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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

Sisemore, Clyde J. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Induction log analysis of thinly laminated sand/shale formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author examines induction log responses to a thinly laminated sand/shale sequence in a deviated borehole for arbitrary deviation (or dip) angle and sand/shale composition. He found that the induction log responses in a thinly laminated sand/shale sequence are the same as they would be if the tool is placed in a homogeneous but anisotropic formation with the horizontal and vertical conductivities given respectively by the parallel and the series conductivities of the sequence. Conversely, a thinly laminated sand/shale sequence can be identified as an anisotropic formation by induction logs. He discusses three methods to identify an anisotropic formation using induction-type logs alone.

Hagiwara, T. [Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Conceptual study of thermal stimulation in shale gas formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Shale gas formations have become a major source of energy in recent years. Developments in hydraulic fracturing technology have made these reservoirs more accessible and productive. Apart from other dissimilarities from conventional gas reservoirs, one major difference is that a considerable amount of gas produced from these shale gas formations comes from desorption. Up to 85% of the total gas within shale can be found as an adsorbed phase on clay and kerogen, so how much adsorbed gas can be produced will have significant impact on ultimate gas recovery. The Langmuir isotherm has been widely used in industry to describe the pressure dependence of adsorbed gas. However, temperature dependent adsorption behavior and its major implications for evaluating thermal stimulation as a recovery method for shale reservoirs have not been thoroughly explored. Therefore, in order to design and analyze the thermal treatment of shale gas formations successfully, it is crucial to understand the effects of fracture heating on the shale gas adsorption and desorption phenomenon, and how can we exploit such effects to enhance shale gas recovery from hydraulically fractured reservoirs. Even though numerous research efforts have been focused on thermal recovery of shale oil, its possible application to shale gas has not been investigated. In this research, we propose a method to evaluate desorbed gas as a function of pressure and temperature in shale formations, by regression of a Bi-Langmuir model on Langmuir isotherm data. We have developed a fully coupled unconventional reservoir simulator, which is capable of capturing real gas flow in the shale matrix and in the hydraulic fracture by accounting for the effects of gas desorption and diffusion, as well as the temperature diffusion process within the matrix. This simulator enables us to investigate the effects of fracture heating on the shale gas desorption phenomenon on the global well performance and recovery. The results of this study show, for the first time in a rigorous way, that by increasing the temperature within the fracture, shale gas recovery can be improved. We have rationalized and quantified relations between the adsorption/desorption fundamental phenomena and stimulation temperature, fracture spacing, reservoir permeability and bottom hole pressure. The thermal properties of shale formations only have limited impacts on long term production. The results of this study can provide a guidance to develop a strategy to design thermal treatment in hydraulically fractured shale formations and propose the degree of thermal stimulation temperature required in a fracture to promote an economically viable return on production.

HanYi Wang; Omobola Ajao; Michael J. Economides

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shales. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CORRELATIONS TO ASSESS FORMATION PROPERTIES AND CONDITIONS Treatment of Anisotropic

Dobson, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

The Implications and Flow Behavior of the Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Shale Gas Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches is by drilling horizontal wells and hydraulically fracturing the formation. Once the formation is fractured, different flow patterns will occur. The dominant flow regime observed in the shale gas formation is the linear flow or the transient...

Almarzooq, Anas Mohammadali S.

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

6

Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

TOP-DOWN MODELING; PRACTICAL, FAST TRACK, RESERVOIR SIMULATION & MODELING FOR SHALE FORMATIONS Shahab D. Mohaghegh1 & Grant Bromhal2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

development in the oil and gas industry and is being used on some shale formations. BAKKEN SHALE MuchTOP-DOWN MODELING; PRACTICAL, FAST TRACK, RESERVOIR SIMULATION & MODELING FOR SHALE FORMATIONS based on measure data, called Top-Down, Intelligent Reservoir Modeling for the shale formations

Mohaghegh, Shahab

8

Isopach map of black shale in the West Falls Formation (from well sample studies)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Maps of western New York State and Lake Erie were prepared containing information on black shale deposits in the West Falls Formation from well sample studies. (DC)

Kamakaris, D.G.; Van Tyne, A.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Isopach map of black shale in the Java Formation (from well sample studies)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A map of western New York State and Lake Erie was prepared containing information on black shale deposits in the Java Formation from well sample studies. (DC)

Kamakaris, D.G.; Van Tyne, A.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Chemical factors affecting insolubles formation in shale derived diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detrimental changes in fuel properties with time have been a continuing problem in the use of middle distillate fuels. Instability of diesel fuels is usually defined by the formation of insoluble sediments and gums. Gravimetric stability tests have been conducted at 43/sup 0/ and 80/sup 0/C, respectively, using three model nitrogen heterocycles, 2-methylpyridine, 2,6-di methyl quinoline, and dodecahydrocarbazole, as dopants in an otherwise stable shale diesel fuel. Potential interactive effects have been defined for these three model nitrogen heterocycles in the stable fuel in the presence of a second model dopant, t-butyl hydroperoxide. 2-Methyl pyridine and 2,6-dimethyl quinoline were inactive and only 2-methyl pyridine showed slight positive interactive effects. Dodecahydrocarbazole formed large amounts of insolubles by itself and exhibited positive interactive effects.

Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.; Cooney, J.V. (Fuels Section, Code 6180 Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US)); Watkins, J.M. (Geo-Centers, Ft. Washington, MD (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Methane and the greenhouse-gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We evaluate the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas obtained by high-volume hydraulic fracturing from shale formations, focusing on methane emissions. Natural gas is composed largely of methane, and 3 ... to ...

Robert W. Howarth; Renee Santoro; Anthony Ingraffea

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

Zoback, Mark; Kovscek, Anthony; Wilcox, Jennifer

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

13

Creation and Impairment of Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing is the key to the success of many shale gas and shale oil reservoirs. The main objectives of hydraulic fracturing in shale are to create artificial fracture networks that are conductive for oil and gas flow...

Zhang, Junjing

2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

14

Organic geochemistry of Mississippian shales (Bowland Shale Formation) in central Britain: Implications for depositional environment, source rock and gas shale potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Marine Carboniferous shales are proven hydrocarbon source rocks in central Britain. In this contribution the depositional environment and shale gas/liquid potential of the lower Namurian part of the Bowland Shale Formation is studied using 77 thermally immature samples from the Duffield borehole. The Bowland Shale Formation comprises mudstone and turibidite lithofacies reflecting a pronounced sea level controlled cyclicity. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the mudstones lithofacies (including marine bands) and of fine-grained rocks within the turibidite lithofacies varies between 1.3 and 9.1%. Hydrogen index (HI) values imply the presence of kerogen type III-II. According to biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical parameters, marine bands (maximum flooding surfaces, mfs) were deposited in deep water with slightly enhanced, normal, or slightly reduced salinity. Mudstones of the highstand systems tract (HST) were deposited in environments with normal to reduced salinity, whereas photic zone anoxia favoured the preservation of marine organic matter during deposition of the mfs and the HST. The supply of landplant debris increased during the HST. Turbidites and their non-calcareous mudstone equivalents represent lowstand systems tracts deposited in low salinity environments. Terrestrial organic matter dominates in turbiditic sediments, marine organisms prevail in time-equivalent mudstones. Mudstone beneath marine bands represents transgressive systems tracts when normal marine conditions and photic zone anoxia were re-established. The mudstone lithofacies exhibits a very good to excellent potential to generate conventional mixed oil and gas. TOC content of fine-grained rocks in the turbidite lithofacies depends on the amount of detrital minerals supplied from the south. Moreover, their organic matter is gas-prone. High TOC contents and large thicknesses of the mudstone lithofacies show that the Bowland Shale Formation holds a significant shale gas/liquid potential in areas with appropriate maturity. A relatively low average HI and high clay contents may have negative effects on the shale gas potential.

D. Gross; R.F. Sachsenhofer; A. Bechtel; L. Pytlak; B. Rupprecht; E. Wegerer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Semi-Open Pyrolysis of Oil Shale from the Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semi-Open Pyrolysis of Oil Shale from the Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation ... Energy Fuels, Article ASAP ...

