National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for formats entire aeo

  1. AEO2014 Preliminary Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    September 26, 2013 AEO2014 Preliminary Results For discussion purposes only Not for citation Overview 2 * Residential projects - RECS update - Housing stock formation and decay - Lighting model - ENERGY STAR homes benchmarking - Weather elasticities * Commercial projects - Major end-use capacity factors - Data center servers - ENERGY STAR buildings - Hurdle rate floor * Both sectors - Usual annual updates - Miscellaneous end-use technology assumptions updates - Distributed generation * Contract

  2. AEO2015 BWG

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Behjat Hojjati Kevin Jarzomski David Peterson Steve Wade Owen Comstock (currently on detail) August 7, 2014 AEO2015 Model Updates Discussion purposes only - do not cite or circulate Overview AEO2015 Builldings Working Group Washington, D.C., August 7, 2014 2 * Shorter AEO this year * Federal standards * End-use technology characterizations * Historical updates * Discussion Discussion purposes only - do not cite or circulate Federal standards AEO2015 Builldings Working Group Washington, D.C.,

  3. AEO2016 Electricity Working Group

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in Reference Case: coal ash, cooling water intake, effluent limits (under ... Regulation AEO2015 Assumption AEO2016 Assumption Comment Cooling Water Intakes (Clean ...

  4. World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.

  5. World Oil Prices in AEO2006 (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    World oil prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) reference case are substantially higher than those in the AEO2005 reference case. In the AEO2006 reference case, world crude oil prices, in terms of the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners, decline from current levels to about $47 per barrel (2004 dollars) in 2014, then rise to $54 per barrel in 2025 and $57 per barrel in 2030. The price in 2025 is approximately $21 per barrel higher than the corresponding price projection in the AEO2005 reference case.

  6. AEO2016 Electricity Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis December 8, 2015 | Washington, DC AEO2016 Electricity Working Group WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE What to look for: Electricity sector in AEO2016 * Inclusion of EPA final Clean Power Plan in Reference Case * Updated cost estimates for new generating technologies * Major data update on existing coal plant status: MATS- compliant technology or retirement

  7. Industrial Plans for AEO2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    30, 2013 | Washington, DC WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Industrial team plans for AEO2014 Overview -- AEO2014 * Process flow status & updates * Other model updates * Major data updates * CHP updates 2 Industrial Team Washington DC, July 30, 2013 WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Process flow models * General: - Replace energy consumption based on

  8. Renewable Electricity in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    For Renewable Electricity Working Group July 24, 2014 Christopher Namovicz and Gwen Bredehoeft Renewable Electricity Analysis Team AEO2014 results and status updates for the AEO2015 Agenda Renewable Electricity Analysis Team July 24, 2014 2 * Review of AEO2014 - Changes made for AEO2014 - Review of Results * Status of AEO2015 * Updates planned for AEO2015 WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Updates included in the AEO2014

  9. First AEO2014 Macro-Industrial Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    In comparing the AEO2014 macro industrial forecast with the AEO2013, the presenters ... on the status of ongoing process flow project, which replaces energy consumption models ...

  10. AEO2017 Preliminary Macroeconomic Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AEO2017 Preliminary Macroeconomic Results For Macroeconomic Working Group July 28, 2016 | Washington, DC By Vipin Arora, Elizabeth Sendich, and Russ Tarver Macroeconomic Analysis Team Economic growth in major trading partners slows over the projection period while the dollar gradually depreciates Macroeconomic Working Group, Washington DC, July 28, 2016 2 -4.0 -3.0 -2.0 -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019 2024 2029 2034 2039 real trade-weighted GDP of major trading

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    202-586-6419 Vishakh Mantri, Ph.D, P.E. Chemical Engineer, Energy Information ... tcapehart@ers.usda.gov 202-694-5313 Chemical Production in the AEO Peter Gross Energy ...

  12. AEO2014 Renewables Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Office Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Chris Namovicz, Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: AEO2014 Renewables Working Group Meeting This Renewables Working Group meeting on July 9, 2013 was the first of two, and focused on the assumptions and modeling efforts that EIA plans on using as the starting point for its AEO 2014 renewable electricity projections. The meeting was

  13. First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary ... The shorter AEO2015 will have 6 cases - Reference case, HighLow Oil Price cases, HighLow ...

  14. File:AEO2012earlyrelease.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AEO2012earlyrelease.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:AEO2012earlyrelease.pdf Size of this preview: 463 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 600...

  15. AEO2017 Modeling updates in the transportation sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 For AEO2017 Transportation Working Group August 31, 2016 | Washington, DC By Melissa Lynes, John Maples, Mark Schipper, and David Stone Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector Updates to the Annual Energy Outlook 2017 * Transportation demand model highlights - 10-year extension of last-year projection, AEO2016 is 2040 and AEO2017 is 2050 - Battery costs for electric vehicles - Phase 2 greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency standards for

  16. Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    August 13, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting held on July 24, 2014 Presenters: Chris Namovicz, Gwen Bredehoeft Topics included AEO2014 model and data updates, a summary of AEO2014 model results,

  17. First AEO2015 Macro-Industrial Working Group Meeting Summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    forecast, with EIA's preliminary energy prices. Important model enhancements implemented for AEO2015, such as updated supply and demand relationships used to project ...

  18. First AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AEO2016: revise refinery process units costs; non-petroleum process study to inform ... Factors influencing crude oil or condensate exports include logistics and the different ...

  19. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  20. Buildings Working Group Meeting AEO2016 Preliminary Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings Working Group Meeting Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis February 18, 2016 | Washington, DC By Buildings Energy Analysis Team AEO2016 Preliminary Results Discussion purposes only - do not cite or circulate Overview * Key policies - Clean Power Plan - Federal standards and ENERGY STAR specifications * Sector drivers - Fuel prices - Weather - Commercial floorspace * Distributed generation * Residential and commercial consumption AEO2016 Buildings Working Group,

  1. Energy Technologies on the Horizon (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A key issue in mid-term forecasting is the representation of changing and developing technologies. How existing technologies will evolve, and what new technologies might emerge, cannot be known with certainty. The issue is of particular importance in Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), the first AEO with projections out to 2030.

  2. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

  3. Clean Air Interstate Rule: Changes and Modeling in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    On December 23, 2008, the D.C. Circuit Court remanded but did not vacate the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), overriding its previous decision on February 8, 2008, to remand and vacate CAIR. The December decision, which is reflected in Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO) , allows CAIR to remain in effect, providing time for the Environmental Protection Agency to modify the rule in order to address objections raised by the Court in its earlier decision. A similar rule, referred to as the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), which was to set up a cap-and-trade system for reducing mercury emissions by approximately 70%, is not represented in the AEO2010 projections, because it was vacated by the D.C. Circuit Court in February 2008.

  4. AEO2011: Energy Consumption by Sector and Source - Mountain ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 8, and contains only the reference...

  5. AEO2011:Total Energy Supply, Disposition, and Price Summary ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    case. The dataset uses quadrillion Btu and the U.S. Dollar. The data is broken down into production, imports, exports, consumption and price. Data and Resources AEO2011:Total...

  6. Summary of AEO2016 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... participant asked if EIA will still include a 3% premium to the capital cost for coal-fired. ... The AEO 2016 will include 3 GW of potential accelerated nuclear power plant retirements ...

  7. Summary of First AEO2015 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    The presentation included a discussion of regulations, centered on AEO2015 updates to include the Cross State Air Pollution Rule (if the D.C. Circuit Court lifts the stay on the ...

  8. EPACT2005: Status of Provisions (Update) (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPACT) was signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, and became Public Law 109-058. A number of provisions from EPACT2005 were included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) projections. Many others were not considered in AEO2006particularly, those that require funding appropriations or further specification by federal agencies or Congress before implementation.

  9. Summary of Second AEO 2015 Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    November 7, 2014 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis SUBJECT: Summary of Second AEO 2015 Working Group Meeting held on September 15, 2014 ATTENDEES: 21 EIA, 68 external (list provided following meeting summary) Presentation topics included a review of the AEO2015 publication schedule and contents, an overview of model assumptions updates in

  10. California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanolis assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

  11. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update Through 2007 (Update) (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) has tracked the growing number of states that have adopted requirements or goals for renewable energy. While there is no federal renewable generation mandate, the states have been adopting such standards for some time. AEO2005 provided a summary of all existing programs in effect at that time, and subsequent AEOs have examined new policies or changes to existing ones. Since the publication of AEO2007, four states have enacted new renewable portfolio standards (RPS) legislation, and five others have strengthened their existing RPS programs. In total, 25 states and the District of Columbia.

  12. AEO2016 - Issues in Focus articles - U.S. Energy Information...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Analysis & Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2016 Full Release Date: Mid September ... Changing environment for fuel use in electricity generation Nuclear power in AEO2012 Cost ...

  13. Microsoft Word - AEO2012 SENR final markup 1 31 12 _2_.docx

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nonpetroleum liquids, net petroleum imports make up a smaller share of total liquids consumption: U.S. dependence on imported petroleum liquids declines in the AEO2012 Reference...

  14. Federal Fuels Taxes and Tax Credits (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) reference case and alternative cases generally assume compliance with current laws and regulations affecting the energy sector. Some provisions of the U.S. Tax Code are scheduled to expire, or may be subject to adjustment, before the end of the projection period. In general, scheduled expirations and adjustments provided in legislation or regulations are assumed to occur, unless there is significant historical evidence to support an alternative assumption. This section examines the AEO2007 treatment of three provisions that could have significant impacts on U.S. energy markets: the gasoline excise tax, biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) tax credits, and the production tax credit for electricity generation from certain renewable resources.

  15. AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 October 4, 2012 Attendance (In Person) Beth May, Mike Cole, Arup Mallik, Vish Mantri, Irene Olson, Julie Harris, Michael Schaal, Andy Kydes, Tom White, Adrian Geagla, Jennifer Li. Attendance (WebEx) Mac Statton, Dave Schmalzer, Jarrod Brown, John Prydol, Russ Smith, Rodney Geisbrecht, Dallas Burkholder, Kristen King Notes by Slide Slide 2 The reference case in 2013 has a lower oil price compared to last year's AEO out to 2040. Slide 10 - Includes modeling of pyrolysis oils Slide 11 - This

  16. AEO 2014 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DATE: September 30, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Office of Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: AEO 2014 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting Summary ATTENDEES: In person John Conti Alan Beamon Bob Eynon Chris Namovicz Danielle Lowenthal-Savy Erin Boedecker Gwen Bredehoeft Jim Diefenderfer Marie Rinkoski Spangler Michael

  17. AEO2014 Coal Working Group Meeting I Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    July 22, 2013 MEMORANDUM TO: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: AEO2014 Coal Working Group Meeting I Summary Attendees (41) Name Affiliation Greg Adams (Moderator) US DOE: EIA Vlad Dorjets Bob Eynon Karen Freedman Tyler Hodge Paul Holtberg Elias Johnson Ayaka Jones Diane Kearney Mike Leff Mike Mellish Carrie Milton Nick Paduano Margaret Cook US

  18. AEO2014 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting 1

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 AEO2014 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting 1 July 24, 2013 Attendance (In Person) (EIA) John Powell, Mindi Farber-DeAnda, Mike Cole, Beth May, Adrian Geagla, Vish Mantri, Tony Radich, Irene Olson, Julie Harris (non-EIA) Jeff Meyer (HIS CERA, Oil Market Analyst), Adam Christensen (Johns Hopkin) Attendance (WebEx) Dave Schmalzer, Seth Snyder (Argonne National Laboratory), Donald Hanson (Argonne National Laboratory), Wyatt Thompson (FAPRI, University of Missouri), Jarrett Whistance

  19. AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 August 12, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: ANGELINA LAROSE TEAM LEAD NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAM JOHN STAUB TEAM LEAD EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on July 25, 2013) Attendees: Anas Alhajji (NGP)* Samuel Andrus (IHS)* Emil Attanasi (USGS)* Andre Barbe (Rice University) David J. Barden (self) Joseph

  20. AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Assumptions for Annual Energy Outlook 2015: Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group AEO2015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas & Biofuels Analysis July 17, 2014 | Washington, DC WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE Discussion topics Office of Petroleum, Natural Gas, & Biofuels Analysis Working Group Presentation for Discussion Purposes Washington DC, July 17, 2014 DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE

  1. Second AEO2014 Liquids Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS JOHN POWELL TEAM LEADER LIQUID FUELS MARKET TEAM MICHAEL SCHAAL DIRECTOR OFFICE OF ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: LIQUID FUELS MARKET TEAM SUBJECT: Second AEO2014 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on 09-19-2013) Attendees: (EIA) John Powell, Mindi Farber-DeAnda, Mike Cole, Beth May, Adrian Geagla, Vishakh Mantri, Tony Radich, Irene Olson, Julie Harris, Arup Mallik, Mike Bredehoeft Seth Meyer (USDA)

  2. Second AEO2014 Macro-Industrial Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS PAUL HOLTBERG TEAM LEADER ANALYSIS INTEGRATION TEAM JAMES TURNURE DIRECTOR OFFICE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION & EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS LYNN WESTFALL DIRECTOR OFFICE OF ENERGY MARKETS & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FROM: MACROECONOMIC & INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION & EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS TEAMS SUBJECT: Second AEO2014 Macro-Industrial Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on 09-26-2013) Attendees: Bob Adler (EIA) Robert

  3. Second AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 November 12, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS FROM: ANGELINA LAROSE TEAM LEAD NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAM JOHN STAUB TEAM LEAD EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION ANALYSIS TEAM EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION and NATURAL GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: Second AEO2014 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary (presented September 26, 2013) Attendees: Robert Anderson (DOE) Peter Balash (NETL)* David Bardin (self) Joe Benneche (EIA) Philip Budzik (EIA) Kara Callahan

  4. Second AEO2014 Transportation Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    , 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS PAUL HOLTBERG TEAM LEADER ANALYSIS INTEGRATION TEAM JIM TURNURE DIRECTOR OFFICE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS FROM: TRANSPORTATION CONSUMPTION & EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS TEAM SUBJECT: Second AEO2014 Transportation Working Group Meeting Summary (presented on 09-25-2013) Attendees: Nicholas Chase (EIA/OECEA) Carrie Hughes-Cromwick (EIA/OES) Paul Holtberg (EIA/OEA) Trisha Hutchins (EIA/OECEA) Jim Kliesch

  5. Second AEO2016 Buildings Sector Workingb Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES ONLY DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE June 10, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team James Turnure Director, Office of Energy Consumption & Efficiency Analysis FROM: Buildings Consumption & Efficiency Analysis Team Subject: Second AEO2016 Buildings Sector Working Group Meeting Summary, workshop held on February 18, 2016

  6. Second AEO2016 Macro-Induistrial Working Group Meeting summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    March 21, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS PAUL HOLTBERG TEAM LEADER ANALYSIS INTEGRATION TEAM JAMES TURNURE DIRECTOR OFFICE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION & EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS LYNN WESTFALL DIRECTOR OFFICE OF ENERGY MARKETS & FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FROM: MACROECONOMIC & INDUSTRIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION & EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS TEAMS SUBJECT: Second AEO2016 Macro-Industrial Working Group Meeting Summary, presented on 02-18-2016 Attendees: Nate Aden

  7. Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE February 29, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Renewable Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting held on February 9, 2016 Presenter: Chris

  8. Summary of AEO2016 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS RESULTS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE February 10, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Chris Namovicz Acting Team Leader for Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of AEO2016 Electricity Working Group Meeting held on February 10, 2016

  9. Summary of First AEO2014 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of First AEO 2014 Electricity Working Group Meeting held on July 24, 2013 ATTENDEES: Diefenderfer, Jim Aniti, Lori Milton, Carrie Jones, Jeff Martin, Laura Bredehoeft, Gwendolyn Eynon, Bob Leff, Mike Mellish, Mike Kearney, Diane

  10. Summary of Second AEO 2014 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7, 2013 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Alan Beamon Office Director Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team FROM: Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of Second AEO 2014 Electricity Working Group Meeting held on September 25, 2013 ATTENDEES: Adams, Greg (EIA OEA) Aniti, Lori (EIA OEA) Bredehoeft, Gwendolyn (EIA OEA) Crozat, Matthew P. (US DOE: Office of Nuclear Energy)

  11. Federal Fuels Taxes and Tax Credits (Update) (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) reference case incorporates current regulations that pertain to the energy industry. This section describes the handling of federal taxes and tax credits in AEO2008, focusing primarily on areas where regulations have changed or the handling of taxes or tax credits has been updated.

  12. CONTINATION HEETIREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO COTIUTINSHE DE-AC27-08RV14800/044 2AG OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Account code: ARRA Appr Year 2009 Allottee 3 Reporting Entity 421301 Object Class 31003 Program 11113 70 Project 2002110 WFO 0000000 Local Use 0420660 TAS Agency Code 89 TAS Account Code 0253 TAS Subaccount Code Amount: -$100,000.00 Delivery Location Code: 010601 Richland

  13. CONTINATION HEETIREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO COTIUAIN IET DE-AC27--08RV14800/046 2G OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) ORP-00014 TOO Funds Fund 01250 Appr Year 2010 Allottee 34 Reportng Enity 4231.11 Object Class 25200 Program 1111412 Project 0004262 WFO 0000000 Local Use 0000000 Amount: $1,200,000.00 ORP 0014 TOO Fund 01250 AppL Ye~ir 2010 Reporting Entity 421301 Object Class 25200

  14. CONTINATION HEETIREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO COTIUAIN HETDE-AC27-08RV14800/052 2A OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNITI UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Fund 01250 Appr Year 2010 Allottee 34 Reporting Entity 421301 Object Class 25200 Program 1110462 Project 0001539 WFO 0000000 Local Use 0420149 Amount: $10,214.00 Delivery Location Code: 00601 RichandOperations Office U.S Dep~artment of Energy Richland Operations

  15. CONTINUATION S EFIIERENCE NO OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTINUATION S EFIIERENCE NO OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO CONINUTIO SHETDE-AC27-08RV148OO/095 rG NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASH-INGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC- ITEM NO SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) )/F New Total Amount for this Award: $7,094,451,000.00 Obligated Amount for this Modification: $30, 952, 500.00 New Total Obligated Amount for this Award: $1, 353,766,560.39 Incremental Funded Amount changed: from $1,293,125,180.69 to $1,323,766,560.39

  16. CONTINUATON SHEETREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTINUATON SHEETREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO COTNUTO SETDE-AC27-08RV14800/070 2AG OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) De-obligating WEPS TDD funds for ATL Aluminum Solubility Sample Analysis Fund 01250 Appr Year 2009 Allottee 34 Reporting Entity 421301 Object Class 25200 Program 1110676 Project 0004022 WFO 0000000 Local Use 0000000 Amount: -$3,155.93

  17. CONTIUATIN SHET IREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CONTIUATIN SHET IREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO COTNUTO SETDE-AC27-08RVI4800/055 2AG OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIESISERVICES QUANTITY NIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Total Amount changed from $7,066,503,000.00 to $7,066,500,000.00 Obligated Amount for this modification: $140, 000.00 Incremental Funded Amount changed from $1,102, 822,315.05 to $1,102,962,315.05 NEW ACCOUNTING CODE ADDED: Account code: WTP

  18. AEO2014 - Issues in Focus articles - U.S. Energy Information...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Past AEO analyses that remain relevant 2013 2012 2011 U.S. reliance on imported liquid fuels in alternative scenarios Competition between coal and natural gas in the electric...

  19. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007: Summary of Provisions (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 was signed into law on December 19, 2007, and became Public Law 110-140. Provisions in EISA2007 that require funding appropriations to be implemented, whose impact is highly uncertain, or that require further specification by federal agencies or Congress are not included in Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO). For example, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) does not try to anticipate policy responses to the many studies required by EISA2007, nor to predict the impact of research and development (R&D) funding authorizations included in the bill. Moreover, AEO2008 does not include any provision that addresses a level of detail beyond that modeled in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which was used to develop the AEO2008 projections. AEO2008 addresses only those provisions in EISA2007 that establish specific tax credits, incentives, or standards.

  20. Changing Trends in the Bulk Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Compared with the experience of the 1990s, rising energy prices in recent years have led to questions about expectations of growth in industrial output, particularly in energy-intensive industries. Given the higher price trends, a review of expected growth trends in selected industries was undertaken as part of the production of Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO). In addition, projections for the industrial value of shipments, which were based on the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system in AEO2004, are based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) in AEO2005. The change in industrial classification leads to lower historical growth rates for many industrial sectors. The impacts of these two changes are highlighted in this section for two of the largest energy-consuming industries in the U.S. industrial sector-bulk chemicals and pulp and paper.

  1. Natural Gas Prices Forecast Comparison--AEO vs. Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Lekov, Alex; Dale, Larry

    2005-02-09

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of two methods to forecast natural gas prices: using the Energy Information Administration's ''Annual Energy Outlook'' forecasted price (AEO) and the ''Henry Hub'' compared to U.S. Wellhead futures price. A statistical analysis is performed to determine the relative accuracy of the two measures in the recent past. A statistical analysis suggests that the Henry Hub futures price provides a more accurate average forecast of natural gas prices than the AEO. For example, the Henry Hub futures price underestimated the natural gas price by 35 cents per thousand cubic feet (11.5 percent) between 1996 and 2003 and the AEO underestimated by 71 cents per thousand cubic feet (23.4 percent). Upon closer inspection, a liner regression analysis reveals that two distinct time periods exist, the period between 1996 to 1999 and the period between 2000 to 2003. For the time period between 1996 to 1999, AEO showed a weak negative correlation (R-square = 0.19) between forecast price by actual U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub with a weak positive correlation (R-square = 0.20) between forecasted price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. During the time period between 2000 to 2003, AEO shows a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.37) between forecasted natural gas price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price versus the Henry Hub that show a moderate positive correlation (R-square = 0.36) between forecast price and U.S. Wellhead natural gas price. These results suggest that agencies forecasting natural gas prices should consider incorporating the Henry Hub natural gas futures price into their forecasting models along with the AEO forecast. Our analysis is very preliminary and is based on a very small data set. Naturally the results of the analysis may change, as more data is made available.

  2. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update through 2009 (Update) (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    To the extent possible,Annual Energy Outlook 2010 (AEO) incorporates the impacts of state laws requiring the addition of renewable generation or capacity by utilities doing business in the states. Currently, 30 states and the District of Columbia have enforceable renewable portfolio standards (RPS) or similar laws). Under such standards, each state determines its own levels of generation, eligible technologies, and noncompliance penalties. AEO2010 includes the impacts of all laws in effect as of September 2009 (with the exception of Hawaii, because the National Energy Modeling System provides electricity market projections for the continental United States only).

  3. Comparison of AEO 2010 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2010-01-04

    On December 14, 2009, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2010 were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in itigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings.

