Will There be Increased Global Precipitation?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Will There be Increased Global Precipitation? Very probable. Along with an increase in air temperature might be an increase in evaporation, which could lead to greater global precipitation. The

  7. CONSENT FORM

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    fly, zz--2 ~32n7 -3.27.2 / / . ' . 5" . CONSENT FORM Employees, contractor personnel, and agents of the U. S. Department of Energy are hereby given permission to enter upon the property described below in order to perform the radiation survey described in the attached letter dated . . June-11 , 1980. . . i Property Description: Staten Island Warehouse 2393 Richmond Terrace Port Richmond, New York ,Property identified as Block / j/ 0 ,i . Lot zG Name A Signature by owner(s) of property - or

  8. ARM - Evaluation Product - Corrected Precipitation Radar Moments...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsCorrected Precipitation Radar Moments in Antenna Coordinates Documentation Use the Data File Inventory tool to view data availability at the file level. Comments? We would...

  9. Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods and Observations from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Radioactivity in Precipitation: Methods & Observations from Savannah River Site Dennis Jackson ...operatingops- experiencetritiumplant-info.html 14 15 DOE Nuclear & NRC ...

  10. Possible anticorrelation of polar mesospheric (noctilucent) clouds and aurorae. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, S.S.

    1986-08-01

    The study of noctilucent clouds (NLC) is one century old, yet the origin and nature of these clouds is still uncertain. It is known that these clouds form in the cold, high latitude summer mesopause region where temperatures can approach 110K. Their association with the very cold air in this region supports the theory that they consist of water ice particles. It has been suggested that NLC are anticorrelated with aurorae since aurorally induced effects at or near the mesopause may lead to processes which retard or altogether inhibit NLC formation. This study reviews some general characteristics of NLC, polar mesospheric clouds (PMC) and aurorae and then discusses several ways in which aurorae may interact with these clouds.

  11. ARM's efforts to address the need for 3D cloud and precipitation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2007 Multi-scale Observing Facility (MOF) - Whitepaper 2009 Steps forward: ARM-CASA Partnership ARM-GPM proposed field campaign Wind Profiler IOP Radar simulator...

  12. Final Technical Report ARM DOE Grant #DE-FG02-03ER63520 Parameterizations of Shortwave Radiactive Properties of Broken Clouds from Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Bruce, A.

    2006-06-19

    This study used DOE ARM data and facilities to: 1) study macroscopic properties of continental stratus clouds at SGP and the factors controlling these properties, 2) develop a scientific basis for understanding the pocesses responsible for the formation of boundary layer clouds using ARM observations in conjunction with simple parametric models and LES, and 3) evaluate cumulus cloud characteristics retrieved retrieved from the MMCR operating at TWP-Nauru. In addition we have used high resolution 94 GHz observations of boundary layer clouds and precipitation to: 1)develop techniques for using high temporal resolution Doppler velocities to study large-eddy circulations and turbulence in boundary layer clouds and estimate the limitations of using current and past MMCR data for boundary layer cloud studies, 2) evaluate the capability and limitation of the current MMCR data for estimating reflectivity, vertical velocities, and spectral under low-signal-to-noise conditions associated with weak non-precipitating clouds, 3) develop possible sampling modes for the new MMCR processors to allow for adequate sampling of boundary layer clouds, and 4) retrieve updraft and downdraft structures under precipitating conditions.

  13. Researching Impact of Clouds on Solar Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) researchers developed a new system to monitor how clouds affect large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants. By observing cloud shape, size and movement, the...

  14. ARM - Field Campaign - Fall 1997 Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The primary objective of the Cloud IOP was to generate a multi-platform data set that can ... Given the diversity of cloud types sampled during the IOP, the analysis of this data set ...

  15. Evaluating the MMF Using CloudSat

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    its cloud Evaluate the MMF and improve its cloud simulations simulations Borrowed from Dave Randall, CSU The big picture The big picture ... ... . . Data ARM A-Train, MISR etc. ...

  16. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air...

  17. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle number concentration The total number of cloud particles present in any given volume...

  18. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing : Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahn, C. B.; Kasza, K. E.; Shack, W. J.; Natesan, K.; Klein, P.

    2011-05-01

    Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al]{sub T}' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  19. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luerkens, D. W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide.

  20. ARM Data for Cloud Parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-10-02

    The PI's ARM investigation (DE-IA02-02ER633 18) developed a physically-based subgrid-scale saturation representation that fully considers the direct interactions of the parameterized subgrid-scale motions with subgrid-scale cloud microphysical and radiative processes. Major accomplishments under the support of that interagency agreement are summarized in this paper.

  1. Unlocking the Secrets of Clouds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clouds may look soft, fluffy and harmless to the untrained eye, but to an expert climate model scientist they represent great challenges. Fortunately the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate and Research Facility is kicking off a five-month study which should significantly clear the air.

  2. The Spitzer survey of interstellar clouds in the gould belt. VI. The Auriga-California molecular cloud observed with IRAC and MIPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Harvey, Paul M.; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Huard, Tracy L.; Miller, Jennifer F.; Tothill, Nicholas F. H.; Nutter, David; Bourke, Tyler L.; DiFrancesco, James; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Allen, Lori E.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Dunham, Michael M.; Merín, Bruno; Terebey, Susan; Peterson, Dawn E.; and others

    2014-05-01

    We present observations of the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud (AMC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, 24, 70, and 160 μm observed with the IRAC and MIPS detectors as part of the Spitzer Gould Belt Legacy Survey. The total mapped areas are 2.5 deg{sup 2} with IRAC and 10.47 deg{sup 2} with MIPS. This giant molecular cloud is one of two in the nearby Gould Belt of star-forming regions, the other being the Orion A Molecular Cloud (OMC). We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in our observed region to a subset of the SWIRE data that was processed through our pipeline. Using color-magnitude and color-color diagrams, we find evidence for a substantial population of 166 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the cloud, many of which were previously unknown. Most of this population is concentrated around the LkHα 101 cluster and the filament extending from it. We present a quantitative description of the degree of clustering and discuss the relative fraction of YSOs in earlier (Class I and F) and later (Class II) classes compared to other clouds. We perform simple SED modeling of the YSOs with disks to compare the mid-IR properties to disks in other clouds and identify 14 classical transition disk candidates. Although the AMC is similar in mass, size, and distance to the OMC, it is forming about 15-20 times fewer stars.

  3. Flotation process for removal of precipitates from electrochemical chromate reduction unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeMonbrun, James R.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Williams, Everett H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved form of a conventional electrochemical process for removing hexavalent chromium or other metal-ion contaminants from cooling-tower blowdown water. In the conventional process, the contaminant is reduced and precipitated at an iron anode, thus forming a mixed precipitate of iron and chromium hydroxides, while hydrogen being evolved copiously at a cathode is vented from the electrochemical cell. In the conventional process, subsequent separation of the fine precipitate has proved to be difficult and inefficient. In accordance with this invention, the electrochemical operation is conducted in a novel manner permitting a much more efficient and less expensive precipitate-recovery operation. That is, the electrochemical operation is conducted under an evolved-hydrogen partial pressure exceeding atmospheric pressure. As a result, most of the evolved hydrogen is entrained as bubbles in the blowdown in the cell. The resulting hydrogen-rich blowdown is introduced to a vented chamber, where the entrained hydrogen combines with the precipitate to form a froth which can be separated by conventional techniques. In addition to the hydrogen, two materials present in most blowdown act as flotation promoters for the precipitate. These are (1) air, with which the blowdown water becomes saturated in the course of normal cooling-tower operation, and (2) surfactants which commonly are added to cooling-tower recirculating-water systems to inhibit the growth of certain organisms or prevent the deposition of insoluble particulates.

  4. THE TRANSIT LIGHT CURVE OF AN EXOZODIACAL DUST CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Christopher C.

    2011-10-15

    Planets embedded within debris disks gravitationally perturb nearby dust and can create clumpy, azimuthally asymmetric circumstellar ring structures that rotate in lock with the planet. The Earth creates one such structure in the solar zodiacal dust cloud. In an edge-on system, the dust 'clumps' periodically pass in front of the star as the planet orbits, occulting and forward-scattering starlight. In this paper, we predict the shape and magnitude of the corresponding transit signal. To do so, we model the dust distributions of collisional, steady-state exozodiacal clouds perturbed by planetary companions. We examine disks with dusty ring structures formed by the planet's resonant trapping of in-spiraling dust for a range of planet masses and semi-major axes, dust properties, and disk masses. We synthesize edge-on images of these models and calculate the transit signatures of the resonant ring structures. The transit light curves created by dusty resonant ring structures typically exhibit two broad transit minima that lead and trail the planetary transit. We find that Jupiter-mass planets embedded within disks hundreds of times denser than our zodiacal cloud can create resonant ring structures with transit depths up to {approx}10{sup -4}, possibly detectable with Kepler. Resonant rings produced by planets more or less massive than Jupiter produce smaller transit depths. Observations of these transit signals may provide upper limits on the degree of asymmetry in exozodiacal clouds.

  5. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  6. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  7. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  8. New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Species of Cyanobacteria Forms Intracellular Carbonates Print A new species of cyanobacteria-photosynthetic bacteria that occupy a wide array of habitats-was discovered in the Mexican Lake of Alchichica where massive carbonate rocks form. Cyanobacteria have been impacting the global carbon cycle of the Earth for more than 2.3 billion years by assimilating CO2 into organic compounds and triggering calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation. Despite the importance of this cyanobacteria-mediated

  9. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  10. ARM - Evaluation Product - Precipitation Radar Moments Mapped...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Evaluation Product : Precipitation Radar Moments Mapped to a Cartesian Grid The Scanning...

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a jet drilling an H I cloud: Shock induced formation of molecular clouds and jet breakup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahina, Yuta; Ogawa, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Kawashima, Tomohisa; Furukawa, Naoko; Enokiya, Rei; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Fukui, Yasuo

    2014-07-01

    The formation mechanism of the jet-aligned CO clouds found by NANTEN CO observations is studied by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations taking into account the cooling of the interstellar medium. Motivated by the association of the CO clouds with the enhancement of H I gas density, we carried out MHD simulations of the propagation of a supersonic jet injected into the dense H I gas. We found that the H I gas compressed by the bow shock ahead of the jet is cooled down by growth of the cooling instability triggered by the density enhancement. As a result, a cold dense sheath is formed around the interface between the jet and the H I gas. The radial speed of the cold, dense gas in the sheath is a few km s{sup 1} almost independent of the jet speed. Molecular clouds can be formed in this region. Since the dense sheath wrapping the jet reflects waves generated in the cocoon, the jet is strongly perturbed by the vortices of the warm gas in the cocoon, which breaks up the jet and forms a secondary shock in the H I-cavity drilled by the jet. The particle acceleration at the shock can be the origin of radio and X-ray filaments observed near the eastern edge of the W50 nebula surrounding the galactic jet source SS433.

  12. APPENDIX A: Forms and Instructions Form Form R93D-44 Form R93D...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Instructions Form Form R93D-44 Form R93D-03 Form R93D-59 Instructions Form RT94-02 Form RT94-04 Form RT94-0 Form RT94-03 Form RT94-05 Form RT94-06 Instructions Form...

  13. Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vertical microphysical profiles of convective clouds as a tool for obtaining aerosol cloud-mediated climate forcings Quantifying the aerosol/cloud-mediated radiative effect at a global scale requires simultaneous satellite retrievals of cloud

  14. Optimization of the conditions for the precipitation of thorium oxalate. III. General equation for the optimization of the precipitation of poorly soluble oxalates of transuranium elements and thorium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazukhin, E.M.; Smirnova, E.A.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Pazukhina, Yu.L.; Kiselev, P.P.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of metals in the form of poorly soluble oxalates was investigated. A program which was written for the Elektronika-60 computer makes it possible to calculate the process parameters to minimize the product losses. The obtained relationships were checked for the case of thorium oxalate. The experimental data agreed well with the calculations.

  15. A Case Study of Urbanization Impact on Summer Precipitation in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area. Urban Heat Island Versus Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Yang, Xiuqun

    2015-10-23

    Convection-resolving ensemble simulations using the WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer Urban Canopy Model (UCM) are conducted to investigate the individual and combined impacts of land use and anthropogenic pollutant emissions from urbanization on a heavy rainfall event in the Greater Beijing Metropolitan Area (GBMA) in China. The simulation with the urbanization effect included generally captures the spatial pattern and temporal variation of the rainfall event. An improvement of precipitation is found in the experiment including aerosol effect on both clouds and radiation. The expanded urban land cover and increased aerosols have an opposite effect on precipitation processes, with the latter playing a more dominant role, leading to suppressed convection and rainfall over the upstream (northwest) area, and enhanced convection and more precipitation in the downstream (southeast) region of the GBMA. In addition, the influence of aerosol indirect effect is found to overwhelm that of direct effect on precipitation in this rainfall event. Increased aerosols induce more cloud droplets with smaller size, which favors evaporative cooling and reduce updrafts and suppress convection over the upstream (northwest) region in the early stage of the rainfall event. As the rainfall system propagates southeastward, more latent heat is released due to the freezing of larger number of smaller cloud drops that are lofted above the freezing level, which is responsible for the increased updraft strength and convective invigoration over the downstream (southeast) area.

  16. Evaluation of Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Sa...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Type Occurrences and Radiative Forcings Simulated by a Cloud Resolving Model Using Observations from Satellite and Cloud Radar Y. Luo and S. K. Krueger University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Introduction Because of both the various effects clouds exert on the earth-atmospheric system and the cloud feedback, correct representations of clouds in numerical models are critical for accurate climate modeling and weather forecast. Unfortunately, determination of clouds and their radiative

  17. Nucleation of Cr precipitates in Fe-Cr alloy under irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Y. Y.; Ao, L.; Sun, Qing- Qiang; Yang, L.; Nie, JL; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, Xiaotao; Liu, L.; Sun, Xin; Terentyev, Dimtry; Gao, Fei

    2015-04-01

    The nucleation of Cr precipitates induced by overlapping of displacement cascades in Fe-Cr alloys has been investigated using the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) simulations. The results reveal that the number of Frenkel pairs increases with the increasing of overlapped cascades. Overlapping cascades could promote the formation of Cr precipitates in Fe-Cr alloys, as analyzed using short range order (SRO) parameters to quantify the degree of ordering and clustering of Cr atoms. In addition, the simulations using MMC approach show that the presence of small Cr clusters and vacancy clusters formed within cascade overlapped region enhance the nucleation of Cr precipitates, leading to the formation of large Cr dilute precipitates.

  18. Climatological data for clouds over the globe from surface observations, 1982--1991: The total cloud edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, C.J.; Warren, S.G.; London, J.

    1994-10-01

    Routine, surface synoptic weather reports from ships and land stations over the entire globe, for the ten-year period December 1981 through November 1991, were processed for total cloud cover and the frequencies of occurrence of clear sky, precipitation, and sky-obscured due to fog. Archived data, consisting of various annual, seasonal and monthly averages, are provided in grid boxes that are typically 2.5{degrees} {times} 2.5{degrees} for land and 5{degrees} {times} 5{degrees} for ocean. Day and nighttime averages are also given separately for each season. Several derived quantities, such as interannual variations and annual and diurnal harmonics, are provided as well. This data set incorporates an improved representation of nighttime cloudiness by utilizing only those nighttime observations for which the illuminance due to moonlight exceeds a specified threshold. This reduction in the night-detection bias increases the computed global average total cloud cover by about 2%. The impact on computed diurnal cycles is even greater, particularly over the oceans where is found, in contrast to previous surface-based climatologies, that cloudiness is often greater at night than during the day.