Alan K. Burnham; James R. McConaghy

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

16

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to build upon previous compilations of shale formations within many of the major sedimentary basins in the US by developing GIS data delineating isopach and structural depth maps for many of these units. These data are being incorporated into the LANL digital GIS database being developed for determining host rock distribution and depth/thickness parameters consistent with repository design. Methods were developed to assess hydrological and geomechanical properties and conditions for shale formations based on sonic velocity measurements.

Dobson, Patrick; Houseworth, James

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

17

Natural gas from shale formation – The evolution, evidences and challenges of shale gas revolution in United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Extraction of natural gas from shale rock in the United States (US) is one of the landmark events in the 21st century. The combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing can extract huge quantities of natural gas from impermeable shale formations, which were previously thought to be either impossible or uneconomic to produce. This review offers a comprehensive insight into US shale gas opportunities, appraising the evolution, evidence and the challenges of shale gas production in the US. The history of US shale gas in this article is divided into three periods and based on the change of oil price (i.e., the period before the 1970s oil crisis, the period from 1970s to 2000, and the period since 2000), the US has moved from being one of the world's biggest importers of gas to being self-sufficient in less than a decade, with the shale gas production increasing 12-fold (from 2000 to 2010). The US domestic natural gas price hit a 10-year low in 2012. The US domestic natural gas price in the first half of 2012 was about $2 per million British Thermal Unit (BTU), compared with Brent crude, the world benchmark price for oil, now about $ 80–100/barrel, or $14–17 per million BTU. Partly due to an increase in gas-fired power generation in response to low gas prices, US carbon emissions from fossil-fuel combustion fell by 430 million ton CO2 – more than any other country – between 2006 and 2011. Shale gas also stimulated economic growth, creating 600,000 new jobs in the US by 2010. However, the US shale gas revolution would be curbed, if the environmental risks posed by hydraulic fracturing are not managed effectively. The hydraulic fracturing is water intensive, and can cause pollution in the marine environment, with implications for long-term environmental sustainability in several ways. Also, large amounts of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, can be emitted during the shale gas exploration and production. Hydraulic fracturing also may induce earthquakes. These environmental risks need to be managed by good practices which is not being applied by all the producers in all the locations. Enforcing stronger regulations are necessary to minimize risk to the environment and on human health. Robust regulatory oversight can however increase the cost of extraction, but stringent regulations can foster an historic opportunity to provide cheaper and cleaner gas to meet the consumer demand, as well as to usher in the future growth of the industry.

Qiang Wang; Xi Chen; Awadhesh N. Jha; Howard Rogers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reservoir evaluation of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation shale gas in the southern Sichuan Basin of China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation (the Palaeozoic) is organic-rich (black) shale in the southern Sichuan Basin (the Yangtze Plate) of China. This study analyses the lateral extent and thickness, burial depth, total organic carbon content and thermal maturity of the Longmaxi Formation black shale as the key features of the shale gas reservoir. The thickness of the black shale ranges from 10 to 170 m. The thickest reservoir is located in Changning-Naxi-Yongchuan region. The TOC of the shale at the bottom of the formation (50-m thickness) is above 2.0%. The lateral distribution of TOC varies with the lateral distribution of thickness, with the maximum TOC in the Gongxian-Luzhou-Yongchuan region. The burial depth ranges from 2000 to 4500 m. The shale is thermally over mature. The evaluation of reservoir characteristics indicates that the Longmaxi Formation has conditions appropriate for shale gas accumulation and thus resource potential in the southern Sichuan Basin of China. The objective of this preliminary evaluation of the reservoir characteristics is to locate potential areas favourable for exploration. The most favourable areas are defined here as those where the thickness of black shale is more than 100 m and the burial depth is less than 3000 m; these cover approximately 12,600 km2. The most favourable areas, which cover an area of approximately 5100 km2, are located in the northeast Luzhou region.

Shangbin Chen; Yanming Zhu; Yong Qin; Hongyan Wang; Honglin Liu; Junhua Fang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

On the Fossil Algae of the Petroleum-Yielding Shales of the Green River Formation of Colorado and Utah  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...georef/georef;1975057021 algae biostratigraphy Cenozoic Colorado Eocene Green River Formation microfossils occurrence oil shale organic residues paleobotany Paleogene Plantae sedimentary rocks Tertiary United States Utah GeoRef, Copyright 2004...

Charles A. Davis

1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Extremely ferrous fayalite and hedenbergite from metalliferous quartzite in the Black Shale Formation in the Southern Urals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports data on the inner structure and composition of fine-grained fayalite-hedenbergite hydrothermal-metasomatic veinlet in unusual quartzite (so-called kluchevite) in the Black Shale Formation in ...

V. G. Korinevsky

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

William Orem; Calin Tatu; Matthew Varonka; Harry Lerch; Anne Bates; Mark Engle; Lynn Crosby; Jennifer McIntosh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Estimating the Carbon Sequestration Capacity of Shale Formations Using Methane Production Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimating the Carbon Sequestration Capacity of Shale Formations Using Methane Production Rates ... Even though both of these strategies have some potential to sequester CO2, the magnitude is much smaller than current or projected CO2 emissions. ... This distribution is combined with stochastic estimates for (4) the ratio of CH4 volume to CO2 volume that can sorb to the fracture surface and (5) the ratio of the gas diffusivities at the fracture surface to estimate the volume of CO2 that could be sequestered in these wells. ...

Zhiyuan Tao; Andres Clarens

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

23

Induction log responses to layered, dipping, and anisotropic formations: Induction log shoulder-bed corrections to anisotropic formations and the effect of shale anisotropy in thinly laminated sand/shale sequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Induction log responses to layered, dipping, and anisotropic formations are examined analytically. The analytical model is especially helpful in understanding induction log responses to thinly laminated binary formations, such as sand/shale sequences, that exhibit macroscopically anisotropic: resistivity. Two applications of the analytical model are discussed. In one application we examine special induction log shoulder-bed corrections for use when thin anisotropic beds are encountered. It is known that thinly laminated sand/shale sequences act as macroscopically anisotropic: formations. Hydrocarbon-bearing formations also act as macroscopically anisotropic formations when they consist of alternating layers of different grain-size distributions. When such formations are thick, induction logs accurately read the macroscopic conductivity, from which the hydrocarbon saturation in the formations can be computed. When the laminated formations are not thick, proper shoulder-bed corrections (or thin-bed corrections) should be applied to obtain the true macroscopic formation conductivity and to estimate the hydrocarbon saturation more accurately. The analytical model is used to calculate the thin-bed effect and to evaluate the shoulder-bed corrections. We will show that the formation resistivity and hence the hydrocarbon saturation are greatly overestimated when the anisotropy effect is not accounted for and conventional shoulder-bed corrections are applied to the log responses from such laminated formations.

Hagiwara, Teruhiko

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

A time-temperature-concentration matrix for induced sediment formation in shale diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality with time has been a continuing problem in the utilization of middle distillate fuels. These stability problems will intensify as we develop alternative sources of fuel, such as shale oil and coal. Present knowledge has suggested that for some fuels, nitrogen heterocycles may play a causative role in the formation of insoluble sediments and gums under conditions of ambient and accelerated storage. In light of the high costs of fuel processing, substantial savings could be realized if it were possible to identify those nitrogen heterocycles which are most actively involved in the formation of insoluble material. Currently, it appears that relatively non-basic nitrogen heterocycles, particularly those which contain alkyl groups in certain positions, may be the most troublesome. However, in other fuels and under different test conditions, basic nitrogen compounds may play a significant role. In addressing this subject, we are defining the stability of shale-derived diesel fuel marine (DFM), stressing the sample under accelerated storage conditions, and determining the amount of total insoluble material produced. This report describes results obtained when 2,5-dimethylpyrrole (DMP) was used as a dopant in a time-temperature-concentration matrix. Results of a survey of other nitrogen compounds as fuel additives are also presented.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Top-Down Modeling; Practical, Fast-Track, Reservoir Modeling for Shale Formations AAPG/SEG/SPE/SPWLA Hedberg Conference, Austin, TX December 2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for New Albany, Lower Huron and Marcellus Shales. Top-Down Modeling technology integrates reservoir1 Top-Down Modeling; Practical, Fast-Track, Reservoir Modeling for Shale Formations AAPG OF SHALE RESOURCE PLAYS" DECEMBER 5-10, 2010 ­ AUSTIN, TEXAS Top-Down Modeling; Practical, Fast Track