  4. Comparison of AEO 2006 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX FuturesPrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-12-19

    On December 12, 2005, the reference case projections from ''Annual Energy Outlook 2006'' (AEO 2006) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have in the past compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk (see, for example, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf). As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past five years, forward natural gas contracts (with prices that can be locked in--e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past five years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are ''biased'' in favor of gas-fired generation, presuming that long-term price stability is valued. In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2006. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past five AEO releases (AEO 2001-AEO

  5. Comparison of AEO 2007 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX FuturesPrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-12-06

    On December 5, 2006, the reference case projections from 'Annual Energy Outlook 2007' (AEO 2007) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk (see, for example, http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf). As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past six years, forward natural gas contracts (with prices that can be locked in--e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past six years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable-price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are 'biased' in favor of gas-fired generation, presuming that long-term price stability is valued. In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2007. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past six AEO releases (AEO 2001-AEO 2006), we

  6. Comparison of AEO 2005 natural gas price forecast to NYMEX futures prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-12-13

    On December 9, the reference case projections from ''Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005)'' were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. As some of you may be aware, we at LBNL have in the past compared the EIA's reference case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. As a refresher, our past work in this area has found that over the past four years, forward natural gas contracts (e.g., gas futures, swaps, and physical supply) have traded at a premium relative to contemporaneous long-term reference case gas price forecasts from the EIA. As such, we have concluded that, over the past four years at least, levelized cost comparisons of fixed-price renewable generation with variable price gas-fired generation that have been based on AEO natural gas price forecasts (rather than forward prices) have yielded results that are ''biased'' in favor of gas-fired generation (presuming that long-term price stability is valued). In this memo we simply update our past analysis to include the latest long-term gas price forecast from the EIA, as contained in AEO 2005. For the sake of brevity, we do not rehash information (on methodology, potential explanations for the premiums, etc.) contained in our earlier reports on this topic; readers interested in such information are encouraged to download that work from http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/EMS/reports/53587.pdf or, more recently (and briefly), http://eetd.lbl.gov/ea/ems/reports/54751.pdf. As was the case in the past four AEO releases (AEO 2001-AE0 2004), we once again find that the AEO 2005 reference case gas price forecast falls well below

  7. Industrial Sector Energy Demand: Revisions for Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    For the industrial sector, the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) analysis and projection efforts generally have focused on the energy-intensive industriesfood, bulk chemicals, refining, glass, cement, steel, and aluminumwhere energy cost averages 4.8% of annual operating cost. Detailed process flows and energy intensity indicators have been developed for narrowly defined industry groups in the energy-intensive manufacturing sector. The non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries, where energy cost averages 1.9% of annual operating cost, previously have received somewhat less attention, however. In Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), energy demand projections were provided for two broadly aggregated industry groups in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing sector: metal-based durables and other non-energy-intensive. In the AEO2006 projections, the two groups accounted for more than 50% of the projected increase in industrial natural gas consumption from 2004 to 2030.

  8. WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES. DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS AEO2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    February 1, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the First AEO2016 Coal Working Group Meeting workshop held on December 1, 2015 Attendees (47) Name Affiliation Ross, Joey Alliance Resource Partners, L.P. Alfaro, Jose L. Alpha Natural Resources Blumenfeld, Andy Arch Coal, Inc. Lewandowski, David Clean Energy James,

  9. WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES. DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE AS AEO2016

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    March 10, 2016 MEMORANDUM TO: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis FROM: Coal and Uranium Analysis Team SUBJECT: Notes from the Second AEO2016 Coal Working Group Meeting workshop held on February 9, 2016 Attendees (30) Name Affiliation Adams, Greg U.S. DOE: EIA Coleman, Leslie National Mining Association Diefenderfer, Jim U.S. DOE: EIA DiGiantommaso, Jennifer U.S. Department of Labor

  10. Summary of AEO2016 Electricity Working Group Meeting held on December 8, 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    January7, 2016 MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy Analysis Jim Diefenderfer Director, Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Analysis Paul Holtberg Team Leader Analysis Integration Team Office of Integrated and International Energy Analysis FROM: Chris Namovicz Team Leader for Electricity Analysis (acting) And Thad Huetteman, Electricity Analysis Team SUBJECT: Summary of AEO2016 Electricity Working Group Meeting held on December 8, 2015 Presenters: Chris

  11. A sensitivity analysis of the treatment of wind energy in the AEO99 version of NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborn, Julie G; Wood, Frances; Richey, Cooper; Sanders, Sandy; Short, Walter; Koomey, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Each year, the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes a forecast of the domestic energy economy in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). During the forecast period of the AEO (currently through 2020), renewable energy technologies have typically not achieved significant growth. The contribution of renewable technologies as electric generators becomes more important, however, in scenarios analyzing greenhouse gas emissions reductions or significant technological advancements. We examined the economic assumptions about wind power used for producing forecasts with the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) to determine their influence on the projected capacity expansion of this technology. This analysis should help illustrate to policymakers what types of issues may affect wind development, and improve the general understanding of the NEMS model itself. Figure 1 illustrates the model structure and factors relevant to wind deployment. We found that NEMS uses various cost multipliers and constraints to represent potential physical and economic limitations to growth in wind capacity, such as resource depletion, costs associated with rapid manufacturing expansion, and grid stability with high levels of capacity from intermittent resources. The model's flexibility allows the user to make alternative assumptions about the magnitude of these factors. While these assumptions have little effect on the Reference Case forecast for the 1999 edition of the AEO, they can make a dramatic difference when wind is more attractive, such as under a carbon permit trading system. With $100/ton carbon permits, the wind capacity projection for 2020 ranges from 15 GW in the unaltered model (AEO99 Reference Case) to 168 GW in the extreme case when all the multipliers and constraints examined in this study are removed. Furthermore, if modifications are made to the model allowing inter-regional transmission of electricity, wind capacity is forecast to reach 214

  12. Comparison of AEO 2008 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2008-01-07

    On December 12, 2007, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO 2008) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. Note that this memo pertains only to natural gas fuel price risk (i.e., the risk that natural gas prices might differ over the life of a gas-fired generation asset from what was expected when the decision to build the gas-fired unit was made). We do not take into consideration any of the other distinct attributes of gas-fired and renewable generation, such as dispatchability (or lack thereof) or environmental externalities. A comprehensive comparison of different resource types--which is well beyond the scope of this memo--would need to account for differences in all such attributes, including fuel price risk. Furthermore, our analysis focuses solely on natural-gas-fired generation (as opposed to coal-fired generation, for example), for several reasons: (1) price volatility has been more of a concern for natural gas than for other fuels used to generate power; (2) for environmental and other reasons, natural gas has, in recent years, been the fuel of choice among power plant developers (though its appeal has diminished somewhat as prices have increased); and (3) natural gas-fired generators often set the market clearing price in competitive wholesale power markets throughout the United States. That said, a more-complete analysis of how renewables mitigate fuel price risk would also need to consider coal and

  13. Comparison of AEO 2009 Natural Gas Price Forecast to NYMEX Futures Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2009-01-28

    On December 17, 2008, the reference-case projections from Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO 2009) were posted on the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) web site. We at LBNL have, in the past, compared the EIA's reference-case long-term natural gas price forecasts from the AEO series to contemporaneous natural gas prices that can be locked in through the forward market, with the goal of better understanding fuel price risk and the role that renewables can play in mitigating such risk. As such, we were curious to see how the latest AEO reference-case gas price forecast compares to the NYMEX natural gas futures strip. This brief memo presents our findings. Note that this memo pertains only to natural gas fuel price risk (i.e., the risk that natural gas prices might differ over the life of a gas-fired generation asset from what was expected when the decision to build the gas-fired unit was made). We do not take into consideration any of the other distinct attributes of gas-fired and renewable generation, such as dispatchability (or lack thereof), differences in capital costs and O&M expenses, or environmental externalities. A comprehensive comparison of different resource types--which is well beyond the scope of this memo--would need to account for differences in all such attributes, including fuel price risk. Furthermore, our analysis focuses solely on natural-gas-fired generation (as opposed to coal-fired or nuclear generation, for example), for several reasons: (1) price volatility has been more of a concern for natural gas than for other fuels used to generate power; (2) for environmental and other reasons, natural gas has, in recent years, been the fuel of choice among power plant developers; and (3) natural gas-fired generators often set the market clearing price in competitive wholesale power markets throughout the United States. That said, a more-complete analysis of how renewables mitigate fuel price risk would also need to consider coal, uranium, and

  14. Entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, Daniel R.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 meters and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  15. REFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO CONTINUATION SHEET DE-AC27-08RV14800/039 2AG O2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OTHER REFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO CONTINUATION SHEET DE-AC27-08RV14800/039 2AG O2 NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC QATT I NTPIEAON ITEM NO. SUPPLIESISERVICESQUNIYNT UITPCEAOT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) Fund 01050 Appr Year 2010 Allottee 34 Reporting Entity 421301 Amount: $43,752,060.00 Account code: P&B Rocky Flats Post Retirement Benefits Fund 01050 Appr Year 2010 Allottee 34 Reporting Entity 421301 Amount: $51,480,000.00 Account,_code:

  16. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  17. AEO2015 BWG

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    heaters, refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers * Contract report from LeidosNavigant will be available online Discussion purposes only - do ...

  18. Impacts of Increased Access to Oil & Natural Gas Resources in the Lower 48 Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    This analysis was updated for Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO): Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The OCS is estimated to contain substantial resources of crude oil and natural gas; however, some areas of the OCS are subject to drilling restrictions. With energy prices rising over the past several years, there has been increased interest in the development of more domestic oil and natural gas supply, including OCS resources. In the past, federal efforts to encourage exploration and development activities in the deep waters of the OCS have been limited primarily to regulations that would reduce royalty payments by lease holders. More recently, the states of Alaska and Virginia have asked the federal government to consider leasing in areas off their coastlines that are off limits as a result of actions by the President or Congress. In response, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior has included in its proposed 5-year leasing plan for 2007-2012 sales of one lease in the Mid-Atlantic area off the coastline of Virginia and two leases in the North Aleutian Basin area of Alaska. Development in both areas still would require lifting of the current ban on drilling.

  19. SunShot Grand Challenge Highlights Ambitious Efforts along the Entire Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spectrum | Department of Energy Grand Challenge Highlights Ambitious Efforts along the Entire Solar Spectrum SunShot Grand Challenge Highlights Ambitious Efforts along the Entire Solar Spectrum June 13, 2012 - 5:30pm Addthis Energy Secretary Steven Chu gives the keynote address at the SunShot Grand Challenge Summit in Denver, Colorado. | Photo by Dennis Schroeder/NREL. Energy Secretary Steven Chu gives the keynote address at the SunShot Grand Challenge Summit in Denver, Colorado. | Photo by

  20. Entirely passive heat-pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koenig, D.R.

    1981-02-11

    The disclosure is directed to an entirely passive heat pipe apparatus capable of operating against gravity for vertical distances in the order of 3 to 7 and more. A return conduit into which an inert gas is introduced is used to lower the specific density of the working fluid so that it may be returned a greater vertical distance from condenser to evaporator.

  1. Most Complete Functional Map of an Entire Enzyme Family| U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) Most Complete Functional Map of an Entire Enzyme Family Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC

  2. Phoenix Convention Center * Phoenix, Arizona Playing the Entire Value Chain for Energy Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phoenix, Arizona Playing the Entire Value Chain for Energy Storage Session 6: Innovation Energy Storage for Federal Installations Scott Sklar The Stella Group, LTD August 12, 2015 Energy Exchange: Federal Sustainability for the Next Decade The Stella Group, LTD 2 The Stella Group, Ltd.. is a strategic technology optimization and policy firm for clean distributed energy users and companies which include advanced batteries and controls, energy efficiency, fuel cells, geoexchange, heat engines,

  3. Energy Intensity Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Energy intensity (energy consumption per dollar of real GDP) indicates how much energy a country uses to produce its goods and services. From the early 1950s to the early 1970s, U.S. total primary energy consumption and real GDP increased at nearly the same annual rate. During that period, real oil prices remained virtually flat. In contrast, from the mid-1970s to 2008, the relationship between energy consumption and real GDP growth changed, with primary energy consumption growing at less than one-third the previous average rate and real GDP growth continuing to grow at its historical rate. The decoupling of real GDP growth from energy consumption growth led to a decline in energy intensity that averaged 2.8% per year from 1973 to 2008. In the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case, energy intensity continues to decline, at an average annual rate of 1.9% from 2008 to 2035.

  4. AEO2014 results and status updates for the AEO2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... - Retire Intermountain plant in 2025. Office of Electricity, Coal, Nuclear and Renewables Analysis ... two standards for natural gas-fired stationary combustion units, ...

  5. AEO Early Release 2013 - oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Growing U.S. oil output and rising vehicle fuel economy to cut U.S. reliance on foreign oil The United States is expected to continue cutting its dependence on petroleum and liquid fuels imports over the rest of this decade because of growing domestic crude oil production and more fuel-efficient vehicles on America's highways. The new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows America's dependence on imported petroleum and liquid fuels will decline from 45 percent of

  6. AEO2012 Early Release Overview

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    9 U.S. Energy Information Administration | International Energy Outlook 2016 Chapter 2 Petroleum and other liquid fuels Overview In the International Energy Outlook 2016 (IEO2016) Reference case, worldwide consumption of petroleum and other liquid fuels increases from 90 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2012 to 100 million b/d in 2020 and 121 million b/d in 2040. Much of the growth in world liquid fuels consumption is projected for the emerging, non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and

  7. AEO2012 Early Release Overview

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Mellish, Carrie Milton, Brian Murphy, Kelly Perl, David Peterson, John Powell, Nancy Slater-Thompson, Kay A. Smith, John Staub, Charles L. Smith, Craig Federhen, and Peggy Wells. ...

  8. AEO2014: Preliminary Industrial Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Elizabeth Sendich, Analyst, and Kay Smith, Team Leader Macroeconomic Analysis Team ... Macro-Industrial Working Group, Sendich & Smith, 92613 DO NOT CITE OR DISTRIBUTE ...

  9. Industrial Plans for AEO2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 10 Industrial Team Washington DC, July 30, 2013 Macro Team: Kay Smith (202) 586-1132 | kay.smith@eia.gov Vipin Arora (202) 586-1048 | vipin.arora@eia.gov Russell Tarver ...

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    in 2016. On January 16, economic sanctions on Iran related to its nuclear program were lifted, officially allowing Iran to increase its crude oil production and export levels. ...

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs 1 February 2013 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) End-Use Models FAQs What is an end-use model? An end-use model is a set of equations designed to disaggregate a RECS sample household's total annual fuel consumption into end uses such as space heating, air conditioning, water heating, refrigeration, and so on. These disaggregated values are then weighted up to produce population estimates of total and average energy end

  12. AEO Early Release 2013 - LNG exports

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    U.S. expected to become net exporter of natural gas by end of decade The United States is on track to become a net exporter of natural gas by 2020 as domestic gas production continues to increase faster than consumption through this decade. Growing production and low prices will help spur exports, according to the new long-term outlook from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Some of that gas will be sent overseas in huge ocean-going tankers carrying super-cooled liquefied natural gas,

  13. AEO Early Release 2013 - renewable generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewables account for a bigger share of U.S. electricity generation in decades ahead The United States will generate a bigger share of its electricity from renewable sources such as solar, wind, and biomass energy in the decades ahead, according to the new long-term outlook just released by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. EIA says that lower costs are making renewable electricity more economical, and along with federal and state policies that promote renewables, EIA projects that

  14. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Table 7d), electricity generation fuel consumption (Table 7e), and renewable energy (Table 8). ... industrial sectors into a single "end use" sector. 1 Table 7a will now ...

  15. Efficiency and Intensity in the AEO 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    credits for renewable generation - Voluntary programs ... provided - Driven by technology improvements * Energy ... commercial building mix * Industry - Shifts to less ...

  16. AEO2015 Transportation Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Transportation Working Group Meeting Wednesday, July 30, 2014 2:00 - 3:00 p.m. Attendees in person: Austin Brown (NREL) Christopher Ramig (EPA) David Babson (EPA) Devi Mishra (EIA) John Maples (EIA) Lauren Rafelski (EPA) Mindi Farber-DeAnda (EIA) Nicholas Chase (EIA) Patricia Hutchins (EIA) Salil Deshpande (Energetics) Tom Stephens (ANL) Tom White (DOE) Attendees on the phone: Aaron Hula (EPA) Alicia Birky (TA Engineering) Chris Nevers (EPA) Chris Roof (Volpe) Christopher Grillo (IHS) Dallas

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    The number of operational oil rigs in the United States dropped each week in September and the latest Petroleum ... Fall seasonal maintenance at U.S. refineries typically does not ...

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    when global demand for petroleum products is weakening, ... into the United States were relatively constant from September to October, and with U.S. refineries currently ...

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Key members of The Organization of Petroleum Exporting ... straight weeks in the United States through November 27 and ... 3), gross inputs to refineries rose 0.21 million ...

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    At a time of seasonally increasing demand and higher petroleum product consumption in the United States and ... Over time, refineries can adjust petroleum product yields in order ...

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    supply reductions and better economic data in the United States. ... leading Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries ... Gross inputs to refineries in PADD 3 rose 0.1 million bd ...

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recent manufacturing data for the United States and China were above expectations, supporting demand for petroleum ... by the ability of refineries in the U.S. to absorb ...

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Those schedules include; * Schedule 2, General Information and Energy Sources and ... EIA-861. These schedules include Schedule 2C Green Pricing and Schedule 2D Net Metering. ...

  4. Coal Transportation Issues (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Most of the coal delivered to U.S. consumers is transported by railroads, which accounted for 64% of total domestic coal shipments in 2004. Trucks transported approximately 12% of the coal consumed in the United States in 2004, mainly in short hauls from mines in the East to nearby coal-fired electricity and industrial plants. A number of minemouth power plants in the West also use trucks to haul coal from adjacent mining operations. Other significant modes of coal transportation in 2004 included conveyor belt and slurry pipeline (12%) and water transport on inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and tidewater areas (9%).

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Recent actions by the People's Bank of China (PBoC) and worse-than-expected economic data from China and Japan have increased uncertainty about global economic growth, particularly ...

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manufacturing activity in China continued to contract and volatility in Chinese financial ... purchasing managers' index: The Caixin China General Manufacturing Purchasing Managers' ...

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Outlook September 2014 3 Brent and the U.S. dollar: The divergence of growth expectations between the United States and the rest of the world is also reflected in currency markets. ...

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... curves further suggests that the recent tightness in the crude oil markets reflects high refinery runs in the United States and the rest of the world as well as supply issues. ...

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Although the U.S. economic data was strong, economic data in the rest of the world was generally below expectations and was met with declining equity prices and higher bond yields ...

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    On the consumption side, the demand response to lower oil prices may be higher than anticipated, particularly in the United States and Europe, and could tighten markets during peak ...

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    liquid fuels Fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel) Electricity (including electricity from solar energy) ...

  12. Comparing Efficiency Projections (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Realized improvements in energy efficiency generally rely on a combination of technology and economics. The figure below illustrates the role of technology assumptions in the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 projections for energy efficiency in the residential and commercial buildings sector. Projected energy consumption in the Reference case is compared with projections in the Best Available Technology, High Technology, and 2009 Technology cases and an estimate based on an assumption of no change in efficiency for building shells and equipment.

  13. CAFE Standards (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Pursuant to the Presidents announcement of a National Fuel Efficiency Policy, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EPA have promulgated nationally coordinated standards for tailpipe Carbon Dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles (LDVs), which includes both passenger cars and light-duty trucks. In the joint rulemaking, the Environmental Protection Agency is enacting CO2-equivalent emissions standards under the Clean Air Act (CAA), and NHTSA is enacting companion Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  14. Microsoft Word - macroeconomic_aeo2012.docx

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gross State Product The MAM projects regional gross regional product in real per capita terms. The equations are in log form. There is an estimated equation for each of the nine...

  15. State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

  16. Energy Demand (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Growth in U.S. energy use is linked to population growth through increases in demand for housing, commercial floorspace, transportation, manufacturing, and services. This affects not only the level of energy use, but also the mix of fuels and consumption by sector.

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After reaching a four-month low in the beginning of August, crude oil prices rebounded close to the highest levels of the year. The front-month Brent crude oil price increased $3.31 per barrel (b) since August 1, settling at $45.45/b on September 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front-month crude oil price settled at $43.16/b, an increase of $3.10/b over the same period. Price volatility in global equity markets declined in

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 Table 6. Natural gas processed, liquids extracted, and natural gas plant liquids production, by state, 2014 Alabama 80,590 5,139 7,044 Alabama Onshore Alabama 31,116 2,620 3,323 Alabama Offshore Alabama 49,474 2,519 3,721 Alaska 2,735,783 15,724 18,434 Alaska Onshore 2,735,783 15,724 18,434 Alaska Offshore 0 0 0 Arkansas 8,058 457 582 Arkansas 8,058 457 582 California 162,794 9,605 13,201 California Onshore California 162,413 9,597 13,192 California Offshore California 381 8 9 Federal Offshore

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5 1 April 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing in February, global crude oil prices declined in March. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $54.95/bbl on April 2, a decline of $4.59/bbl since the close on March 2 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined by $0.45/bbl over the same period to settle at $49.14/bbl on April 2. The average Brent price for March was 3.2% lower

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After increasing at the start of March, crude oil prices stabilized and traded within a relatively narrow range through the first week of April. The North Sea Brent front month futures price rose $2.62 per barrel (b) from March 1 to settle at $39.43/b on April 7 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price rose $2.86/b and settled at $37.26 over the same period. The increase in crude oil prices alongside

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices moved lower through much of July and early August. The North Sea Brent front month futures price declined $12.49 per barrel (b) since July 1 to settle at $49.52/b on August 6 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined $12.30/b over the same time, settling at $44.66/b on August 6. Both benchmarks recorded their largest month-over-month decline since January 2015. One of the factors that

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    1 December 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices continued to move lower in November and recorded their fifth consecutive month of declines. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $69.64/bbl on December 4, a decline of $15.14/bbl from November 3 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $66.81/bbl on December 4, decreasing by $11.97/bbl since the start of November. The

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Crude oil prices moved higher toward the end of January and into the first week of February. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $56.57/bbl on February 5, an increase of $0.15/bbl from January 2 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $50.48/bbl on February 5, $2.21/bbl lower than at the start of January. These changes were relatively small compared to an average

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: After an upward move in mid-June, crude oil prices retreated close to previous levels. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $111/barrel on July 3, an increase of $2.17/barrel from June 2 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract also rose, settling at $104.06/barrel on July 3, $1.59/barrel higher than on June 2. Tensions in Iraq were the primary driver of the crude oil price increase in mid-June.