  19. Testing a New Cirrus Cloud Parameterizaton

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing a New Cirrus Cloud Parameterization in NCAR CCM3 D. Zurovac-Jevtic, G. J. Zhang, and V. Ramanathan Center for Atmospheric Sciences Scripps Institute of Oceanography La Jolla, California Introduction Cirrus cloud cover and ice water content (IWC) are the two most important properties of cirrus clouds. However, in general circulation models (GCMs), their treatment is very crude. For example, in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM3), IWC is

  20. Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Operated by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for the U.S. Department of Energy, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) begins its inaugural deployment November 2010 in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Lab Cloud Property Validation Experiment, or STORMVEX. For six months, the comprehensive suite of AMF2 instruments will obtain measurements of cloud and aerosol properties at various sites

  1. QUANTITATIVELY ASSESSING THE ROLE OF CLOUDS IN THE TRANSMISSION SPECTRUM OF GJ 1214b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin; Vissher, Channon

    2013-09-20

    Recent observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214b show that it has a relatively featureless transmission spectrum. One suggestion is that these observations indicate that the planet's atmosphere is vertically compact, perhaps due to a water-rich composition that yields a large mean molecular weight. Another suggestion is that the atmosphere is hydrogen/helium-rich with clouds that obscure predicted absorption features. Previous models that incorporate clouds have included their effect without a strong physical motivation for their existence. Here, we present model atmospheres of GJ 1214b that include physically motivated clouds of two types. We model the clouds that are present in chemical equilibrium, as has been suggested to occur on brown dwarfs, which include KCl and ZnS for this planet. We also include clouds that form as a result of photochemistry, forming a hydrocarbon haze layer. We use a photochemical kinetics model to understand the vertical distribution and available mass of haze-forming molecules. We model both solar and enhanced-metallicity cloudy models and determine the cloud properties necessary to match observations. In enhanced-metallicity atmospheres, we find that the equilibrium clouds can match the observations of GJ 1214b if they are lofted high into the atmosphere and have a low sedimentation efficiency (f{sub sed} = 0.1). We find that models with a variety of hydrocarbon haze properties can match the observations. Particle sizes from 0.01 to 0.25 ?m can match the transmission spectrum with haze-forming efficiencies as low as 1%-5%.

  2. Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tropical Cloud Life Cycle and Overlap Structure Vogelmann, Andrew Brookhaven National Laboratory Jensen, Michael Brookhaven National Laboratory Kollias, Pavlos Brookhaven National ...

  3. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) Title: ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scmforcing) The constrained variational ...

  4. Characterizing Arctic Mixed-phase Cloud Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    have two distinguished cloud base heights (CBHs) that can be defined by both ceilometer (black dots) and micropulse lidar (MPL; pink dots) measurements (Figure 1). For a...

  5. ARM - Field Campaign - Spring Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsSpring Cloud IOP ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Spring Cloud IOP 2000.03.01 - 2000.03.26 Lead Scientist : Gerald Mace For data sets, see below. Summary The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program conducted a Cloud Intensive Operational Period (IOP) in March 2000 that was the first-ever effort to document the 3-dimensional cloud field from observational data. Prior

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Cloud Radar IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of aerosol properties during clear-sky conditions. The ETL Radar Meteorology and Oceanography Division will field their NOAAK scanning cloud radar near the new ARM millimeter...

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  8. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Tag Cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Database Tag Cloud This tag cloud is a specific type of weighted list that provides a quick look at the content of the DOE R&D Accomplishments database. It can be easily browsed because terms are in alphabetical order. With this tag cloud, there is a direct correlation between font size and quantity. The more times a term appears in the bibliographic citations, the larger the font size. This tag cloud is also interactive. Clicking on a term will activate a search for that term. Search

  9. The LANL Cloud-Aerosol Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that incorporates two unique aspects in its formulation. First, the model employs a nonlinear solver that requires cloud-aerosol parameterizations be smooth or contain reasonable...

  10. Fragmentation in rotating isothermal protostellar clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tohline, J.E.; Black, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an extensive set of 3-D hydrodynamic calculations that have been performed to investigate the susceptibility of rotating clouds to gravitational fragmentation are presented. (GHT)

  11. Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulations, and NIF Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of Molecular Clouds: Observations, Simulations, and NIF Experiments You are ...

  12. Ground-based Microwave Cloud Tomography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Courtesy of Bernhard Mayer Cloud structure important to radiation - Cumulus (Benner & Evans 2001, Pincus et al. 2005), deep convection (DiGiuseppe & Tompkins 2003) - Horizontal...

  13. Densified waste form and method for forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2016-05-17

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  14. Densified waste form and method for forming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  15. Radar-Derived Characteristics of Precipitation in South East Queensland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter, Justin R; May, Peter T; Potts, Rodney J; Collis, Scott M.; Manton, Michael J; Wilson, Louise

    2015-10-01

    Statistics of radar-retrievals of precipitation are presented. A K-means clustering algorithm is applied to an historical record of radiosonde measurements which identified three major synoptic regimes; a dry, stable regime with mainly westerly winds prevalent during winter, a moist south easterly trade wind regime and a moist northerly regime both prevalent during summer. These are referred to as westerly, trade wind and northerly regimes, respectively. Cell statistics are calculated using an objective cell identification and tracking methodology on data obtained from a nearby S-band radar. Cell statistics are investigated for the entire radar observational period and also during sub-periods corresponding to the three major synoptic regimes. The statistics investigated are cell initiation location, area, rainrate, volume, height, height of the maximum reflectivity, volume greater than 40 dBZ and storm speed and direction. Cells are found predominantly along the elevated topography. The cell statistics reveal that storms which form in the dry, stable westerly regime are of comparable size to the deep cells which form in the northerly regime, larger than those in the trade regime and, furthermore, have the largest rainrate. However, they occur less frequently and have shorter lifetimes than cells in the other regimes. Diurnal statistics of precipitation area and rainrate exhibit early morning and mid afternoon peaks, although the areal coverage lags the rainrate by several hours indicative of a transition from convective to stratiform precipitation. The probability distributions of cell area, rainrate, volume, height and height of the maximum re ectivity are found to follow lognormal distributions.

  16. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2012-11-30

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  17. Precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, S.A.; Miller, W.E.; Willit, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Precipitation of actinides, lanthanides, and fission products as nitrides from molten chloride melts is being investigated for use as a final cleanup step in treating radioactive salt wastes generated by electrometallurgical processing of spent nuclear fuel. The radioactive components (eg, fission products) need to be removed to reduce the volume of high-level waste that requires disposal. To extract the fission products from the salt, a nitride precipitation process is being developed. The salt waste is first contacted with a molten metal; after equilibrium is reached, a nitride is added to the metal phase. The insoluble nitrides can be recovered and converted to a borosilicate glass after air oxidation. For a bench-scale experimental setup, a crucible was designed to contact the salt and metal phases. Solubility tests were performed with candidate nitrides and metal nitrides for which there are no solubility data. Experiments were performed to assess feasibility of precipitation of metal nitrides from chloride melts.

  18. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Mariner

    2003-10-21

    As directed by ''Technical Work Plan For: Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY03 Work Activities'' (BSC 2003 [165601]), the In-Drift Precipitates/Salts (IDPS) model is developed and refined to predict the aqueous geochemical effects of evaporation in the proposed repository. The purpose of this work is to provide a model for describing and predicting the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the proposed Engineered Barrier System (EBS). Application of this model is to be documented elsewhere for the Total System Performance Assessment License Application (TSPA-LA). The principal application of this model is to be documented in REV 02 of ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2003 [165601]). The scope of this document is to develop, describe, and validate the IDPS model. This model is a quasi-equilibrium model. All reactions proceed to equilibrium except for several suppressed minerals in the thermodynamic database not expected to form under the proposed repository conditions within the modeling timeframe. In this revision, upgrades to the EQ3/6 code (Version 8.0) and Pitzer thermodynamic database improve the applicable range of the model. These new additions allow equilibrium and reaction-path modeling of evaporation to highly concentrated brines for potential water compositions of the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O at temperatures in the range of 0 C to 125 C, pressures in the atmospheric range, and relative humidity in the range of 0 to 100 percent. This system applies to oxidizing conditions only, and therefore limits the model to applications involving oxidizing conditions. A number of thermodynamic parameters in the Pitzer database have values that have not been determined or verified for the entire temperature range. In these cases, the known values are used to approximate

  19. Observed correlations between aerosol and cloud properties in an Indian Ocean trade cumulus regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pistone, Kristina; Praveen, Puppala S.; Thomas, Rick M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Wilcox, Eric M.; Bender, Frida A.-M.

    2016-04-27

    There are many contributing factors which determine the micro- and macrophysical properties of clouds, including atmospheric vertical structure, dominant meteorological conditions, and aerosol concentration, all of which may be coupled to one another. In the quest to determine aerosol effects on clouds, these potential relationships must be understood. Here we describe several observed correlations between aerosol conditions and cloud and atmospheric properties in the Indian Ocean winter monsoon season.In the CARDEX (Cloud, Aerosol, Radiative forcing, Dynamics EXperiment) field campaign conducted in February and March 2012 in the northern Indian Ocean, continuous measurements were made of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV)more » and the liquid water path (LWP) of trade cumulus clouds, concurrent with measurements of water vapor flux, cloud and aerosol vertical profiles, meteorological data, and surface and total-column aerosol from instrumentation at a ground observatory and on small unmanned aircraft. We present observations which indicate a positive correlation between aerosol and cloud LWP only when considering cases with low atmospheric water vapor (PWV < 40 kg m–2), a criterion which acts to filter the data to control for the natural meteorological variability in the region.We then use the aircraft and ground-based measurements to explore possible mechanisms behind this observed aerosol–LWP correlation. The increase in cloud liquid water is found to coincide with a lowering of the cloud base, which is itself attributable to increased boundary layer humidity in polluted conditions. High pollution is found to correlate with both higher temperatures and higher humidity measured throughout the boundary layer. A large-scale analysis, using satellite observations and meteorological reanalysis, corroborates these covariations: high-pollution cases are shown to originate as a highly polluted boundary layer air mass approaching the observatory from a

  20. Precipitation in Pores: A Geochemical Frontier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below. The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid velocities

  1. Precipitation in pores: A geochemical frontier

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-07-29

    This article's purpose is to review some of the recent research in which geochemists have examined precipitation of solid phases in porous media, particularly in pores a few nanometers in diameter (nanopores). While this is a “review,” it is actually more forward-looking in that the list of things about this phenomenon that we do not know or cannot control at this time is likely longer than what we do know and can control. For example, there are three directly contradictory theories on how to predict how precipitation proceeds in a medium of varying pore size, as will be discussed below.more » The confusion on this subject likely stems from the complexity of the phenomenon itself: One can easily clog a porous medium by inducing a rapid, homogeneous precipitation directly from solution, or have limited precipitation occur that does not affect permeability or even porosity substantially. It is more difficult to engineer mineral precipitation in order to obtain a specific outcome, such as filling all available pore space over a targeted area for the purposes of contaminant sequestration. However, breakthrough discoveries could occur in the next five to ten years that enhance our ability to predict robustly and finely control precipitation in porous media by understanding how porosity and permeability evolve in response to system perturbations. These discoveries will likely stem (at least in part) from advances in our ability to 1) perform and interpret X-ray/neutron scattering experiments that reveal the extent of precipitation and its locales within porous media (Anovitz and Cole 2015, this volume), and 2) utilize increasingly powerful simulations to test concepts and models about the evolution of porosity and permeability as precipitation occurs (Steefel et al. 2015, this volume). A further important technique to isolate specific phenomena and understand reactivity is also microfluidics cell experiments that allow specific control of flow paths and fluid

  2. High volume, multiple use, portable precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.

    2011-10-25

    A portable high air volume electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a collection electrode adapted to carry a variety of collecting media. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section with a transversely positioned ionization wire to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows over the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. Air flow is maintained at but below turbulent flow, Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the selected medium which can be removed for analysis.

  3. VO.sub.2 precipitates for self-protected optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gea, Laurence A.; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for forming crystallographically coherent precipitates of vanadium dioxide in the near-surface region of sapphire and the resulting product is disclosed. Ions of vanadium and oxygen are stoichiometrically implanted into a sapphire substrate (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), and subsequently annealed to form vanadium dioxide precipitates in the substrate. The embedded VO.sub.2 precipitates, which are three-dimensionally oriented with respect to the crystal axes of the Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 host lattice, undergo a first-order monoclinic-to-tetragonal (and also semiconducting-to-metallic) phase transition at .about.77.degree. C. This transformation is accompanied by a significant variation in the optical transmission of the implanted region and results in the formation of an optically active, thermally "switchable" surface region on Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  4. VO{sub 2} precipitates for self-protected optical surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gea, L.A.; Boatner, L.A.

    1999-03-23

    A method for forming crystallographically coherent precipitates of vanadium dioxide in the near-surface region of sapphire and the resulting product is disclosed. Ions of vanadium and oxygen are stoichiometrically implanted into a sapphire substrate (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and subsequently annealed to form vanadium dioxide precipitates in the substrate. The embedded VO{sub 2} precipitates, which are three-dimensionally oriented with respect to the crystal axes of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} host lattice, undergo a first-order monoclinic-to-tetragonal (and also semiconducting-to-metallic) phase transition at ca. 77 C. This transformation is accompanied by a significant variation in the optical transmission of the implanted region and results in the formation of an optically active, thermally ``switchable`` surface region on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. 5 figs.

  5. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Title: VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international ...

  6. Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intercomparison of model simulations of mixed-phase clouds observed during the ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. Part I: Single layer cloud Citation Details In-Document ...

  7. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  8. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W.

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  9. Retrieving moisture profiles from precipitable water measurements using a variational data assimilation approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.R.; Zou, X.; Kuo, Y.H.

    1996-04-01

    Atmospheric moisture distribution is directly related to the formation of clouds and precipitation and affects the atmospheric radiation and climate. Currently, several remote sensing systems can measure precipitable water (PW) with fairly high accuracy. As part of the development of an Integrated Data Assimilation and Sounding System in support of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, retrieving the 3-D water vapor fields from PW measurements is an important problem. A new four dimensional variational (4DVAR) data assimilation system based on the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) has been developed by Zou et al. (1995) with the adjoint technique. In this study, we used this 4DVAR system to retrieve the moisture profiles. Because we do not have a set of real observed PW measurements now, the special soundings collected during the Severe Environmental Storm and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979 were used to simulate a set of PW measurements, which were then assimilated into the 4DVAR system. The accuracy of the derived water vapor fields was assessed by direct comparison with the detailed specific humidity soundings. The impact of PW assimilation on precipitation forecast was examined by conducting a series of model forecast experiments started from the different initial conditions with or without data assimilation.

  10. Superconductor precursor mixtures made by precipitation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Bruce C.; Lamppa, Diana L.; Voigt, James A.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus for preparing highly pure homogeneous precursor powder mixtures for metal oxide superconductive ceramics. The mixes are prepared by instantaneous precipitation from stoichiometric solutions of metal salts such as nitrates at controlled pH's within the 9 to 12 range, by addition of solutions of non-complexing pyrolyzable cations, such as alkyammonium and carbonate ions.

  11. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets Derived from Ground-based...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which could eventually facilitate aerosol-cloud interactions. (Kim, Klein, Norris, JGR, 2005) SD z (m) SD LWP (g m -2 ) Efficacy of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions - ...