Mohaghegh, Shahab

26

Comparisons of pore size distribution: A case from the Western Australian gas shale formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pore structure of shale samples from Triassic Kockatea and Permian Carynginia formations in the Northern Perth Basin, Western Australia is characterized. Transport properties of a porous media are regulated by the topology and geometry of inter-connected pore spaces. Comparisons of three laboratory experiments are conducted on the same source of samples to assess such micro-, meso- and macro-porosity: Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP), low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and nitrogen adsorption (N2). High resolution FIB/SEM image analysis is used to further support the experimental pore structure interpretations at sub-micron scale. A dominating pore throat radius is found to be around 6 nm within a mesopore range based on MICP, with a common porosity around 3%. This relatively fast experiment offers the advantage to be reliable on well chips or cuttings up the pore throat sizes >2 nm. However, nitrogen adsorption method is capable to record pore sizes below 2 nm through the determination of the total pore volume from the quantity of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure. But the macro-porosity and part of the meso-porosity is damaged or even destroyed during the sample preparation. BET specific surface area results usually show a narrow range of values from 5 to 10 m2/g. Inconsistency was found in the pore size classification between MICP and N2 measurements mostly due to their individual lower- and upper-end pore size resolution limits. The water filled pores disclosed from NMR T2 relaxation time were on average 30% larger than MICP tests. Evidence of artificial cracks generated from the water interactions with clays after re-saturation experiments could explain such porosity over-estimation. The computed pore body to pore throat ratio extracted from the Timur–Coates NMR model, calibrated against gas permeability experiments, revealed that such pore geometry directly control the permeability while the porosity and pore size distribution remain similar between different shale gas formations and/or within the same formation. The combination of pore size distribution obtained from MICP, N2 and NMR seems appropriate to fully cover the range of pore size from shale gas and overcome the individual method limits.

Adnan Al Hinai; Reza Rezaee; Lionel Esteban; Mehdi Labani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

International Coalbed and Shale Gas Symposium, Paper 808.Shale RVSP, New Albany Shale Gas Project, RVSP SeismicWave Analysis from Antrim Shale Gas Play, Michigan Basin,

Dobson, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Occurrence of Multiple Fluid Phases Across a Basin, in the Same Shale Gas Formation – Eagle Ford Shale Example  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale gas and oil are playing a significant role in US energy independence by reversing declining production trends. Successful exploration and development of the Eagle Ford Shale Play requires reservoir characterization, recognition of fluid...

Tian, Yao

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

29

Flash pyrolysis of kerogens from algal rich oil shales from the Eocene Huadian Formation, NE China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The hydrocarbon composition of the kerogen fractions of two samples (HD-20 and HD-21) from oil shale layer 4 in the Eocene Huadian Formation, NE China were investigated by analytical flash pyrolysis (650 °C/10 s) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py–GC–MS). Organic petrography showed that the two kerogens were almost entirely derived from algal remains but contained very different algal maceral compositions, with 40% of the macerals in HD-20 being of macroalgal origin that were not present in HD-21. Py–GC–MS yielded high concentrations of n-alkanes from both kerogens, but with different molecular weight profiles due to the different algal contributors to the two kerogen samples. The hydrocarbon pyrolysates generated at 650 °C from HD-21 in which the green microalga Botryococcus braunii was identified showed a higher proportion of longer chain alkanes and alkenes presumably from cracking of the botryococcus algaenan. We also identified a C40 monoaromatic lycopane derivative, which was absent in the HD-20. The high hydrocarbon potential of both kerogens can be attributed to common microalgal sources, whereas the macroalgae, which is abundant in HD-20, makes only a minor contribution to the hydrocarbon products.

Zhirong Zhang; John K. Volkman; Paul F. Greenwood; Wenxuan Hu; Jianzhong Qin; Tenger Borjigin; Changbo Zhai; Weixin Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Core-based integrated sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical analysis of the oil shale bearing Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE Award No.: DE-FE0001243 DOE Award No.: DE-FE0001243 Topical Report CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH Submitted by: University of Utah Institute for Clean and Secure Energy 155 South 1452 East, Room 380 Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Prepared for: United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory April 2011 Oil & Natural Gas Technology Office of Fossil Energy Core-based integrated sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical analysis of the oil shale bearing Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah Topical Report Reporting Period: October 31, 2009 through March 31, 2011 Authors: Lauren P. Birgenheier, Energy and Geoscience Insitute, University of Utah

31

Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

Cole, R.D.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enggeo.2013.05.021. CNX/GTI (2008). New Albany ShaleRVSP, New Albany Shale Gas Project, RVSP Seismic Projectisopach maps of the New Albany Shale, Illinois Basin. Figure

Dobson, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Shale Gas Formations and Their Potential for Carbon Storage: Opportunities and Outlook  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shale gas resources are proving to be globally abundant...2...(carbon dioxide) to mitigate the climate impacts of global carbon emissions from power and industrial sectors. This paper reviews global shale gas res...

Roozbeh Khosrokhavar; Steve Griffiths; Karl-Heinz Wolf

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Facies architecture of the Upper Sego member of the Mancos Shale Formation, Book Cliffs, Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Late Cretaceous upper Sego Member of the Mancos Shale exposed in the Book Cliffs of east-central Utah is a 30 m thick sandstone wedge that overlies the Anchor Mine Tongue of the Mancos Shale and underlies coastal plain deposits of the Neslen...

Robinson, Eric D.

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

36

Time-temperature-concentration matrix for induced sediment formation in shale diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Deterioration in fuel quality during storage has been a major problem with utilization of middle distillate fuels. In this work, the relationships between time, temperature, and concentration of dimethylpyrrole (DMP) to the formation of insoluble sediments are investigated. A common reaction pathway appears to exist for DMP-promoted sedimentation in diesel fuel. A high-precision gravimetric method of fuel storage stability determination has been developed.

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Determination of formation water resistivity using shale properties in geopressured wells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the equation, w w75 (13) 15 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Two types of reservoirs were studied. The f1rst set were geopressured water wells, and the second were geopressured tight gas sands. The shale method prev1ously described was compared to several other... Oil and Minerals Prairie Cana Well Rl Lear Petroleum Keolemay '. ll Martin Exploration 2-Crown Zellerbach Shale. R w . 1277 onm-m . 049 ohm-m . 122 ohm-m . 078 ohm-m Method 12, 000 ppm 39, 000 ppm 15, 800 ppm 27, 000 ppm Lab R w . 13 ohm...

Dusenbery, Richard Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

Chemical factors affecting insolubles formation in shale-derived diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to define the stability of shale-derived diesel fuel, the authors have conducted gravimetric accelerated storage stability tests at 43 and 80/sup 0/C using three model nitrogen compounds, 2-methylpyridine, 2,6-dimethylquinoline and dodecahydrocarbazole, as dopants in an otherwise stable shale diesel fuel. Also, information about potential interactive effects has been defined for these three model nitrogen compounds in the stable fuel in the presence of a second model dopant (a hydroperocide, organic acid or base).

Beal, E.J.; Cooney, J.V.; Hazlett, R.N.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Time-temperature-concentration matrix for induced sediment formation in shale diesel fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present study has concentrated on the lower temperature range (43/sup 0/, 65/sup 0/, and 80/sup 0/C) in an effort to examine the reliability of using such accelerated storage tests as measures of ambient stability. When subjected to storage at 43/sup 0/C for periods of time ranging from 52 to 179, d, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole (DMP)-doped shale II diesel fuel marine (DFM) formed large amounts of insoluble material. The DMP was added to samples D-1 and D-11, at concentrations of 0, 45, 135, 270 and 450 ppM in nitrogen, vented trials were conducted at 45 and 450 ppM. The deviation between duplicate stress samples was small and indicated good reproducibility for the test procedure. The inherent gum constituted 5 to 10% of the total insolubles. Venting of the flasks did not affect the amount of insoluble material formed. The presence of the antioxidant 2,4-dimethyl-6-t-butylphenol in D-11 was of no consequence. The DMP test matrix at 80/sup 0/C and 65/sup 0/C provided results which compared well with those obtained at 43/sup 0/C. At all temperatures, the amount of total insoluble material formed was directly proportional to the initial of DMP. Nitrogen balance calculations are able to account for all of the DMP (after stress) as either unreacted or incorporated into the sediment produced. (3 figures, 1 table).

Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

2000-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The Importance of Geochemical Parameters and Shale Composition on Rock Mechanical Properties of Gas Shale Reservoirs: a Case Study From the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia Formation From the Perth Basin, Western Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of the gas shale mechanical properties is very important screening criteria ... for hydraulic fracturing and as a result in gas shale sweet spot mapping. Young’s modulus and ... mechanical properties t...

Mohammad Mahdi Labani; Reza Rezaee

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Data Formats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides a taxonomy of existing data formats for power power system analysis. These include most commonly used formats of free and proprietary software packages as well as the IEC common informati...

Federico Milano

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

File Formats  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Home Page Home Page File Formats MODIS Product Subsets Output Data File Format Descriptions The MODIS product subsets for North America and Worldwide are available in several formats, which are described in the following text. MODIS Land Product ASCII Data Image Data Files in ASCII Grid Format QC-Filtered Data and Statistics Generated for this Request Land Cover Data in ASCII Grid Format Statistical Data for MODIS Land Products in Comma Separated Format Underlying BRDF Parameters Used in Generating this Request (available with Albedo MOD43B and MCD43B only) MODIS Land Product ASCII Data Description of File File Content: Data as read from MODIS Land Product HDF-EOS data files. These data are the starting point for deriving the other subset data products. Data Type: As indicated by Land Product Code (e.g., MOD15A2).

44

Utility Formation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

amounts See detailed discussion of these standards. For more information regarding tribal utility formation, contact the Power Service Line Account Executives: Eastern Power...

45

Three-dimensional pore networks and transport properties of a shale gas formation determined from focused ion beam serial imaging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three-dimensional pore network reconstructions of mudstone properties are made using dual focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Samples of Jurassic Haynesville Formation mudstone are examined with FIB-SEM and image analysis to determine pore properties, topology, and tortuosity. Resolvable pore morphologies (>~10 nm) include large slit-like pores between clay aggregates and smaller pores in strain shadows surrounding larger clastic grains. Mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) data suggest a dominant 1-10 nm or less size of pores barely resolvable by FIB-SEM imaging. Computational fluid dynamics modelling is used to calculate single phase permeability of the larger pore networks on the order of a few nanodarcys (which compare favourably with core-scale permeability tests). This suggests a pore hierarchy wherein permeability may be limited by connected networks of inter-aggregate pores larger than about 20 nm, while MICP results reflect smaller connected networks of pores residing in the clay matrix. [Received: May 12, 2011; Accepted: September 14, 2011

Thomas A. Dewers; Jason Heath; Russ Ewy; Luca Duranti

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

A 4D synchrotron X-ray tomography study of the formation of hydrocarbon migration pathways in heated organic-rich shale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway Abstract Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural

Boyer, Edmond

47

Experimental investigation of geomechanical aspects of hydraulic fracturing unconventional formations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Understanding the mechanisms that govern hydraulic fracturing applications in unconventional formations, such as gas-bearing shales, is of increasing interest to the petroleum upstream industry. Among… (more)

Alabbad, Emad Abbad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

NETL: NATCARB - CO2 Storage Formations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage Formations Storage Formations NATCARB CO2 Storage Formations CO2 Storage Resource Methodology NATCARB Viewer The NATCARB Viewer is available at: http://www.natcarbviewer.com. 2012 Atlas IV DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) were charged with providing a high-level, quantitative estimate of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage resource available in subsurface environments of their regions. Environments considered for CO2 storage were categorized into five major geologic systems: oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal areas, saline formations, shale, and basalt formations. Where possible, CO2 storage resource estimates have been quantified for oil and gas reservoirs, saline formations, and unmineable coal in the fourth edition of the United States Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas (Atlas IV). Shale and basalt

49

Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

50

Pressure-transient test design in tight gas formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper outlines a procedure for pre- and postfracture pressure-transient test design in low-permeability (tight) gas formations. The procedures proposed are based on many years' experience in evaluating low-permeability formations, and particularly on recent experience with Gas Research Inst. (GRI) programs in eastern Devonian gas shales and in western tight-gas formations.

Lee, W.J.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Two-level, horizontal free face mining system for in situ oil shale retorts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for forming an in-situ oil shale retort within a retort site in a subterranean formation containing oil shale, such an in-situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed within upper, lower and side boundaries of an in-situ oil shale retort site.

Cha, C.Y.; Ricketts, T.E.

1986-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

52

Fast and slow flexural waves in a deviated borehole in homogeneous and layered anisotropic formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that is, Dog Creek shale, Mesaverde clayshale...delta and gamma are the anisotropic coefficients defined...formations. Dog Creek shale Let us examine the acoustic...procedure in such an anisotropic environment, and because...90) in Dog Creek shale with dipole orientation......

Xiao He; Hengshan Hu; Wei Guan

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

Utah, University of

55

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Glossary Glossary Acquifer - A single underground geological formation, or group of formations, containing water. Antrim Shale - A shale deposit located in the northern Michigan basin that is a Devonian age rock formation lying at a relatively shallow depth of 1,000 feet. Gas has been produced from this formation for several decades primarily via vertical, rather than horizontal, wells. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates the technically recoverable Antrim shale resource at 20 trillion cubic feet (tcf). Appalachian Basin - The geological formations that roughly follow the Appalachian Mountain range and contain

56

Water Formatics Engineered formation of nanobubbles networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nanobubbles [3,4,11,14]. 2. A decrease in surface tension from 72 to 68 dyn/cm [11]. 3. Increase nanobubble network is the out come of a self organization process due to the collective effect of bubble-bubble term stability of water structure is resulted from the formation of dense array of stable gas

Jacob, Eshel Ben

57

Stratigraphic cross section (I) of the Upper Devonian Perrysburg and Java Formations and their equivalents, Northwestern Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This map covers various Java, Perrysburg, and Ohio Shale Formations in the Erie, Crawford, Warren, Forest, and Clarion counties of Pennsylvania. (DLC)

Harper, J.A.; Abel, K.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Stratigraphic cross section (J) of the Upper Devonian Perrysburg and Java Formations and their equivalents, Northwestern Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This map covers various Java, Perrysburg, and Ohio Shale Formations in Erie, Warren, and McKean counties in Pennsylvania, and in Chautauqua County in New York. (DLC)

Harper, J.A.; Abel, K.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of...

60

What is shale gas and why is it important?  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Over the past decade, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has allowed access to large volumes of shale gas that were previously uneconomical to produce. The production of natural gas from shale formations has rejuvenated the natural gas industry in the United States.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation A broad range of new technologies is emerging, aimed at the efficient, economic, and sustainable production of fuels from oil shale resources. A number of these hybrid oil shale technologies are focused on development of near-surface oil shale resources. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the near surface oil shale resource in the Green River Formation that is amenable to commercial development using such hybrid technology. Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - 338M_Geothermal_Project_Descriptions Oil Shale Research in the United States

63

Characterization of interim reference shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as interim reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Anvil Points mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, kerogen concentrates, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. The measured properties of the interim reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western interim reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern interim reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the interim reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. The experimental determination of many of the shale oil properties was beyond the scope of this study. Therefore, direct comparison between calculated and measured values of many properties could not be made. However, molecular weights of the shale oils were measured. In this case, there was poor agreement between measured molecular weights and those calculated from API and other published correlations. 23 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Sullivan, S.; Mason, G.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the upper Olentangy Shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This map represents the net thickness of the radioactive shale facies included in that part of the Olentangy Shale of Ohio which correlates to the West Falls, Sonyea, and Genesee Formations of New York State. Specifically excluded from consideration is the uppermost part of the upper Olentangy Shale which correlates to the Java Formation of New York. The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit.