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Global and domestic crude oil prices traded in a narrow range in June. The North Sea Brent front month futures price declined $2.87 per barrel (b) since June 1 to settle at $62.01/b on July 1 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price declined $3.24/b over the month, settling at $56.96/b on July 1. As global crude oil supply remains robust, demand-side factors are likely contributing to renewed price stability

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil prices declined in May and in the first week of June while domestic crude oil prices stayed relatively stable. The North Sea Brent front month futures declined $4.43 per barrel (b) since May 1 to settle at $62.03/b on June 4 (Figure 1). The West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures price decreased $1.15/b over the same period to settle at $58/b on June 4. Elevated crude oil production from members of The

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices rose over the previous month but remained within the recent, and relatively narrow, trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $108.10 per barrel (bbl) on March 6, an increase of $2.06/bbl from February 3 (Figure 1). Over the same period, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contract rose $5.13/bbl, settling at $101.56/bbl on March 6. The brief uptick in

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: International crude oil futures prices rebounded in April and approached the top of their recent trading range. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $107.76 per barrel (bbl) on May 1, an increase of $2.14/bbl from April 1 (Figure 1). West Texas Intermediate (WTI) prices at the start of May were near the same levels as the beginning of April. The front month WTI contract settled at $99.42/bbl on May 1, a slight decrease

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: North Sea Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) front month futures contracts continued their recent decline in October and the first week of November as a larger-than-normal seasonal decrease in global refinery runs from August through October lessened demand for crude oil. The Brent contract settled at $103.46 per barrel on November 7, a decline of $4.48 per barrel compared to October 1 (Figure 1). The decreases in WTI futures prices

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4 1 November 2014 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Both international and domestic crude oil prices moved sharply lower over the previous five weeks. The North Sea Brent front month futures price settled at $82.86/bbl on November 6, a decline of $11.30/bbl from October 1 (Figure 1). The front month West Texas Intermediate (WTI) contract price settled at $77.91/bbl on November 6, decreasing by $12.82/bbl since the start of October. November marked

  11. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 1 October 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook Market Prices and Uncertainty Report Crude Oil Prices: Front month futures prices for the Brent and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil benchmarks fell in September. The Brent contract settled at $109.00 per barrel on October 3, a decline of $6.68 per barrel since September 3, and WTI settled at $103.31 per barrel on October 3, falling by $5.23 per barrel over the same period (Figure 1). These changes marked the first month-over-month declines in

  12. AEO 2013 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    year Under the LCFS Brazilian sugarcane Ethanol is favorable due to its carbon intensity ... as it is more expensive than corn based ethanol Q: Is the California LCFS an attempt to ...

  13. CONTINATIONSHEETREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COTIUTINSHE DE-AC27-08RV14800/067 2G OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIES/SERVICES QUANTITY UNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) -$1,000,000.00 New Total Obligated Amount tor this Award: $1, 180,251,170.41 incremental Funded Amount changed: from $1,181,251,170.41 to $1, 180,251,170.41 Account code: Reforming Treatability Fund 01250 Appr Year 2010 Allottee 34 Reporting Entity 421301 Object Class 25200 Program 1111412 Project

  14. CONTINATIONSHEETREFERENCE NO. OF DOCUMENT BEING CONTINUED AEO

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COTNUTO SETDE-AC27-08RV14800/048 rAG OF NAME OF OFFEROR OR CONTRACTOR WASHINGTON RIVER PROTECTION SOLUTIONS LLC ITEM NO. SUPPLIESISERVICES QUANTITY JNIT UNIT PRICE AMOUNT (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) WRPS Operations (FY 2010) Fund 01250 Appr Year 2010 Aliottee 34 Reporting Entity 421301 Object Class 25200 Progrl~am~ 1110909 Project 0001481 WFO 0000000 Local Use 0000000 Amount: $70,000,000.00 Delivery Location Code: 00601 Richland Operations Office U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office

  15. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  16. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Notes: The approximate break between historical and forecast values is shown with ... EIA does not estimate or project end-use consumption of non-marketed renewable energy. (d) ...

  17. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The decline was largely due to U.S. Gulf Coast (PADD 3) crude oil prices strengthening against international benchmarks. The Brent-Light Louisiana Sweet (LLS) price spread settled ...

  18. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The Brent-Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) spread settled at -0.34bbl on October 2, a decline of 4.30bbl since September 2 (Figure 3). A small differential between Brent and LLS, ...

  19. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook May 2016 2 Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) crude oil prices rose more than other crude oils and is trading at a premium to Brent. ...

  20. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The differential is composed of a relatively stable Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS)-WTI ... on the discount needed to incentivize PADD 3 refineries to run light sweet crude oil. ...

  1. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    International crude oil prices increased compared with domestic ones in June. The Brent-Light Louisiana Sweet (LLS) differential increased 50 centsb since June 1, settling at -54 ...

  2. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decreased demand for crude oil from refineries on the U.S. Gulf Coast closed the import window for light sweet crude oil into the U.S. Gulf Coast, as can been by the LLS-Brent ...

  3. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Increases in both the Brent-Louisiana Light Sweet (LLS) and LLS-WTI contributed to the wider Brent-WTI differential. These spread movements should encourage incremental movements ...

  4. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... The buyer must return the propane portion to the seller either through physical delivery or a separate payment at the propane market price. Propane prices were high enough that ...

  5. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Confidentiality of information The information contained on Form EIA-877 will be kept confidential and not disclosed to the public to the extent that it satisfies the criteria for ...

  6. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    From a market perspective, commodity buyers do not typically care about the source of a product as long as its chemical composition meets specifications. We are proposing to rework ...

  7. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report," collects the cost and quality of fossil fuel purchases made by electric ... a reduction of approximately 9 percent of natural gas purchases, cost, and quality data. ...

  8. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... as well as a general loosening of international balances, impacted the Brent curve. ... Oil company integration: Most energy companies recently released full-year financial ...

  9. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Oklahoma, inventories for the week ending August 1. Crude production in the Permian Basin, the largest crude oil producing region in the United States, increased 0.23 million ...

  10. 2017 Levelized Costs AEO 2012 Early Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... prices and future policies may cause plant owners or investors who finance plants to ... when evaluating investments in new coal-fired power plants, new coal-to-liquids (CTL) ...

  11. AEO2015 Coal Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Form EIA-860 indicate only 584 megawatts (MW) of planned coal-fired capacity additions (the 522-MW Kemper County IGCC plant in MS and the 62-MW Spiritwood plant in ND), and 28 ...

  12. AEO2016 Preliminary Industrial Output Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    December 3, 2015 | Washington, DC By Kay Smith, Macro Team Leader, Elizabeth Sendich, ... OR DISTRIBUTE For more information Kay Smith | 6-1132 | kay.smith@eia.gov Elizabeth ...

  13. Industrial Team Plans for AEO2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 7 Industrial Team Washington DC, July 24, 2014 Macro Team: Kay Smith (202) 586-1132 | kay.smith@eia.gov Vipin Arora (202) 586-1048 | vipin.arora@eia.gov Russell Tarver ...

  14. Particulate Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  15. Formation testers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a method for use in obtaining multiple pressure tests of an earth formation traversed by a well bore by use of a sidewall fluid sampler well tool which has a fluid pressure sampling chamber in the well tool in open fluid communication with a pad sealing means, comprising the steps of: for one selected level in a well bore, moving a pad sealing means on the well tool into engagement with the wall of a well bore and isolating a wall segment of the earth formation; after the pad sealing means engges the wall segment of the earth formation, generating a hydraulic pressure in the well tool and applying said hydraulic pressure to said fluid pressure sampling chamber for increasing the volume of said fluid pressure sampling chamber thereby to dray a fluid sample from the earth formation engaged by the pad sealing means into the fluid pressure sampling chamber, sensing the pressure of said fluid sample as it is drawn into the fluid pressure sampling chamber while the volume of the sampling chamber is being increased, relieving the hydraulic pressure in the well tool with respect to said fluid pressur sampling chamber for decreasing the volume of said fluid pressure sampling chamber thereby to contact the sampling chamber to dischrge the fluid sample through the pad sealing means; retracting the sealing pad means and, after retrction of sealing pad means from engagement from the wall of the well bore, moving the well tool to a second location at another level in the well bore and, at the second location, repeating the steps of the method performed at the one selected level for obtaining another fluid sample and pressure sensing at said second location.

  16. Formation testers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E.F.

    1981-09-08

    A formation tester apparatus is disclosed for use in a well bore for multiple testing of pressures of earth formation fluids and the taking of a fluid sample. Pad and shoe means are selectively operable for sealingly engaging a well bore. Upon sealing engagement of the pad with the wall of a well bore, a fluid sample is ingested into an expanding chamber while its pressure is sensed. Upon completion of the pressure test, the pad is retracted from the wall of a well bore, and the expanding chamber contracts to expel the fluid sample. The pressure test may be repeated any number of times. The expanding chamber includes a piston operated with fluid pressure used to actuate the pad. A choke delays the application of pressure to the piston until after the pad seals on the wall of the well bore. When a fluid sample is desired, the fluid pressure used to actuate the pad is increased to operate a first valve which connects the pad of a water cushion sampling chamber. After a fluid sample is collected, the fluid pressure is further increased to operate a second valve which closes off the sampling chamber. When the formations are unconsolidated a slidable probe in the pad extends outwardly into the wall and forms a mechanical filter. When the probe retracts the filter is self-cleaning.

  17. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  18. Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

  19. Analysis & Projections - Pub - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewables AEO2016 Meetings First AEO2016 Meeting (December 23, 2015) Summary of meeting Presentation Second AEO2016 Meeting (February 9, 2016) Presentation AEO2015 Meetings First ...

  20. Growth and characterization of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} highly mismatched alloys over the entire composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaquez, M.; Ting, M.; Yu, K. M.; Hettick, M.; Javey, A.; Sánchez-Royo, J. F.; Wełna, M.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, W.

    2015-12-07

    Alloys from ZnO and ZnS have been synthesized by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering over the entire alloying range. The ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} films are crystalline for all compositions. The optical absorption edge of these alloys decreases rapidly with small amount of added sulfur (x ∼ 0.02) and continues to red shift to a minimum of 2.6 eV at x = 0.45. At higher sulfur concentrations (x > 0.45), the absorption edge shows a continuous blue shift. The strong reduction in the band gap for O-rich alloys is the result of the upward shift of the valence-band edge with x as observed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. As a result, the room temperature bandgap of ZnO{sub 1−x}S{sub x} alloys can be tuned from 3.7 eV to 2.6 eV. The observed large bowing in the composition dependence of the energy bandgap arises from the anticrossing interactions between (1) the valence-band of ZnO and the localized sulfur level at 0.30 eV above the ZnO valence-band maximum for O-rich alloys and (2) the conduction-band of ZnS and the localized oxygen level at 0.20 eV below the ZnS conduction band minimum for the S-rich alloys. The ability to tune the bandgap and knowledge of the location of the valence and conduction-band can be advantageous in applications, such as heterojunction solar cells, where band alignment is crucial.

  1. Liquefied Natural Gas: Global Challenges (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    U.S. imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 2007 were more than triple the 2000 total, and they are expected to grow in the long term as North Americas conventional natural gas production declines. With U.S. dependence on LNG imports increasing, competitive forces in the international markets for natural gas in general and LNG in particular will play a larger role in shaping the U.S. market for LNG. Key factors currently shaping the future of the global LNG market include the evolution of project economics, worldwide demand for natural gas, government policies that affect the development and use of natural resources in countries with LNG facilities, and changes in seasonal patterns of LNG trade.

  2. AEO2012 Preliminary Assumptions: Oil and Gas Supply

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3 Oil and Gas Supply Working Group Meeting Office of Petroleum, Gas, and Biofuels Analysis ... for Annual Energy Outlook 2013: Oil and Gas Working Group Overview 2 Office of ...

  3. Electricity Plant Cost Uncertainties (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Construction costs for new power plants have increased at an extraordinary rate over the past several years. One study, published in mid-2008, reported that construction costs had more than doubled since 2000, with most of the increase occurring since 2005. Construction costs have increased for plants of all types, including coal, nuclear, natural gas, and wind.

  4. Summary of Second AEO 2014 Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... EIA would only have a single release that year. 6. A participant wanted to know if the 1% annual growth in electricity demand throughout the forecast incorporated demand response. ...

  5. Multi-Pollutant Legislation and Regulations (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The 108th Congress proposed and debated a variety of bills addressing pollution control at electric power plants but did not pass any of them into law. In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently is preparing two regulations-a proposed Clean Air Interstate Rule (pCAIR) and a Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR)-to address emissions from coal-fired power plants. Several states also have taken legislative actions to limit pollutants from power plants in their jurisdictions. This section discusses three Congressional air pollution bills and the EPA's pCAIR and CAMR regulations.

  6. Federal Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized two regulations, the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule CAMR, that would reduce emissions from coal-fired power plants in the United States. Both CAIR and CAMR are included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case. The EPA has received 11 petitions for reconsideration of CAIR and has provided an opportunity for public comment on reconsidering certain aspects of CAIR. Public comments were accepted until January 13, 2006. The EPA has also received 14 petitions for reconsideration of CAMR and is willing to reconsider certain aspects of the rule. Public comments were accepted for 45 days after publication of the reconsideration notice in the Federal Register. Several states and organizations have filed lawsuits against CAMR. The ultimate decision of the courts will have a significant impact on the implementation of CAMR.

  7. Clean Air Mercury Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    On February 8, 2008, a three-judge panel on the D.C. Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals issued a decision to vacate the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). In its ruling, the panel cited the history of hazardous air pollutant regulation under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Section 112, as written by Congress, listed emitted mercury as a hazardous air pollutant that must be subject to regulation unless it can be proved harmless to public welfare and the environment. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that mercury was indeed hazardous and must be regulated under Section 112 and, therefore, subjected to the best available control technology for mitigation.

  8. Distributed Generation in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Currently, distributed generation provides a very small share of residential and commercial electricity requirements in the United States. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case projects a significant increase in electricity generation in the buildings sector, but distributed generation is expected to remain a small contributor to the sectors energy needs. Although the advent of higher energy prices or more rapid improvement in technology could increase the use of distributed generation relative to the reference case projection, the vast majority of electricity used in buildings is projected to continue to be purchased from the grid.

  9. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  10. Updated State Air Emissions Regulations (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a program that includes 10 Northeast states that have agreed to curtail and reverse growth in their carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The RGGI program includes all electricity generating units with a capacity of at least 25 megawatts and requires an allowance for each ton of CO2 emitted. The first year of mandatory compliance was in 2009.

  11. Energy Policy Act 2005 Summary (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. House of Representatives passed H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, on April 21, 2005, and the Senate passed H.R. 6 EAS on June 28, 2005. A conference committee was convened to resolve differences between the two bills, and a report was approved and issued on July 27, 2005. The House approved the conference report on July 28, 2005, and the Senate followed on July 29, 2005. EPACT2005 was signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, and became Public Law 109-058.

  12. Restricted Natural Gas Supply Case (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The restricted natural gas supply case provides an analysis of the energy-economic implications of a scenario in which future gas supply is significantly more constrained than assumed in the reference case. Future natural gas supply conditions could be constrained because of problems with the construction and operation of large new energy projects, and because the future rate of technological progress could be significantly lower than the historical rate. Although the restricted natural gas supply case represents a plausible set of constraints on future natural gas supply, it is not intended to represent what is likely to happen in the future.

  13. No Sunset and Extended Policies Cases (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Reference case is best described as a current laws and regulations case, because it generally assumes that existing laws and fully promulgated regulations will remain unchanged throughout the projection period, unless the legislation establishing them specifically calls for them to end or change. The Reference case often serves as a starting point for the analysis of proposed legislative or regulatory changes, a task that would be difficult if the Reference case included projected legislative or regulatory changes.

  14. Federal Fuels Taxes and Tax Credits (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Provides a review and update of the handling of federal fuels taxes and tax credits, focusing primarily on areas for which regulations have changed or the handling of taxes or credits has been updated in Annual Energy Outlook 2009.

  15. Liquid Fuels Taxes and Credits (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Provides a review of the treatment of federal fuels taxes and tax credits in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

  16. EPACT2005 Loan Guarantee Program (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Title XVII of the Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPACT) authorized the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue loan guarantees for projects involving new or improved technologies to avoid, reduce, or sequester greenhouse gases (GHGs). The law specified that the amount of the guarantee would be up to 80% of a project's cost. EPACT2005 also specified that DOE must receive funds equal to the subsidy cost either through the federal appropriations process or from the firm receiving the guarantee. As discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2007, this program, by lowering borrowing costs, can have a major impact on the economics of capital-intensive technologies.

  17. American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 was signed into law on October 22, 2004. Most of the 650 pages of the Act are related to tax legislation. Provisions pertaining to energy are detailed in this analysis.

  18. AEO2013 Early Release Base Overnight Project Technological Total...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1.08 1.04 2,059 6.66 31.23 7,525 7,493 Conv Comb Turbine 8 2014 85 2 910 1.05 1.00 956 15.18 7.21 10,850 10,450 Adv Comb Turbine 2014 210 2 632 1.05 1.00 664 10.19 6.92 9,750 ...

  19. New NHTSA CAFE Standards (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    EISA2007 requires the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to raise the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for passenger cars and light trucks to ensure that the average tested fuel economy of the combined fleet of all new passenger cars and light trucks sold in the United States in model year (MY) 2020 equals or exceeds 35 mpg, 34% above the current fleet average of 26.4 mpg. Pursuant to this legislation, NHTSA recently proposed revised CAFE standards that substantially increase the minimum fuel economy requirements for passenger cars and light trucks for MY 2011 through MY 2015.

  20. Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    On February 9, 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its MSAT2 rule, which will establish controls on gasoline, passenger vehicles, and portable fuel containers. The controls are designed to reduce emissions of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants. Benzene is a known carcinogen, and the EPA estimates that mobile sources produced more than 70% of all benzene emissions in 1999. Other mobile source air toxics, including 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and naphthalene, also are thought to increase cancer rates or contribute to other serious health problems.

  1. Workshop on Biofuels Projections in AEO Attendance List

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Schremp California Energy Commission Anthony Shen Stifel Daniel Sinks Phillips 66 Russ Smith U.S. EPA Wyatt Thompson FAPRI-MU Paul Trupo USDA Lisa Twedt USDA - Foreign Agricultural ...

  2. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2013 Data Tables

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table 55.2. Electric Power Projections by Electricity Market Module Region - Florida Reliability Coordinating Council XLS Table 55.3. Electric Power Projections by Electricity...

  3. EIA - Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2013 Data Tables

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3,405 3,901 4,133 4,041 2000's 8,829 8,050 10,938 10,551 7,292 7,223 15,647 16,102 46,437 43,953 2010's 44,470 44,836 46,069 53,679 64,072 67,144

    Drivers of Future Energy Demand in China Asian Energy Demand Outlook 2014 EIA Energy Conference July 14, 2014 Valerie J. Karplus MIT Sloan School of Management 2 www.china.org.cn www.flickr.com www.wikimedia.org globalchange.mit.edu Global Climate Change Human

  4. Buildings Working Group Meeting AEO2016 Preliminary Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Federal standards and ENERGY STAR specifications * Sector drivers - Fuel prices - Weather - Commercial floorspace * Distributed generation * Residential and commercial ...

  5. Electricity Prices in Transition (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The push by some states to restructure electricity markets progressed rapidly throughout the late 1990s. Although the energy crisis in California during 2000 and 2001 slowed the momentum, 19 states and the District of Columbia currently have some form of restructuring in place. In addition, Washington State, which has not restructured its electricity market, allows its largest industrial customers to choose their suppliers.

  6. Tax Credits and Renewable Generation (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Tax incentives have been an important factor in the growth of renewable generation over the past decade, and they could continue to be important in the future. The Energy Tax Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-618) established ITCs for wind, and EPACT92 established the Renewable Electricity Production Credit (more commonly called the PTC) as an incentive to promote certain kinds of renewable generation beyond wind on the basis of production levels. Specifically, the PTC provided an inflation-adjusted tax credit of 1.5 cents per kilowatthour for generation sold from qualifying facilities during the first 10 years of operation. The credit was available initially to wind plants and facilities that used closed-loop biomass fuels and were placed in service after passage of the Act and before June 1999.

  7. Clean Air Interstate Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is a cap-and-trade program promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency in 2005, covering 28 eastern U.S. states and the District of Columbia. It was designed to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions in order to help states meet their National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5) and to further emissions reductions already achieved through the Acid Rain Program and the NOx State Implementation Plan call program. The rule was set to commence in 2009 for seasonal and annual NOx emissions and in 2010 for SO2 emissions.

  8. Clean Air Nonroad Diesel Rule (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On June 29, 2004, the Environmental Protection Agency issued a comprehensive final rule regulating emissions from nonroad diesel engines and sulfur content in nonroad diesel fuel. The nonroad fuel market makes up more than 18% of the total distillate pool. The rule applies to new equipment covering a broad range of engine sizes, power ratings, and equipment types. There are currently about 6 million pieces of nonroad equipment operating in the United States, and more than 650,000 new units are sold each year.

  9. Overview of Levelized Cost of Energy in the AEO

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Presented to the EIA Energy Conference June 17, 2013 Chris Namovicz Assessing the Economic Value of New Utility-Scale Renewable Generation Projects Overview * Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) has been used by planners, analysts, policymakers, advocates and others to assess the economic competitiveness of technology options in the electric power sector * While of limited usefulness in the analysis of "conventional" utility systems, this approach is not generally appropriate when

  10. Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) 2006 - Supplemental Tables - All Tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Tables describing regional energy consumption and prices by sector; residential, commercial, and industrial demand sector data; transportation demand sector; electricity and renewable fuel; and petroleum, natural gas, and coal data.

  11. Alaskan Natural Gas Pipeline Developments (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2007 reference case projects that an Alaska natural gas pipeline will go into operation in 2018, based on the Energy Information Administration's current understanding of the projects time line and economics. There is continuing debate, however, about the physical configuration and the ownership of the pipeline. In addition, the issue of Alaskas oil and natural gas production taxes has been raised, in the context of a current market environment characterized by rising construction costs and falling natural gas prices. If rates of return on investment by producers are reduced to unacceptable levels, or if the project faces significant delays, other sources of natural gas, such as unconventional natural gas production and liquefied natural gas imports, could fulfill the demand that otherwise would be served by an Alaska pipeline.

  12. Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

  13. Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

  14. World Oil Price Cases (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    World oil prices in Annual Energy Outlook 2005 are set in an environment where the members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are assumed to act as the dominant producers, with lower production costs than other supply regions or countries. Non-OPEC oil producers are assumed to behave competitively, producing as much oil as they can profitability extract at the market price for oil. As a result, the OPEC member countries will be able effectively to set the price of oil when they can act in concert by varying their aggregate production. Alternatively, OPEC members could target a fixed level of production and let the world market determine the price.