  12. 915 MHz Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory M Jensen MJ ... Wind Profiler for Cloud Forecasting at Brookhaven National Laboratory M Jensen, ...

  13. ARM: AOS: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (Dataset) | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: AOS: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter AOS: Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston ; ...

  14. ARM - Evaluation Product - CMWG Data - SCM-Forcing Data, Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data. Cloud microphysical properties derived from Mace's data of atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates are regridded to a...

  15. Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud. Credit: Computational Science and Engineering Laboratory, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud Cavitation Collapse PI Name:...

  16. The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    these fields include cloud altitude, cloud amount, liquid and ice content, particle size spectra, and radiative fluxes at the surface and the TOA. Comparisons with Atmospheric...

  17. City of Red Cloud, Nebraska (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Cloud, Nebraska (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Red Cloud Municipal Power Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 402-746-2215 Website: www.redcloudnebraska.comgover...

  18. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining ... Title: Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface ...

  19. ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  20. Cloud microphysical relationships and their implication on entrainment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud microphysical relationships and their implication on entrainment and mixing mechanism for the stratocumulus clouds measured during the VOCALS project Citation Details ...

  1. Summary of workshop session F on electron-cloud instabilities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Summary of workshop session F on electron-cloud instabilities Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Summary of workshop session F on electron-cloud instabilities ...

  2. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of convection, clouds and radiative heating rate and fluxes using the ARM ... as well as cloud water contents in producing net radiative fluxes closer to observations. ...

  3. Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determining Cloud Ice Water Path from High-Frequency Microwave Measurements G. Liu ... A better understanding of cloud water content and its large-scale distribution ...

  4. Final Report on the Development of an Improved Cloud Microphysical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facilities (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative ... integrated over all bin sizes, liquid water content LWC, extinction of liquid clouds ...

  5. Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Many of the ...

  6. ARM: Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR): transmitted RF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    transmitted RF power Title: ARM: Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR): transmitted RF power Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR): transmitted RF power Authors: Karen ...

  7. USING CLOUD CLASSIFICATION TO MODEL SOLAR VARIABILITY Matthew...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hourly cloud classified satellite images are compared to multiple years of ground measured ... type of cloud or weather pattern, as classified by NOAA. Instinctively, the type of ...

  8. Towards a Characterization of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    manual classification of cloud phase. Using collocated cloud radar and depolarization lidar observations, it is shown that mixed-phase conditions have a high correlation with a...

  9. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles Title: Tropical Cloud Properties ... in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. ...

  10. Humidity trends imply increased sensitivity to clouds in a warming...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is modulated by cloud properties; however, CRE also depends on humidity because clouds emit at wavelengths that are semi-transparent to greenhouse gases, most notably water vapour. ...

  11. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Facility: Part 2. The Vertical Redistribution of Radiant Energy by Clouds. ... Documentation with data of the effects of clouds on the radiant energy balance of the ...

  12. Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    amplify tropical North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation: CLOUD AND DUST FEEDBACK AND AMO Title: Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North Atlantic ...

  13. Observation of Precipitation Evolution in Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al Maraging Steel using Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereloma, E. V.; Stohr, R A; Miller, Michael K; Ringer, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the full decomposition sequence in an Fe-Ni-Mn-Ti-Al maraging steel during isothermal annealing at 550 C. Following significant pre-precipitation clustering reactions within the supersaturated martensitic solid solution, (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti and (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates eventually form after isothermal aging for {approx}60 seconds. The morphology of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles changes gradually during aging from predominantly plate-like to rod-like, and, importantly, Mn and Al were observed to segregate to these precipitate/matrix interfaces. The (Ni,Fe){sub 3}(Al,Mn) precipitates occurred at two main locations: uniformly within the matrix and at the periphery of the (Ni,Fe){sub 3}Ti particles. We relate this latter mode of precipitation to the Mn-Al segregation.

  14. Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Spatial Resolution Dependence of Precipitation Extremes in Aquaplanet Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qing; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rauscher, Sara; Ringler, Todd; Taylor, Mark

    2014-05-01

    data aggregation effect in omega, thermodynamic changes become relatively significant in offsetting the effect of dynamics leading to reduce differences between the simulated and aggregated results. Compared to MPAS, the simulated stronger vertical motion with HOMME also results in larger resolution dependency. Compared to the simulation at fine resolution, the vertical motion during extremes is insufficiently resolved/parameterized at the coarser resolution even after accounting for the natural reduction in variability with coarser resolution, and this is more distinct in the simulation with HOMME. To reduce uncertainties in simulated precipitation extremes, future development in cloud parameterizations must address their sensitivity to spatial resolution as well as dynamical cores.

  15. Cloud-Based Model Calibration Using OpenStudio: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, E.; Lisell, L.; Goldwasser, D.; Macumber, D.; Dean, J.; Metzger, I.; Parker, A.; Long, N.; Ball, B.; Schott, M.; Weaver, E.; Brackney, L.

    2014-03-01

    OpenStudio is a free, open source Software Development Kit (SDK) and application suite for performing building energy modeling and analysis. The OpenStudio Parametric Analysis Tool has been extended to allow cloud-based simulation of multiple OpenStudio models parametrically related to a baseline model. This paper describes the new cloud-based simulation functionality and presents a model cali-bration case study. Calibration is initiated by entering actual monthly utility bill data into the baseline model. Multiple parameters are then varied over multiple iterations to reduce the difference between actual energy consumption and model simulation results, as calculated and visualized by billing period and by fuel type. Simulations are per-formed in parallel using the Amazon Elastic Cloud service. This paper highlights model parameterizations (measures) used for calibration, but the same multi-nodal computing architecture is available for other purposes, for example, recommending combinations of retrofit energy saving measures using the calibrated model as the new baseline.

  16. CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

  17. Lidar Investigation of Tropical Nocturnal Boundary Layer Aerosols and Cloud Macrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj, M. G.; Devara, PC S.; Taraphdar, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Observational evidence of two-way association between nocturnal boundary layer aerosols and cloud macrophysical properties under different meteorological conditions is reported in this paper. The study has been conducted during 2008-09 employing a high space-time resolution polarimetric micro-pulse lidar over a tropical urban station in India. Firstly, the study highlights the crucial role of boundary layer aerosols and background meteorology on the formation and structure of low-level stratiform clouds in the backdrop of different atmospheric stability conditions. Turbulent mixing induced by the wind shear at the station, which is associated with a complex terrain, is found to play a pivotal role in the formation and structural evolution of nocturnal boundary layer clouds. Secondly, it is shown that the trapping of energy in the form of outgoing terrestrial radiation by the overlying low-level clouds can enhance the aerosol mixing height associated with the nocturnal boundary layer. To substantiate this, the long-wave heating associated with cloud capping has been quantitatively estimated in an indirect way by employing an Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 2.2 developed by National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Colorado, USA, and supplementary data sets; and differentiated against other heating mechanisms. The present investigation as well establishes the potential of lidar remote-sensing technique in exploring some of the intriguing aspects of the cloud-environment relationship.

  18. Radiative properties of ice clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, D.L.; Koracin, D.; Carter, E.

    1996-04-01

    A new treatment of cirrus cloud radiative properties has been developed, based on anomalous diffraction theory (ADT), which does not parameterize size distributions in terms of an effective radius. Rather, is uses the size distribution parameters directly, and explicitly considers the ice particle shapes. There are three fundamental features which characterize this treatment: (1) the ice path radiation experiences as it travels through an ice crystal is parameterized, (2) only determines the amount of radiation scattered and absorbed, and (3) as in other treatments, the projected area of the size distribution is conserved. The first two features are unique to this treatment, since it does not convert the ice particles into equivalent volume or area spheres in order to apply Mie theory.

  19. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  20. Modeling Incoherent Electron Cloud Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Benedetto, E.; Fischer, W.; Franchetti, G.; Ohmi, K.; Schulte, D.; Sonnad, K.; Tomas, R.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, F.; Rumolo, G.; Pivi, M.; Raubenheimer, T.

    2007-06-18

    Incoherent electron effects could seriously limit the beam lifetime in proton or ion storage rings, such as LHC, SPS, or RHIC, or blow up the vertical emittance of positron beams, e.g., at the B factories or in linear-collider damping rings. Different approaches to modeling these effects each have their own merits and drawbacks. We describe several simulation codes which simplify the descriptions of the beam-electron interaction and of the accelerator structure in various different ways, and present results for a toy model of the SPS. In addition, we present evidence that for positron beams the interplay of incoherent electron-cloud effects and synchrotron radiation can lead to a significant increase in vertical equilibrium emittance. The magnitude of a few incoherent e+e- scattering processes is also estimated. Options for future code development are reviewed.

  1. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  2. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Mike; Bartholomew, Mary Jane; Genio, Anthony Del; Giangrande, Scott; Kollias, Pavlos

    2012-01-19

    Convective processes play a critical role in the Earth's energy balance through the redistribution of heat and moisture in the atmosphere and their link to the hydrological cycle. Accurate representation of convective processes in numerical models is vital towards improving current and future simulations of Earths climate system. Despite improvements in computing power, current operational weather and global climate models are unable to resolve the natural temporal and spatial scales important to convective processes and therefore must turn to parameterization schemes to represent these processes. In turn, parameterization schemes in cloud-resolving models need to be evaluated for their generality and application to a variety of atmospheric conditions. Data from field campaigns with appropriate forcing descriptors have been traditionally used by modelers for evaluating and improving parameterization schemes.

  3. Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forms Forms Computer Keyboard Keyboard DOE Forms DOE's forms are developed within the Department and approved by the DOE Forms Manager. The forms provided (below) are designed to serve the needs of two (or more) DOE Headquarters or field organizations. (You must have Adobe Acrobat(R) Reader to view and print the below files. Fillable forms are identified by the "fillable" icon, and require the full version of Adobe Acrobat software.) Forms by Subject Forms by Number Management &

  4. DIFFUSE MOLECULAR CLOUD DENSITIES FROM UV MEASUREMENTS OF CO ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2013-09-10

    We use UV measurements of interstellar CO toward nearby stars to calculate the density in the diffuse molecular clouds containing the molecules responsible for the observed absorption. Chemical models and recent calculations of the excitation rate coefficients indicate that the regions in which CO is found have hydrogen predominantly in molecular form and that collisional excitation is by collisions with H{sub 2} molecules. We carry out statistical equilibrium calculations using CO-H{sub 2} collision rates to solve for the H{sub 2} density in the observed sources without including effects of radiative trapping. We have assumed kinetic temperatures of 50 K and 100 K, finding this choice to make relatively little difference to the lowest transition. For the sources having T{sup ex}{sub 10} only for which we could determine upper and lower density limits, we find (n(H{sub 2})) = 49 cm{sup -3}. While we can find a consistent density range for a good fraction of the sources having either two or three values of the excitation temperature, there is a suggestion that the higher-J transitions are sampling clouds or regions within diffuse molecular cloud material that have higher densities than the material sampled by the J = 1-0 transition. The assumed kinetic temperature and derived H{sub 2} density are anticorrelated when the J = 2-1 transition data, the J = 3-2 transition data, or both are included. For sources with either two or three values of the excitation temperature, we find average values of the midpoint of the density range that is consistent with all of the observations equal to 68 cm{sup -3} for T{sup k} = 100 K and 92 cm{sup -3} for T{sup k} = 50 K. The data for this set of sources imply that diffuse molecular clouds are characterized by an average thermal pressure between 4600 and 6800 K cm{sup -3}.

  5. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  6. Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Forms Forms The following interactive Web-based forms in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) are designed for online completion with Acrobat Reader. Input data will ...

  7. Contact formation and gettering of precipitated impurities by multiple firing during semiconductor device fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan

    2014-05-27

    Methods for contact formation and gettering of precipitated impurities by multiple firing during semiconductor device fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating an electrical semiconductor device comprises: a first step that includes gettering of impurities from a semiconductor wafer and forming a backsurface field; and a second step that includes forming a front contact for the semiconductor wafer, wherein the second step is performed after completion of the first step.

  8. Photolysis rates in correlated overlapping cloud fields: Cloud-J 7.3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prather, M. J.

    2015-05-27

    A new approach for modeling photolysis rates (J values) in atmospheres with fractional cloud cover has been developed and implemented as Cloud-J – a multi-scattering eight-stream radiative transfer model for solar radiation based on Fast-J. Using observed statistics for the vertical correlation of cloud layers, Cloud-J 7.3 provides a practical and accurate method for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The combination of the new maximum-correlated cloud groups with the integration over all cloud combinations represented by four quadrature atmospheres produces mean J values in an atmospheric column with root-mean-square errors of 4% or less compared with 10–20% errors using simpler approximations. Cloud-Jmore » is practical for chemistry-climate models, requiring only an average of 2.8 Fast-J calls per atmosphere, vs. hundreds of calls with the correlated cloud groups, or 1 call with the simplest cloud approximations. Another improvement in modeling J values, the treatment of volatile organic compounds with pressure-dependent cross sections is also incorporated into Cloud-J.« less

  9. Photolysis rates in correlated overlapping cloud fields: Cloud-J 7.3c

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Prather, M. J.

    2015-08-14

    A new approach for modeling photolysis rates (J values) in atmospheres with fractional cloud cover has been developed and is implemented as Cloud-J – a multi-scattering eight-stream radiative transfer model for solar radiation based on Fast-J. Using observations of the vertical correlation of cloud layers, Cloud-J 7.3c provides a practical and accurate method for modeling atmospheric chemistry. The combination of the new maximum-correlated cloud groups with the integration over all cloud combinations by four quadrature atmospheres produces mean J values in an atmospheric column with root mean square (rms) errors of 4 % or less compared with 10–20 % errorsmore » using simpler approximations. Cloud-J is practical for chemistry–climate models, requiring only an average of 2.8 Fast-J calls per atmosphere vs. hundreds of calls with the correlated cloud groups, or 1 call with the simplest cloud approximations. Another improvement in modeling J values, the treatment of volatile organic compounds with pressure-dependent cross sections, is also incorporated into Cloud-J.« less

  10. Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2013-01-31

    Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day∙km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by

  11. Absorption of solar radiation in broken clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.E.; Titov, G.A.; Zhuravleva, T.B.

    1996-04-01

    It is recognized now that the plane-parallel model unsatisfactorily describes the transfer of radiation through broken clouds and that, consequently, the radiation codes of general circulation models (GCMs) must be refined. However, before any refinement in a GCM code is made, it is necessary to investigate the dependence of radiative characteristics on the effects caused by the random geometry of cloud fields. Such studies for mean fluxes of downwelling and upwelling solar radiation in the visible and near-infrared (IR) spectral range were performed by Zuev et al. In this work, we investigate the mean spectral and integrated absorption of solar radiation by broken clouds (in what follows, the term {open_quotes}mean{close_quotes} will be implied but not used, for convenience). To evaluate the potential effect of stochastic geometry, we will compare the absorption by cumulus (0.5 {le} {gamma} {le} 2) to that by equivalent stratus ({gamma} <<1) clouds; here {gamma} = H/D, H is the cloud layer thickness and D the characteristic horizontal cloud size. The equivalent stratus clouds differ from cumulus only in the aspect ratio {gamma}, all the other parameters coinciding.

  12. METHOD OF RECOVERING PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY CARRIER PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for pretreating aqueous nitric acid- plutonium solutions containing a small quantity of hydrazine that has formed as a decomposition product during the dissolution of neutron-bombarded uranium in nitric acid and that impairs the precipitation of plutonium on bismuth phosphate. The solution is digested with alkali metal dichromate or potassium permanganate at between 75 and 100 deg C; sulfuric acid at approximately 75 deg C and sodium nitrate, oxaiic acid plus manganous nitrate, or hydroxylamine are added to the solution to secure the plutonium in the tetravalent state and make it suitable for precipitation on BiPO/sub 4/.