Honeycutt, M.; Majchszak, F.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Focus on the Marcellus Shale By Lisa Sumi  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas: Focus on the Marcellus Shale By Lisa Sumi FOR THE OIL & GAS ACCOUNTABILITY PROJECT on potential oil and gas development in the Marcellus Shale formation in northeastern Pennsylvania and gas development. We hope that this report will help address many questions about the Marcellus Shale

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

66

New look for gas in Forbes formation, Sacramento Valley, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Forbes formation of upper Cretaceous age consists of marine shale, siltstone, and interbedded sandstone, and lies stratigraphically between the younger Kione Deltaic sandstone facies and the older Dobbins shale. On the west side of the Sacramento Valley, the Kione formation is truncated and the Forbes formation is overlain by the Capay (Eocene) and/or Tehama (post-Eocene) formations. In the Sacramento to Red Bluff area, the Forbes formation attains a thickness of up to 5000 ft (1524 m). The importance of the Forbes formation as a source of gas production in the Sacramento Valley is well established. Gas was first produced from the Forbes formation near the south edge of the Marysville Buttes in 1953. The formation is now productive in over 20 fields in the Sacramento Valley with cumulative production to January 1, 1980, of 1.23 billion MCF of gas. As a result of new CDP seismic reflection profiling, drilling for gas from the Forbes formation has increased dramatically since 1978.

Lindblom, R.G.; Mosier, W.C.; Jacobson, J.B.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Introduction Format Proprietaire -Standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Code for Information Interchange) 4. Unicode IFT-1215 Stefan Monnier 7 #12;BCD IFT-1215 Stefan MonnierSOMMAIRE Introduction Format Propri´etaire -Standard Code Alphanum´erique Entr´ee Alphanum : !, ?, ", (, . . . · Caract`eres sp´eciaux : *, $, ¿, . . . Quelques standards utilis´es pour les coder en binaires 1. BCD

Monnier, Stefan

68

Hierarchical galaxy formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......such as the cooling of gas in haloes, the formation...effects on interstellar gas of energy released by young stars, the production of heavy elements, the...dynamics of the cooling gas are calculated in full...relatively small computational cost. The major disadvantage......

Shaun Cole; Cedric G. Lacey; Carlton M. Baugh; Carlos S. Frenk

2000-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

69

Oil shale retorting method and apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method and apparatus for the retorting of oil shale and the formation of spent oil shale having improved cementation properties. The improved method comprises passing feed comprising oil shale to a contacting zone wherein the feed oil shale is contacted with heat transfer medium to heat said shale to retorting temperature. The feed oil shale is substantially retorted to form fluid material having heating value and forming partially spent oil shale containing carbonaceous material. At least a portion of the partially spent oil shale is passed to a combustion zone wherein the partially spent oil shale is contacted with oxidizing gas comprising oxygen and steam to substantially combust carbonaceous material forming spent oil shale having improved cementation properties.

York, E.D.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

70

Simulation of triaxial induction measurements in dipping, invaded, and anisotropic formations using a Fourier series  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Simulation of triaxial induction measurements in dipping, invaded, and anisotropic formations using reserves. Across thinly bedded sand-shale rock sequences wherein the thickness of the layers is shorter by low-resistivity shale layers Luling et al., 1994 . Thus, measurements of vertical conductivity

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

71

Magnetic study of metamorphosed sedimentary rocks of the Hatrurim formation, Israel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......samples 9 and 10 from the lens of bituminous carbonate (oil shale) of the Mishash formation from the Hatrurim basin; samples...very small coercive forces (5 mT). In comparison, the oil shale (A-D/4) shows homogeneous results for similar distant......

Boris Khesin; Shimon Feinstein; Yevgeny Vapnik; Sophia Itkis; Roman Leonhardt

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation A broad range of new technologies is emerging, aimed at the efficient, economic, and sustainable production of fuels from oil shale resources. A number of these hybrid oil shale technologies are focused on development of near-surface oil shale resources. The purpose of this analysis is to identify the near surface oil shale resource in the Green River Formation that is amenable to commercial development using such hybrid technology. Applicability of a Hybrid Retorting Technology in the Green River Formation More Documents & Publications Microsoft Word - 338M_Geothermal_Project_Descriptions Before the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power

73

A diminutive pelecinid wasp from the Eocene Kishenehn Formation of northwestern Montana (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new genus and species of pelecinid wasp (Proctotrupoidea: Pelecinidae) is described and figured from a single male preserved in oil shale from the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation of northwestern Montana. Phasmatopelecinus leonae Greenwalt...

Greenwalt, Dale; Engel, Michael S.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Process Design and Integration of Shale Gas to Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent breakthroughs in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology have made huge reservoirs of previously untapped shale gas and shale oil formations available for use. These new resources have already made a significant impact...

Ehlinger, Victoria M.

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

A wellbore stability model for formations with anisotropic rock strengths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shale formations, due to the presence of laminations and weak planes, exhibit directional strength characteristics. In most conventional wellbore stability analyses, rock formations are typically assumed to have isotropic strength. This may cause erroneous results in anisotropic formations such as shales which show strength variations with changing loading directions with respect to the plane of weakness. Therefore a more complex wellbore stability model is required. We have developed such a model in which the anisotropic rock strength characteristic is incorporated. Applying this model to two case studies shows that shear failures occur either along or across the bedding planes depending on the relative orientation between the wellbore trajectories and the bedding planes. Additionally, the extent of failure region around the wellbore and the safe mud weights are significantly affected by the wellbore orientation with respect to the directions of bedding plane and in-situ stress field.

Hikweon Lee; See Hong Ong; Mohammed Azeemuddin; Harvey Goodman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Experimental study of mechanisms of improving oil recovery in Shale.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??ABSTRACT Extensive laboratory work was done to investigate some of the important mechanisms of improving oil recovery in Shale formations. The objective of this research… (more)

Onyenwere, Emmanuel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

79

Mesophase Formation in Heavy Oil.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Coke formation is a major problem in the petroleum industry because of its effect on liquid yield, catalyst deactivation, and fouling of reactor internals and… (more)

Bagheri, Seyed Reza

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Method for forming an in-situ oil shale retort in differing grades of oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An in-situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The formation comprises at least one region of relatively richer oil shale and another region of relatively leaner oil shale. According to one embodiment, formation is excavated from within a retort site for forming at least one void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving a portion of unfragmented formation including the regions of richer and leaner oil shale adjacent such a void space. A first array of vertical blast holes are drilled in the regions of richer and leaner oil shale, and a second array of blast holes are drilled at least in the region of richer oil shale. Explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first and second arrays which extend into the richer oil shale, and separate explosive charges are placed in portions of the blast holes in the first array which extend into the leaner oil shale. This provides an array with a smaller scaled depth of burial (sdob) and closer spacing distance between explosive charges in the richer oil shale than the sdob and spacing distance of the array of explosive charges in the leaner oil shale. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the regions of richer and leaner oil shale toward the horizontal void for forming a fragmented mass of particles. Upon detonation of the explosive, greater explosive energy is provided collectively by the explosive charges in the richer oil shale, compared with the explosive energy produced by the explosive charges in the leaner oil shale, resulting in comparable fragmentation in both grades of oil shale.

Ricketts, T.E.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

OCCURRENCE OF BIOGENIC STERANES AND PENTACYCLIC TRITERPANES IN AN EOCENE SHALE (52 MILLION YEARS) AND IN AN EARLY PRECAMBRIAN SHALE (2.7 BILLION YEARS): A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ancient shales and oils, and more specifically in carbonaceous chondrites. Earlier we reported preliminary studies on the oil shale from the Green River Formation (Eocene age, about 52 X 106 years) at Rifle, Colorado.' 2 These results, which paralleled...

A. L. Burlingame; Pat Haug; Theodore Belsky; Melvin Calvin

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States June 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 June 2013 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources 1 This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the United States Government. The views in this report therefore should not be construed as representing those of the Department of Energy or

83

STRATAL PATTERNS OF THE WILLIAMS FORK (HUNTER CANYON) FORMATION, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the style of accommodation. The Williams Fork Formation contains stratal packages and was chosen for detailed study because of extensive exposures and a noticeable vertical change in lithology and sandstone-to-shale (net-to-gross) ratios. Ages... by Hancock (1925) and then eventually traced from the Grand Hogback to the Colorado-Utah state line by Fisher et al. (1960) and Collins (1976). The Williams Fork Formation is a gas producing formation (Cumella and Ostby, 2003), and previous study has...