  15. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  16. Climate Stewardship Act of 2004 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Climate Stewardship Act of 2004 would establish a system of tradable allowances to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The bill includes requirements for mandatory emissions reporting by covered entities and for voluntary reporting of emissions reduction activities by noncovered entities; a national greenhouse gas database and registry of reductions; and a research program on climate change and related activities.

  17. Workshop on Biofuels Projections in AEO Presenters Biographies

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Prior to his service at DOE, Howard was Senior Staff Economist at the Council of Economic ... of biofuels, the national Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), the California Low Carbon Fuel ...

  18. AEO2014 - Legislation and Regulations articles - U.S. Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and diesel fuel sold. There are four interrelated requirements, for cellulosic biofuels, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuels, and total renewable fuels. State renewable...

  19. Second AEO2016 Buildings Sector Workingb Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Paul Holtberg Team Leader, Analysis Integration Team James Turnure Director, Office of ... expectation of lower electricity and natural gas prices; the substitution of ...

  20. Microsoft Word - Final AEO2007 Commercial Doc.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the State Energy Data System (SEDS) historical commercial sector consumption, applying an additive correction term to ensure that simulated model results correspond to published...

  1. Microsoft Word - Final Industrial Documentation AEO2008 _6-12...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    factors are multiplicative for all fuels which have values greater than zero and are additive otherwise. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) - - - max...

  2. AEO 2015 Electricity, Coal, Nuclear and Renewables Preliminary...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    arrangements for coal plants upon expiration - ... - Retire Intermountain plant in 2025 * California ... power sector natural gas-fired generation is lower in ...

  3. Summary of AEO2015 Renewable Electricity Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... approach than basing costs on one plant. A participant noted that perhaps the ... Biomass generation is less under the CPP as more coal-fired plants are retired so there are ...

  4. Second AEO2014 Buildings Sector Working Group Meeting

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Stephanie (IMT) Carmichael, Robert (Navigant) Carroll, Ryan (Alliance for Green Heat) Chase, Alex (Energy Solutions) Cogan, Jonathan (EIA OC) Conti, John (EIA OEA) Cureg, Edgardo ...

  5. First AEO2014 Buildings Sector Working Group Meeting Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Stephanie (IMT) Carmichael, Robert (Navigant) Carroll, Ryan (Alliance for Green Heat) Chase, Alex (Energy Solutions) Cogan, Jonathan (EIA OC) Conti, John (EIA OEA) Cureg, Edgardo ...

  6. First AEO2014 Transportation Working Group Meeting Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    JOHN CONTI ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR ENERGY ANALYSIS PAUL HOLTBERG TEAM LEADER ... by Phone: Walter Gazda (DOTVOLPE) Kevin Green (DOTVOLPE) John VanSchalkwyk (DOTVOLPE) ...

  7. Second AEO2014 Macro-Industrial Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Peri Ulrey (Natural Gas Supply Association) Frances Wood (OnLocation) Presenters: Kay Smith, Elizabeth Sendich (Macro) Kelly Perl, Peter Gross, Susan Hicks, Paul Otis, Mark ...

  8. Second AEO2016 Macro-Induistrial Working Group Meeting summary

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Frances Wood (OnLocation) Presenters: Kay Smith, Elizabeth Sendich (Macro) Kelly Perl, ... Also, Elizabeth Sendich and Kay Smith of the macro team met with members of the American ...

  9. Second AEO2015 Macro-Industrial Workiing Group Meeting Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Peri Ulrey (Natural Gas Supply Association) Frances Wood (On Location) Presenters: Kay Smith, Elizabeth Sendich (Macro) Kelly Perl, Mark Schipper, Peter Gross, Susan Hicks, Paul ...

  10. Summary of AEO2016 Electricity Working Group Meeting held on...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... co-firing natural gas at higher --40-60%-- rates.). Compliance with Cross State Air Pollution rule (CSAPR): A participant asked if EIA planned to model scenarios for the CSAPR ...

  11. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    from shale plays is higher than in AEO2013 because of an updated, more localized assessment of well recovery and decline rates. Natural gas from tight formations continues to...

  12. Level Diagram Format Choice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Which format should I use? There is no clear-cut answer to this question -- different solutions work better in different situations. In an effort to help you decide which will work best for you, we provide a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the three available formats. GIF: GIF stands for Graphic Interchange Format. It was developed by CompuServe as a device-independent way to store pictures. The files are well-compressed, so download time is relatively short. Most web browsers

  13. Sparse Image Format

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-04-12

    The Sparse Image Format (SIF) is a file format for storing spare raster images. It works by breaking an image down into tiles. Space is savid by only storing non-uniform tiles, i.e. tiles with at least two different pixel values. If a tile is completely uniform, its common pixel value is stored instead of the complete tile raster. The software is a library in the C language used for manipulating files in SIF format. Itmore » supports large files (> 2GB) and is designed to build in Windows and Linux environments.« less

  14. I/O Formats

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formats I/O Formats Software I/O continues to be one of the main bottlenecks for scientific applications. Here are two software packages that many application developers use to manage input/output of heterogeneous types of binary application data used on many different platforms. HDF5 and NETCDF are both implemented on top of MPI-IO and have gained popularity as alternatives to basic POSIX API. HDF5 is a machine-independent and self-documenting file format. Each HDF5 file "looks" like

  15. Inhibition of star formation in Sa galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pompea, S.M.; Rieke, G.H. )

    1989-07-01

    Only 4 percent of Sas in the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog with B(T) less than 12 have an infrared luminosity greater than 10 to the 10th solar. This proportion is about one-sixth of the corresponding one for Sbs and Scs. Although the infrared luminosities of most Sa galaxies are dominated by disk emission, the same trend appears in the incidence of nuclear starbursts. IRAS measurements indicate that no more than three Sas out of the entire RSA sample of 166 galaxies have nuclear starbursts that cannot be associated with interactions or active nuclei. Plots of H I fluxes do not strongly correlate with infrared fluxes. Similarly, for at least the infrared selected Sas, the trend of IR flux with CO flux is similar to that of later type spiral galaxies. This would imply that molecular cloud formation is inhibited in Sas, leading to the lack of infrared activity. 38 refs.

  16. formatting | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formatting Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(88) Contributor 7 August, 2013 - 18:23 New Robust References citation citing developer formatting reference Semantic Mediawiki...

  17. Gaussian entanglement of formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.

    2004-05-01

    We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.

  18. Analysis methods for fast impurity ion dynamics data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Residential/Commercial Buildings AEO2016 Meetings First AEO2016 Meeting (December 8, 2015) Summary of meeting Presentation Second AEO2016 Meeting (February 18, 2016) Summary of meeting Presentation AEO2015 Meetings First AEO2015 Meeting (August 7, 2014) Summary of meeting Presentation AEO2014 Meetings First AEO2014 Meeting (July 22, 2013) Summary of meeting Presentation Second AEO2014 Meeting (September 26, 2013) Summary of meeting Presentation AEO2013 Meetings First AEO2013 Assumptions Meeting

  19. Long gamma-ray bursts trace the star formation history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-04-10

    We show that if the broad-line supernova explosions of Type Ic (SNeIc) produce the bulk of the observed long duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), including high- and low-luminosity LGRBs and X-ray flashes, and if the LGRBs have the geometry assumed in the cannonball model of LGRBs, then their rate, measured by Swift, and their redshift distribution are consistent with the star formation rate (SFR) over the entire range of redshifts where the SFR has been measured with sufficient accuracy.

  20. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  1. Tribal Utility Formation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Tribal Utility Formation in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory Ken Johnston Acting Tribal Affairs Manager BPA TRIBAL AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT JULY 2015 B O N N E V I L L E P O W E R A D M I N I S T R A T I O N 2 The Basics  BPA markets power from 31 Federal dams, the Columbia Generating Station Nuclear Plant, and several small non- Federal power plants  About 80% of the power BPA sells is hydroelectric  BPA accounts for about

  2. Delayed star formation in isolated dwarf galaxies: Hubble space telescope star formation history of the Aquarius dwarf irregular

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Andrew A.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Leaman, Ryan E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu E-mail: abrooks@physics.rutgers.edu

    2014-11-01

    We have obtained deep images of the highly isolated (d = 1 Mpc) Aquarius dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 210) with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaches more than a magnitude below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, allowing us to derive the star formation history (SFH) over the entire lifetime of the galaxy with a timing precision of ?10% of the lookback time. Using a maximum likelihood fit to the CMD we find that only ?10% of all star formation in Aquarius took place more than 10 Gyr ago (lookback time equivalent to redshift z ? 2). The star formation rate increased dramatically ?6-8 Gyr ago (z ? 0.7-1.1) and then declined until the present time. The only known galaxy with a more extreme confirmed delay in star formation is Leo A, a galaxy of similar M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}, dynamical mass, mean metallicity, and degree of isolation. The delayed stellar mass growth in these galaxies does not track the mean dark matter accretion rate from CDM simulations. The similarities between Leo A and Aquarius suggest that if gas is not removed from dwarf galaxies by interactions or feedback, it can linger for several gigayears without cooling in sufficient quantity to form stars efficiently. We discuss possible causes for the delay in star formation including suppression by reionization and late-time mergers. We find reasonable agreement between our measured SFHs and select cosmological simulations of isolated dwarfs. Because star formation and merger processes are both stochastic in nature, delayed star formation in various degrees is predicted to be a characteristic (but not a universal) feature of isolated small galaxies.

  3. Process for the reconstruction of three-dimensional images of an area of interest of an object comprising the combination of measurements over the entire object with measurements of an area of interest of said object, and appropriate installation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Azevedo, Stephen; Grangeat, Pierre; Rizo, Philippe

    1995-01-01

    Process and installation making it possible to reconstitute precise images of an area of interest (2) of an object (1) by reducing the errors produced by the contribution of the compliment of the object. A first series of measurements is carried out, where a conical beam (10) only takes in the area of interest of the object (2) and this is followed by a second series of measurements in which the beam takes in the entire object. A combination of the measurements of the two series is carried out in order to make them compatible and obtain a more accurate image of the area of interest (2).

  4. Help:Formatting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it in two single quotes like ''this'' Contents 1 Text formatting markup 2 Paragraphs 3 HTML 4 Other formatting Text formatting markup Description You type You get character...

  5. Chemical structure of vanadium-based contact formation on n-AlN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pookpanratana, S.; France, R.; Blum, M.; Bell, A.; Bar, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Zhang, Y.; Hofmann, T.; Fuchs, O.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.; Mulcahy, S.; Moustakas, T. D.; Heske, Clemens

    2010-05-17

    We have investigated the chemical interaction between a Au/V/Al/V layer structure and n-type AlN epilayers using soft x-ray photoemission, x-ray emission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. To understand the complex processes involved in this multicomponent system, we have studied the interface before and after a rapid thermal annealing step. We find the formation of a number of chemical phases at the interface, including VN, metallic vanadium, aluminum oxide, and metallic gold. An interaction mechanism for metal contact formation on the entire n-(Al,Ga)N system is proposed.

  6. Formatting PDFs for the Web

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    After you've created or have a PDF, follow these steps to format it according to Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) standards.

  7. Analysis & Projections - Pub - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ResidentialCommercial Buildings AEO2016 Meetings First AEO2016 Meeting (December 8, 2015) Summary of meeting Presentation Second AEO2016 Meeting (February 18, 2016) Summary of ...

  8. Analysis & Projections - Pub - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquid Fuels Markets AEO2016 Meetings First AEO2016 Meeting (November 19, 2015) Summary of meeting Presentation Second AEO2016 Meeting (February 24, 2016) Summary of meeting ...

  9. Analysis & Projections - Pub - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity AEO2016 Meetings First AEO2016 Meeting (December 8, 2015) Summary of meeting Presentation Second AEO2016 Meeting (February 10, 2016) Summary of meeting Presentation ...

  10. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  11. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Analysis & Projections - Pub - U.S. Energy Information Administration...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil and Natural Gas AEO2016 Meetings First AEO2016 Meeting (December 15, 2015) Summary of meeting Oil and Gas presentation AEO2015 Meetings First AEO2015 Meeting (August 7, 2014) ...

  13. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  14. Inductively coupled plasmareactive ion etching of c- and a-plane AlGaN over the entire Al composition range: Effect of BCl{sub 3} pretreatment in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasma chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Amit P.; Laskar, Masihhur R.; Azizur Rahman, A.; Gokhale, Maheshwar R.; Bhattacharya, Arnab

    2013-11-15

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP)reactive ion etching (RIE) patterning is a standard processing step for UV and optical photonic devices based on III-nitride materials. There is little research on ICP-RIE of high Al-content AlGaN alloys and for nonpolar nitride orientations. The authors present a comprehensive study of the ICP-RIE of c- and a-plane AlGaN in Cl{sub 2}/Ar plasma over the entire Al composition range. The authors find that the etch rate decreases in general with increasing Al content, with different behavior for c- and a-plane AlGaN. They also study the effect of BCl{sub 3} deoxidizing plasma pretreatment. An ICP deoxidizing BCl{sub 3} plasma with the addition of argon is more efficient in removal of surface oxides from Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N than RIE alone. These experiments show that Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N etching is affected by the higher binding energy of AlN and the higher affinity of oxygen to aluminum compared to gallium, with oxides on a-plane AlGaN more difficult to etch as compared to oxides on c-plane AlGaN, specifically for high Al composition materials. The authors achieve reasonably high etch rate (?350 nm/min) for high Al-content materials with a smooth surface morphology at a low DC bias of ??45 VDC.

  15. Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation and Transformation via Liquid Cell TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigating Processes of Nanocrystal Formation...

  16. Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation Title Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation Publication Type Journal Article Year of...

  17. The EPRDATA Format: A Dialogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, III, Henry Grady

    2015-08-18

    Recently the Los Alamos Nuclear Data Team has communicated certain issues of concern in relation to the new electron/photon/relaxation ACE data format as released in the eprdata12 library. In this document those issues are parsed, analyzed, and answered.

  18. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  19. On spontaneous formation of current sheets: Untwisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States); Low, B. C.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This is a study of the spontaneous formation of electric current sheets in an incompressible viscous fluid with perfect electrical conductivity, governed by the magnetohydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical solutions to two initial value problems are presented for a three-dimensional, periodic, untwisted magnetic field evolving, with no change in magnetic topology under the frozen-in condition and at characteristic fluid Reynolds numbers of the order of 500, from a nonequilibrium initial state with the fluid at rest. The evolution converts magnetic free energy into kinetic energy to be all dissipated away by viscosity so that the field settles into a minimum-energy, static equilibrium. The solutions demonstrate that, as a consequence of the frozen-in condition, current sheets must form during the evolution despite the geometric simplicity of the prescribed initial fields. In addition to the current sheets associated with magnetic neutral points and field reversal layers, other sheets not associated with such magnetic features are also in evidence. These current sheets form on magnetic flux surfaces. This property is used to achieve a high degree of the frozen-in condition in the simulations, by describing the magnetic field entirely in terms of the advection of its flux surfaces and integrating the resulting governing equations with a customized version of a general-purpose high-resolution (viz., nonoscillatory) hydrodynamical simulation code EULAG [J. M. Prusa et al., Comput. Fluids 37, 1193 (2008)]. Incompressibility imposes the additional global constraint that the flux surfaces must evolve with no change in the spatial volumes they enclose. In this approach, current sheet formation is demonstrated graphically by the progressive pressing together of suitably selected flux surfaces until their separation has diminished below the minimal resolved distance on a fixed grid. The frozen-in condition then fails in the simulation as the field reconnects through

  20. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  2. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  3. THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.

    2015-02-01

    A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.

  4. Formation of tough composite joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brun, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    Joints which exhibit tough fracture behavior were formed in a composite with a Si/SiC matrix reinforced with Textron SCS-6 fibers with either boron nitride or silicon nitride fiber coatings. In composites with BN coatings fibers were aligned uniaxially, while composites with Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-coated fibers had a 0/90{degree} architecture. Lapped joints (joints with overlapping fingers) were necessary to obtain tough behavior. Geometrical requirements necessary to avoid brittle joint failure have been proposed. Joints with a simple overlap geometry (only a few fingers) would have to be very long in order to prevent brittle failure. Typical failure in these joints is caused by a crack propagating along the interfaces between the joint fingers. Joints of the same overall length, but with geometry changed to be symmetric about the joint centerline and with an extra shear surface exhibited tough fractures accompanied with extensive fiber pullout. The initial matrix cracking of these joints was relatively low because cracks propagated easily through the ends of the fingers. Joints with an optimized stepped sawtooth geometry produced composite-like failures with the stress/strain curves containing an elastic region followed by a region of rising stress with an increase of strain. Increasing the fiber/matrix interfacial strength from 9 to 25 MPa, by changing the fiber coating, increased matrix cracking and ultimate strength of the composite significantly. The best joints had matrix cracking stress and ultimate strength of 138 and 240 MPa, respectively. Joint failure was preceded by multiple matrix cracking in the entire composite. The high strength of the joints will permit building of structures containing joints with only a minor reduction of design stresses.

  5. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  6. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  7. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  8. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  9. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  11. BAR FORMATION FROM GALAXY FLYBYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, Meagan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sinha, Manodeep E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2014-08-01

    Recently, both simulations and observations have revealed that flybysfast, one-time interactions between two galaxy halosare surprisingly common, nearing/comparable to galaxy mergers. Since these are rapid, transient events with the closest approach well outside the galaxy disk, it is unclear if flybys can transform the galaxy in a lasting way. We conduct collisionless N-body simulations of three coplanar flyby interactions between pure-disk galaxies to take a first look at the effects flybys have on disk structure, with particular focus on stellar bar formation. We find that some flybys are capable of inciting a bar with bars forming in both galaxies during our 1:1 interaction and in the secondary during our 10:1 interaction. The bars formed have ellipticities ? 0.5, sizes on the order of the host disk's scale length, and persist to the end of our simulations, ?5Gyr after pericenter. The ability of flybys to incite bar formation implies that many processes associated with secular bar evolution may be more closely tied with interactions than previously thought.

  12. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  13. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  14. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  15. Theoretical investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct current argon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikia, P. Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. K.

    2014-03-15

    In this study the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct-current (DC) argon plasma is theoretically investigated. By coupling fluid equations with Poisons equation for such multi-component plasma, the Mach number and amplitude of the soliton are determined following pseudo potential method. Addition of hydrogen in argon discharge leads to the decrease of electron, Ar{sup +} ion density while a reverse trend was observed for ArH{sup +} and hydrogen like ions. It was found that presence of hydrogen like ions in argon plasma affects the formation of soliton with its amplitude significantly decreases as concentration of hydrogen increases. On the other hand, increase in ion to electron temperature ratios of the lighter ions in the discharge also has a significant influence on the amplitude and formation of soliton. The inverse relation between solitons width and amplitude is found to be consistent for the entire range of study.

  16. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Formation of thin walled ceramic solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Claar, Terry D.; Busch, Donald E.; Picciolo, John J.

    1989-01-01

    To reduce thermal stress and improve bonding in a high temperature monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), intermediate layers are provided between the SOFC's electrodes and electrolyte which are of different compositions. The intermediate layers are comprised of a blend of some of the materials used in the electrode and electrolyte compositions. Particle size is controlled to reduce problems involving differential shrinkage rates of the various layers when the entire structure is fired at a single temperature, while pore formers are provided in the electrolyte layers to be removed during firing for the formation of desired pores in the electrode layers. Each layer includes a binder in the form of a thermosetting acrylic which during initial processing is cured to provide a self-supporting structure with the ceramic components in the green state. A self-supporting corrugated structure is thus formed prior to firing, which the organic components of the binder and plasticizer removed during firing to provide a high strength, high temperature resistant ceramic structure of low weight and density.

  18. A HYBRID SCENARIO FOR THE FORMATION OF BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Shantanu; Vorobyov, Eduard I. E-mail: eduard.vorobiev@univie.ac.at

    2012-05-01

    We present a calculation of protostellar disk formation and evolution in which gaseous clumps (essentially, the first Larson cores formed via disk fragmentation) are ejected from the disk during the early stage of evolution. This is a universal process related to the phenomenon of ejection in multiple systems of point masses. However, it occurs in our model entirely due to the interaction of compact, gravitationally bound gaseous clumps and is free from the smoothing-length uncertainty that is characteristic of models using sink particles. Clumps that survive ejection span a mass range of 0.08-0.35 M{sub Sun }, and have ejection velocities 0.8 {+-} 0.35 km s{sup -1}, which are several times greater than the escape speed. We suggest that, upon contraction, these clumps can form substellar or low-mass stellar objects with notable disks, or even close-separation very low mass binaries. In this hybrid scenario, allowing for ejection of clumps rather than finished protostars/proto-brown-dwarfs, disk formation and the low velocity dispersion of low-mass objects are naturally explained, while it is also consistent with the observation of isolated low-mass clumps that are ejection products. We conclude that clump ejection and the formation of isolated low-mass stellar and substellar objects is a common occurrence, with important implications for understanding the initial mass function, the brown dwarf desert, and the formation of stars in all environments and epochs.

  19. Shocks and star formation in Stephan's Quintet. I. Gemini spectroscopy of H?-bright knots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Cluver, M. E.; Appleton, P. N.; Guillard, P.; Trancho, G.; Bastian, N.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Gallagher, S. C.; Smith, L. J.; Struck, C. J.

    2014-03-20

    We present a Gemini-GMOS spectroscopic study of Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-selected H?-emitting regions in Stephan's Quintet (HCG 92), a nearby compact galaxy group, with the aim of disentangling the processes of shock-induced heating and star formation in its intra-group medium. The ?40 sources are distributed across the system, but most densely concentrated in the ?kiloparsec-long shock region. Their spectra neatly divide them into narrow- and broad-line emitters, and we decompose the latter into three or more emission peaks corresponding to spatial elements discernible in HST imaging. The emission-line ratios of the two populations of H?-emitters confirm their nature as H II regions (90% of the sample) or molecular gas heated by a shock front propagating at ?300 km s{sup 1}. Their redshift distribution reveals interesting three-dimensional structure with respect to gas-phase baryons, with no H II regions associated with shocked gas, no shocked regions in the intruder galaxy NGC 7318B, and a sharp boundary between shocks and star formation. We conclude that star formation is inhibited substantially, if not entirely, in the shock region. Attributing those H II regions projected against the shock to the intruder, we find a lopsided distribution of star formation in this galaxy, reminiscent of pileup regions in models of interacting galaxies. The H? luminosities imply mass outputs, star formation rates, and efficiencies similar to nearby star-forming regions. Two large knots are an exception to this, being comparable in stellar output to the prolific 30 Doradus region. We also examine Stephan's Quintet in the context of compact galaxy group evolution, as a paradigm for intermittent star formation histories in the presence of a rich, X-ray-emitting intra-group medium. All spectra are provided as supplemental materials.