  13. Method for the preparation of thallium-containing superconducting materials by precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunker, Bruce C.; Lamppa, Diana L.; Voigt, James A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention provides improved methods for the preparation of precursor powders that are used in the preparation of superconducting ceramic materials that contain thallium. A first solution that contains the hydrogen peroxide and metal cations, other than thallium, that will be part of the ceramic is quickly mixed with a second solution that contains precipitating anions and thallium (I) to form a precipitate which is dried to yield precursor powders. The precursor powders are calcined an sintered to produce superconducting materials that contain thallium.

  14. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, Joseph P.; Marek, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  15. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.

  17. ARM - Field Campaign - Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsArctic Cloud Infrared Imaging Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Arctic Cloud Infrared Imaging 2012.07.16 - 2014.07.31 Lead Scientist : Joseph Shaw For data sets, see below. Abstract The 3rd-generation Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) instrument was deployed close to the Great White facility at the North Slope of Alaska site and operated as

  18. Science Brief Submission Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Brief Submission Form Science Brief Submission Form Print Tuesday, 01 May 2007 00:00 Loading... < Prev

  19. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 m) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 m), known as the small mode. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud

  20. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  1. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  2. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  3. Cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratiform clouds: 1. Forward modeling and remote sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kollias, P.; Luke, E.; Rmillard, J.; Szyrmer, W.

    2011-07-02

    Several aspects of spectral broadening and drizzle growth in shallow liquid clouds remain not well understood. Detailed, cloud-scale observations of microphysics and dynamics are essential to guide and evaluate corresponding modeling efforts. Profiling, millimeter-wavelength (cloud) radars can provide such observations. In particular, the first three moments of the recorded cloud radar Doppler spectra, the radar reflectivity, mean Doppler velocity, and spectrum width, are often used to retrieve cloud microphysical and dynamical properties. Such retrievals are subject to errors introduced by the assumptions made in the inversion process. Here, we introduce two additional morphological parameters of the radar Doppler spectrum, the skewness and kurtosis, in an effort to reduce the retrieval uncertainties. A forward model that emulates observed radar Doppler spectra is constructed and used to investigate these relationships. General, analytical relationships that relate the five radar observables to cloud and drizzle microphysical parameters and cloud turbulence are presented. The relationships are valid for cloud-only, cloud mixed with drizzle, and drizzle-only particles in the radar sampling volume and provide a seamless link between observations and cloud microphysics and dynamics. The sensitivity of the five observed parameters to the radar operational parameters such as signal-to-noise ratio and Doppler spectra velocity resolution are presented. The predicted values of the five observed radar parameters agree well with the output of the forward model. The novel use of the skewness of the radar Doppler spectrum as an early qualitative predictor of drizzle onset in clouds is introduced. It is found that skewness is a parameter very sensitive to early drizzle generation. In addition, the significance of the five parameters of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum for constraining drizzle microphysical retrievals is discussed.

  4. Cloud-Resolving Model Simulation and Mosaic Treatment of Subgrid Cloud-Radiation Interaction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Cloud-Based Transportation Management System Delivers Savings Cloud-Based Transportation Management System Delivers Savings October 21, 2014 - 1:53pm Addthis DOE's cloud based transportation management system (ATLAS) offers dramatically enhanced capabilities and modernization. ATLAS provides a powerful user-friendly system built to allow access to information to meet transportation needs. Its processes promote regulatory compliance, while providing access to qualified carriers and

  5. X.509 Authentication/Authorization in FermiCloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyunwoo; Timm, Steven

    2014-11-11

    We present a summary of how X.509 authentication and authorization are used with OpenNebula in FermiCloud. We also describe a history of why the X.509 authentication was needed in FermiCloud, and review X.509 authorization options, both internal and external to OpenNebula. We show how these options can be and have been used to successfully run scientific workflows on federated clouds, which include OpenNebula on FermiCloud and Amazon Web Services as well as other community clouds. We also outline federation options being used by other commercial and open-source clouds and cloud research projects.

  6. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  7. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  8. Developing and Evaluating Ice Cloud Parameterizations by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by remote sensing is that the transfer functions which relate the observables (e. g., radar Doppler spectrum) to cloud properties (e. g., ice water content, or IWC) are not...

  9. QER- Comment of Cloud Peak Energy Inc

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dear Ms Pickett Please find attached comments from Cloud Peak Energy as input to the Department of Energy’s Quadrennial Energy Review. If possible I would appreciate a confirmation that this email has been received Thank you.

  10. Building a private cloud with Open Nebula

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Short Ryan Glenn Ross Nordeen Mentors: Andree Jacobson ISTI-OFF David Kennel DCS-1 LA-UR 10-05197 Why use Virtualized Cloud Computing for HPC? * Support Legacy Software Stacks *...

  11. HPC CLOUD APPLIED TO LATTICE OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Changchun; Nishimura, Hiroshi; James, Susan; Song, Kai; Muriki, Krishna; Qin, Yong

    2011-03-18

    As Cloud services gain in popularity for enterprise use, vendors are now turning their focus towards providing cloud services suitable for scientific computing. Recently, Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) introduced the new Cluster Compute Instances (CCI), a new instance type specifically designed for High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. At Berkeley Lab, the physicists at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) have been running Lattice Optimization on a local cluster, but the queue wait time and the flexibility to request compute resources when needed are not ideal for rapid development work. To explore alternatives, for the first time we investigate running the Lattice Optimization application on Amazon's new CCI to demonstrate the feasibility and trade-offs of using public cloud services for science.

  12. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest ... 1977 and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000. ...

  13. Science on the Hill: Methane cloud hunting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane cloud hunting Methane cloud hunting Los Alamos researchers go hunting for methane gas over the Four Corners area of northwest New Mexico and find a strange daily pattern. July 12, 2015 methane map Methane, the primary component of natural gas, is also a potent greenhouse gas, trapping energy in the atmosphere. Last year NASA released satellite images showing a hot spot in the area where New Mexico, Colorado, Utah and Arizona meet, prompting scientists to go in search of the sources.

  14. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  15. Electron-Cloud Build-Up: Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, M.A.

    2007-06-18

    I present a summary of topics relevant to the electron-cloud build-up and dissipation that were presented at the International Workshop on Electron-Cloud Effects 'ECLOUD 07' (Daegu, S. Korea, April 9-12, 2007). This summary is not meant to be a comprehensive review of the talks. Rather, I focus on those developments that I found, in my personal opinion, especially interesting. The contributions, all excellent, are posted in http://chep.knu.ac.kr/ecloud07/.

  16. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  17. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  18. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based Shortwave Radiation Measurements: A Comparison of 16 Year Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yu; Liu, Yangang; Long, Charles N.; Min, Qilong

    2014-07-27

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on clouds and the surface radiation budget; here several different techniques for retrieving cloud fraction (Long2006, Min2008 and XL2013) and cloud albedo (Min2008, Liu2011 and XL2013) from ground-based shortwave broadband and spectral radiation measurements are examined, and sixteen years of retrievals collected at the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are compared. The comparison shows overall good agreement between the retrievals of both cloud fraction and cloud albedo, with noted differences however. The Long2006 and Min2008 cloud fractions are greater on average than the XL2013 values. Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater for thin clouds but smaller for thick clouds, with the differences decreasing with increasing cloud fraction. Further analysis reveals that the approaches that retrieve cloud fraction and cloud albedo separately may suffer from mutual contamination of errors in retrieved cloud fraction and cloud albedo. Potential influences of cloud absorption, land-surface albedo, cloud structure, and measurement instruments are explored.

  19. Precipitation in AlMg solid solution prepared by solidification under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie, J.C., E-mail: jiejc@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Special Processing of Raw Materials and School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, H.W.; Zou, C.M.; Wei, Z.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, T.J. [Laboratory of Special Processing of Raw Materials and School of Material Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 (China)

    2014-01-15

    The precipitation in AlMg solid solution containing 21.6 at.% Mg prepared by solidification under 2 GPa was investigated. The results show that the ?-Al{sub 12}Mg{sub 17} phase is formed and the ?? phase cannot be observed in the solid solution during ageing process. The precipitation of ? and ? phases takes place in a non-uniform manner during heating process, i.e. the ? and ? phases are first formed in the interdendritic region, which is caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of Mg atoms in the solid solution solidified under high pressure. Peak splitting of X-ray diffraction patterns of Al(Mg) solid solution appears, and then disappears when the samples are aged at 423 K for different times, due to the non-uniform precipitation in AlMg solid solution. The direct transformation from the ? to ? phase is observed after ageing at 423 K for 24 h. It is considered that the ? phase is formed through a peritectoid reaction of ? + ? ? ? which needs the diffusion of Mg atoms across the interface of ?/? phases. - Highlights: The ? phase is formed and the ?? phase is be observed in Al(Mg) solid solution. Peak splitting of XRD pattern of Al(Mg) solid solution appears during aged at 150 C. The ? phase is formed through a peritectoid reaction of ? + ? ? ?.

  20. Longwave scattering effects on fluxes in broken cloud fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takara, E.E.; Ellingson, R.G.

    1996-04-01

    The optical properties of clouds in the radiative energy balance are important. Most works on the effects of scattering have been in the shortwave; but longwave effects can be significant. In this work, the fluxes above and below a single cloud layer are presented, along with the errors in assuming flat black plate clouds or black clouds. The predicted fluxes are the averaged results of analysis of several fields with the same cloud amount.

  1. Magellan Explores Cloud Computing for DOE's Scientific Mission

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explores Cloud Computing for DOE's Scientific Mission Magellan Explores Cloud Computing for DOE's Scientific Mission March 30, 2011 Cloud Control -This is a picture of the Magellan management and network control racks at NERSC. To test cloud computing for scientific capability, NERSC and the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) installed purpose-built testbeds for running scientific applications on the IBM iDataPlex cluster. (Photo Credit: Roy Kaltschmidt) Cloud computing is gaining

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Campaign Links Final Campaign Summary BAECC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15, Scott, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Extended Radiosonde IOP 2014.05.01, Nicoll, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS Instrument in Hyytiala with AMF-2 2014.04.01, Thornton, AMF Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Snowfall

  3. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Day and Night cloud

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fraction - Cloud Inter-Compariosn IOP results Day and Night cloud fraction - Cloud Inter-Compariosn IOP results Genkova, Iliana University of Illinois-Champaign Long, Chuck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Turner, David Pacific Northwest National Laboratory We present results from the CIC IOP from March-may, 2003. Day time and night time cloud fraction retrieval algorithms have been presented and intercompared. Amount of low, middle and high cloud have been estimated and compared to

  4. Star formation relations in nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Neal J. II; Heiderman, Amanda; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin

    2014-02-20

    We test some ideas for star formation relations against data on local molecular clouds. On a cloud by cloud basis, the relation between the surface density of star formation rate and surface density of gas divided by a free-fall time, calculated from the mean cloud density, shows no significant correlation. If a crossing time is substituted for the free-fall time, there is even less correlation. Within a cloud, the star formation rate volume and surface densities increase rapidly with the corresponding gas densities, faster than predicted by models using the free-fall time defined from the local density. A model in which the star formation rate depends linearly on the mass of gas above a visual extinction of 8 mag describes the data on these clouds, with very low dispersion. The data on regions of very massive star formation, with improved star formation rates based on free-free emission from ionized gas, also agree with this linear relation.

  5. Using baryon octet magnetic moments and masses to fix the pion cloud contribution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Franz L. Gross; Ramalho, Gilberto T. F.; Tsushima, Kazuo

    2010-05-12

    In this study, using SU(3) symmetry to constrain themore » $$\\pi BB'$$ couplings, assuming SU(3) breaking comes only from one-loop pion cloud contributions, and using the the covariant spectator theory to describe the photon coupling to the quark core, we show how the experimental masses and magnetic moments of the baryon octet can be used to set a model independent constraint on the strength of the pion cloud contributions to the octet, and hence the nucleon, form factors at $Q^2=0$.« less

  6. Radioactive demonstration of the late wash'' Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the late wash'' flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  7. Technical bases for precipitate hydrolysis process operating parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-10-05

    This report provides the experimental data and rationale in support of the operating parameters for precipitate hydrolysis specified in WSRC-RP-92737. The report is divided into two sections, the first dealing with lab-scale precipitate hydrolysis experimentation while the second part addresses large-scale runs conducted to demonstrate the revised operating parameters in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF).

  8. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  9. A New Approach to Modeling Aerosol Effects on East Asian Climate: Parametric Uncertainties Associated with Emissions, Cloud Microphysics and their Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Huiping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Minghuai; Yang, Ben; Liu, Xiaohong; Fu, Qiang

    2015-09-16

    In this study, we adopt a parametric sensitivity analysis framework that integrates the quasi-Monte Carlo parameter sampling approach and a surrogate model to examine aerosol effects on the East Asian Monsoon climate simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5). A total number of 256 CAM5 simulations are conducted to quantify the model responses to the uncertain parameters associated with cloud microphysics parameterizations and aerosol (e.g., sulfate, black carbon (BC), and dust) emission factors and their interactions. Results show that the interaction terms among parameters are important for quantifying the sensitivity of fields of interest, especially precipitation, to the parameters. The relative importance of cloud-microphysics parameters and emission factors (strength) depends on evaluation metrics or the model fields we focused on, and the presence of uncertainty in cloud microphysics imposes an additional challenge in quantifying the impact of aerosols on cloud and climate. Due to their different optical and microphysical properties and spatial distributions, sulfate, BC, and dust aerosols have very different impacts on East Asian Monsoon through aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions. The climatic effects of aerosol do not always have a monotonic response to the change of emission factors. The spatial patterns of both sign and magnitude of aerosol-induced changes in radiative fluxes, cloud, and precipitation could be different, depending on the aerosol types, when parameters are sampled in different ranges of values. We also identify the different cloud microphysical parameters that show the most significant impact on climatic effect induced by sulfate, BC and dust, respectively, in East Asia.

  10. Modeling Precipitating Cumulus Congestus Observed by the ARM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (GCMs). Typically, results from cloud-resolving models (CRMs) or large-eddy simulation (LES) models serve as benchmarks for developing and tuning single-column models (SCMs),...

  11. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds ... behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better ... ISSN 1942-2466 Publisher: American Geophysical Union (AGU) ...

  12. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE NON-GRAND DESIGN SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 6946

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebolledo, David; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam; Koda, Jin; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan

    2012-10-01

    We present high spatial resolution observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the eastern part of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946 obtained with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We have observed CO(1 {yields} 0), CO(2 {yields} 1) and {sup 13}CO(1 {yields} 0), achieving spatial resolutions of 5.''4 Multiplication-Sign 5.''0, 2.''5 Multiplication-Sign 2.''0, and 5.''6 Multiplication-Sign 5.''4, respectively, over a region of 6 Multiplication-Sign 6 kpc. This region extends from 1.5 kpc to 8 kpc galactocentric radius, thus avoiding the intense star formation in the central kpc. We have recovered short-spacing u-v components by using single dish observations from the Nobeyama 45 m and IRAM 30 m telescopes. Using the automated CPROPS algorithm, we identified 45 CO cloud complexes in the CO(1 {yields} 0) map and 64 GMCs in the CO(2 {yields} 1) maps. The sizes, line widths, and luminosities of the GMCs are similar to values found in other extragalactic studies. We have classified the clouds into on-arm and inter-arm clouds based on the stellar mass density traced by the 3.6 {mu}m map. Clouds located on-arm present in general higher star formation rates than clouds located in inter-arm regions. Although the star formation efficiency shows no systematic trend with galactocentric radius, some on-arm clouds-which are more luminous and more massive compared to inter-arm GMCs-are also forming stars more efficiently than the rest of the identified GMCs. We find that these structures appear to be located in two specific regions in the spiral arms. One of them shows a strong velocity gradient, suggesting that this region of high star formation efficiency may be the result of gas flow convergence.