Ost, Rebekah Corrie

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

84

formatting | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

formatting formatting Home Jweers's picture Submitted by Jweers(83) Contributor 7 August, 2013 - 18:23 New Robust References! citation citing developer formatting reference Semantic Mediawiki wiki Check out the new Reference Form. Adding a reference object to OpenEI using this form is the most complete way to cite a reference. After providing the name of your reference, the form will ask for your document type. Rmckeel's picture Submitted by Rmckeel(297) Contributor 25 June, 2013 - 07:39 How to create formatted blocks to hold OpenEI wiki content content formatting user interface wiki The OpenEI wiki frontpage uses "boxes" that help organize content. These boxes are frequently re-used across the site. Syndicate content 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

85

Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

Looney, Mark Dean (Houston, TX); Lestz, Robert Steven (Missouri City, TX); Hollis, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott (Los Alamos, NM); Wigand, Marcus (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

86

Statistical nano-chemo-mechanical assessment of shale by wave dispersive spectroscopy and nanoindentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale is a common type of sedimentary rock formed by clay particles and silt inclusions, and, in some cases, organic matter. Typically, shale formations serve as geological caps for hydrocarbon reservoirs. More recently, ...

Deirieh, Amer (Amer Mohammad)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

The Effect of Proppant Size and Concentration on Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Reservoirs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydraulic fracture conductivity in ultra-low permeability shale reservoirs is directly related to well productivity. The main goal of hydraulic fracturing in shale formations is to create a network of conductive pathways in the rock which increase...

Kamenov, Anton

2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

88

Paleoenvironmental analysis of the lower Mississippian Caballero Formation and the Andrecito member of the Lake Valley Formation in the northern Sacramento Mountains Otero County, New Mexico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lower, light olive-gray nodular- limestone, (2) a middle, greenish-gray calcareous-shale containing limestone nodules, and (3) an upper, dark-gray, thin-bedded limestone. Primary sedimentary-structures are relatively rare. The nodular bedding may... and thin packstone-lenses are rare; except in the upper part of the Caballero Formation. The Caballero Formation contains mostly skeletal grains. No coated grains are present and only a trace of silt is found. The skeletals are comprised of whole...

Blount, William Markham

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

90

Diagenetic saline formation waters: Their role in crustal processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation waters typical of most sedimentary basins are Bi-rich, Na-Ca-Cl brines. High Cl content is due to halite dissolution and high Ca content to albitization of metastable detrital plagioclase deposited in both sands and shales. High Br content is due to halite recrystallization, especially during deformation, and to the conversion of carnallite to sylvite. Minor elements and isotopes are all controlled by mineral/water reactions. Saline formation waters are thus a normal diagenetic product formed during burial. Diagenetic formation waters constitute a previously unrecognized loop in crustal cycling. Transfer of Li, B, S, Cl, Ca, and Br from sediments to brines, and then discharge of brines back to the ocean, explains why these six elements are depleted in the average igneous crust relative to the average sedimentary crust. Diagenetic saline formation waters are limited in volume only by the availability of sedimentary halite and detrital plagioclase. Thus, the volume of fluids available for MVT-type mineralization and late stage sediment diagenesis is much larger than would be true if formation waters were modified surficial brines. Discharge of saline formation waters from sedimentary basins accounts for efficient chloride cycling (225 Ma residence time in the ocean), and for most of the chloride content of the world's rivers not due to aerosols. Expulsion of large volumes of diagenetic formation waters during tectonism can account for rapid excursions in oceanic chemistry, as in the case of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr.

Land, L.S. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. Geology)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

is shale gas? is shale gas? Basically, it is natural gas - primarily methane - found in shale formations, some of which were formed 300-million-to-400-million years ago during the Devonian period of Earth's history. The shales were deposited as fine silt and clay particles at the bottom of relatively enclosed bodies of water. At roughly the same time, primitive plants were forming forests on land and the first amphibians were making an appearance. Some of the methane that formed from the organic matter buried with the sediments escaped into sandy rock layers adjacent to the shales, forming conventional accumulations of natural gas which are relatively easy to extract. But some of it remained locked in the tight, low permeability shale layers, becoming shale gas.

92

New Albany shale group of Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Illinois basin's New Albany shale group consists of nine formations, with the brownish-black laminated shales being the predominant lithology in southeastern Illinois and nearby parts of Kentucky where the group reaches its maximum thickness of 460 ft. A second depositional center lies in west-central Illinois and southeastern Iowa, where the group is about 300 ft thick and the predominant lithology is bioturbated olive-gray to greenish-gray shale. A northeast-trending area of thin strata (mostly interfingering gray and black shales) separates these two depocenters. The distribution and types of lithofacies in the New Albany suggest that the shale was deposited across a shelf-slope-basin transition in a marine, stratified anoxic basin. The record of depositional events in the shale group could serve as a baseline for interpreting the history of tectonically more complex sequences such as the Appalachian basin's Devonian shales.

Cluff, R.M.; Reinbold, M.L.; Lineback, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Anisotropic Porochemoelectroelastic Solution for Inclined Wellbores with Applications to Operations in Unconventional Shale Plays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, the porochemoelectroelastic theory is applied to analyze instability problems of an inclined wellbore drilled in the laminated and charged saturated chemically active shale formations. Numerical ...

Minh H. Tran; Younane N. Abousleiman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Method to inhibit deposit formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for inhibiting deposit formation on the contact surfaces of structures confining heated hydrocarbon fluid which exhibits substantial fouling. The process consists of introducing into the hydrocarbon fluid at least an inhibiting amount of thiophene-containing polycondensed aromatic/naphthenic compounds of number average molecular weight (M-bar n) from 200 to 1,000.

Dickakian, G.B.

1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

95

Plasma Rotation during Spheromak Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We observe Doppler shifts of a CIII impurity line in a spheromak plasma showing toroidal rotation during the formation phase of the spheromak configuration but not during the equilibrium or decay phase. The evolution of the velocity fields is consistent with the estimated rate of cross-helicity decay given the viscosity and resistivity of the plasma.

T. Peyser and G. C. Goldenbaum

1988-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

96

Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

Estalella, Robert

97

Method of protecting a permeable formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a method of drilling a well bore through subsurface formations including a permeable formation. It comprises: drilling a well bore through the permeable formation to at least the lower boundary thereof; filling the bore in the permeable formation with liquid composition capable of gelling, the liquid composition containing a gel breaker; allowing the gel to mature; drilling through the gel so as to open the well bore in the permeable formation, some of the gel remaining to plug the permeable formation in the well bore; installing a casing in the well bore in the permeable formation; and allowing the remaining gel to revert to a liquid.

Falk, D.O.

1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Characterization of Rodessa Formation Reservoir (Lower Cretaceous) in Van Field, Van Zandt County, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of interbedded biotic and abiotic mudstones to grainstones. The lower Rodessa is composed of interbedded sandstones, shales, and limestones called the Carlisle Member. Based on core and well log interpretation, the Rodessa Formation was deposited on a broad... ????????????????.. 13 Borehole Log Analysis ???????????????????? 14 RODESSA LITHOFACIES AND DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT ????18 Rodessa Lithofacies ??????????????????????? 18 Oolitic Mudstone to Grainstone Lithofacies ???????????? 18 Skeletal Mudstone to Packstone...

Triyana, Yanyan

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Correlation and Stratigraphic Analysis of the Bakken and Sappington Formations in Montana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian (Late Fammenian-Tournaisian) Bakken Formation in the Williston Basin is one of the largest continuous oil fields in the U.S. The upper and the lower shale members are organic rich source rocks that supplied oil...

Adiguzel, Zeynep 1986-

2012-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

Fragment of the chemical structure of type II and II-S kerogen in the Upper Jurassic and Upper Devonian formations of the East European Platform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is proposed for a fragment of the chemical structures of the geopolymers based on elemental ... Jurassic and Devonian formations in the East European Platform. The Sorg/C ratio in kerogen from oil shales ...