  20. The ACS LCID project. X. the star formation history of IC 1613: Revisiting the over-cooling problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es E-mail: carme@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, Va Lctea s and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of a field near the half-light radius in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-off, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ?1 Gyr. Our analysis shows that the SFH of the observed field in IC 1613 is consistent with being constant over the entire lifetime of the galaxy. These observations rule out an early dominant episode of star formation in IC 1613. We compare the SFH of IC 1613 with expectations from cosmological models. Since most of the mass is in place at early times for low-mass halos, a naive expectation is that most of the star formation should have taken place at early times. Models in which star formation follows mass accretion result in too many stars formed early and gas mass fractions that are too low today (the 'over-cooling problem'). The depth of the present photometry of IC 1613 shows that, at a resolution of ?1 Gyr, the star formation rate is consistent with being constant, at even the earliest times, which is difficult to achieve in models where star formation follows mass assembly.

  1. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  2. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael; Zhang, Etuan; Marino, Marian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Ryan, Robert Charles; Beer, Gary Lee; Dombrowski, Robert James; Jaiswal, Namit

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  4. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation PDF icon RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents & Publications REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING ...

  5. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer ... that only a sub-monolayer amount of hydrogen adsorption on the topmost layer results ...

  6. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  7. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  8. Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Formation Testing Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0)...

  9. Format requirements of thermal neutron scattering data in a nuclear data format to succeed the ENDF format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.

    2014-03-31

    In November 2012, the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup 38 (WPEC-SG38) began with the task of developing a nuclear data format and supporting infrastructure to replace the now nearly 50 year old ENDF format. The first step in this process is to develop requirements for the new format and infrastructure. In this talk, I will review the status of ENDF's Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) formats as well as support for this data in the GND format (from which the new format is expected to evolve). Finally, I hope to begin a dialog with members of the thermal neutron scattering community so that their data needs can be accurately and easily accommodated by the new format and tools, as captured by the requirements document. During this discussion, we must keep in mind that the new tools and format must; Support what is in existing data files; Support new things we want to put in data files; and Be flexible enough for us to adapt it to future unanticipated challenges.

  10. Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    H.R. 4837, The Military Construction Appropriations and Emergency Hurricane Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2005, was signed into law on October 13, 2004. The Act provides for construction to support the operations of the U.S. Armed Forces and for military family housing. It also provides funds to help citizens in Florida and elsewhere in the aftermath of multiple hurricanes and other natural disasters. In addition, it authorizes construction of an Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline.

  11. Miscellaneous Electricity Services in the Buildings Sector (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Residential and commercial electricity consumption for miscellaneous services has grown significantly in recent years and currently accounts for more electricity use than any single major end-use service in either sector (including space heating, space cooling, water heating, and lighting). In the residential sector, a proliferation of consumer electronics and information technology equipment has driven much of the growth. In the commercial sector, telecommunications and network equipment and new advances in medical imaging have contributed to recent growth in miscellaneous electricity use.

  12. New EPA Guidelines for Review of Surface Coal Mining Operations in Appalachia (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    On April 1, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a set of new guidelines to several of its Regional offices regarding the compliance of surface coal mining operations in Appalachia with the provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the National Environmental Policy Act, and the environmental justice Executive Order (E.O. 12898). The stated purpose of the guidance was to explain more fully the approach that the EPA will be following in permit reviews, and to provide additional assurance that its Regional offices use clear, consistent, and science-based standards in reviewing the permits. Although the new guidelines go into effect immediately, they will be subjected to review both by the public and by the EPA's Science Advisory Board, with a set of final guidelines to be issued no later than April 1, 2011.

  13. U.S. Nuclear Power Plants: Continued Life or Replacement After 60? (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants generate approximately 20% of U.S. electricity, and the plants in operation today are often seen as attractive assets in the current environment of uncertainty about future fossil fuel prices, high construction costs for new power plants (particularly nuclear plants), and the potential enactment of greenhouse gas regulations. Existing nuclear power plants have low fuel costs and relatively high power output. However, there is uncertainty about how long they will be allowed to continue operating.

  14. AEO2011: World Total Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Flows By Importing Regions and Exporting Countries This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report...

  15. FE LNG Exports-v1-aeo2014_8_29_14.xlsx

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf Alt 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf baseline 12 Bcf 16 Bcf 20 Bcf NATURAL GAS VOLUMES (Tcf) Net Exports 3.6 5.1 6.1 7.0 6.3 4.9 4.9 5.9 6.8 1.8 4.1 5.0 5.8 3.3 5.0 6.0 7.0 3.2 5.0 6.0 7.0 gross imports 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 gross exports 5.8 7.5 8.5 9.3 8.6 7.3 7.4 8.3 9.2 4.4 7.0 8.0 8.9 5.6 7.4 8.4 9.3 5.5 7.4 8.4 9.3 Dry Production 32.5

  16. Price Responsiveness in the AEO2003 NEMS Residential and Commercial Buildings Sector Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the demand responses to changes in energy prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2003 versions of the Residential and Commercial Demand Modules of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). It updates a similar paper completed for the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 version of the NEMS.

  17. State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2006 (Update) (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency published two final rules aimed at reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) requires 28 states and the District of Columbia to reduce emissions of SO2 and/or NOx. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) requires the states to reduce emissions of mercury from new and existing coal-fired plants.

  18. State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  19. Update on State Air Emission Regulations That Affect Electric Power Producers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    Several states have recently enacted air emission regulations that will affect the electricity generation sector. The regulations are intended to improve air quality in the states and assist them in complying with the revised 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ground-level ozone and fine particulates. The affected states include Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington. The regulations govern emissions of NOx, SO2, CO2, and mercury from power plants.

  20. Loan Guarantee Program Established in EPACT2005 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Title XVII of EPACT2005 [20] authorized the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue loan guarantees to new or improved technology projects that avoid, reduce, or sequester greenhouse gases. In 2006, DOE issued its first solicitation for $4 billion in loan guarantees for non-nuclear technologies. The issue of the size of the program was addressed subsequently in the Consolidated Appropriation Act of 2008 (the FY08 Appropriations Act) passed in December 2008, which limited future solicitations to $38.5 billion and stated that authority to make the guarantees would end on September 30, 2009. The legislation also allocated the $38.5 billion cap as follows: $18.5 billion for nuclear plants; $6 billion for CCS technologies; $2 billion for advanced coal gasification units; $2 billion for advanced nuclear facilities for the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle; and $10 billion for renewable, conservation, distributed energy, and transmission/ distribution technologies. DOE also was required to submit all future solicitations to both the House and Senate Appropriations Committees for approval.

  1. Advanced Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental concern in projecting the future attributes of light-duty vehicles-passenger cars, sport utility vehicles, pickup trucks, and minivans-is how to represent technological change and the market forces that drive it. There is always considerable uncertainty about the evolution of existing technologies, what new technologies might emerge, and how consumer preferences might influence the direction of change. Most of the new and emerging technologies expected to affect the performance and fuel use of light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years are represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS); however, the potential emergence of new, unforeseen technologies makes it impossible to address all the technology options that could come into play. The previous section of Issues in Focus discussed several potential technologies that currently are not represented in NEMS. This section discusses some of the key technologies represented in NEMS that are expected to be implemented in light-duty vehicles over the next 25 years.

  2. Maximum Achievable Control Technology for New Industrial Boilers (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    As part of Clean Air Act 90 (CAAA90, the EPA on February 26, 2004, issued a final rulethe National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) to reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from industrial, commercial, and institutional boilers and process heaters. The rule requires industrial boilers and process heaters to meet limits on HAP emissions to comply with a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) floor level of control that is the minimum level such sources must meet to comply with the rule. The major HAPs to be reduced are hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, and nickel. The EPA predicts that the boiler MACT rule will reduce those HAP emissions from existing sources by about 59,000 tons per year in 2005.

  3. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  4. Regulation of Emissions from Stationary Diesel Engines (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    On July 11, 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued regulations covering emissions from stationary diesel engines New Source Performance Standards that limit emissions of NOx, particulate matter, SO2, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons to the same levels required for nonroad diesel engines. The regulation affects new, modified, and reconstructed diesel engines. Beginning with model year 2007, engine manufacturers must specify that new engines less than 3,000 horsepower meet the same emissions standard as nonroad diesel engines. For engines greater than 3,000 horsepower, the standard will be fully effective in 2011. Stationary diesel engine fuel will also be subject to the same standard as nonroad diesel engine fuel, which reduces the sulfur content of the fuel to 500 parts per million by mid-2007 and 15 parts per million by mid-2010.

  5. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In July 2002, California Assembly Bill 1493 (A.B. 1493) was signed into law. The law requires that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) develop and adopt, by January 1, 2005, greenhouse gas emission standards for light-duty vehicles that provide the maximum feasible reduction in emissions. In estimating the feasibility of the standard, CARB is required to consider cost-effectiveness, technological capability, economic impacts, and flexibility for manufacturers in meeting the standard.

  6. Production Tax Credit for Renewable Electricity Generation (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, environmental and energy security concerns were addressed at the federal level by several key pieces of energy legislation. Among them, the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), P.L. 95-617, required regulated power utilities to purchase alternative electricity generation from qualified generating facilities, including small-scale renewable generators; and the Investment Tax Credit (ITC), P.L. 95-618, part of the Energy Tax Act of 1978, provided a 10% federal tax credit on new investment in capital-intensive wind and solar generation technologies.

  7. Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008: Summary of Provisions (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (Public Law 110-343), which was signed into law on October 3, 2008, incorporates EIEA2008 in Division B. Provisions in EIEA2008 that require funding appropriations to be implemented, whose impact is highly uncertain or that require further specification by federal agencies or Congress, are not included in Annual Energy Outlook 2009.

  8. Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

  9. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update Through 2005 (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook 2005 provided a summary of 17 state renewable energy programs in existence as of December 31, 2003, in 15 states.

  10. Volumetric Excise Tax Credit for Alternative Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On August 10, 2005, President Bush signed into law the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, and Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)]. The act includes authorization for a multitude of transportation infrastructure projects, establishes highway safety provisions, provides for research and development, and includes a large number of miscellaneous provisions related to transportation, most of which are not included in Annual Energy Outlook 2006 because their energy impacts are vague or undefined.

  11. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  12. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update Through 2003 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    As of the end of 2003, 15 states had legislated programs to encourage the development of renewable energy for electricity generation. Of the 17 programs (two states have multiple programs), 9 are renewable portfolio standards (RPS), 4 are renewable energy mandates, and 4 are renewable energy goals.

  13. Impacts of Temperature Variation on Energy Demand in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In the residential and commercial sectors, heating and cooling account for more than 40% of end-use energy demand. As a result, energy consumption in those sectors can vary significantly from year to year, depending on yearly average temperatures.

  14. Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

  15. 13 SEER Standard for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    In January 2004, after years of litigation in a case that pitted environmental groups and Attorneys General from 10 states against the U.S. Secretary of Energy, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reestablished the central air conditioner and heat pump standard originally set in January 200. The Courts ruling, which struck down a May 2002 rollback of the 2001 standard to a 12 Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) mandates that all new central air conditioners and heat pumps meet a 13 SEER standard by January 2006, requiring a 30% increase in efficiency relative to current law. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case incorporates the 13 SEER standard as mandated by the Courts ruling.

  16. Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40% of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, the Energy Information Administration has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. The Annual Energy Outlook 2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

  17. Impacts of Rising Construction and Equipment Costs on Energy Industries (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Costs related to the construction industry have been volatile in recent years. Some of the volatility may be related to higher energy prices. Prices for iron and steel, cement, and concrete -- commodities used heavily in the construction of new energy projects -- rose sharply from 2004 to 2006, and shortages have been reported. How such price fluctuations may affect the cost or pace of new development in the energy industries is not known with any certainty, and short-term changes in commodity prices are not accounted for in the 25-year projections in Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Most projects in the energy industries require long planning and construction lead times, which can lessen the impacts of short-term trends.

  18. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update through 2008 (Update) (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    State renewable portfolio standards (RPS) programs continue to play an important role in Annual Energy Outlook 2009, growing in number while existing programs are modified with more stringent targets. In total, 28 states and the District of Columbia now have mandatory RPS programs, and at least 4 other states have voluntary renewable energy programs. In the absence of a federal renewable electricity standard, each state determines its own levels of generation, eligible technologies, and noncompliance penalties. The growth in state renewable energy requirements has led to an expansion of renewable energy credit (REC) markets, which vary from state to state. Credit prices depend on the state renewable requirements and how easily they can be met.

  19. Impacts of Uncertainty in Energy Project Costs (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    From the late 1970s through 2002, steel, cement, and concrete prices followed a general downward trend. Since then, however, iron and steel prices have increased by 8% in 2003, 10% in 2004, and 31% in 2005. Although iron and steel prices declined in 2006, early data for 2007 show another increase. Cement and concrete prices, as well as the composite cost index for all construction commodities, have shown similar trends but with smaller increases in 2004 and 2005.

  20. Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004 (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    The Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004 was signed into law on October 13, 2004. Primarily, the Act reduces taxes for individuals and businesses. At least two provisions relate to energy: Depletion of marginal properties and qualified vehicles.

  1. State Regulations on Airborne Emissions: Update Through 2007 (Update) (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    States are moving forward with implementation plans for the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). The program, promulgated by the EPA in March 2005, is a cap-and-trade system designed to reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx. States originally had until March 2007 to submit implementation plans, but the deadline has been extended by another year. CAIR covers 28 eastern states and the District of Columbia. States have the option to participate in the cap-and trade plan or devise their own plans, which can be more stringent than the federal requirements. To date, no state has indicated an intent to form NOx and SO2 programs with emissions limits stricter than those in CAIR, and it is expected that all states will participate in the Environmental Protection Agency administered cap-and-trade program. CAIR remains on schedule for implementation, and Annual Energy Outlook 2008 includes CAIR by assuming that all required states will meet only the federal requirement and will trade credits.

  2. Natural Gas as a Fuel for Heavy Trucks: Issues and Incentives (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Environmental and energy security concerns related to petroleum use for transportation fuels, together with recent growth in U.S. proved reserves and technically recoverable natural gas resources, including shale gas, have sparked interest in policy proposals aimed at stimulating increased use of natural gas as a vehicle fuel, particularly for heavy trucks.

  3. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Summary of Provisions (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), signed into law in mid-February 2009, provides significant new federal funding, loan guarantees, and tax credits to stimulate investments in energy efficiency and renewable energy. The provisions of ARRA were incorporated initially as part of a revision to the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference case that was released in April 2009, and they also are included in Annual Energy Outlook 2010.

  4. Bringing Alaska North Slope Natural Gas to Market (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    At least three alternatives have been proposed over the years for bringing sizable volumes of natural gas from Alaska's remote North Slope to market in the lower 48 states: a pipeline interconnecting with the existing pipeline system in central Alberta, Canada; a gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant on the North Slope; and a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facility at Valdez, Alaska. The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) explicitly models the pipeline and GTL options. The what if LNG option is not modeled in NEMS.

  5. State Renewable Energy Requirements and Goals: Update Through 2006 (Update) (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Annual Energy Outlook 2006 provided a review of renewable energy programs that were in effect in 23 states at the end of 2005. Since then (as of September 1, 2006), no new state programs have been adopted; however, several states with renewable energy programs in place have made changes as they have gained experience and identified areas for improvement. Revisions made over the past year range from clarification or modification of program definitions, such as which resources qualify, to substantial increases in targets for renewable electricity generation or capacity. The following paragraphs provide an overview of substantive changes in the design or implementation of state renewable energy programs.

  6. AEO2011_Newell_SENR_Testimony_2 03_11final revised

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... China alone accounts for 78 percent of the total net ... trends; current laws and regulations; and consumer behavior. ... and other State environmental rules; and (4) updates ...

  7. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  8. California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards for Light-Duty Vehicles (Update) (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The state of California was given authority under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) to set emissions standards for light-duty vehicles that exceed federal standards. In addition, other states that do not comply with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set by the Environmental Protection Agency under CAAA90 were given the option to adopt Californias light-duty vehicle emissions standards in order to achieve air quality compliance. CAAA90 specifically identifies hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and NOx as vehicle-related air pollutants that can be regulated. California has led the nation in developing stricter vehicle emissions standards, and other states have adopted the California standards.

  9. Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

  10. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas intensity by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame. For the purposes of the initiative, greenhouse gas intensity is defined as the ratio of total U.S. greenhouse gas emissions to economic output.

  11. U.S. Greenhouse Gas Intensity and the Global Climate Change Initiative (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On February 14, 2002, President Bush announced the Administrations Global Climate Change Initiative. A key goal of the Climate Change Initiative is to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity-defined as the ratio of total U.S. GHG emissions to economic output-by 18% over the 2002 to 2012 time frame.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

  13. Biofuels in the U.S. Transportation Sector (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Sustained high world oil prices and the passage of the Energy Policy Act 2005 (EPACT) have encouraged the use of agriculture-based ethanol and biodiesel in the transportation sector; however, both the continued growth of the biofuels industry and the long-term market potential for biofuels depend on the resolution of critical issues that influence the supply of and demand for biofuels. For each of the major biofuelscorn-based ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, and biodieselresolution of technical, economic, and regulatory issues remains critical to further development of biofuels in the United States.

  14. Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 requires that the use of renewable motor fuels be increased from the 2004 level of just over 4 billion gallons to a minimum of 7.5 billion gallons in 2012, after which the requirement grows at a rate equal to the growth of the gasoline pool. The law does not require that every gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel be blended with renewable fuels. Refiners are free to use renewable fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, in geographic regions and fuel formulations that make the most sense, as long as they meet the overall standard. Conventional gasoline and diesel can be blended with renewables without any change to the petroleum components, although fuels used in areas with air quality problems are likely to require adjustment to the base gasoline or diesel fuel if they are to be blended with renewables.

  15. Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

  16. Loan Guarantees and the Economics of Electricity Generating Technologies (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    The loan guarantee program authorized in Title XVII of EPACT2005 is not included in the Annual Energy Outlook 2007, because the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 requires congressional authorization of loan guarantees in an appropriations act before a federal agency can make a binding loan guarantee agreement. As of October 2006, Congress had not provided the legislation necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to implement the loan guarantee program (see Legislation and Regulations). In August 2006, however, DOE invited firms to submit pre-applications for the first $2 billion in potential loan guarantees.

  17. Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

  18. Proposed Revisions to Light Truck Fuel Economy Standard (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    In August 2005, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published proposed reforms to the structure of CAFE standards for light trucks and increases in light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model years 2008 through 201. Under the proposed new structure, NHTSA would establish minimum fuel economy levels for six size categories defined by the vehicle footprint (wheelbase multiplied by track width), as summarized in Table 3. For model years 2008 through 2010, the new CAFE standards would provide manufacturers the option of complying with either the standards defined for each individual footprint category or a proposed average light truck fleet standard of 22.5 miles per gallon in 2008, 23.1 miles per gallon in 2009, and 23.5 miles per gallon in 2010. All light truck manufacturers would be required to meet an overall standard based on sales within each individual footprint category after model year 2010.

  19. Update to industrial drivers in the AEO2015 as a result of new...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. 6 Resins For ... visible in the smaller difference in the green lines in Figure 3. Agricultural chemicals ...

  20. Second AEO2-015 Liquid Fuels Markets Working Group Meeting Summary

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Adrian Geagla, David Manowitz, Beth May Seth Meyer (USDA) Austin Brown (NREL) Robert Smith (US DOE) Ben Salisbury (FBR) Attending by Phone: Jarrett Whistance (FAPRI, University ...

  1. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  2. A general protocol for restoration of entire river catchments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, J.A.; Frissell, C.A.; Ward, J.V.; Coutant, C.C.; Williams, R.N.; Lichatowich, J.A.

    1996-05-28

    Large catchment basins may be viewed as ecosystems with interactive natural and cultural attributes. Stream regulation severs ecological connectivity between channels and flood plains by reducing the range of natural flow and temperature variation, reduces the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain native biodiversity and bioproduction and promotes proliferation of non-native biota. However, regulated rivers regain normative attributes, which promote recovery of native biota, as distance from the dam increases and in relation to the mode of regulation. Therefore, reregulation of flow and temperature to normative pattern, coupled with elimination of pollutants and constrainment of nonnative biota, can naturally restore damaged habitats from headwaters to mouth. The expectation is rapid recovery of depressed populations of native species. The protocol requires: restoration of seasonal temperature patterns; restoration of peak flows needed to reconnect and periodically reconfigure channel and floodplain habitats; stabilization of base flows to revitalize the shallow water habitats; maximization of dam passage to allow restoration of metapopulation structure; change in the management belief system to rely on natural habitat restoration as opposed to artificial propagation, installation of artificial instream structures (river engineering) and artificial food web control; and, practice of adaptive ecosystem management.

  3. Title Geology of the Great Basin. Copyright Issue Entire Book

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Fiero, B. 101084 Document Date 1186 Document Type Book ERC Index number 05.09.128 Box Number 1672-1 Recipients Unversity of Nevada Reno Press ADI " Geology of the Great...

  4. UNSCOM faces entirely new verification challenges in Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevan, T.

    1993-04-01

    Starting with the very first declarations and inspections, it became evident that Iraq was not acting in good faith, would use every possible pretext to reinterpret UNSCOM's inspection rights, and occasionally would use harassment tactics to make inspections as difficult as possible. Topics considered in detail include; initial assumptions, outstanding issues, and UNSCOM's future attitude.

  5. Research at NNSA sites spans the entire electromagnetic spectrum...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    a human hair to cheaply and quickly remove salt from water and pollution from the air. ... Heavy water molecule When deuterium, a non-radioactive isotope of tritium with a neutron ...

  6. TOC Mod 233-Entire Modification_signed.pdf

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

  7. Rapid HIFU autofocusing using the entire MR-ARFI image

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grissom, William A.; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts; Zur, Yuval; Yeo, Desmond; Medan, Yoav; Davis, Cynthia

    2012-11-28

    Phase aberrations and attenuations caused by bone can defocus HIFU in the brain and organs behind the ribcage. To refocus the beam, MR-ARFI can be used to measure tissue displacements created by each element in the transducer, and optimize driving signal delays and amplitudes. We introduce a new MR-ARFI-based autofocusing method that requires many fewer image acquisitions than current methods. The method is validated in simulations of bone and brain HIFU transducers, and compared to a conventional method.