  13. The jet and arc molecular clouds toward Westerlund 2, RCW 49, and HESS J1023–575; {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (J = 2-1 and J = 1-0) observations with NANTEN2 and Mopra telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furukawa, N.; Ohama, A.; Fukuda, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Sano, H.; Okuda, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Moribe, N.; Mizuno, A.; Maezawa, H.; Onishi, T.; Kawamura, A.; Mizuno, N.; Dawson, J. R.; Dame, T. M.; Yonekura, Y.; Aharonian, F.; De Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Rowell, G. P. E-mail: fukui@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp; and others

    2014-02-01

    We have made new CO observations of two molecular clouds, which we call 'jet' and 'arc' clouds, toward the stellar cluster Westerlund 2 and the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1023–575. The jet cloud shows a linear structure from the position of Westerlund 2 on the east. In addition, we have found a new counter jet cloud on the west. The arc cloud shows a crescent shape in the west of HESS J1023–575. A sign of star formation is found at the edge of the jet cloud and gives a constraint on the age of the jet cloud to be ∼Myr. An analysis with the multi CO transitions gives temperature as high as 20 K in a few places of the jet cloud, suggesting that some additional heating may be operating locally. The new TeV γ-ray images by H.E.S.S. correspond to the jet and arc clouds spatially better than the giant molecular clouds associated with Westerlund 2. We suggest that the jet and arc clouds are not physically linked with Westerlund 2 but are located at a greater distance around 7.5 kpc. A microquasar with long-term activity may be able to offer a possible engine to form the jet and arc clouds and to produce the TeV γ-rays, although none of the known microquasars have a Myr age or steady TeV γ-rays. Alternatively, an anisotropic supernova explosion which occurred ∼Myr ago may be able to form the jet and arc clouds, whereas the TeV γ-ray emission requires a microquasar formed after the explosion.

  14. Experimental and numerical analysis of parallel reactant flow and transverse mixing with mineral precipitation in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Don T.; Guo, Luanjing; Fujita, Yoshiko; Huang, Hai; Redden, George

    2015-12-17

    Formation of mineral precipitates in the mixing interface between two reactant solutions flowing in parallel in porous media is governed by reactant mixing by diffusion and dispersion and is coupled to changes in porosity/permeability due to precipitation. The spatial and temporal distribution of mixing-dependent precipitation of barium sulfate in porous media was investigated with side-by-side injection of barium chloride and sodium sulfate solutions in thin rectangular flow cells packed with quartz sand. The results for homogeneous sand beds were compared to beds with higher or lower permeability inclusions positioned in the path of the mixing zone. In the homogeneous and high permeability inclusion experiments, BaSO4 precipitate (barite) formed in a narrow deposit along the length and in the center of the solution–solution mixing zone even though dispersion was enhanced within, and downstream of, the high permeability inclusion. In the low permeability inclusion experiment, the deflected BaSO4 precipitation zone broadened around one side and downstream of the inclusion and was observed to migrate laterally toward the sulfate solution. A continuum-scale fully coupled reactive transport model that simultaneously solves the nonlinear governing equations for fluid flow, transport of reactants and geochemical reactions was used to simulate the experiments and provide insight into mechanisms underlying the experimental observations. Lastly, migration of the precipitation zone in the low permeability inclusion experiment could be explained by the coupling effects among fluid flow, reactant transport and localized mineral precipitation reaction.

  15. Page 8, Benefit Forms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Form - 853 Kb - Allows an employee to enroll or waive health insurance coverage. SF-2817 - Life Insurance Election Form (Federal Employee Group Life Insurance) - 120 Kb - ...

  16. Form OE-417

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Form OE-417 ELECTRIC EMERGENCY INCIDENT AND DISTURBANCE REPORT Form Approved OMB No. 1901-0288 Approval Expires 03312018 Burden Per...

  17. COLLAPSE AND FRAGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES WITH THE ENZO AMR MHD CODE. I. UNIFORM DENSITY SPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.

    2013-02-20

    Magnetic fields are important contributors to the dynamics of collapsing molecular cloud cores, and can have a major effect on whether collapse results in a single protostar or fragmentation into a binary or multiple protostar system. New models are presented of the collapse of magnetic cloud cores using the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo2.0. The code was used to calculate the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) of initially spherical, uniform density, and rotation clouds with density perturbations, i.e., the Boss and Bodenheimer standard isothermal test case for three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics codes. After first verifying that Enzo reproduces the binary fragmentation expected for the non-magnetic test case, a large set of models was computed with varied initial magnetic field strengths and directions with respect to the cloud core axis of rotation (parallel or perpendicular), density perturbation amplitudes, and equations of state. Three significantly different outcomes resulted: (1) contraction without sustained collapse, forming a denser cloud core; (2) collapse to form a single protostar with significant spiral arms; and (3) collapse and fragmentation into binary or multiple protostar systems, with multiple spiral arms. Comparisons are also made with previous MHD calculations of similar clouds with a barotropic equations of state. These results for the collapse of initially uniform density spheres illustrate the central importance of both magnetic field direction and field strength for determining the outcome of dynamic protostellar collapse.

  18. Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayan, Jagdish; Chen, Yok

    1983-01-01

    This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

  19. A study of Monte Carlo radiative transfer through fractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, C.; Lavallec, D.; O`Hirok, W.; Ricchiazzi, P.

    1996-04-01

    An understanding of radiation transport (RT) through clouds is fundamental to studies of the earth`s radiation budget and climate dynamics. The transmission through horizontally homogeneous clouds has been studied thoroughly using accurate, discreet ordinates radiative transfer models. However, the applicability of these results to general problems of global radiation budget is limited by the plane parallel assumption and the fact that real clouds fields show variability, both vertically and horizontally, on all size scales. To understand how radiation interacts with realistic clouds, we have used a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute the details of the photon-cloud interaction on synthetic cloud fields. Synthetic cloud fields, generated by a cascade model, reproduce the scaling behavior, as well as the cloud variability observed and estimated from cloud satellite data.

  20. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an ... KEYWORDS: arctic clouds, cloud liquid water, microwave radiometer, ECMWF model, ...

  1. Cloud classification using whole-sky imager data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buch, K.A. Jr.; Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    Clouds are one of the most important moderators of the earth radiation budget and one of the least understood. The effect that clouds have on the reflection and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation is strongly influenced by their shape, size, and composition. Physically accurate parameterization of clouds is necessary for any general circulation model (GCM) to yield meaningful results. The work presented here is part of a larger project that is aimed at producing realistic three-dimensional (3D) volume renderings of cloud scenes based on measured data from real cloud scenes. These renderings will provide the important shape information for parameterizing GCMs. The specific goal of the current study is to develop an algorithm that automatically classifies (by cloud type) the clouds observed in the scene. This information will assist the volume rendering program in determining the shape of the cloud. Much work has been done on cloud classification using multispectral satellite images. Most of these references use some kind of texture measure to distinguish the different cloud types and some also use topological features (such as cloud/sky connectivity or total number of clouds). A wide variety of classification methods has been used, including neural networks, various types of clustering, and thresholding. The work presented here uses binary decision trees to distinguish the different cloud types based on cloud features vectors.

  2. Disordered amorphous calcium carbonate from direct precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farhadi Khouzani, Masoud; Chevrier, Daniel M.; Güttlein, Patricia; Hauser, Karin; Zhang, Peng; Hedin, Niklas; Gebauer, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to play a prominent role in biomineralization. Different studies on the structure of biogenic ACCs have illustrated that they can have distinct short-range orders. However, the origin of so-called proto-structures in synthetic and additive-free ACCs is not well understood. In the current work, ACC has been synthesised in iso-propanolic media by direct precipitation from ionic precursors, and analysed utilising a range of different techniques. The data suggest that this additive-free type of ACC does not resemble clear proto-structural motifs relating to any crystalline polymorph. This can be explained by the undefined pH value in iso-propanolic media, and the virtually instantaneous precipitation. Altogether, this work suggests that aqueous systems and pathways involving pre-nucleation clusters are required for the generation of clear proto-structural features in ACC. Experiments on the ACC-to-crystalline transformation in solution with and without ethanol highlight that polymorph selection is under kinetic control, while the presence of ethanol can control dissolution re-crystallisation pathways.

  3. Disordered amorphous calcium carbonate from direct precipitation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Farhadi Khouzani, Masoud; Chevrier, Daniel M.; Güttlein, Patricia; Hauser, Karin; Zhang, Peng; Hedin, Niklas; Gebauer, Denis

    2015-06-01

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is known to play a prominent role in biomineralization. Different studies on the structure of biogenic ACCs have illustrated that they can have distinct short-range orders. However, the origin of so-called proto-structures in synthetic and additive-free ACCs is not well understood. In the current work, ACC has been synthesised in iso-propanolic media by direct precipitation from ionic precursors, and analysed utilising a range of different techniques. The data suggest that this additive-free type of ACC does not resemble clear proto-structural motifs relating to any crystalline polymorph. This can be explained by the undefined pH value inmore » iso-propanolic media, and the virtually instantaneous precipitation. Altogether, this work suggests that aqueous systems and pathways involving pre-nucleation clusters are required for the generation of clear proto-structural features in ACC. Experiments on the ACC-to-crystalline transformation in solution with and without ethanol highlight that polymorph selection is under kinetic control, while the presence of ethanol can control dissolution re-crystallisation pathways.« less

  4. Form:SampleForm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SampleForm Jump to: navigation, search Input the name of a Test Page below. If the resource already exists, you will be able to edit its information. AddEdit a Test Page The text...

  5. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg, K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  6. The diverse use of clouds by CMS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Andronis, Anastasios; Bauer, Daniela; Chaze, Olivier; Colling, David; Dobson, Marc; Fayer, Simon; Girone, Maria; Grandi, Claudio; Huffman, Adam; Hufnagel, Dirk; et al

    2015-01-01

    The resources CMS is using are increasingly being offered as clouds. In Run 2 of the LHC the majority of CMS CERN resources, both in Meyrin and at the Wigner Computing Centre, will be presented as cloud resources on which CMS will have to build its own infrastructure. This infrastructure will need to run all of the CMS workflows including: Tier 0, production and user analysis. In addition, the CMS High Level Trigger will provide a compute resource comparable in scale to the total offered by the CMS Tier 1 sites, when it is not running as part of themore » trigger system. During these periods a cloud infrastructure will be overlaid on this resource, making it accessible for general CMS use. Finally, CMS is starting to utilise cloud resources being offered by individual institutes and is gaining experience to facilitate the use of opportunistically available cloud resources. Lastly, we present a snap shot of this infrastructure and its operation at the time of the CHEP2015 conference.« less

  7. EIA Electric Power Forms

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Forms EIA Electric Power Forms Listing of Publicly Available and Confidential Data EIA's statistical surveys encompass each significant electric supply and demand activity in the United States. Most of the electric power survey forms resulting data elements are published, but respondent confidentiality is required. The chart below shows the data elements for each survey form and how each data element is treated in regard to confidentiality. Data Categories Data collection forms

  8. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-21

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two

  9. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-04

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the

  10. Magellan: experiences from a Science Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramakrishnan, Lavanya; Zbiegel, Piotr; Campbell, Scott; Bradshaw, Rick; Canon, Richard; Coghlan, Susan; Sakrejda, Iwona; Desai, Narayan; Declerck, Tina; Liu, Anping

    2011-02-02

    Cloud resources promise to be an avenue to address new categories of scientific applications including data-intensive science applications, on-demand/surge computing, and applications that require customized software environments. However, there is a limited understanding on how to operate and use clouds for scientific applications. Magellan, a project funded through the Department of Energy?s (DOE) Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program, is investigating the use of cloud computing for science at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Facility (NERSC). In this paper, we detail the experiences to date at both sites and identify the gaps and open challenges from both a resource provider as well as application perspective.

  11. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SEMEDX imaging suggests that the electrical properties result from the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. The CaCO3 forms an insulating film on ZVImagnetite surfaces, ...

  12. Bacterially induced precipitation of CaCO sub 3 : An example from studies of cyanobacterial mats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chafetz, H.S.

    1990-04-30

    Bacteria induce the precipitation of calcium carbonate in the laboratory and in nature by altering their chemical environment. Geologists are recognizing the possibility that bacterially induced precipitates may form significant mineral deposits, unfortunately, there are currently no sound criteria by which they can be recognized in recent sediments, or in the rock record. Cultures of aerobic and facultative bacteria from cyanobacterial mats on Andros Island, Bahamas, and Baffin Bay, Texas, induced the precipitation of calcium carbonate under controlled conditions. Crusts, the largest features formed, are composed of 5--200{mu}m diameter bundles which are, in turn, composed of numerous individual crystals. The smallest observed features are 0.1--0.4{mu}m spheres and rods which comprise some individual crystals and crystal bundles. Crystal bundles resembling rhombohedra, tetragonal disphenoids, tetragonal dipyramids, and calcite dumbbells appear to be uniquely bacterial in origin, and they have all been observed in recent sediments. Swollen rods, discs, curved dumbbells, and 50--200{mu}m optically continuous crystals resembling brushes may be uniquely bacterial in origin, however, they have not been reported by other laboratories nor observed in natural settings. Presence of any of these forms in recent sediments should be taken as strong evidence for bacterial influence. Spheres and aragonite dumbbells have also been observed in natural environments, however, they are not always bacterial in origin. Precipitation of calcium carbonate occurs preferentially on dead cyanobacteria in the presence of bacteria. Lithification of algal mats to form stromatolites may take place in the zone of decaying organic matter due to bacterial activity.

  13. ARM - Field Campaign - Boundary Layer Cloud IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsBoundary Layer Cloud IOP Campaign Links Campaign Images ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Boundary Layer Cloud IOP 2005.07.11 - 2005.08.07 Lead Scientist : William Shaw For data sets, see below. Abstract Investigators from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in collaboration with scientists from a number of other institutions, carried out a month of intensive measurements at

  14. Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vang, Leng; Prescott, Steven R; Smith, Curtis

    2014-09-01

    In collaborating scientific research arena it is important to have an environment where analysts have access to a shared of information documents, software tools and be able to accurately maintain and track historical changes in models. A new cloud-based environment would be accessible remotely from anywhere regardless of computing platforms given that the platform has available of Internet access and proper browser capabilities. Information stored at this environment would be restricted based on user assigned credentials. This report reviews development of a Cloud-based Architecture Capabilities (CAC) as a web portal for PRA tools.

  15. Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC) Science...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Many uncertainties contribute to the highly variable model radiation fields: the aging of ... layer, and how the low clouds adjust to smoke-radiation and smoke-cloud interactions. ...

  16. Analysis of In situ Observations of Cloud Microphysics from M...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cloud Microphysics from M-PACE Final Report, DOE Grant Agreement No. DE-FG02-06ER64168 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of In situ Observations of Cloud ...

  17. W-Band ARM Cloud Radar - Specifications and Design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    W-Band ARM Cloud Radar - Specifications and Design K. B. Widener Pacific Northwest ... to develop and deploy the W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) at the SGP central facility. ...