N. S. Burdel’naya; D. A. Bushev

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green River  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 3 Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological 1:'_i 'I I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green email: mgani@uno.edu t",. The Green River Formation comprises the world's largest deposit of oil-shale characterization of these lacustrine oil-shale deposits in the subsurface is lacking. This study analyzed ~300 m

Gani, M. Royhan

104

Help:Formatting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Formatting Formatting Jump to: navigation, search You can format your text using wiki markup. This consists of normal characters like asterisks, single quotes or equation marks which have a special function in the wiki, sometimes depending on their position. For example, to format a word in italic, you include it in two single quotes like ''this'' Contents 1 Text formatting markup 2 Paragraphs 3 HTML 4 Other formatting Text formatting markup Description You type You get character formatting - applies anywhere Italic text ''italic'' italic Bold text '''bold''' bold Bold and italic '''''bold & italic''''' bold & italic Escape wiki markup no ''markup'' no ''markup'' section formatting - only at the beginning of the line Headings of different levels

105

SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND FACIES ANALYSIS OF THE ROLLINS SANDSTONE MEMBER (MOUNT GARFIELD FORMATION) AND RE-EXAMINATION OF THE CONTACT BETWEEN THE MOUNT GARFIELD AND WILLIAMS FORK FORMATIONS (LATE CRETACEOUS)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 3 REFERENCES Gill, J. R, and Hail, W.J., Jr.,1975, Stratigraphic sections across Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale-Mesaverde Group boundary, eastern Utah and western Colorado: U S Geological Survey Oil and Gas Investigations Chart OC-68, 1... of Mancos Shale. These units were originally described by Hancock (1925). The lower two members of the Mount Garfield Formation have been described and documented (Madof, 2006; Zater, 2005). These studies produced sequence-stratigraphic correlations...

Thompson, Jesse David

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

106

Notices Accessible Format: Individuals with  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

472 Federal Register 472 Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 83 / Monday, April 30, 2012 / Notices Accessible Format: Individuals with disabilities can obtain this document in an accessible format (e.g., braille, large print, audiotape, or computer diskette) on request to the program contact person listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. Electronic Access to This Document: The official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys. At this site you can view this document, as well as all other documents of this Department published in the Federal Register, in text or Adobe Portable Document

107

Formation control for cooperative surveillance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

>>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>>> >>> >>>> >>> >>>: _xi = vi cos i cos`i _yi = vi sin i cos`i _zi = vi sinfii _ i = !i _`i = ?i _vi = ui (2.10) Formation Constraints can be deflned by Qi = [r?i]I ?[bi]I = 0 and formation errors are represented byEi = [ri]I?[r?i]I. Let us deflne the error vector... velocity of the second virtual agent was determined 24 from Eq.(2.17). Also, Fig.6 shows that all errors are stabilized exponentially by the controllers ui in Eq.(2.9). The ith row in Fig.6 shows the errors between [ri]I and [r?i]I. The convergence rate...

Woo, Sang-Bum

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Formation Testing Techniques Formation Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Formation Testing Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Downhole Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Formation Testing Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Thermal: Dictionary.png Formation Testing Techniques: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition References No exploration activities found. Print PDF Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Formation_Testing_Techniques&oldid=601973" Categories: Downhole Techniques Exploration Techniques

109

Horizontal drilling the Bakken Formation, Williston basin: A new approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Horizontal drilling is an attractive new approach to exploration and development of the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken Formation in the southwestern part of North Dakota. This drilling technique increases the probability of success, the profit potential, the effective drainage area maximizing recoverable reserves, and the productivity by encountering more natural occurring fractures. The target formation, the Mississippian/Devonian Bakken, consists of three members in an overlapping relationship, a lower organic-rich black shale, a middle siltstone/limestone, and an upper organic-rich black shale. It attains a maximum thickness of 145 ft and thins to a feather edge along its depositional limit. Considered to be a major source rock for the Williston basin, the Bakken is usually overpressured where productive. Overpressuring is attributed to intense hydrocarbon generation. Reservoir properties are poor with core fluid porosities being generally 5% or less and permeabilities ranging from 0.1 to 0.2 md. The presence of natural fractures in the shale are necessary for production. Two types of fractures are associated with Bakken reservoirs: large vertical fractures (of tectonic origin) and microfractures (probably related to hydrocarbon generation). An economic comparison between horizontal and vertical wells show that well completion costs are approximately two times higher (average costs; $1,500,000 for a horizontal to $850,000 for a vertical) with average payout for horizontal wells projected to occur in half the time (1.5 yr instead of 3.4 yr). Projected production and reserves are considered to be 2 to 4 times greater from a horizontal well.

Lefever, J.A. (North Dakota Geological Survey, Grand Forks (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Help:FormattingResults | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

FormattingResults FormattingResults Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 UL 2 Google Pie Charts 3 Outline 4 Calendar 5 Timeline 6 Gallery 7 Google Map 8 Geochart Ask Queries are used to pull results from semantic wiki content and can be displayed in a variety of formats. This page lists examples of the more common formats with the code used to generate them and when applicable, links to eternal help documents describing the options available for each format. When writing an ask query, one specifies the format with |format=. The examples below contain the ask query code used to generate them, including the format declaration. UL BioPower Atlas and BioFuels Atlas Biomass Energy Data Book CLIMWAT 2.0 CROPWAT 8.0 {{#ask:[[Category:Tools]] [[ProgramTopics::Resource assessment]] [[ProgramResources::Dataset]]

111

SAR polar format implementation with MATLAB.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traditional polar format image formation for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) requires a large amount of processing power and memory in order to accomplish in real-time. These requirements can thus eliminate the possible usage of interpreted language environments such as MATLAB. However, with trapezoidal aperture phase history collection and changes to the traditional polar format algorithm, certain optimizations make MATLAB a possible tool for image formation. Thus, this document's purpose is two-fold. The first outlines a change to the existing Polar Format MATLAB implementation utilizing the Chirp Z-Transform that improves performance and memory usage achieving near realtime results for smaller apertures. The second is the addition of two new possible image formation options that perform a more traditional interpolation style image formation. These options allow the continued exploration of possible interpolation methods for image formation and some preliminary results comparing image quality are given.

Martin, Grant D.; Doerry, Armin Walter

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Proportional structural effects of formative indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formative constructs must influence two or more distinct outcome variables for meaningful tests of the formative conceptualization. Because the construct mediates the effects of its indicators, the indicators must have ...

Franke, George R.; Preacher, K. J.; Rigdon, Ed E.

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

114

Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

T. Padmanabhan

1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

115

Interchange format for hybrid systems: abstract semantics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In [1] we advocated the need for an interchange format for hybrid systems that enables the integration of design tools coming from many different research communities. In deriving such interchange format the main challenge is to define a language that, ...

Alessandro Pinto; Luca P. Carloni; Roberto Passerone; Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

Vinegar, Harold J

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

117

Shale Gas and Hydrofracturing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advances in horizontal drilling technology and hydrofracturing allow natural gas to escape from shale formations following high pressure treatment, i.e. “fracking” with sand, water and chemicals. ... With fracking, natural gas prices have remained low at less than $2.50 per million BTU. ... Fracking chemicals, petrochemicals, and metals and radionuclides from source rock cause major environmental burdens if not properly treated or deep-injected. ...

Jerald L. Schnoor

2012-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

Rio, Yvon [CEA/IRFU/Sap, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

119

Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

120

Experimental studies of spheromak formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies in the PS?1 spheromak configuration can be effectively formed by a combined z? and ??pinch technique on both a fast (?formation??Alfvén) and a much slower timescale. The gross tilt and shift instability of the toroid can be suppressed by a combination of conduction walls shaping the separatrix by externally applied fields and the use of ‘‘figure?eight’’ coils. Optimum stabilty is obtained for almost spherical toroids. Maximum field?reversal times for stable well?confined toroids are ?40 /?sec consistent with resistive decay. Temperatures during the stable decay are 5–10 eV; impurity radiation is an important energy?loss mechanism.

H. Bruhns; C. Chin?Fatt; Y. P. Chong; A. W. DeSilva; G. C. Goldenbaum; H. R. Griem; G. W. Hart; R. A. Hess; J. H. Irby; R. S. Shaw

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Bar Formation, Evolution and Destruction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I review the various mechanisms for creating bars in rotating stellar disks, and conclude that the swing-amplified feed-back loop, which produces rapidly tumbling bars, remains the most probable. The bar continues to evolve after its formation in a number of ways; here I discuss what appears to be inevitable thickening normal to the plane, continued spiral activity in the outer disk and also underscore the increasingly important problem presented by angular momentum loss to the halo. Finally, I examine possible means, excluding interaction, by which bars in galaxies could be destroyed.