  8. Method for laser drilling subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1976-08-31

    Laser drilling of subterranean earth formations is efficiently accomplished by directing a collimated laser beam into a bore hole in registry with the earth formation and transversely directing the laser beam into the earth formation with a suitable reflector. In accordance with the present invention, the bore hole is highly pressurized with a gas so that as the laser beam penetrates the earth formation the high pressure gas forces the fluids resulting from the drilling operation into fissures and pores surrounding the laser-drilled bore so as to inhibit deleterious occlusion of the laser beam. Also, the laser beam may be dynamically programmed with some time dependent wave form, e.g., pulsed, to thermally shock the earth formation for forming or enlarging fluid-receiving fissures in the bore.

  9. Photogeneration of active formate decomposition catalysts to produce hydrogen from formate and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Jr., Allen D.; King, Robert B.; Sailers, III, Earl L.

    1983-02-08

    A process for producing hydrogen from formate and water by photogenerating an active formate decomposition catalyst from transition metal carbonyl precursor catalysts at relatively low temperatures and otherwise mild conditions is disclosed. Additionally, this process may be expanded to include the generation of formate from carbon monoxide and hydroxide such that the result is the water gas shift reaction.

  10. Macrofossils of Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thrasher, L.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Results of this study of the macrofossils of the Bakken Formation in North Dakota have reinforced the suggestion, based on previous paleontological work in Saskatchewan, that the Bakken is of both Devonian and Mississippian age, rather than being entirely of Lower Mississippian age as originally considered. Increased drilling and coring activity in the North Dakota part of the Williston Basin has provided the opportunity for acquiring a larger fauna that was previously available. Based on lithologic character, the Bakken has been divided into three informal members. These consist of a calcareous siltstone unit between two lithologically similar units of carbonaceous shale. These black shales contain similar faunas distinct from that of the middle member. The black shales contain inarticulate brachiopods, conchostracans, and rare cephalopods and fish remains as well as more abundant conodonts, ostracods, and palynomorphs. The middle siltstone unit contains a more abundant and diverse fauna consisting of inarticulate and articulate brachiopods together with corals, gastropods, cephalopods, ostracods, echinoderm remains, and trace fossils. This is the first report of cephalopods, conchostracans, ostracods, corals, trace fossils, and some of the brachiopods in the Bakken, although all, except the gastropods, have been reported from stratigraphic equivalents (Exshaw Formation of south-central Montana, the Leatham Formation of northeastern Utah, and the middle member of the Pilot Shale in western Utah and eastern Nevada).

  11. Magnetic fields and galactic star formation rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loo, Sven Van; Tan, Jonathan C.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2015-02-10

    The regulation of galactic-scale star formation rates (SFRs) is a basic problem for theories of galaxy formation and evolution: which processes are responsible for making observed star formation rates so inefficient compared to maximal rates of gas content divided by dynamical timescale? Here we study the effect of magnetic fields of different strengths on the evolution of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a kiloparsec patch of a disk galaxy and resolving scales down to ?0.5 pc. Including an empirically motivated prescription for star formation from dense gas (n{sub H}>10{sup 5} cm{sup ?3}) at an efficiency of 2% per local free-fall time, we derive the amount of suppression of star formation by magnetic fields compared to the nonmagnetized case. We find GMC fragmentation, dense clump formation, and SFR can be significantly affected by the inclusion of magnetic fields, especially in our strongest investigated B-field case of 80 ?G. However, our chosen kiloparsec-scale region, extracted from a global galaxy simulation, happens to contain a starbursting cloud complex that is only modestly affected by these magnetic fields and likely requires internal star formation feedback to regulate its SFR.

  12. Carbon nanotube formation by laser direct writing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Su, H.-C.; Tsai, C.-M.; Liu, K.-L.; Chen, G.-D.; Huang, R.-H.; Yew, T.-R.

    2008-07-14

    This letter presents carbon nanotube (CNT) formation by laser direct writing using 248 nm KrF excimer pulsed laser in air at room temperature, which was applied to irradiate amorphous carbon (a-C) assisted by Ni catalysts underneath for the transformation of carbon species into CNTs. The CNTs were synthesized under appropriate combination of laser energy density and a-C thickness. The growth mechanism and key parameters to determine the success of CNT formation were also discussed. The demonstration of the CNT growth by laser direct writing in air at room temperature opens an opportunity of in-position CNT formation at low temperatures.

  13. Help:FormattingResults | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    them, including the format declaration. UL BioPower Atlas and BioFuels Atlas Biomass Energy Data Book CLIMWAT 2.0 CROPWAT 8.0 ... further results ask:Category:Tools...

  14. The NeXus data format

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; et al

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore » for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  15. The NeXus data format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; Osborn, Raymond; Peterson, Peter F.; Richter, Tobias; Suzuki, Jiro; Watts, Benjamin; Wintersberger, Eugen; Wuttke, Joachim

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitions for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.

  16. Resonance formation in photon-photon collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidal, G.

    1988-08-01

    Recent experimental progress on resonance formation in photon-photon collisions is reviewed with particular emphasis on the pseudoscalar and tensor nonents and on the ..gamma gamma..* production of spin-one resonances. 37 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  18. result formats | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    queries developer Google maps maps multicolor result formats results Semantic Mediawiki Hi all, Recently, a couple of people on OpenEI have asked me how to do compound (or...

  19. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  20. Situ microbial plugging process for subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInerney, Michael J.; Jenneman, Gary E.; Knapp, Roy M.; Menzie, Donald E.

    1985-12-17

    Subterranean paths of water flow are impeded or changed by the facilitation of microbial growth therein. Either indigenous bacterial growth may be stimulated with nutrients or the formation may be first seeded with bacteria or their spores which inhibit fluid flow after proliferation. These methods and bacteria are usable to alter the flow of water in a waterflooded oil formation and to impede the outflow of contaminated water.

  1. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Authors: Inoue,

  2. Star formation relations in nearby molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Neal J. II; Heiderman, Amanda; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin

    2014-02-20

    We test some ideas for star formation relations against data on local molecular clouds. On a cloud by cloud basis, the relation between the surface density of star formation rate and surface density of gas divided by a free-fall time, calculated from the mean cloud density, shows no significant correlation. If a crossing time is substituted for the free-fall time, there is even less correlation. Within a cloud, the star formation rate volume and surface densities increase rapidly with the corresponding gas densities, faster than predicted by models using the free-fall time defined from the local density. A model in which the star formation rate depends linearly on the mass of gas above a visual extinction of 8 mag describes the data on these clouds, with very low dispersion. The data on regions of very massive star formation, with improved star formation rates based on free-free emission from ionized gas, also agree with this linear relation.

  3. Conodonts of Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian), Williston basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, M.D.; Holland, F.D. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    The Bakken Formation is a thin (maximum 145 ft, 45 m), clastic unit in the subsurface of Williston basin in the United States and Canada. The Bakken is similar in lithologic character and stratigraphic position to other black shale units deposited on the North American craton during the Late Devonian and Early Mississippian. The Bakken was initially considered entirely Mississippian in age. Paleontologic study of regional physical equivalents and analysis of the macrofauna in Saskatchewan has suggested that the Bakken is actually both Devonian and Mississippian. Conodonts were obtained from cores of the Bakken in an effort to determine the age of the formation in North Dakota and to assess the oil generation potential. Nearly 700 conodonts have been recovered, but are unevenly distributed within the Bakken Formation. A majority was obtained from thin (approximately 0.5 cm), fossil-rich beds within the upper shale. Conodonts from the top of the upper shale reveal a Mississippian (Kinderhookian) age and are here assigned to the Lower Siphonodella crenulata Zone. Only rare, fragmentary conodonts have been found in the middle member. Conodont evidence from the middle of the lower shale suggests a late Devonian (Famennian) age (Upper Polygnathus styriacus Zone) for this member. Conodont color has been established as a geothermometer in carbonate rocks. Color alteration indices of conodonts from the Bakken range from 1.5 to approximately 2.5 and indicate a pattern of increasing temperature with depth. These results suggest possible hydrocarbon generation from shallower depths than has been reported previously for the Bakken. The lack of agreement in interpreted hydrocarbon generation depths may be due to, among other things, the clastic nature of the Bakken Formation.

  4. Elimination of formate production in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rydzak, Thomas; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-07-11

    We study the ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly degrade cellulose and ferment resulting hydrolysis products into ethanol makes it a promising platform organism for cellulosic biofuel production via consolidated bioprocessing. Currently, however, ethanol yield are far below theoretical maximum due to branched product pathways that divert carbon and electrons towards formate, H2, lactate, acetate, and secreted amino acids. To redirect carbon and electron flux away from formate, pyruvate:formate lyase (pfl) and respective PFL-activating enzyme were deleted. Formate production in the resulting Δpfl strain was eliminated and acetate production decreased by 50% on both complex and defined medium. Growth ratemore » of Δpfl decreased by 2.9-fold on defined medium and diauxic growth was observed on complex medium. Supplementation of defined medium with 2 mM formate restored Δpfl growth rate to 80% of the parent strain. Finally, we discuss the role of pfl in metabolic engineering strategies and C1 metabolism.« less

  5. TEMPORAL SELF-ORGANIZATION IN GALAXY FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue

    2014-04-20

    We report on the discovery of a relation between the number of star formation (SF) peaks per unit time, ?{sub peak}, and the size of the temporal smoothing window function, ?t, used to define the peaks: ?{sub peak}??t {sup 1} {sup } {sup ?} (? ? 1.618). This relation holds over the range of ?t = 10-1000Myr that can be reliably computed here, using a large sample of galaxies obtained from a state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. This means that the temporal distribution of SF peaks in galaxies as a population is fractal with a Hausdorff fractal dimension equal to ? 1. This finding reveals, for the first time, that the superficially chaotic process of galaxy formation is underlined by temporal self-organization up to at least one gigayear. It is tempting to suggest that, given the known existence of spatial fractals (such as the power-law two-point function of galaxies), there is a joint spatio-temporal self-organization in galaxy formation. From an observational perspective, it will be urgent to devise diagnostics to probe the SF histories of galaxies with good temporal resolution to facilitate a test of this prediction. If confirmed, it would provide unambiguous evidence for a new picture of galaxy formation that is interaction driven, cooperative, and coherent in and between time and space. Unravelling its origin may hold the key to understanding galaxy formation.

  6. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  7. Inhibition of coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, Y.; Poindexter, M.K.; Rowe, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Coke formation in pyrolysis furnaces, which thermally convert hydrocarbons to ethylene as well as other useful products, adversely affects product yields, causes furnace down time for coke removal, and shortens furnace coil life. A phosphorus-based chemical treatment program was developed to inhibit the coke formation. The anticoking performance of the phosphorus-based treatment program was studied using a bench scale coking rate measurement apparatus. The programs`s influence on coke morphology and reactor surface was addressed using SEM/EDX surface characterization techniques. For comparison, similar studies were carried out with sulfur-containing species which are conventionally used in industrial practice as furnace additives. The present work demonstrated that the phosphorus-based treatment program provided an efficient and durable surface passivation against coke formation.

  8. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee; Mo, Weijian; Li, Busheng; Shen, Chonghui

    2011-01-11

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  9. STAR FORMATION IN TWO LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Ashburn, Allison; Wright, Teresa; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Rubin, Vera C.; Jzsa, Gyula I. G.; Struve, Christian

    2013-10-01

    We examined star formation in two very luminous (M{sub V} = 22 to 23) Sc-type spiral galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, using ultra-deep H? images. We combine these H? images with UBV and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey JHK images and H I maps to explore the star formation characteristics of disk galaxies at high luminosity. H? traces star formation in these galaxies to 4-6 disk scale lengths, but the lack of detection of H? further out is likely due to the loss of Lyman continuum photons. Considering gravitational instabilities alone, we find that the gas and stars in the outer regions are marginally stable in an average sense, but considering dissipative gas and radial and azimuthal forcing, the outer regions are marginally unstable to forming spiral arms. Star formation is taking place in spiral arms, which are regions of locally higher gas densities. Furthermore, we have traced smooth exponential stellar disks over four magnitudes in V-band surface brightness and 4-6 disk scale lengths, in spite of a highly variable gravitational instability parameter. Thus, gravitational instability thresholds do not seem relevant to the stellar disk. One possibility for creating an exponential disk is that the molecular cloud densities and star formation rates have exponential profiles and this fact forces the stellar disk to build up such a profile. Another possibility is that the stellar disk is continuously adjusted to an exponential shape regardless of the star formation profile, for example, through global dynamical processes that scatter stars. However, such scattering processes are only known to operate in spiral systems, in which case they cannot explain the same dilemma of smooth exponential disks observed in dwarf irregular galaxies.

  10. Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation on BaO(001) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Density Functional Theory Study of Surface Carbonate Formation ...

  11. Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Raman and FTIR Studies on Nanostructure Formation on Silicon Carbide ...

  12. Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference ...

  13. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA Format ...

  14. Signals from dark atom formation in halos (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Signals from dark atom formation in halos Prev Next Title: Signals from dark atom formation in halos Authors: Pearce, Lauren ; Petraki, Kalliopi ; Kusenko, Alexander ...

  15. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    formation water, and host rock during deep well injection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host ...

  16. Category:Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Formation Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Formation Testing Techniques page? For detailed...

  17. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

  18. Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution Hybrid Cosmological Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation of Compact Clusters from High Resolution ...

  19. Bowing of the defect formation energy in semiconductor alloys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bowing of the defect formation energy in semiconductor alloys Prev Next Title: Bowing of the defect formation energy in semiconductor alloys Authors: Ma, Jie ; Wei, Su-Huai ...

  20. Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong Bonding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

  1. Formation of Hard Power Laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of Hard Power Laws in the Energetic Particle Spectra Resulting from Relativistic Magnetic Reconnection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Formation of Hard Power ...

  2. The Formation of Pioneer Plant Projects in Chemical Processing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The Formation of Pioneer Plant Projects in Chemical Processing Firms The Formation of Pioneer Plant Projects in Chemical Processing Firms This report should provide DOE and the ...

  3. Tribal Utility Formation Forum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Utility Formation Forum Tribal Utility Formation Forum July 27, 2015 Pueblo Cultural Center 2401 12th St. NW Albuquerque, NM 87104 The 11th in a series of planned U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy-sponsored strategic energy development forums, this Tribal Leader Forum focused on the tribal utility as a structure for long-term economic growth and meeting the needs of tribal communities. The forum gave tribal leaders and staff an opportunity to interact with other Tribes,

  4. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh; Bass, Ronald M.

    2012-04-24

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  5. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  6. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  7. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T.

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  8. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  9. Tail-ion transport and Knudsen layer formation in the presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, P. F.; Molvig, Kim; Nakhleh, C. W.

    2013-11-15

    Knudsen layer losses of tail fuel ions could reduce significantly the fusion reactivity of highly compressed cylindrical and spherical targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the class of magnetized ICF targets in mind, the effect of embedded magnetic fields on Knudsen layer formation is investigated for the first time. The modified energy scaling of ion diffusivity in magnetized hot spots is found to suppress the preferential losses of tail-ions perpendicular to the magnetic field lines to a degree that the tail distribution can be at least partially, if not fully, restored. Two simple threshold conditions are identified leading to the restoration of fusion reactivity in magnetized hot spots. A kinetic equation for tail-ion transport in the presence of a magnetic field is derived, and solutions to the equation are obtained numerically in simulations. Numerical results confirm the validity of the threshold conditions for restored reactivity and identify two different asymptotic regimes of the fusion fuel. While Knudsen layer formation is shown to be suppressed entirely in strongly magnetized cylindrical hot spot cavities, uniformly magnetized spherical cavities demonstrate remnant, albeit reduced, levels of tail-ion depletion.

  10. Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder; Slegeir, William A.; Sapienza, Richard S.; O'Hare, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

  11. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through viscous relaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2014-05-15

    According to Parker's magnetostatic theorem, tangential discontinuities in magnetic field, or current sheets (CSs), are generally unavoidable in an equilibrium magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity and complex magnetic topology. These CSs are due to a failure of a magnetic field in achieving force-balance everywhere and preserving its topology while remaining in a spatially continuous state. A recent work [Kumar, Bhattacharyya, and Smolarkiewicz, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112903 (2013)] demonstrated this CS formation utilizing numerical simulations in terms of the vector magnetic field. The magnetohydrodynamic simulations presented here complement the above work by demonstrating CS formation by employing a novel approach of describing the magnetofluid evolution in terms of magnetic flux surfaces instead of the vector magnetic field. The magnetic flux surfaces being the possible sites on which CSs develop, this approach provides a direct visualization of the CS formation, helpful in understanding the governing dynamics. The simulations confirm development of tangential discontinuities through a favorable contortion of magnetic flux surfaces, as the magnetofluid undergoes a topology-preserving viscous relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state with twisted magnetic field. A crucial finding of this work is in its demonstration of CS formation at spatial locations away from the magnetic nulls.

  12. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  13. ACOUSTIC FORMING FOR ENHANCED DEWATERING AND FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cyrus K Aidun

    2007-11-30

    The next generation of forming elements based on acoustic excitation to increase drainage and enhances formation both with on-line control and profiling capabilities has been investigated in this project. The system can be designed and optimized based on the fundamental experimental and computational analysis and investigation of acoustic waves in a fiber suspension flow and interaction with the forming wire.

  14. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  15. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda

  16. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  17. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  18. Slide 1

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Energy Outlook (AEO) Energy & Electricity Consumption in Buildings Major energy consumers ... Cost-Effective Energy Savings by End Use AEO: Annual Energy Outlook ET: ...

  19. Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 - Abbreviations

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AEO: Annual Energy Outlook AEO2012: Annual Energy Outlook 2012 AFUE: Average Fuel Use Efficiency ANWR: Artic National Wildlife Refuge ARRA2009: American Recovery and...

  20. MEMORANDUM FOR: John Conti Assistant Administrator for Energy...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to the AEO2012 reference case, including coal plant retirements, planned capacity additions ... MATS compliance actions for petroleum- fired generating units for AEO2013. Some ...

  1. WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION FOR DISCUSSION PURPOSES DO NOT QUOTE...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Chemistry Council) Presenters: Kay Smith, Elizabeth Sendich (Macro) Kelly Perl, ... in AEO2013 relative to AEO2012. Kay Smith reminded everybody of the strong influence ...

  2. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  3. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S.

    1987-01-01

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  4. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  5. Nanodot formation induced by femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abere, M. J.; Kang, M.; Goldman, R. S.; Yalisove, S. M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chen, C. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Rittman, D. R. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Phillips, J. D. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, B. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    The femtosecond laser generation of ZnSe nanoscale features on ZnSe surfaces was studied. Irradiation with multiple exposures produces 10100?nm agglomerations of nanocrystalline ZnSe while retaining the original single crystal structure of the underlying material. The structure of these nanodots was verified using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The nanodots continue to grow hours after irradiation through a combination of bulk and surface diffusion. We suggest that in nanodot formation the result of ultrafast laser induced point defect formation is more than an order of magnitude below the ZnSe ultrafast melt threshold fluence. This unique mechanism of point defect injection will be discussed.

  6. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Dickson, Todd Jay

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0.degree. and 80.degree. C. in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  7. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  8. Enthalpy of formation of gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranade, M.R.; Tessier, F.; Navrotsky, A.; Leppert, V.J.; Risbud, S.H.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Balkas, C.M.

    2000-05-04

    A major discrepancy in the literature concerning the enthalpy of formation of GaN has been resolved using oxidative oxide melt solution calorimetry. Four samples of differing nitrogen contents were measured by dropping them into molten 3Na{sub 2}O{center_dot}4MoO{sub 3} in a calorimeter at 975 K with oxygen gas bubbling through the solvent. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy, particle size analysis, and BET measurements. The enthalpy of drop solution (kJ/g) varied approximately linearly with nitrogen content. Extrapolated to stoichiometric GaN, the data yield a value of {minus}156.8 {+-} 16.0 kJ/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation from the elements at 298 K. The relatively large error reflects the deviation of individual points from the straight line rather than uncertainties in each set of data for a given sample. This new directly measured enthalpy of formation is in excellent agreement with that obtained from the temperature dependence of the equilibrium pressure of nitrogen over GaN, {minus}157.7 kJ/mol, measured by Madar et al. and Karpinski and Porowski. This value of {minus}156.8 kJ/mol should replace the commonly tabulated value of {minus}110 kJ/mol determined by Hahn and Juza using combustion calorimetry on an uncharacterized sample over 50 years ago.

  9. Single trip completion of spaced formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vann, R.R.; Brieger, E.F.

    1986-09-23

    A method is described of perforating two spaced-apart formations, which consists of: positioning a first perforating gun in a borehole adjacent to a first formation and a second perforating gun in the borehole adjacent to a second formation; detonating the charges of the first gun to create a pressure shock wave, the pressure shock wave being generated by application of the explosive force from firing the first gun to a movable wall closing one end of a column of fluid; directing the pressure shock wave to means for detonating the charges of the second gun; and detonating the charges of the second gun in response to the pressure shock wave. An apparatus is described for completing a well, comprising; first perforating means for perforating one portion of the well; second perforating means for perforating another portion of the well; means for transmitting a fluid pulse upon detonation of the first perforating means; and means for receiving the fluid pulse to actuate the detonation of the second perforating means.

  10. Fluvial sedimentology and basin analyses of the Permian Fairchild and Buckley formations, Beardmore Glacier region, and the Weller Coal Measures, southern Victoria Land, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isbell, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Beardmore Glacier region contains a 1-km-thick Permian fluvial sequence that was deposited in an elongate basin along the margin of the East Antarctica craton. Fluvial architecture, sandstone composition and paleocurrents within the basin record a change from an early Permian cratonic to a late Permian foreland basin. The Lower Permian Fairchild Formation consists entirely of overlapping channel-form sandstone bodies deposited by braided streams. Arkosic sandstone was deposited by SE flowing streams. Fairchild strata record slow subsidence within a broad cratonic basin. The Lower to Upper Permian Buckley Formation consists of an arkosic lower member and a volcaniclastic upper member. Paleocurrents which consist of transverse and longitudinal paleocurrents, suggest a cratonward migration of the basin axis through time. The Buckley Formation was deposited within a braided stream setting and is an important unit because it contains interstratified channel-sandstone sheets, shale and coal, along with evidence of channel-belt avulsions. Sandstone sheets predominate at the base of the formation, while flood-plain deposits thicken and increase in abundance upward. The interaction between fluvial processes and subsidence rates produced this alluvial stratigraphy. The Lower Permian Weller Coal Measures in southern Victoria Land were deposited within a narrow basin located cratonward of the foreland basin. Basin geometry and depositional patterns are similar to those of fault-bounded basins. Although basin formation is not constrained, deposition of the Weller was contemporaneous with the development of the foreland basin. This suggests a relationship between subsidence within the two basins.

  11. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  12. RAPID DUST FORMATION IN NOVAE: THE SPEED CLASSFORMATION TIMESCALE CORRELATION EXPLAINED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Evans, A.; Zubko, V.; Shafter, A. W.