  18. Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Testing Cloud Microphysics Parameterizations in NCAR CAM5 with ISDAC and M-PACE Observations Arctic clouds simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5) ...

  19. Joint retrievals of cloud and drizzle in marine boundary layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Specifically, the vertical structure of droplet size and water content of both cloud and ... cumulus under stratocumulus, where cloud water path is retrieved with an error of 31 g ...

  20. E-Cloud Build-up in Grooved Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venturini, Marco

    2007-05-01

    We simulate electron cloud build-up in a grooved vacuumchamber including the effect of space charge from the electrons. Weidentify conditions for e-cloud suppression and make contact withprevious estimates of an effective secondary electron yield for groovedsurfaces.

  1. Treatments of Inhomogeneous Clouds in a GCM Column Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of fractal stratocumulus clouds. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 2434 -2455. Chou, M.-D., M. J. Suarez, C.-H. Ho, M. M.-H. Yan, and K.-T. Lee, 1998: Parameterizations for cloud...

  2. ARM - Evaluation Product - ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cloud microphysical property ensemble data set created by assembling existing ARM cloud ... One purpose of developing such an ensemble data set is to provide a rough estimate of the ...

  3. Biogenic Aerosols„Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary T Petj ... DOESC-ARM-15-051 Biogenic Aerosols-Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign ...

  4. Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation Using a Feedback System in the CERN SPS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of E-Cloud Driven ...

  5. The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Chen; Zelinka, Mark D.; Dessler, Andrew E.; Klein, Stephen A.

    2015-12-11

    The analyses of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations suggest that climate models with more positive cloud feedback in response to interannual climate fluctuations also have more positive cloud feedback in response to long-term global warming. Ensemble mean vertical profiles of cloud change in response to interannual and long-term surface warming are similar, and the ensemble mean cloud feedback is positive on both timescales. However, the average long-term cloud feedback is smaller than the interannual cloud feedback, likely due to differences in surface warming pattern on the two timescales. Low cloud cover (LCC) change in response to interannual and long-term global surface warming is found to be well correlated across models and explains over half of the covariance between interannual and long-term cloud feedback. In conclusion, the intermodel correlation of LCC across timescales likely results from model-specific sensitivities of LCC to sea surface warming.

  6. ARM - Field Campaign - Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer 2008.01.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Mary Jane Bartholomew For data sets, see below. Abstract The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband...

  7. Nighttime Cloud Detection Over the Arctic Using AVHRR Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Table 3. SHEBA domain cloud statistics from the polar cloud mask for January-March 1998. ... Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) and NOAA-9 AVHRR data from 1986 were matched to ...

  8. Cloud-Scale Vertical Velocity and Turbulent Dissipation Rate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Files are available for manually-selected, stratiform, mixed-phase cloud cases observed at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site during periods covering the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud ...

  9. Observations of the Madden Julian Oscillation for Cloud Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dyn.) Manus MJO signal in downwelling SW cloud radiative forcing GRL paper submitted Y. Wang, C. Long, and J. Mather Manus MJO signal in retrieved cloud amount GRL paper...

  10. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  11. 2015 Electricity Form Proposals

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Photovoltaic) Survey Forms November 19, 2015 In early 2016 the U.S. Energy Information ... Details will be provided closer to that date. Proposed changes as of December 2015 Forms ...

  12. DVU Training News Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Training News Form Please complete this form in its entirety and email to ... For Web Team Only NODE DOE F 360.9 (092014) Guidance for Posting to "Training News" ...

  13. FOIA Request Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOEID Home > FOIA > FOIA Request Form U.S. Department of Energy Idaho (DOE-ID) Operations Office Electronic FOIA Request Form* To make an Electronic FOIA (E-FOIA) request, please...

  14. Standard Form 120

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 OF STANDARD FORM 120 REV. APRIL 1957 GEN. SERV. ADMIN. FPMR (41 CFR) 101-43.311 ... NUMBER FAIR % ITEM DESCRIPTION PER UNIT TOTAL NO. (a) (b) (f) (g) STANDARD FORM 120 REV. ...

  15. Form OE-417

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    | U.S. Department of Energy Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Form OE-417|ELECTRIC EMERGENCY INCIDENT AND DISTURBANCE REPORT|Form Approved OMB No. 1901-0288 Approval...

  16. Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Method for Removing Precipitates in Biofuel Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAt ORNL the application of ultrasonic energy, or sonication, has been shown to successfully remove or prevent the formation of 50-90% of the precipitates in biofuels. Precipitates can plug filters as biodiesel is transported from one location to another, and often cannot be detected

  17. Integration of Global Positioning System and Scanning Water Vapor Radiometers for Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path Estimates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Integrating the Production of Biofuels and Bioproducts Integrating the Production of Biofuels and Bioproducts April 28, 2016 - 11:25am Addthis Non-food biomass such as the crop residue (the leftover material from crops like stalks, leaves, and husks of corn plants following harvest) pictured above can be converted to biofuels as well as high-value products such as plastics, chemicals, and fertilizers. Non-food biomass such as the crop residue (the leftover material from crops like

  18. High-Pressure Micellar Solutions of Symmetric and Asymmetric Styrene?Diene Diblocks in Compressible Near Critical Solvents: Micellization Pressures and Cloud Pressures Respond but Micellar Cloud Pressures Insensitive to Copolymer Molecular Weight, Concentration, and Block Ratio Changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winoto, Winoto; Tan, Sugata; Shen, Youqin; Radosz, Maciej; Hong, Kunlun; Mays, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Micellar solutions of polystyrene-block-polybutadiene and polystyrene-block-polyisoprene in propane are found to exhibit significantly lower cloud pressures than the corresponding hypothetical nonmicellar solutions. Such a cloud-pressure reduction indicates the extent to which micelle formation enhances the apparent diblock solubility in near-critical and hence compressible propane. Concentration-dependent pressure-temperature points beyond which no micelles can be formed, referred to as the micellization end points, are found to depend on the block type, size, and ratio. The cloud-pressure reduction and the micellization end point measured for styrene-diene diblocks in propane should be characteristic of all amphiphilic diblock copolymer solutions that form micelles in compressible solvents.

  19. OCPR Forms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OCPR Forms OCPR Forms Technology Transfer Reporting Form Agreement to Mediate Form Instructions: Fill out the form and e-mail the completed document to Office of Conflict ...

  20. ORSSAB Membership Application Form

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Resident interested in joining the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board should complete and submit the included form.

  1. Treatment of cloud radiative effects in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.C.; Dudek, M.P.; Liang, X.Z.; Ding, M.

    1996-04-01

    We participate in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program with two objectives: (1) to improve the general circulation model (GCM) cloud/radiation treatment with a focus on cloud verticle overlapping and layer cloud optical properties, and (2) to study the effects of cloud/radiation-climate interaction on GCM climate simulations. This report summarizes the project progress since the Fourth ARM Science Team meeting February 28-March 4, 1994, in Charleston, South Carolina.

  2. Prediction of cloud droplet number in a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghan, S.J.; Leung, L.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have applied the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) bulk cloud microphysics parameterization to the treatment of stratiform clouds in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (CCM2). The RAMS predicts mass concentrations of cloud water, cloud ice, rain and snow, and number concnetration of ice. We have introduced the droplet number conservation equation to predict droplet number and it`s dependence on aerosols.

  3. LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? LES Modeling of High Resolution Satellite Cloud Spatial and Thermal Structure at ARM-SGP site: How well can we Simulate Clouds from Space? Dubey, Manvendra DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Chylek, Petr DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory Reisner, Jon Los Alamos National Laboratory Porch, William Los Alamos National Laboratory Category: Cloud Properties We report high fidelity observations of the spatial and thermal

  4. Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Limiting Factors for Convective Cloud Top Height in the Tropics M. P. Jensen and A. D. Del Genio National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Institute for Space Studies Columbia University New York, New York Introduction Populations of tropical convective clouds are mainly comprised of three types: shallow trade cumulus, mid-level cumulus congestus and deep convective clouds (Johnson et al. 1999). Each of these cloud types has different impacts on the local radiation and water budgets.

  5. ARM - PI Product - Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ProductsTropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al.,

  6. Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud Cavitation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collapse | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Initiation of cloud cavitation collapse for 50,000 bubbles Initiation of cloud cavitation collapse for 50,000 bubbles. Jonas Sukys, ETH Zurich Direct Numerical Simulations and Robust Predictions of Cloud Cavitation Collapse PI Name: Petros Koumoutsakos PI Email: petros@ethz.ch Institution: ETH Zurich Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 72 Million Year: 2016 Research Domain: Engineering Cloud cavitation collapse-the evolution

  7. ARM - Field Campaign - Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govCampaignsMarine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Campaign Links MAGIC Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC): Measuring the Composition of Aerosol Particles 2013.07.01, Lewis, AMF Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC): Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations 2013.07.01, McBride, AMF Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC): Marine Ice Nuclei Collections 2013.06.01, DeMott, AMF Marine ARM GPCI

  8. Model of E-Cloud Instability in the Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbekov, V.

    2015-06-24

    Simple model of electron cloud is developed in the paper to explain e-cloud instability of bunched proton beam in the Fermilab Recycler. The cloud is presented as an immobile snake in strong vertical magnetic field. The instability is treated as an amplification of the bunch injection errors from the batch head to its tail. Nonlinearity of the e-cloud field is taken into account. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  9. Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface based remote sensing of aerosol-cloud interactions Feingold, Graham NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Frisch, Shelby NOAA/Environmental Technology Laboratory Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany Category: Cloud Properties We will present an analysis of the effect of aerosol on clouds at the Southern Great Plains ARM site. New methods for retrieving cloud droplet effective radius with radar (MMCR), multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), and microwave

  10. Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for Models, Retrieval Schemes and Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determining Best Estimates and Uncertainties in Cloud Microphysical Parameters from ARM Field Data: Implications for

  11. To the Cloud! Apidae Helps Modelers Turn Information into Knowledge |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy To the Cloud! Apidae Helps Modelers Turn Information into Knowledge To the Cloud! Apidae Helps Modelers Turn Information into Knowledge October 26, 2015 - 2:41pm Addthis Apidae is a collection of cloud-based simulation and data analysis tools that help modelers better understand their models. Image credit: BUILDlab. Apidae is a collection of cloud-based simulation and data analysis tools that help modelers better understand their models. Image credit: BUILDlab. Apidae

  12. Method for forming ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  13. Paperwork Reductin Act Form

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT COLLECTION DISCONTINUATION FORM Agency/Subagency OMB Control Number __ __ __ __ - __ __ __ __ Title of Collection: Current Expiration Date Month/Year Requested Expiration Date to Discontinue Collection Month/Year Reason for Discontinuation: Signature of Senior Official or Designee: Date: For OIRA Use ________________________ ________________________ OMB FORM 83-D, 10/04 Reset Form

  14. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaign after the launch of the GPM Core Satellite (Barros et al. 2014). ...

  15. Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. ...

  16. Streamflow and selected precipitation data for Yucca Mountain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    water years 1983--85 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Streamflow and selected precipitation data for Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada, water years ...

  17. ARM: Auxiliary data for the Total Precipitation Sensor (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Atmospheric temperature; Horizontal wind; Precipitation Dataset File size NAView Dataset View Dataset DOI: ...

  18. Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Media -- Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial Activity and Precipitation at Solution-Solution Mixing Zones in Porous Media -- ...

  19. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Detecting vegetation-precipitation ... information resources in energy science and technology. ... of upper and lower soil water contents, and their ...

  20. Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the MC3E field campaign Title: Insights from modeling and ...

  1. Comparison of Uncertainty of Two Precipitation Prediction Models...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prediction Models at Los Alamos National Lab Technical Area 54 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Uncertainty of Two Precipitation Prediction Models ...

  2. Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    North Africa from two climate models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting vegetation-precipitation feedbacks in mid-Holocene North Africa from two ...

  3. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA ...

  4. Flowsheet Development for the New Neptunium Oxalate Precipitation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    2001-08-16

    This report summarizes laboratory development work and provides flowsheet guidelines for neptunium (IV) oxalate precipitation in the new HB-Line.

  5. An optimal merging technique for high-resolution precipitation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past. Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment. In this paper we present Optimal Merging of Precipitation (OMP), a new method to merge precipitation data from multiple sources that are of different spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracies. This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. Precipitation data used in the experiment include products from the 12-km resolution North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) system, the 8-km resolution CMORPH and the 4-km resolution National Stage-IV QPE. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period. This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process.

  6. Calcite precipitation dominates the electrical signatures of zero valent iron columns under simulated field conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Versteeg, R.; Slater, L.; LaBrecque, D.

    2009-06-01

    Calcium carbonate is a secondary mineral precipitate influencing zero valent iron (ZVI) barrier reactivity and hydraulic performance. We conducted column experiments to investigate electrical signatures resulting from concurrent CaCO{sub 3} and iron oxides precipitation under simulated field geochemical conditions. We identified CaCO{sub 3} as a major mineral phase throughout the columns, with magnetite present primarily close to the influent based on XRD analysis. Electrical measurements revealed decreases in conductivity and polarization of both columns, suggesting that electrically insulating CaCO{sub 3} dominates the electrical response despite the presence of electrically conductive iron oxides. SEM/EDX imaging suggests that the electrical signal reflects the geometrical arrangement of the mineral phases. CaCO{sub 3} forms insulating films on ZVI/magnetite surfaces, restricting charge transfer between the pore electrolyte and ZVI particles, as well as across interconnected ZVI particles. As surface reactivity also depends on the ability of the surface to engage in redox reactions via charge transfer, electrical measurements may provide a minimally invasive technology for monitoring reactivity loss due to CaCO{sub 3} precipitation. Comparison between laboratory and field data shows consistent changes in electrical signatures due to iron corrosion and secondary mineral precipitation.

  7. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wenner, Sigurd; Marioara, Calin Daniel; Andersen, Sigmund Jarle; Ervik, Martin; Holmestad, Randi

    2015-08-15

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates of the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉{sub Al} coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed.

  8. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dong, Xiquan

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  9. Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xiquan

    2014-05-05

    The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets number concentration, and optical thickness. These retrieved properties have been used to validate the satellite retrieval, and evaluate the climate simulations and reanalyses. We had been using this method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties over ARM SGP and NSA sites. We also modified the method for the AMF at Shouxian, China and some IOPs, e.g. ARM IOP at SGP in March, 2000. The ARSCL data from ARM data archive over the SGP and NSA have been used to determine the cloud boundary and cloud phase. For these ARM permanent sites, the ARSCL data was developed based on MMCR measurements, however, there were no data available at the Azores field campaign. We followed the steps to generate this derived product and also include the MPLCMASK cloud retrievals to determine the most accurate cloud boundaries, including the thin cirrus clouds that WACR may under-detect. We use these as input to retrieve the cloud microphysical properties. Due to the different temporal resolutions of the derived cloud boundary heights product and the cloud properties product, we submit them as two separate netcdf files.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

  11. Retrievals of Cloud Fraction and Cloud Albedo from Surface-based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ground-based radiation measurements have been widely conducted to gain information on ... Compared to Min2008 and Liu2011, the XL2013 retrieval of cloud albedo tends to be greater ...

  12. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, James H.; Vaughan, Geraint; Jakob, Christian; McFarquhar, Greg; Bower, Keith; Mace, Gerald G.