    2013-11-10

    Observations show that the time of onset of dust formation in classical novae depends strongly on their speed class, with dust typically taking longer to form in slower novae. Using empirical relationships between speed class, luminosity and ejection velocity, it can be shown that dust formation timescale is expected to be essentially independent of speed class. However, following a nova outburst the spectrum of the central hot source evolves, with an increasing proportion of the radiation being emitted short-ward of the Lyman limit. The rate at which the spectrum evolves also depends on the speed class. We have therefore refined the simple model by assuming photons at energies higher than the Lyman limit are absorbed by neutral hydrogen gas internal to the dust formation sites, therefore preventing these photons reaching the nucleation sites. With this refinement the dust formation timescale is theoretically dependent on speed class and the results of our theoretical modification agree well with the observational data. We consider two types of carbon-based dust, graphite and amorphous carbon, with both types producing similar relationships. Our results can be used to predict when dust will form in a nova of a given speed class and hence when observations should optimally be taken to detect the onset of dust formation.

  13. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  14. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  15. Method For Screening Microcrystallizations For Crystal Formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santarsiero, Bernard D. , Stevens, Raymond C. , Schultz, Peter G. , Jaklevic, Joseph M. , Yegian, Derek T. , Cornell, Earl W. , Nordmeyer, Robert A.

    2003-10-07

    A method is provided for performing array microcrystallizations to determine suitable crystallization conditions for a molecule, the method comprising: forming an array of microcrystallizations, each microcrystallization comprising a drop comprising a mother liquor solution whose composition varies within the array and a molecule to be crystallized, the drop having a volume of less than 1 microliter; storing the array of microcrystallizations under conditions suitable for molecule crystals to form in the drops in the array; and detecting molecule crystal formation in the drops by taking images of the drops.

  16. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  17. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2015-07-21

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  18. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-01-06

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  19. Interoperability format translation and transformation between IFC architectural design file and simulation file formats

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Tian-Jy; Kim, Younghun

    2015-02-03

    Automatically translating a building architecture file format (Industry Foundation Class) to a simulation file, in one aspect, may extract data and metadata used by a target simulation tool from a building architecture file. Interoperability data objects may be created and the extracted data is stored in the interoperability data objects. A model translation procedure may be prepared to identify a mapping from a Model View Definition to a translation and transformation function. The extracted data may be transformed using the data stored in the interoperability data objects, an input Model View Definition template, and the translation and transformation function to convert the extracted data to correct geometric values needed for a target simulation file format used by the target simulation tool. The simulation file in the target simulation file format may be generated.

  20. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  1. Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Upper Bound on the First Star Formation History You are accessing a document from the ...

  2. OSTIblog Articles in the Green River Formation Topic | OSTI,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Green River Formation Topic Out of the past and into the future by Kathy Chambers 17 May, ... The Green River Formation in the United States records 6 million years of Eocene ...

  3. On the Lack of Evolution in Galaxy Star Formation Efficiency...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    On the Lack of Evolution in Galaxy Star Formation Efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On the Lack of Evolution in Galaxy Star Formation Efficiency You are ...

  4. An amorphous phase formation at palladium / silicon oxide (Pd...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An amorphous phase formation at palladium silicon oxide (PdSiOsub x) interface ... Title: An amorphous phase formation at palladium silicon oxide (PdSiOsub x) interface ...

  5. A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation Click to email this to a friend (Opens ... A Nano Surface Icephobic Coating Delays Ice Formation Azar Alizadeh 2012.03.08 Hi folks, ...

  6. Spontaneous Formation of a Nonuniform Chiral Spin Liquid in a...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spontaneous Formation of a Nonuniform Chiral Spin Liquid in a Moat-Band Lattice Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spontaneous Formation of a Nonuniform Chiral Spin Liquid ...

  7. Signals from dark atom formation in halos (Journal Article) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Signals from dark atom formation in halos Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signals from dark atom formation in halos ...

  8. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between ...

  9. Age of the Coso Formation Inyo County California | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Coso indicates that the Coso Formation contains strata at least as old as 6.0 m.y. (million years) and no younger than 2.5 m.y. Within the Coso Formation, Blancan fossils...

  10. REVISITING JOVIAN-RESONANCE INDUCED CHONDRULE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagasawa, M.; Tanaka, K. K.; Tanaka, H.; Nakamoto, T.; Miura, H.; Yamamoto, T.

    2014-10-10

    It is proposed that planetesimals perturbed by Jovian mean-motion resonances are the source of shock waves that form chondrules. It is considered that this shock-induced chondrule formation requires the velocity of the planetesimal relative to the gas disk to be on the order of ? 7 km s{sup 1} at 1AU. In previous studies on planetesimal excitation, the effects of Jovian mean-motion resonance together with the gas drag were investigated, but the velocities obtained were at most 8 km s{sup 1} in the asteroid belt, which is insufficient to account for the ubiquitous existence of chondrules. In this paper, we reexamine the effect of Jovian resonances and take into account the secular resonance in the asteroid belt caused by the gravity of the gas disk. We find that the velocities relative to the gas disk of planetesimals a few hundred kilometers in size exceed 12 km s{sup 1}, and that this is achieved around the 3:1 mean-motion resonance. The heating region is restricted to a relatively narrowband between 1.5AU and 3.5AU. Our results suggest that chondrules were produced effectively in the asteroid region after Jovian formation. We also find that many planetesimals are scattered far beyond Neptune. Our findings can explain the presence of crystalline silicate in comets if the scattered planetesimals include silicate dust processed by shock heating.

  11. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  12. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-03-31

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  13. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

  14. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  15. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  16. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

  17. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.

  18. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate wettability. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

  19. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Imbibition in an originally oil-wet 2D capillary is the fastest in the case of Alf-38 and slowest in the case of DTAB (among the surfactants studied). Force of adhesion studies and contact angle measurements show that greater wettability alteration is possible with these anionic surfactants than the cationic surfactant studied. The water imbibition rate does not increase monotonically with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  20. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

  1. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  2. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-04-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

  3. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  4. The plate is not available in electronic format

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    The plate is not available in electronic format. Please email lm.records@lm.doe.gov to request the plate.

  5. 17β-Estradiol regulates cell proliferation, colony formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APOPTOSIS; CARCINOMAS; CELL PROLIFERATION; COLONY FORMATION; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; DOSES; ESTRADIOL; LUNGS; METASTASES; ...

  6. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT RCC Workplan PDF EN FR.PDF (67.81 KB) More Documents & Publications REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL: Annual Workplan for Energy Efficiency Standards, July 2016 REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL: Annual Workplan for Energy Efficiency Standards REGULATORY PARTNERSHIP STATEMENT

  7. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  8. THE 'NESSIE' NEBULA: CLUSTER FORMATION IN A FILAMENTARY INFRARED DARK CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, James M.; Finn, Susanna C.; Chambers, Edward T.; Rathborne, Jill M.; Simon, Robert E-mail: sfinn@bu.ed E-mail: rathborn@das.uchile.c

    2010-08-20

    The 'Nessie' Nebula is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) with a large aspect ratio of over 150:1 (1.{sup 0}5 x 0.{sup 0}01 or 80 pc x 0.5 pc at a kinematic distance of 3.1 kpc). Maps of HNC (1-0) emission, a tracer of dense molecular gas, made with the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra telescope, show an excellent morphological match to the mid-IR extinction. Moreover, because the molecular line emission from the entire nebula has the same radial velocity to within {+-}3.4 km s{sup -1}, the nebula is a single, coherent cloud and not the chance alignment of multiple unrelated clouds along the line of sight. The Nessie Nebula contains a number of compact, dense molecular cores which have a characteristic projected spacing of {approx}4.5 pc along the filament. The theory of gravitationally bound gaseous cylinders predicts the existence of such cores, which, due to the 'sausage' or 'varicose' fluid instability, fragment from the cylinder at a characteristic length scale. If turbulent pressure dominates over thermal pressure in Nessie, then the observed core spacing matches theoretical predictions. We speculate that the formation of high-mass stars and massive star clusters arises from the fragmentation of filamentary IRDCs caused by the 'sausage' fluid instability that leads to the formation of massive, dense molecular cores. The filamentary molecular gas clouds often found near high-mass star-forming regions (e.g., Orion, NGC 6334, etc.) may represent a later stage of IRDC evolution.

  9. Formation of nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Contolini, Robert J.; Musket, Ronald G.; Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device. The process enables the formation of high aspect ratio, electroplated nanofilament structure devices for field emission displays wherein a via is formed in a dielectric layer and is self-aligned to a via in the gate metal structure on top of the dielectric layer. The desired diameter of the via in the dielectric layer is on the order of 50-200 nm, with an aspect ratio of 5-10. In one embodiment, after forming the via in the dielectric layer, the gate metal is passivated, after which a plating enhancement layer is deposited in the bottom of the via, where necessary. The nanofilament is then electroplated in the via, followed by removal of the gate passification layer, etch back of the dielectric, and sharpening of the nanofilament. A hard mask layer may be deposited on top of the gate metal and removed following electroplating of the nanofilament.

  10. Mental Representations Formed From Educational Website Formats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizabeth T. Cady; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Tuan Q. Tran; Bernardo de la Garza; Peter D. Elgin

    2006-10-01

    The increasing popularity of web-based distance education places high demand on distance educators to format web pages to facilitate learning. However, limited guidelines exist regarding appropriate writing styles for web-based distance education. This study investigated the effect of four different writing styles on readers mental representation of hypertext. Participants studied hypertext written in one of four web-writing styles (e.g., concise, scannable, objective, and combined) and were then administered a cued association task intended to measure their mental representations of the hypertext. It is hypothesized that the scannable and combined styles will bias readers to scan rather than elaborately read, which may result in less dense mental representations (as identified through Pathfinder analysis) relative to the objective and concise writing styles. Further, the use of more descriptors in the objective writing style will lead to better integration of ideas and more dense mental representations than the concise writing style.

  11. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  12. Formation of Plasmoid Chains in Magnetic Reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samtaney, R.; Loureiro, N. F.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.

    2009-09-09

    A detailed numerical study of magnetic reconnection in resistive MHD for very large, previously inaccessible, Lundquist numbers (104 ≤ S ≤ 108) is reported. Large-aspect-ratio Sweet-Parker current sheets are shown to be unstable to super-Alfvenically fast formation of plasmoid (magnetic-island) chains. The plasmoid number scales as S3/8 and the instability growth rate in the linear stage as S1/4, in agreement with the theory by Loureiro et al. [Phys. Plasmas 14, 100703 (2007)]. In the nonlinear regime, plasmoids continue to grow faster than they are ejected and completely disrupt the reconnection layer. These results suggest that high-Lundquist-number reconnection is inherently time-dependent and hence call for a substantial revision of the standard Sweet-Parker quasistationary picture for S>104.

  13. Formate brines -- New fluids for drilling and completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, M.S.; Shipp, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The term ``formate brines`` refers broadly to three primary compounds dissolved in water -- sodium formate (NaCOOH), potassium formate (KCOOH) and cesium formate (CsCOOH). Each is chemically classified as an alkali-metal salt of formic acid. They offer properties that in many respects are superior to their predecessors, halide brines such as zinc bromide and calcium bromide, without the undesirable side effects of those more common halide brine systems. This article introduces the technology and provides an overview of published work to date regarding formates.

  14. Observations of solute effects on bubble formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmeier, U.; Yaminsky, V.V.; Christenson, H.K.

    1995-09-01

    The authors have studied the effects of solute, in particular aqueous electrolyte, on bubble formation at capillary orifices and frits at varying gas flow rates. Using a stroboscope, video microscope, and rotating mirror, they have obtained pictures which show how bubble formation involves the interaction of bubbles at the orifice. These interactions depend on the value of the surface elasticity E due to positively (ethanol) or negatively (NaCl) adsorbed solute. At low flow rates consecutive bubbles do not interact. Each bubble detaches and leaves the orifice region before the next one starts forming. A intermediate flow rates the more closely spaced, consecutive bubbles begin to interact. In pure liquids there is no barrier to bubble coalescence and the detached bubble is fed by the subsequent bubble as this starts to grow. The process may be repeated several times before the original bubble has risen out of range. In solutions where E is large enough bubble coalescence is inhibited. Instead of feeding into the detached bubble the following bubble pushes it aside, and the bubbles appear to bounce off each other. Bouncing may give rise to a characteristic sequence of larger and smaller bubbles if the emerging bubbles break off prematurely from the orifice due to the inertia of the original bubble. The transition from feeding to bouncing depends critically on E of the solution and leads to a smaller average bubble size for large E values. At high flow rates detached bubbles are invariably fed by several subsequent ones. At very high flow rates the bubbling becomes chaotic, but the interaction of bubbles after leaving the orifice area produces smaller bubbles in solutions. Bouncing is more likely to occur with narrow and irregular capillaries. The dramatically different appearance of gas-sparged columns in salt water and freshwater has its origin in the difference between assemblies of pores showing mainly feeding (freshwater) or bouncing (salt water).

  15. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Chang, Philip; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Martn, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}?110 M{sub ?} yr{sup 1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (? 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (?{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (?{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ?50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ?150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-? relation.

  16. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION AROUND MID-INFRARED BUBBLES IN THE G8.14+0.23 H II REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Chakraborti, S.; Anandarao, B. G.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2012-09-10

    Mid-infrared shells or bubbles around expanding H II regions have received much attention due to their ability to initiate a new generation of star formation. We present multi-wavelength observations around two bubbles associated with a southern massive star-forming region G8.14+0.23, to investigate the triggered star formation signature on the edges of the bubbles by the expansion of the H II region. We have found observational signatures of the collected molecular and cold dust material along the bubbles and the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2) velocity map reveals that the molecular gas in the bubbles is physically associated around the G8.14+0.23 region. We have detected 244 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region and about 37% of these YSOs occur in clusters. Interestingly, these YSO clusters are associated with the collected material on the edges of the bubbles. We have found good agreement between the dynamical age of the H II region and the kinematical timescale of bubbles (from the {sup 12}CO(J = 3-2) line data) with the fragmentation time of the accumulated molecular materials to explain possible 'collect and collapse' process around the G8.14+0.23 region. However, one cannot entirely rule out the possibility of triggered star formation by compression of the pre-existing dense clumps by the shock wave. We have also found two massive embedded YSOs (about 10 and 22 M{sub Sun }) which are associated with the dense fragmented clump at the interface of the bubbles. We conclude that the expansion of the H II region is also leading to the formation of these two young massive embedded YSOs in the G8.14+0.23 region.

  17. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South Central Montana.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview will be used to manage and interpret the data. All of the four 30 X 60 geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Writing of the map explanations has begun. Field investigations were nearly completed during this quarter; only minor field checks remain. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent.

  18. Comparisons Between Experimental Measurments and Numerical Simulations of Spheromak Formation in SSPX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero-Talam?s, C A; Hooper, E B; Hill, D N; Cohen, B I; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2006-03-15

    Data from a recently installed insertable magnetic probe array in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] is compared against NIMROD [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)], a full 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamic code that is used to simulate SSPX plasmas. The experiment probe consists of a linear array of chip inductors arranged in clusters that are spaced every 2 cm, and spans the entire machine radius at the flux conserver midplane. Both the experiment and the numerical simulations show the appearance, shortly after breakdown, of a column with a hollow current profile that precedes magnetic reconnection, a process essential to the formation of closed magnetic flux surfaces. However, there are differences between the experiment and the simulation in how the column evolves after it is formed. These differences are studied to help identify the mechanisms that eventually lead to closed-flux surfaces (azimuthally averaged) and flux amplification, which occur in both the experiment and the simulation.

  19. Star formation and cosmic massive black hole formation, a universal process organized by angular momenta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    It is suggested that star formation is organized following the same principles as we have applied in a recent explanation of galaxy and massive black hole formation. In this scenario angular momentum is randomly distributed by tidal torquing among condensations, Lyman-{alpha} clouds or cores for star formation during the initial non-linear phase of collapse. This angular momentum is characterized by the parameter, {lambda}, the ratio of the angular momentum of the cloud to that of a Keplerian orbit with the same central mass and radius. This parameter is calculated in very many simulations of structure formation of the universe as well as core formation and appears to be universal and independent of any scale. The specific angular momentum during the collapse of every cloud is locally conserved and universally produces a near flat rotation curve M{sub formation of a flat rotation curve (protostellar) disk of mass M{sub dsk} {sup -}30 M{sub o} of radius R{sub dsk} {approx_equal} 1100 AU or 5.4 x 10{sup -3} pc. In such a disk {Sigma} {proportional_to} 1/R and reaches the RVI condition at R{sub crit} {approx_equal} 40 AU where M{sub

  20. Energy Demand: Limits on the Response to Higher Energy Prices in the End-Use Sectors (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01

    Energy consumption in the end-use demand sectorsresidential, commercial, industrial, and transportationgenerally shows only limited change when energy prices increase. Several factors that limit the sensitivity of end-use energy demand to price signals are common across the end-use sectors. For example, because energy generally is consumed in long-lived capital equipment, short-run consumer responses to changes in energy prices are limited to reductions in the use of energy services or, in a few cases, fuel switching; and because energy services affect such critical lifestyle areas as personal comfort, medical services, and travel, end-use consumers often are willing to absorb price increases rather than cut back on energy use, especially when they are uncertain whether price increases will be long-lasting. Manufacturers, on the other hand, often are able to pass along higher energy costs, especially in cases where energy inputs are a relatively minor component of production costs. In economic terms, short-run energy demand typically is inelastic, and long-run energy demand is less inelastic or moderately elastic at best.

  1. Regulations Related to the Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria and Implications of Not Renewing the Moratoria (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    From 1982 through 2008, Congress annually enacted appropriations riders prohibiting the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior from conducting activities related to leasing, exploration, and production of oil and natural gas on much of the federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Further, a separate executive ban (originally put in place in 1990 by President George H.W. Bush and later extended by President William J. Clinton through 2012) also prohibited leasing on the OCS, with the exception of the Western Gulf of Mexico, portions of the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico, and Alaska. In combination, those actions prohibited drilling along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and in portions of the central Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-432) imposed yet a third ban on drilling through 2022 on tracts in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico that are within 125 miles of Florida, east of a dividing line known as the Military Mission Line, and in the Central Gulf of Mexico within 100 miles of Florida.

  2. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  3. Porosity reduction in Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Porosity and grain density were determined for different lithologies from throughout a 1.2-km thick section of the Monterey and Sisquoc formations in the Santa Maria basin area, California. Porosity reduction by physical and chemical compaction in the predominantly siliceous sediment is controlled largely by the bulk sediment composition and silica phase transformations. Physical compaction of sediment grains from increasing overburden pressure is responsible for most of the gradual porosity reduction with increasing burial depth in opal-A siliceous ooze and diatomite. The porous, incompressible diatom frustule maintains a high porosity relative to clayey and calcareous sediment. Therefore, a positive correlation exists between porosity and biogenic silica (diatom) content of the sediment. During the opal-A to opal-CT silica phase transformation, solution of the porous diatom frustule and precipitation of cryptocrystalline opal-CT results in a porosity reduction that roughly correlates with the biogenic silica content of the sediment. Local porosity reduction occurs in pore-filling dolomite and chert nodules. Dry bulk density as well as porosity reduction tend to increase with sediment depth. Dolomite and organic matter have the most significant influence on the bulk density because of their respective high and low density. The maximum burial depth of the uplifted and eroded section is estimated by overlapping the porosity-depth relation of average deep-sea siliceous ooze.

  4. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  5. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chiu, Chi -cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimentalmore » and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.« less

  6. Surface coating for prevention of crust formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A flexible surface coating which promotes the removal of deposits as they reach the surface by preventing adhesion and crust formation. Flexible layers are attached to each side of a flexible mesh substrate comprising of a plurality of zones composed of one or more neighboring cells, each zone having a different compressibility than its adjacent zones. The substrate is composed of a mesh made of strands and open cells. The cells may be filled with foam. Studs or bearings may also be positioned in the cells to increase the variation in compressibility and thus the degree of flexing of the coating. Surface loading produces varying amounts of compression from point to point causing the coating to flex as deposits reach it, breaking up any hardening deposits before a continuous crust forms. Preferably one or more additional layers are also used, such as an outer layer of a non-stick material such as TEFLON, which may be pigmented, and an inner, adhesive layer to facilitate applying the coating to a surface.

  7. Star formation and substructure in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and substructure in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Several past studies of individual galaxy clusters have suggested that cluster mergers enhance cluster SF, while others find no such relationship. The SF fraction in multi-component clusters (0.228 0.007) is higher than that in single-component clusters (0.175 0.016) for galaxies with M{sub r}{sup 0.1}

  8. PETROPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SECONDARY RECOVERY POTENTIAL IN THE CHERRY CANYON FORMATION NE LEA FIELD LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman

    2002-06-01

    Read and Stevens has proposed the evaluation of the waterflood potential from the Cherry Canyon formation in the NE Lea Field in lea County, New Mexico. Much of the development in this area is approaching primary recovery limitations; additional recovery of remaining oil reserves by waterflood needs to be evaluated. The Cherry Canyon formation is composed of fine grained sandstone, containing clay material which results in high water saturation, and also has the tendency to swell and reduce reservoir permeability--the ability of fluid to flow through the rock pores and fractures. There are also abundant organic materials that interfere with obtaining reliable well logs. These complications have limited oil in place calculations and identification of net pay zones, presenting a challenge to the planned waterflood. Core analysis of the Cherry Canyon should improve the understanding of existing well logs and possibly indicate secondary recovery measures, such as waterflood, to enhance field recovery. Lacking truly representative core to provide accurate analyses, Read and Stevens will obtain and preserve fresh core. The consulting firm of T. Scott Hickman and Associates will then collaborate on special core analyses and obtain additional well logs for a more detailed analysis of reservoir properties. The log interpretation will be compared to the core analysis results, and the entire collected data set will be used to assess the potential and economic viability of successfully waterflooding the identified oil zones. Successful results from the project will improve accuracy of log interpretation and establish a methodology for evaluating secondary recovery by waterflood.

  9. Cyclostratigraphy and duration of the Yates Formation (Permian, Late Guadalupian) of the Permian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borer, J.M.; Harris, P.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Using log, core, and outcrop data, the authors have identified patterns in cyclic sequences of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate Yates Formation of the Permian basin. A composite well log, representing the entire formation through a single sea level-sensitive facies tract, exhibits two orders of cyclicity with Milankovitch band periodicity. At the shelf margin, large-scale cycles consist of subequal dolomite- and siliciclastic-rich intervals. Small-scale cycles are carbonate and siliciclastic couplets that exhibit regular changes in lithology and thickness (bundling) that define the large-scale cycles. Cycle packaging changes across the shelf due to the updip (landward) pinch-out of high frequency carbonate intervals. Several lines of evidence suggest that the depositional cycles are the product of orbitally forced sea level fluctuations with 100- and 400-k.y. periods (Milankovitch eccentricity cycles). This implies that the five large-scale cycles present in the Yates represent about 2 m.y. of deposition. A lower frequency (third-order) sea level cycle was also active during Yates deposition. This 1.5- to 2-m.y. cycle is apparent from Fischer plots and a lithofacies cross section. The third-order cycle may be related to a low-frequency Milankovitch signal or tectonics. Fischer plots and stratigraphic analysis suggest that all the sea level fluctuations had relatively low magnitudes ranging from approximately 2 m for the 100-k.y. cycles, 8-12 m for the 400-k.y. cycles, and 5 m for the 1.5- to 2-m.y. cycle. The architecture of Yates Formation reservoirs is related to the stacking of depositional sequences during the three orders of sea-level fluctuations. In general, the low frequency (1.5-2 m.y.) cycle controlled the lateral position and reservoir quality of 400-k.y. depositional cycles (reservoir units); whereas, high-frequency (100 k.y.) sea level cycles controlled heterogeneity within reservoir units.

  10. ON STAR FORMATION RATES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES OUT TO z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Altieri, Bruno; Andreani, Paola; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Cimatti, Andrea; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Maiolino, Roberto; McGrath, Elizabeth J.

    2011-09-01

    We compare multi-wavelength star formation rate (SFR) indicators out to z {approx} 3 in the GOODS-South field. Our analysis uniquely combines U to 8 {mu}m photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24 {mu}m and PACS 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m photometry from the PEP, and H{alpha} spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24 {mu}m to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of L{sub IR} that are in the median consistent with the L{sub IR} derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low-to-intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV} ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR{sub UV+IR} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) and redshifts (z {approx}> 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that H{alpha}-based SFRs at 1.5 < z < 2.6 are consistent with SFR{sub SED} and SFR{sub UV+IR} provided extra attenuation toward H II regions is taken into account (A{sub V,neb} = A{sub V,continuum}/0.44). With the cross-calibrated SFR indicators in hand, we perform a consistency check on the star formation histories inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We compare the observed SFR-M relations and mass functions at a range of redshifts to equivalents that are computed by evolving lower redshift galaxies backward in time. We find evidence for underestimated stellar ages when no stringent constraints on formation epoch are applied in SED modeling. We demonstrate how resolved SED modeling, or alternatively deep UV data, may help to overcome this bias. The age bias is most severe for galaxies with young stellar populations and reduces toward older systems. Finally, our analysis suggests that SFHs typically vary on timescales that are long (at least several 100 Myr) compared to the galaxies' dynamical time.

  11. Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Supplemental tables were generated for the reference case of the AEO using the National Energy Modeling System, a computer-based model which produces annual projections of energy markets. Most of the tables were not published in the AEO, but contain regional and other more detailed projections underlying the AEO projections.

  12. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  13. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, E.A.; Rosen, V.; D'Alessandro, J.S.; Bauduy, M.; Cordes, P.; Harada, T.; Israel, D.I.; Hewick, R.M.; Kerns, K.M.; LaPan, P.; Luxenberg, D.P.; McQuaid, D.; Moutsatsos, I.K.; Nove, J.; Wozney, J.M. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors have purified and characterized active recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2A. Implantation of the recombinant protein in rats showed that a single BMP can induce bone formation in vivo. A dose-response and time-course study using the rat ectopic bone formation assay revealed that implantation of 0.5-115 {mu}g of partially purified recombinant human BMP-2A resulted in cartilage by day 7 and bone formation by day 14. The time at which bone formation occurred was dependent on the amount of BMP-2A implanted; at high doses bone formation could be observed at 5 days. The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans.

  14. STAR FORMATION AROUND SUPERGIANT SHELLS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Book, Laura G.; Chu Youhua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Fukui, Yasuo

    2009-03-15

    We examine the recent star formation associated with four supergiant shells in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): LMC 1, 4, 5, and 6, which have been shown to have simple expanding-shell structures. H II regions and OB associations are used to infer star formation in the last few Myr, while massive young stellar objects reveal the current ongoing star formation. Distributions of ionized H I and molecular components of the interstellar gas are compared with the sites of recent and current star formation to determine whether triggering has taken place. We find that a great majority of the current star formation has occurred in gravitationally unstable regions, and that evidence of triggered star formation is prevalent at both large and local scales.

  15. Submission Format for IMS2004 (Title in 18-point Times font)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    entire distribution system in a more optimal ... to accelerate due to grid support requirements such as California ... the output of the photovoltaic source are ...

  16. New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas New Catalyst Boosts Selective Formation of Olefins from Syngas Print Wednesday, 10 August 2016 00:00 Experiments at the ALS have helped to explain how a new catalyst significantly boosts the formation of light olefin molecules-important building blocks in the petrochemical industry-from a basic gas mixture called syngas (synthesis gas). A research team from China recently developed the nanocomposite catalyst and used ambient-pressure

  17. Method and apparatus for vibrating a substrate during material formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeffrey A. [Richland, WA; Roger, Johnson N. [Richland, WA; John, Munley T. [Benton City, WA; Walter, Park R. [Benton City, WA

    2008-10-21

    A method and apparatus for affecting the properties of a material include vibrating the material during its formation (i.e., "surface sifting"). The method includes the steps of providing a material formation device and applying a plurality of vibrations to the material during formation, which vibrations are oscillations having dissimilar, non-harmonic frequencies and at least two different directions. The apparatus includes a plurality of vibration sources that impart vibrations to the material.

  18. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  19. Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Formation of Soft Hydrophilic Silicone Elastomer Surfaces We report on the rapid formation of hydrophilic silicone elastomer surfaces by ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) irradiation of poly(vinylmethylsiloxane) (PVMS) network films. Our results reveal that the PVMS network surfaces render hydrophilic upon only a short UVO exposure time (seconds to a few minutes).

  20. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency | Department of Energy Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to Control the Impact on DPF Performance and Engine Efficiency Results illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash

  1. Rigidifying Fluorescent Linkers by Metal-Organic Framework Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rigidifying Fluorescent Linkers by Metal-Organic Framework Formation for Fluorescence Blue Shift and Quantum Yield Enhancement Previous Next List Zhangwen Wei, Zhi-Yuan Gu, Ravi K. ...

  2. Tuning the Formations of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Modification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning the Formations of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Modification of Ratio of Reactant, ... (3D) framework structure with one-dimensional (1D) honeycomb channels. ...

  3. Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Humeros geothermal field, Mexico, using the Horner and the spherical radial flow (SRF) methods. The results showed that the Horner method underestimates formation temperatures,...

  4. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for determining formation quality factor ...

  5. Minimizing the formation of coke and methane on Co nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that leads to high hydrogen selectivity and low methane formation on Co-based catalysts. ... We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), ...

  6. Integrated Project Team Guide for Formation and Implementation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8A, Integrated Project Team Guide for Formation and Implementation by John Makepeace Functional areas: Project Management The guide provides detailed guidance of the preferred...

  7. Chemistry, phase formation, and catalytic activity of thinpalladium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Chemistry, phase formation, and catalytic activity of thin palladium-containing oxide films synthesized by plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition The chemistry, ...

  8. Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Nanotube Bundles with Uniform Diameter Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Template Directed Formation of Nanoparticle Decorated Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube ...

  9. Formation, Migration, and Reactivity of Au CO Complexes on Gold...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Here, we report experimental as well as theoretical evidence that suggests Au CO complex ... and density functional theory calculations point to Au CO complex formation and migration. ...

  10. (U) modulator to provide a continuous stepped frequency signal format

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, Glenn A.

    1991-01-01

    A modulator provides a continuous signal format composed of discrete freqcy steps and is designed to eliminate frequency overlap or smearing normally associated with filter ringing.

  11. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste ... geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. ...

  12. Solid-state graphene formation via a nickel carbide intermediate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dielectric surfaces is highly desired for practical applications. Despite significant progress achieved in understanding the formation of graphene on metallic surfaces through ...

  13. Rhapsody: I. Structural Properties and Formation History from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    I. Structural Properties and Formation History from a Statistical Sample of Re-simulated Cluster-size Halos Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rhapsody: I. Structural...

  14. Predicting sigma formation in mo-bearing stainless steels. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Predicting sigma formation in mo-bearing stainless steels. No abstract prepared. Authors: Perricone, Matthew ; Dupont, John Neuman ; Anderson, T. D. 1 ; Robino, Charles ...

  15. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, ...

  16. Energy Secretary Moniz Announces Formation of Nuclear Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Contact 202-586-4940 Energy Secretary Moniz Announces Formation of Nuclear Energy Tribal ... Tribal Nations, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced the formalization of the ...

  17. UPPER BOUND ON THE FIRST STAR FORMATION HISTORY (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: UPPER BOUND ON THE FIRST STAR FORMATION HISTORY Our understanding of the nature of the extragalactic background light (EBL) has improved ...

  18. -Asymmetric formation (process) of vortex state in permalloy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Institute fo r Materials Science (NIMS), Tukuba 305-0047, Japan The ... Here we show the first direct observation of an asymmetric phenomenon in the formation ...

  19. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Dynamics of ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamics of ... We report detailed simulation results on the formation ...

  20. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise: ...

  1. Filaments in simulations of molecular cloud formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmez, Gilberto C.; Vzquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2014-08-20

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse soon becomes nearly pressureless, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in the cloud and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalling gas. Correspondingly, the velocity along the filament exhibits a hierarchy of jumps at the locations of the clumps. Two prominent filaments in the simulation have lengths ?15 pc and masses ?600 M {sub ?} above density n ? 10{sup 3} cm{sup 3} (?2 10{sup 3} M {sub ?} at n > 50 cm{sup 3}). The density profile exhibits a central flattened core of size ?0.3 pc and an envelope that decays as r {sup 2.5} in reasonable agreement with observations. Accretion onto the filament reaches a maximum linear density rate of ?30 M {sub ?} Myr{sup 1} pc{sup 1}.

  2. UFO (UnFold Operator) default data format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F. ); Marking, T.R. )

    1991-05-01

    The default format for the storage of x,y data for use with the UFO code is described. The format assumes that the data stored in a file is a matrix of values; two columns of this matrix are selected to define a function of the form y = f(x). This format is specifically designed to allow for easy importation of data obtained from other sources, or easy entry of data using a text editor, with a minimum of reformatting. This format is flexible and extensible through the use of inline directives stored in the optional header of the file. A special extension of the format implements encoded data which significantly reduces the storage required as compared wth the unencoded form. UFO supports several extensions to the file specification that implement execute-time operations, such as, transformation of the x and/or y values, selection of specific columns of the matrix for association with the x and y values, input of data directly from other formats (e.g., DAMP and PFF), and a simple type of library-structured file format. Several examples of the use of the format are given.

  3. Universality in dynamical formation of entanglement for quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubotani, Hiroto; Toda, Mikito; Adachi, Satoshi [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nara Women's University, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro 152-8550 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    Dynamical formation of entanglement is studied for quantum chaotic biparticle systems. We find that statistical properties of the Schmidt eigenvalues for strong chaos are well described by the random matrix theory of the Laguerre unitary ensemble. This implies that entanglement formation for quantum chaos has universal properties, and does not depend on specific aspects of the systems.

  4. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  5. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Ap

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Browse by Tag (alphabetical) Sort by: Alphabetical | Frequency | Tag Cloud 2011 Briefs (1) 2012 Briefs (1) 2013 Briefs (2) AEO2011 (Annual Energy Outlook 2011) (2) AEO2012 (Annual Energy Outlook 2012) (6) AEO2013 (Annual Energy Outlook 2013) (4) AEO2014 (Annual Energy Outlook 2014) (7) AEO2016 (Annual Energy Outlook 2016) (5) age of generators series (7) annual (6) Annual Energy Outlook related (2) Arizona (2) baseload capacity (3) biomass (17) Bonneville Power Administration (5) Brazil (1)

  6. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Ap

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Browse by Tag (alphabetical) Sort by: Alphabetical | Frequency | Tag Cloud 2011 Briefs (3) 2012 Briefs (2) 2013 Briefs (3) AEO2011 (Annual Energy Outlook 2011) (1) AEO2012 (Annual Energy Outlook 2012) (5) AEO2013 (Annual Energy Outlook 2013) (9) AEO2014 (Annual Energy Outlook 2014) (8) AEO2016 (Annual Energy Outlook 2016) (2) Africa (2) Alaska (2) analysis (1) animation (2) annual (8) Annual Energy Outlook related (1) Arkansas (2) Bakken (16) Barnett (6) CAB (Country Analysis Brief) (5)

  7. Renewable Electricity Working Group Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewable Electricity Working Group Chris Namovicz, Renewable Electricity Analysis Team July 9, 2013 Agenda * Review status of AEO 2013 * Discuss new model updates and development efforts for AEO 2014 and future AEOs - Model updates - Policy updates - Planned additions updates - Performance updates * Obtain feedback from stakeholders on any key items that EIA should look at Chris Namovicz, July 9 2 Status of AEO 2013 Chris Namovicz, July 9 * AEO 2013 was released in stages this year - Reference

  8. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  9. Formation of Imploding Plasma Liners for HEDP and MIF Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Brockington, Samuel; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Mike; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Ray

    2014-11-11

    /s for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Initial work used existing computational and analytical tools to develop and refine a specific plasma gun concept having a novel tapered coaxial electromagnetic accelerator contour with an array of symmetric ablative plasma injectors. The profile is designed to suppress the main barrier to success in coaxial guns, namely the blow-by instability in which the arc slips past and outruns the bulk of the plasma mass. Efforts to begin developing a set of annular non-ablative plasma injectors for the coaxial gun, in order to accelerate pure gases, resulted in development of linear parallel-plate MiniRailguns that turned out to work well as plasma guns in their own right and we subsequently chose them for an initial plasma liner experiment on the PLX facility at LANL. This choice was mainly driven by cost and schedule for that particular experiment, while longer term goals still projected use of coaxial guns for reactor-relevant applications for reasons of better symmetry, lower impurities, more compact plasma jet formation, and higher gun efficiency. Our efforts have focused mainly on 1) developing various plasma injection systems for both coax and linear railguns and ensuring they work reliably with the accelerator section, 2) developing a suite of plasma and gun diagnostics, 3) performing computational modeling to design and refine the plasma guns, 4) establishing a research facility dedicated to plasma gun development, and finally, 5) developing plasma guns and associated pulse power systems capable of achieving these goals and installing and testing the first two gun sets on the PLX facility at LANL. During the second funding cycle for this program, HyperV joined in a collaborative effort with LANL, the University of Alabama at Huntsville, and the University of New Mexico to perform a plasma liner experiment (PLX) to investigate the physics and technology of forming spherically imploding

  10. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid” (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.

  11. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  12. EMERGENCE OF HELICAL FLUX AND THE FORMATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lites, B. W.; Kubo, M.; Berger, T.; Frank, Z.; Shine, R.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.; Okamoto, T. J.; Otsuji, K.

    2010-07-20

    We present comprehensive observations of the formation and evolution of a filament channel within NOAA Active Region (AR) 10978 from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope and TRACE. We employ sequences of Hinode spectro-polarimeter maps of the AR, accompanying Hinode Narrowband Filter Instrument magnetograms in the Na I D1 line, Hinode Broadband Filter Instrument filtergrams in the Ca II H line and G-band, Hinode X-ray telescope X-ray images, and TRACE Fe IX 171 A image sequences. The development of the channel resembles qualitatively that presented by Okamoto et al. in that many indicators point to the emergence of a pre-existing sub-surface magnetic flux rope. The consolidation of the filament channel into a coherent structure takes place rapidly during the course of a few hours, and the filament form then gradually shrinks in width over the following two days. Particular to this filament channel is the observation of a segment along its length of horizontal, weak (500 G) flux that, unlike the rest of the filament channel, is not immediately flanked by strong vertical plage fields of opposite polarity on each side of the filament. Because this isolated horizontal field is observed in photospheric lines, we infer that it is unlikely that the channel formed as a result of reconnection in the corona, but the low values of inferred magnetic fill fraction along the entire length of the filament channel suggest that the bulk of the field resides somewhat above the low photosphere. Correlation tracking of granulation in the G band presents no evidence for either systematic flows toward the channel or systematic shear flows along it. The absence of these flows, along with other indications of these data from multiple sources, reinforces (but does not conclusively demonstrate) the picture of an emerging flux rope as the origin of this AR filament channel.

  13. Controlling formation fines at their sources to maintain well productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Rickman, R.D.; Dusterhoft, R.G.; Parker, M.A.

    2007-05-15

    Migration of formation fines has been shown to cause production decline in many wells. Despite the availability of new downhole tools for use in well stimulation and completion, the ability to sustain desired production levels is often plagued with fines migration problems. The solution to this problem is appropriate treatment to mitigate fines migration at its source. This paper describes the use of an ultra-thin tackifying agent (UTTA) for stabilizing fines in high-rate producing or injection wells. This UTTA is applied as part of an initial prepad in fracturing or gravel-packing operations, as a remedial treatment, or as a post-treatment following acid fracturing or matrix acidizing treatments. The primary purpose of UTTA application is to immobilize formation fines so that they will not detach, migrate with flowing fluids, plug the pore channels, and reduce the flow path permeability. Results of laboratory testing indicate that the UTTA system is applicable to most types of formation fines, including coals, sandstones, and carbonates. Once injected into the formation matrix or proppant pack, the UTTA forms a thin film on formation surfaces, encapsulating the fines. Capillary action helps pull the tackifier into the contact points, fixing the particulate in place without plugging the pore throat. The UTTA does not require a shut-in time after its application. The thin film tackifier does not harden, but remains flexible, enhancing the ability of a formation to withstand stress cycling and allowing the formation to handle high shear stress during high flow rates.

  14. Evidence for fast positronium formation in glancing angle positron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gidley, D.W.; Frieze, W.E.; Mayer, R.; Lynn, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    We have evidence for fast (10-100 eV) positronium formation when 30 to 300 eV positrons scatter off an Al(110) surface at glancing angles as low as 6/sup 0/ with respect to the surface. A doubly remoderated, brightness enhanced positron beam of 1 mm diameter and 1/sup 0/ opening angle is used. A position sensitive CEMA is biased to detect only neutral particles. As evidence of fast Ps formation, we will present incident beam energy scans of the neutral particle counting rate as well as position sensitive plots of the angular formation probability.

  15. Theoretical assessment of bonaccordite formation in pressurized water reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rak, Zsolt; O'Brien, Chris; Shin, Dongwon; Andersson, Anders David; Stanek, Christopher; Brenner, Donald

    2016-03-04

    The free energy of formation of bonaccordite (Ni2FeBO5) as a function of temperature has been calculated using a technique that combines first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation of aqueous species. The results suggest that bonaccordite formation from aqueous metal ions (Ni2+ andFe3+) and boric acid is thermodynamically favorable at elevated temperature and pH that have been predicted to exist at the CRUD-clad interface in deposits thicker than 60 μm.

  16. Method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hampikian, Janet M; Hunt, Eden M

    2001-01-01

    A method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction with the steps of ion implantation with an ion/element that will chemically reduce the chosen substrate material, implantation of the ion/element to a sufficient concentration and at a sufficient energy for particle formation, and control of the temperature of the substrate during implantation. A preferred embodiment includes the formation of particles which are nano-dimensional (<100 m-n in size). The phase of the particles may be affected by control of the substrate temperature during and/or after the ion implantation process.

  17. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  18. A test of star formation laws in disk galaxies. II. Dependence on dynamical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwannajak, Chutipong; Tan, Jonathan C.; Leroy, Adam K.

    2014-05-20

    We use the observed radial profiles of the mass surface densities of total, Σ {sub g}, and molecular, Σ{sub H2}, gas, rotation velocity, and star formation rate (SFR) surface density, Σ{sub sfr}, of the molecular-rich (Σ{sub H2} ≥ Σ{sub HI}/2) regions of 16 nearby disk galaxies to test several star formation (SF) laws: a 'Kennicutt-Schmidt (K-S)' law, Σ{sub sfr}=A{sub g}Σ{sub g,2}{sup 1.5}; a 'Constant Molecular' law, Σ{sub sfr} = A {sub H2}Σ{sub H2,2}; the turbulence-regulated laws of Krumholz and McKee (KM05) and Krumholz, McKee, and Tumlinson (KMT09); a 'Gas-Ω' law, Σ{sub sfr}=B{sub Ω}Σ{sub g}Ω; and a shear-driven 'giant molecular cloud (GMC) Collision' law, Σ{sub sfr} = B {sub CC}Σ {sub g}Ω(1-0.7β), where β ≡ d ln v {sub circ}/d ln r. If allowed one free normalization parameter for each galaxy, these laws predict the SFR with rms errors of factors of 1.4-1.8. If a single normalization parameter is used by each law for the entire galaxy sample, then rms errors range from factors of 1.5-2.1. Although the Constant Molecular law gives the smallest rms errors, the improvement over the KMT, K-S, and GMC Collision laws is not especially significant, particularly given the different observational inputs that the laws utilize and the scope of included physics, which ranges from empirical relations to detailed treatment of interstellar medium processes. We next search for systematic variation of SF law parameters with local and global galactic dynamical properties of disk shear rate (related to β), rotation speed, and presence of a bar. We demonstrate with high significance that higher shear rates enhance SF efficiency per local orbital time. Such a trend is expected if GMC collisions play an important role in SF, while an opposite trend would be expected if the development of disk gravitational instabilities is the controlling physics.

  19. The radio continuum-star formation rate relation in WSRT sings galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Leroy, Adam K.; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer E-mail: v.heesen@soton.ac.uk E-mail: heald@astron.nl E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de

    2014-05-01

    We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We use RC maps at λλ22 and 18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey and Hα emission maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/mid-IR (MIR) based Σ{sub SFR} maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R{sub int}=0.78±0.38, consistent with the relation by Condon. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR} for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR} agrees with the integrated ratio and has only quasi-random fluctuations with galactocentric radius that are relatively small (25%). Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log diagrams of radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR}, with a typical standard deviation of a factor of two. Averaged over our sample we find (Σ{sub SFR}){sub RC}∝(Σ{sub SFR}){sub hyb}{sup 0.63±0.25}, implying that data points with high Σ{sub SFR} are relatively radio dim, whereas the reverse is true for low Σ{sub SFR}. We interpret this as a result of spectral aging of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs), which are diffusing away from the star formation sites where they are injected into the interstellar medium. This is supported by our finding that the radio spectral index is a second parameter in pixel-by-pixel plots: those data points dominated by young CREs are relatively radio dim, while those dominated by old CREs are slightly more RC bright than what would be expected from a linear extrapolation. We studied the ratio R of

  20. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.