    2008-05-01

    One of the most complete data sets describing tropical convection ever collected will result from the upcoming Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) in the area around Darwin, Northern Australia in January and February 2006. The aims of the experiment, which will be operated in conjunction with the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Darwin, will be to examine convective cloud systems from their initial stages through to the decay of the cirrus generated and to measure their impact on the environment. The experiment will include an unprecedented network of ground-based observations (soundings, active and passive remote sensors) combined with low, mid and high altitude aircraft for in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A crucial outcome of the experiment will be a data set suitable to provide the forcing and evaluation data required by cloud resolving and single column models as well as global climate models (GCMs) with the aim to contribute to parameterization development. This data set will provide the necessary link between the observed cloud properties and the models that are attempting to simulate them. The experiment is a large multi-agency experiment including substantial contributions from the United States DOE ARM program, ARM-UAV program, NASA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, EU programs and many universities.

  13. Diffusion and scattering in multifractal clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Waston, B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes investigations of radiative properties of multifractal clouds using two different approaches. In the first, diffusion is considered by examining the scaling properties of one dimensional random walks on media with multifractal diffusivities. The second approach considers the scattering statistics associated with radiative transport.

  14. Argonne's Magellan Cloud Computing Research Project

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF), discusses the Department of Energy's new $32-million Magellan project, which designed to test how cloud computing can be used for scientific research. More information: http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091014a.html

  15. The influence of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Hu, J.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-12-15

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year data set from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction χc). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle)more » to multi-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found the following: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 50–70 % to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 90 and 110 %, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10 %), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m−2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m−2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6 % in dry conditions and between 15 and 25 % in partially wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, even though precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced the magnitude of Rnet, LE increased from ≈ 10 to over 20 W m−2 due to increased evaporation. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above

  16. The effect of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest site

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P. D.; Turnipseed, A. A.; Monson, R. K.

    2015-06-16

    Precipitation changes the physical and biological characteristics of an ecosystem. Using a precipitation-based conditional sampling technique and a 14 year dataset from a 25 m micrometeorological tower in a high-elevation subalpine forest, we examined how warm-season precipitation affected the above-canopy diel cycle of wind and turbulence, net radiation Rnet, ecosystem eddy covariance fluxes (sensible heat H, latent heat LE, and CO2 net ecosystem exchange NEE) and vertical profiles of scalars (air temperature Ta, specific humidity q, and CO2 dry mole fraction ?c). This analysis allowed us to examine how precipitation modified these variables from hourly (i.e., the diel cycle) tomoremulti-day time-scales (i.e., typical of a weather-system frontal passage). During mid-day we found: (i) even though precipitation caused mean changes on the order of 5070% to Rnet, H, and LE, the surface energy balance (SEB) was relatively insensitive to precipitation with mid-day closure values ranging between 7080%, and (ii) compared to a typical dry day, a day following a rainy day was characterized by increased ecosystem uptake of CO2 (NEE increased by ≈ 10%), enhanced evaporative cooling (mid-day LE increased by ≈ 30 W m-2), and a smaller amount of sensible heat transfer (mid-day H decreased by ≈ 70 W m-2). Based on the mean diel cycle, the evaporative contribution to total evapotranspiration was, on average, around 6% in dry conditions and 20% in wet conditions. Furthermore, increased LE lasted at least 18 h following a rain event. At night, precipitation (and accompanying clouds) reduced Rnet and increased LE. Any effect of precipitation on the nocturnal SEB closure and NEE was overshadowed by atmospheric phenomena such as horizontal advection and decoupling that create measurement difficulties. Above-canopy mean ?c during wet conditions was found to be about 23 ?mol mol-1 larger than ?c on dry days. This difference was fairly constant over the full diel

  17. Methods of forming steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Burch, Joseph V.

    2001-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention encompasses a method of forming a steel. A metallic glass is formed and at least a portion of the glass is converted to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A molten alloy is formed and cooled the alloy at a rate which forms a metallic glass. The metallic glass is devitrified to convert the glass to a crystalline steel material having a nanocrystalline scale grain size. In yet another aspect, the invention encompasses another method of forming a steel. A first metallic glass steel substrate is provided, and a molten alloy is formed over the first metallic glass steel substrate to heat and devitrify at least some of the underlying metallic glass of the substrate.

  18. Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Cloud Imager Measurements of Cloud Statistics from the 2003 Cloudiness Intercomparison Campaign B. Thurairajah and J. A. Shaw Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana Introduction The Cloudiness Inter-Comparison Intensive Operational Period (CIC IOP) occurred at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM), Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility site in Lamont, Oklahoma from mid-February to mid-April 2003 (Kassianov et al. 2004).

  19. On the complex conductivity signatures of calcite precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yuxin; Hubbard, Susan; Williams, Kenneth Hurst; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    Calcite is a mineral phase that frequently precipitates during subsurface remediation or geotechnical engineering processes. This precipitation can lead to changes in the overall behavior of the system, such as flow alternation and soil strengthening. Because induced calcite precipitation is typically quite variable in space and time, monitoring its distribution in the subsurface is a challenge. In this research, we conducted a laboratory column experiment to investigate the potential of complex conductivity as a mean to remotely monitor calcite precipitation. Calcite precipitation was induced in a glass bead (3 mm) packed column through abiotic mixing of CaCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. The experiment continued for 12 days with a constant precipitation rate of {approx}0.6 milimole/d. Visual observations and scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed two distinct phases of precipitation: an earlier phase dominated by well distributed, discrete precipitates and a later phase characterized by localized precipitate aggregation and associated pore clogging. Complex conductivity measurements exhibited polarization signals that were characteristic of both phases of calcite precipitation, with the precipitation volume and crystal size controlling the overall polarization magnitude and relaxation time constant. We attribute the observed responses to polarization at the electrical double layer surrounding calcite crystals. Our experiment illustrates the potential of electrical methods for characterizing the distribution and aggregation state of nonconductive minerals like calcite. Advancing our ability to quantify geochemical transformations using such noninvasive methods is expected to facilitate our understanding of complex processes associated with natural subsurface systems as well as processes induced through engineered treatments (such as environmental remediation and carbon sequestration).

  20. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-01

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy

  1. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimes to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too little heavy

  2. Precipitation characteristics of CAM5 physics at mesoscale resolution during MC3E and the impact of convective timescale choice

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gustafson, William I.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-12-17

    The physics suite of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) has recently been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to explore the behavior of the parameterization suite at high resolution and in the more controlled setting of a limited area model. The initial paper documenting this capability characterized the behavior for northern high latitude conditions. This present paper characterizes the precipitation characteristics for continental, mid-latitude, springtime conditions during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) over the central United States. This period exhibited a range of convective conditions from those driven strongly by large-scale synoptic regimesmore » to more locally driven convection. The study focuses on the precipitation behavior at 32 km grid spacing to better anticipate how the physics will behave in the global model when used at similar grid spacing in the coming years. Importantly, one change to the Zhang-McFarlane deep convective parameterization when implemented in WRF was to make the convective timescale parameter an explicit function of grid spacing. This study examines the sensitivity of the precipitation to the default value of the convective timescale in WRF, which is 600 seconds for 32 km grid spacing, to the value of 3600 seconds used for 2 degree grid spacing in CAM5. For comparison, an infinite convective timescale is also used. The results show that the 600 second timescale gives the most accurate precipitation over the central United States in terms of rain amount. However, this setting has the worst precipitation diurnal cycle, with the convection too tightly linked to the daytime surface heating. Longer timescales greatly improve the diurnal cycle but result in less precipitation and produce a low bias. An analysis of rain rates shows the accurate precipitation amount with the shorter timescale is assembled from an over abundance of drizzle combined with too

  3. CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Protat, Alain; Bouniol, Dominique; O'Connor, E. J.; Baltink, Henk K.; Verlinde, J.; Widener, Kevin B.

    2011-03-01

    The calibration of the CloudSat spaceborne cloud radar has been thoroughly assessed using very accurate internal link budgets before launch, comparisons with predicted ocean surface backscatter at 94 GHz, direct comparisons with airborne cloud radars, and statistical comparisons with ground-based cloud radars at different locations of the world. It is believed that the calibration of CloudSat is accurate to within 0.5 to 1 dB. In the present paper it is shown that an approach similar to that used for the statistical comparisons with ground-based radars can now be adopted the other way around to calibrate other ground-based or airborne radars against CloudSat and / or detect anomalies in long time series of ground-based radar measurements, provided that the calibration of CloudSat is followed up closely (which is the case). The power of using CloudSat as a Global Radar Calibrator is demonstrated using the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement cloud radar data taken at Barrow, Alaska, the cloud radar data from the Cabauw site, The Netherlands, and airborne Doppler cloud radar measurements taken along the CloudSat track in the Arctic by the RASTA (Radar SysTem Airborne) cloud radar installed in the French ATR-42 aircraft for the first time. It is found that the Barrow radar data in 2008 are calibrated too high by 9.8 dB, while the Cabauw radar data in 2008 are calibrated too low by 8.0 dB. The calibration of the RASTA airborne cloud radar using direct comparisons with CloudSat agrees well with the expected gains and losses due to the change in configuration which required verification of the RASTA calibration.

  4. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convective cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it is

  5. A new WRF-Chem treatment for studying regional-scale impacts of cloud processes on aerosol and trace gases in parameterized cumuli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M.; Easter, R. C.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Liu, Y.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2015-02-24

    A new treatment of cloud effects on aerosol and trace gases within parameterized shallow and deep convection, and aerosol effects on cloud droplet number, has been implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) version 3.2.1 that can be used to better understand the aerosol life cycle over regional to synoptic scales. The modifications to the model include treatment of the cloud droplet number mixing ratio; key cloud microphysical and macrophysical parameters (including the updraft fractional area, updraft and downdraft mass fluxes, and entrainment) averaged over the population of shallow clouds, or a single deep convectivemore » cloud; and vertical transport, activation/resuspension, aqueous chemistry, and wet removal of aerosol and trace gases in warm clouds. These changes have been implemented in both the WRF-Chem chemistry packages as well as the Kain–Fritsch (KF) cumulus parameterization that has been modified to better represent shallow convective clouds. Testing of the modified WRF-Chem has been completed using observations from the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS). The simulation results are used to investigate the impact of cloud–aerosol interactions on regional-scale transport of black carbon (BC), organic aerosol (OA), and sulfate aerosol. Based on the simulations presented here, changes in the column-integrated BC can be as large as –50% when cloud–aerosol interactions are considered (due largely to wet removal), or as large as +40% for sulfate under non-precipitating conditions due to sulfate production in the parameterized clouds. The modifications to WRF-Chem are found to account for changes in the cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and changes in the chemical composition of cloud droplet residuals in a way that is consistent with observations collected during CHAPS. Efforts are currently underway to port the changes described here to the latest version of WRF-Chem, and it

  6. HIGH-RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS AND THE PHYSICS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD A0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2013-04-01

    The neutral hydrogen structure of high-velocity cloud A0 (at about -180 km s{sup -1}) has been mapped with a 9.'1 resolution. Gaussian decomposition of the profiles is used to separately map families of components defined by similarities in center velocities and line widths. About 70% of the H I gas is in the form of a narrow, twisted filament whose typical line widths are of the order of 24 km s{sup -1}. Many bright features with narrow line widths of the order of 6 km s{sup -1}, clouds, are located in and near the filament. A third category with properties between those of the filament and clouds appears in the data. The clouds are not always co-located with the broader line width filament emission as seen projected on the sky. Under the assumption that magnetic fields underlie the presence of the filament, a theorem is developed for its stability in terms of a toroidal magnetic field generated by the flow of gas along field lines. It is suggested that the axial magnetic field strength may be derived from the excess line width of the H I emission over and above that due to kinetic temperature by invoking the role of Alfven waves that create what is in essence a form of magnetic turbulence. At a distance of 200 pc the axial and the derived toroidal magnetic field strengths in the filament are then about 6 {mu}G while for the clouds they are about 4 {mu}G. The dependence of the derived field strength on distance is discussed.

  7. ARM - PI Product - Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Azores ProductsCloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Cloud Property Retrieval Products for Graciosa Island, Azores [ research data - ASR funded ] The motivation for developing this product was to use the Dong et al. 1998 method to retrieve cloud microphysical properties, such as cloud droplet effective radius, cloud droplets

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud OD Sensor TWST Cloud OD Sensor TWST Campaign Links Field Campaign Report ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate 2014.02.01, Petäjä, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate: Cloud OD Sensor TWST 2014.06.15 - 2014.08.31 Lead Scientist : Herman Scott For data sets, see below. Abstract This deployment

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC):

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Campaign Links Final Campaign Summary ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) 2012.10.01, Lewis, AMF Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Marine ARM GPCI Investigations of Clouds (MAGIC): Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data 2012.10.01 - 2013.09.30 Lead Scientist : J.-Y.

  10. IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

    2003-08-01

    conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

  11. PRECIPITATION OF ZIRCONIUM, NIOBIUM, AND RUTHENIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, A.S.

    1958-08-12

    An improvement on the"head end process" for decontaminating dissolver solutions of their Zr, Ni. and Ru values. The process consists in adding a water soluble symmetrical dialkyl ketone. e.g. acetone, before the formation of the manganese dioxide precipitate. The effect is that upon digestion, the ruthenium oxide does not volatilize, but is carried on the manganese dioxide precipitate.

  12. SEPARATION OF FISSION PRODUCTS FROM PLUTONIUM BY PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.; Davidson, N.R.

    1959-09-01

    Fission product separation from hexavalent plutonium by bismuth phosphate precipitation of the fission products is described. The precipitation, according to this invention, is improved by coprecipitating ceric and zirconium phosphates (0.05 to 2.5 grams/liter) with the bismuth phosphate.

  13. Procurement Forms | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RFPs relating to construction projects require additional documentation and are located in the "Construction Specific Forms" tab. Representations and Certifications Representations ...

  14. OFFSITE USE FORM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OFFSITE USE FORM Fill form out in triplicate, send original to Property Control, m/s 85A, give a copy to the Gate Guard and keep a copy for your files. This form needs to be updated once a year. Stanford Linear Accelerator Center Authorization Record Form: Stanford University Removal of Government Property from SLAC PO Box 4349 premises for Official Use Elsewhere (*) Date: To: Property Control, m/s 85A From: Name E Mail Address Group and Mail Stop SLAC Extension This is to notify you that I have

  15. 2013 Electricity Form Proposals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Form EIA-861, "Annual Electric Power Industry Report" The EIA-861 survey has historically collected retail sales, revenue, and a variety of information related to demand response ...

  16. Form W-4 (2015

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Generally, tax returns and return information are confidential, as required by Code section 6103. The average time and expenses required to complete and file this form will vary ...

  17. SGP Shipment Notification Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PlainsShipment Notification Form SGP Related Links Virtual Tour Facilities and Instruments Central Facility Boundary Facility Extended Facility Intermediate Facility Radiometric...

  18. User Financial Account Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    22013 User Financial Account Form Establish a user financial account at SLAC to procure gases, chemicals, supplies or services to support your experiment at SLAC's user ...

  19. User Financial Account Form

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    102115 User Financial Account Form Establish a user financial account at SLAC to procure gases, chemicals, supplies or services to support your experiment at SLAC's user ...

  20. Effect of cold drawing ratio on γ′ precipitation in Inconel X-750

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Jeong Won; Seong, Baek Seok; Jeong, Hi Won; Yoo, Young Soo; Choi, Yoon Suk; Kang, Namhyun

    2014-10-15

    Inconel X-750 is a Ni-based precipitation-hardened superalloy having large tensile and fracture strengths. In the study, X-750 wires were cold drawn to different extents. Small angle neutron scattering was employed to quantitatively measure the size and volume fraction of the γ′ phase as a function of the cold drawing ratio (DR) and aging temperature. The presence and size of γ′ precipitates were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The drawing ratio had an important effect on the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates. However, the size of the precipitates was independent on the drawing ratio. The specimen with the minimum drawing ratio (DR0) produced the largest volume fraction of γ′ as compared with large drawing ratio (DR) specimens such as DR17 and DR42. The small volume fraction of the γ′ phase for a sizeable drawing ratio was associated with the large amount of nucleation sites for secondary carbides, M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and the fast diffusion path, i.e., dislocation, needed to form M{sub 23}C{sub 6}. A Cr depletion zone around the secondary carbides raised the solubility of γ′. Therefore, the significant drawing ratio contributing to the large volume fraction of the secondary carbides decreased the volume fraction of the γ′ precipitates in Inconel X-750. - Highlights: • The volume fraction of secondary carbides increased with the drawing ratio. • The volume fraction of γ′ decreased as the drawing ratio increased. • The drawing ratio affected the γ′ volume fraction with no variation of the γ' size. • The volume fraction of γ′ was affected by the secondary carbide volume fraction.

  1. Clouds and snowmelt on the north slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T.; Stamnes, K.; Bowling, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Clouds have a large effect on the radiation field. Consequently, possible changes in cloud properties may have a very substantial impact on climate. Of all natural surfaces, seasonal snow cover has the highest surface albedo, which is one of the most important components of the climatic system. Interactions between clouds and seasonal snow cover are expected to have a significant effect on climate and its change at high latitudes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity of the surface cloud-radiative forcing during the period of snowmelt at high latitudes. The primary variables investigated are cloud liquid path (LWP) and droplet equivalent radius (r{sub e}). We will also examine the sensitivity of the surface radiative fluxes to cloud base height and cloud base temperature.

  2. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 4. 1. Cloud studies. Part 1. Cloud physics. Part 2. Development of the atomic cloud. Part 3. Cloud-tracking photography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.E.; Gustafson, P.E.; Kellogg, W.W.; McKown, R.E.; McPherson, D.E.

    1985-09-01

    The cloud-physics project was primarily intended to fulfill a requirements for detailed information on the meteorological microstructure of atomic clouds. By means of a tracking and photographic network extending halfway around Eniwetok Atoll, the behavior of the first three clouds of Operation Greenhouse were observed and recorded. The rise of the fourth cloud was observed visually from only one site. The analysis of these observations, combined with information about the local weather conditions, gives a fairly complete picture of the development of each of the clouds. Particular emphasis was placed on the earlier phases of development, and the heights and sizes of the cloud parts have been determined as functions of time. A summary of important features of some previous atomic clouds are included for comparison.

  3. In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Mariner

    2004-11-09

    This report documents the development and validation of the in-drift precipitates/salts (IDPS) model. The IDPS model is a geochemical model designed to predict the postclosure effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the chemical composition of water within the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). Application of the model in support of TSPA-LA is documented in ''Engineered Barrier System: Physical and Chemical Environment Model'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169860]). Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Model Report Integration (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171156]) is the technical work plan (TWP) for this report. It called for a revision of the previous version of the report (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167734]) to achieve greater transparency, readability, data traceability, and report integration. The intended use of the IDPS model is to estimate and tabulate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation, deliquescence, and potential environmental conditions on the pH, ionic strength, and chemical compositions of water and minerals on the drip shield or other location within the drift during the postclosure period. Specifically, the intended use is as follows: (1) To estimate, within an appropriate level of confidence, the effects of evaporation and deliquescence on the presence and composition of water occurring within the repository during the postclosure period (i.e., effects on pH, ionic strength, deliquescence relative humidity, total concentrations of dissolved components in the system Na-K-H-Mg-Ca-Al-Cl-F-NO{sub 3}-SO{sub 4}-Br-CO{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, and concentrations of the following aqueous species that potentially affect acid neutralizing capacity: HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, OH{sup -}, H{sup +}, HSO{sub 4}{sup -}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, CaHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, MgHCO{sub 3}{sup +}, HSiO{sub 3

  4. Method of forming nanodielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuncer, Enis [Knoxville, TN; Polyzos, Georgios [Oak Ridge, TN

    2014-01-07

    A method of making a nanoparticle filled dielectric material. The method includes mixing nanoparticle precursors with a polymer material and reacting the nanoparticle mixed with the polymer material to form nanoparticles dispersed within the polymer material to form a dielectric composite.

  5. Paperwork Reduction Act Forms

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    You may need to fill out one or several of these forms depending on the nature of your survey or usability project. See the Paperwork Reduction Act Web page for more information about the process. Contact the Web Usability Coordinator if you have questions about which forms to complete.

  6. Method for forming materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolle, Charles R.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Miller, Karen S.

    2009-10-06

    A material-forming tool and a method for forming a material are described including a shank portion; a shoulder portion that releasably engages the shank portion; a pin that releasably engages the shoulder portion, wherein the pin defines a passageway; and a source of a material coupled in material flowing relation relative to the pin and wherein the material-forming tool is utilized in methodology that includes providing a first material; providing a second material, and placing the second material into contact with the first material; and locally plastically deforming the first material with the material-forming tool so as mix the first material and second material together to form a resulting material having characteristics different from the respective first and second materials.

  7. Experiment to Characterize Tropical Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Peter T.; Mather, Jim H.; Jakob, Christian

    2005-08-02

    A major experiment to study tropical convective cloud systems and their impacts will take place around Darwin, Northern Australia in early 2006. The Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) is a collaboration including the DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) and ARM-UAV programs, NASA centers, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, CSIRO, and universities in the USA, Australia, Japan, the UK, and Canada. TWP-ICE will be preceded in November/December 2004 by a collaborating European aircraft campaign involving the EU SCOUT-O3 and UK NERC ACTIVE projects. Detailed atmospheric measurements will be made in the Darwin area through the whole Austral summer, giving unprecedented coverage through the pre-monsoon and monsoon periods.

  8. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  9. Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mather, James

    2008-01-15

    We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

  10. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Networks: Data on the chemistry of precipitation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) is a nationwide network of sites collecting data on the chemistry of precipitation for monitoring of geographical and temporal long-term trends. The precipitation at each station is collected weekly according to strict clean-handling procedures. It is then sent to the Central Analytical Laboratory where it is analyzed for hydrogen (acidity as pH), sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride, and base cations (such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium). The network is a cooperative effort between many different groups, including the State Agricultural Experiment Stations, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and numerous other governmental and private entities. DOE is one of these cooperating agencies, though it plays a smaller funding role than some of the other federal sources. Since 1978, the NADP/NTN has grown from 22 stations to over 250 sites spanning the continental United States, Alaska, and Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program has also expanded its sampling to two additional networks: 1) the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), currently with over 90 sites, was formed in 1995 to collect weekly samples of precipitation which are analyzed by Frontier Geosciences for total mercury, and 2) the Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network (AIRMoN), formed for the purpose of studying precipitation chemistry trends with greater temporal resolution than the NTN. [taken from the NADP History and Overview page at http://nadp.sws.uiuc.edu/nadpoverview.asp] Data from these networks are freely available in via customized search interfaces linked to interactive maps of the stations in the three networks. Animated Isopleth maps in Flash and PowerPoint are also available to display concentrations and depositions various substances such as sulfate, nitrate, etc. (Specialized Interface)

  11. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H.

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  12. An Analysis of Cloud Absorption During

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Cloud Absorption During ARESE II (Spring 2000) D. M. Powell, R. T. Marchand, and T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction In early spring 2000, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program researchers held an intensive operational period (IOP) at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This IOP had several objectives, one of which was to was to re-evaluate (with redundant measurements wherever possible) absorption by low-level

  13. Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCN) Instrument Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Instrument Handbook J. Uin April 2016 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe

  14. Cloud Properties Working Group Break Out Session

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Break Out Session ARM Science Team Meeting Louisville, KY 30 March 2009 The Chair's Objectives for CPWG *Maintain continuity of "base" instruments - We're building a climatology! *Advocate for sufficient programmatic support to make our measurements useful. *Better retrieval vetting framework - moving towards Cloud Properties Best Estimate *Build a stronger connection with the modeling community - Producing the products they want. CPWG Breakout Agenda 30 March 2009, 3-5 pm *3:00-3:15

  15. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhien

    2006-01-04

    The project is concerned with the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the U.S. Department of Energy's ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF). To facilitate the production of integrated cloud product by applying different algorithms to the ARM data streams, an advanced cloud classification algorithm was developed to classified clouds into eight types at the SGP site based on ground-based active and passive measurements. Cloud type then can be used as a guidance to select an optimal retrieval algorithm for cloud microphysical property retrieval. The ultimate goal of the effort is to develop an operational cloud classification algorithm for ARM data streams. The vision 1 IDL code of the cloud classification algorithm based on the SGP ACRF site observations was delivered to the ARM cloud translator during 2004 ARM science team meeting. Another goal of the project is to study midlevel clouds, especially mixed-phase clouds, by developing new retrieval algorithms using integrated observations at the ACRF sites. Mixed-phase clouds play a particular role in the Arctic climate system. A multiple remote sensor based algorithm, which can provide ice water content and effective size profiles, liquid water path, and layer-mean effective radius of water droplet, was developed to study arctic mixed-phase clouds. The algorithm is applied to long-term ARM observations at the NSA ACRF site. Based on these retrieval results, we are studying seasonal and interannual variations of arctic mixed-phase cloud macro- and micro-physical properties.

  16. Aerosol Indirect Effect on the Grid-scale Clouds in the Two-way Coupled WRF-CMAQ: Model Description, Development, Evaluation and Regional Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Shaocai; Mathur, Rohit; Pleim, Jonathan; Wong, David; Gilliam, R.; Alapaty, Kiran; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-10-24

    This study implemented first, second and glaciations aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on resolved clouds in the two-way coupled WRF-CMAQ modeling system by including parameterizations for both cloud drop and ice number concentrations on the basis of CMAQpredicted aerosol distributions and WRF meteorological conditions. The performance of the newly-developed WRF-CMAQ model, with alternate CAM and RRTMG radiation schemes, was evaluated with the observations from the CERES satellite and surface monitoring networks (AQS, IMPROVE, CASTNet, STN, and PRISM) over the continental U.S. (CONUS) (12-km resolution) and eastern Texas (4-km resolution) during August and September of 2006. The results at the AQS surface sites show that in August, the NMB values for PM2.5 over the eastern/western U.S (EUS/WUS) and western U.S. (WUS) are 5.3% (?0.1%) and 0.4% (-5.2%) for WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG), respectively. The evaluation of PM2.5 chemical composition reveals that in August, WRF-CMAQ/CAM (WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) consistently underestimated the observed SO4 2? by -23.0% (-27.7%), -12.5% (-18.9%) and -7.9% (-14.8%) over the EUS at the CASTNet, IMPROVE and STN sites, respectively. Both models (WRF-CMAQ/CAM, WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG) overestimated the observed mean OC, EC and TC concentrations over the EUS in August at the IMPROVE sites. Both models generally underestimated the cloud field (SWCF) over the CONUS in August due to the fact that the AIE on the subgrid convective clouds was not considered when the model simulations were run at the 12 km resolution. This is in agreement with the fact that both models captured SWCF and LWCF very well for the 4-km simulation over the eastern Texas when all clouds were resolved by the finer domain. Both models generally overestimated the observed precipitation by more than 40% mainly because of significant overestimation in the southern part of the CONUS in August. The simulations of WRF-CMAQ/CAM and WRF-CMAQ/RRTMG show dramatic improvements for SWCF, LWCF

  17. Cloud services for the Fermilab scientific stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timm, S.; Garzoglio, G.; Mhashilkar, P.; Boyd, J.; Bernabeu, G.; Sharma, N.; Peregonow, N.; Kim, H.; Noh, S.; Palur, S.; Raicu, I.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Fermilab/KISTI cooperative research project, Fermilab has successfully run an experimental simulation workflow at scale on a federation of Amazon Web Services (AWS), FermiCloud, and local FermiGrid resources. We used the CernVM-FS (CVMFS) file system to deliver the application software. We established Squid caching servers in AWS as well, using the Shoal system to let each individual virtual machine find the closest squid server. We also developed an automatic virtual machine conversion system so that we could transition virtual machines made on FermiCloud to Amazon Web Services. We used this system to successfully run a cosmic ray simulation of the NOvA detector at Fermilab, making use of both AWS spot pricing and network bandwidth discounts to minimize the cost. On FermiCloud we also were able to run the workflow at the scale of 1000 virtual machines, using a private network routable inside of Fermilab. As a result, we present in detail the technological improvements that were used to make this work a reality.

  18. Cloud services for the Fermilab scientific stakeholders

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Timm, S.; Garzoglio, G.; Mhashilkar, P.; Boyd, J.; Bernabeu, G.; Sharma, N.; Peregonow, N.; Kim, H.; Noh, S.; Palur, S.; et al

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Fermilab/KISTI cooperative research project, Fermilab has successfully run an experimental simulation workflow at scale on a federation of Amazon Web Services (AWS), FermiCloud, and local FermiGrid resources. We used the CernVM-FS (CVMFS) file system to deliver the application software. We established Squid caching servers in AWS as well, using the Shoal system to let each individual virtual machine find the closest squid server. We also developed an automatic virtual machine conversion system so that we could transition virtual machines made on FermiCloud to Amazon Web Services. We used this system to successfully run a cosmic raymore » simulation of the NOvA detector at Fermilab, making use of both AWS spot pricing and network bandwidth discounts to minimize the cost. On FermiCloud we also were able to run the workflow at the scale of 1000 virtual machines, using a private network routable inside of Fermilab. As a result, we present in detail the technological improvements that were used to make this work a reality.« less

  19. Embracing the Cloud for Better Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shue, Craig A; Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    The future of cyber security is inextricably tied to the future of computing. Organizational needs and economic factors will drive computing outcomes. Cyber security researchers and practitioners must recognize the path of computing evolution and position themselves to influence the process to incorporate security as an inherent property. The best way to predict future computing trends is to look at recent developments and their motivations. Organizations are moving towards outsourcing their data storage, computation, and even user desktop environments. This trend toward cloud computing has a direct impact on cyber security: rather than securing user machines, preventing malware access, and managing removable media, a cloud-based security scheme must focus on enabling secure communication with remote systems. This change in approach will have profound implications for cyber security research efforts. In this work, we highlight existing and emerging technologies and the limitations of cloud computing systems. We then discuss the cyber security efforts that would support these applications. Finally, we discuss the implications of these computing architecture changes, in particular with respect to malware and social engineering.

  20. CHEMISTRY IN DIFFUSE CLOUDS WITH TRANSIENT MICROSTRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Casu, S.; Williams, D. A.; Viti, S.

    2009-12-01

    Microstructure is observed on many lines of sight in the diffuse interstellar medium, mainly through variations in atomic line absorptions on timescales of a decade or less. This timescale implies that microstructure exists on a size scale comparable with that of the solar system; it is overpressured and transient. Both observations and theory confirm that a specific chemistry occurs in microstructure. We therefore explore a model of diffuse interstellar gas in which the chemistry in diffuse clouds is supplemented by chemistry in many transient and tiny perturbations. These perturbations are here assumed to be of unidentified origin, but it is assumed that ambipolar diffusion occurs within them. For plausible physical parameters, we find that this model can account for the range of molecular column densities observed in diffuse clouds, including species not usually accounted for by conventional models. Some molecular ions, predicted to be generated in the microstructure (including HS{sup +}, CH{sup +} {sub 2}, CH{sup +} {sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +}) but not yet observed in diffuse clouds, should be present at levels that may allow their detection.