J A Sellwood

1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

122

Zonal flow as pattern formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zonal flows are well known to arise spontaneously out of turbulence. We show that for statistically averaged equations of the stochastically forced generalized Hasegawa-Mima model, steady-state zonal flows, and inhomogeneous turbulence fit into the framework of pattern formation. There are many implications. First, the wavelength of the zonal flows is not unique. Indeed, in an idealized, infinite system, any wavelength within a certain continuous band corresponds to a solution. Second, of these wavelengths, only those within a smaller subband are linearly stable. Unstable wavelengths must evolve to reach a stable wavelength; this process manifests as merging jets.

Parker, Jeffrey B.; Krommes, John A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

123

Electrochemical formation of field emitters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

125

Heat of combustion of retorted and burnt Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heats of combustion were measured for 12 samples of retorted and 21 samples of burnt Colorado oil shale originating from raw shales with grades that ranged from 13 to 255 cm/sup 3/ of shale oil/kg of oil shale. For the retorted shales, the authors resolve the heat of combustion into exothermic contributions from combustion of carbon residue and iron sulfides and endothermic contributions from carbonate decomposition and glass formation. Eight samples reported in the literature were included in this analysis. Variations in the first three constituents account for over 99% of the variation in the heats of combustion. For the burnt shales, account must also be taken of the partial conversion of iron sulfides to sulfates. Equations are developed for calculating the heat of combustion of retorted and burnt oil shale with a standard error of about 60 J/g. 13 refs.

Burnham, A.K.; Crawford, P.C.; Carley, J.F.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Heat of combustion of retorted and burnt Colorado oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heats of combustion were measured for 12 samples of retorted and 21 samples of burnt Colorado oil shale originating from raw shales with grades that ranged from 13 to 255 cm/sup 3/ of shale oil/kg of oil shale. For the retorted shales, the heat of combustion was resolved into exothermic contributions from combustion of carbon residue and iron sulfides and endothermic contributions from carbonate decomposition and glass formation. Eight samples reported in the literature were included in this analysis. Variations in the first three constituents account for over 99% of the variation in the heats of combustion. For the burnt shales, account must also be taken of the partial conversion of iron sulfides to sulfates. Equations are developed for calculating the heat of combustion of retorted and burnt oil shale with a standard error of about 60 J/g.

Burnham, A.K.; Carley, J.F.; Crawford, P.C.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

ORNL DAAC, global climate data, GIS formats  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Data in GIS Formats Data in GIS Formats ORNL DAAC has re-released a key climatology data set in two additional formats especially suitable for geographic information system (GIS) users. Version 2.1 of "Global 30-Year Mean Monthly Climatology, 1930-1960 (Cramer and Leemans)" now offers the data in ASCII GRID format and binary format. These formats can be read directly into software packages such as ESRI's ARC/INFO and ERDAS' IMAGINE. The Cramer and Leemans climatology data set contains monthly averages of mean temperature, temperature range, precipitation, rain days, and sunshine hours for the terrestrial surface of the globe. It is gridded at a 0.5-degree longitude/latitude resolution. The Cramer and Leemans data are also available in the original ASCII format, which can be read in FORTRAN or with programs such as SAS.

128

Economic analysis of shale gas wells in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural gas produced from shale formations has increased dramatically in the past decade and has altered the oil and gas industry greatly. The use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has enabled the production ...

Hammond, Christopher D. (Christopher Daniel)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

°C, large quantities of akermanite, CazMgSiz07, were formed.to be converted to akermanite ( which is not cementitious)shale, the formation of akermanite (the non-cementitious

Mehta, P.K.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Galaxy Formation, Bars and QSOs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model that accounts for the brief flaring of QSOs in the early stages of galaxy formation is proposed. I argue that a bar must develop early in the life of nearly every galaxy and that gas to create and fuel the QSO is driven into the center of the galaxy by the bar. The QSO lifetime, and the mass of its central engine, are also controlled by large-scale dynamics, since the fuel supply is shut off after a short period by the development of an inner Lindblad resonance. This resonance causes the gas inflow along the bar to stall at a distance of a few hundred parsecs from the center. The ILR develops as a result of previous inflow, making quasar activity self-limiting. The bars are weakened and can be destroyed by the central mass concentration formed in this way.

J. A. Sellwood

1999-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

131

The dynamics of fragment formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that in the Quantum Molecular Dynamics model, dynamical correlations can result in the production rate for final state nucleon clusters (and hence composite fragments) being higher than would be expected if statistics and the available phase space were dominant in determining composite formation. An intranuclear cascade or a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck model, combined with a statistical approach in the late stage of the collision to determine composites, provides an equivalent description only under limited conditions of centrality and beam energy. We use data on participant fragment production in Au + Au collisions in the Bevalac`s BOS time projection chamber to map out the parameter space where statistical clustering provides a good description. In particular, we investigate momentum-space densities of fragments up to {sup 4}He as a function of fragment transverse momentum, azimuth relative to the reaction plane, rapidity, multiplicity and beam energy.

Keane, D. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States); EOS Collaboration

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Electrochemical formation of field emitters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

Bernhardt, A.F.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

Raw shale dissolution as an aid in determining oil shale mineralogy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With an accurate oil shale mineralogy, one can begin to unravel the inorganic and organic aspects of retorting and combustion chemistry. We evaluated three modern elemental analysis procedures (ICP-AES, XRF, and PIXE) with the aim of improving our knowledge of the mineral matrix. A New Albany Shale (Clegg Creek Member) specimen (NA13) and a Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from Anvil Points (AP24) were the two materials analyzed. These were oil shales that we had used in our pilot retort. We set a modest goal: determination of those materials present at greater than a 1% level with a relative accuracy of {plus_minus}10%. Various total dissolution methods and pre-treatement procedures were examined. The routine ICP-AES method that we adopted had precision and accuracy that exceeded our initial goals. Partial dissolution of carbonate minerals in acetic acid was slow but highly selective. The clay mineral content of both shales was deduced from the time dependence of dissolution in 6N HCl. An Al:K ratio of 3 indicated selective HCl solubility of the clay, illite. Our eastern oil shale from Kentucky was remarkably similar in mineral composition to high-grade-zone New Albany Shale samples from Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois that others had subjected to careful mineral analysis. A Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from the Colony Mine had slightly different minor mineral components (relative to AP24) as shown by its gas evolution profile.

Duewer, T.I.; Foster, K.G.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

134

Raw shale dissolution as an aid in determining oil shale mineralogy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With an accurate oil shale mineralogy, one can begin to unravel the inorganic and organic aspects of retorting and combustion chemistry. We evaluated three modern elemental analysis procedures (ICP-AES, XRF, and PIXE) with the aim of improving our knowledge of the mineral matrix. A New Albany Shale (Clegg Creek Member) specimen (NA13) and a Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from Anvil Points (AP24) were the two materials analyzed. These were oil shales that we had used in our pilot retort. We set a modest goal: determination of those materials present at greater than a 1% level with a relative accuracy of {plus minus}10%. Various total dissolution methods and pre-treatement procedures were examined. The routine ICP-AES method that we adopted had precision and accuracy that exceeded our initial goals. Partial dissolution of carbonate minerals in acetic acid was slow but highly selective. The clay mineral content of both shales was deduced from the time dependence of dissolution in 6N HCl. An Al:K ratio of 3 indicated selective HCl solubility of the clay, illite. Our eastern oil shale from Kentucky was remarkably similar in mineral composition to high-grade-zone New Albany Shale samples from Kentucky, Indiana, and Illinois that others had subjected to careful mineral analysis. A Mahogany Zone Green River Formation oil shale from the Colony Mine had slightly different minor mineral components (relative to AP24) as shown by its gas evolution profile.

Duewer, T.I.; Foster, K.G.; Coburn, T.T.

1991-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

Laboratory weathering and solubility relationships of fluorine and molybdenum in combusted oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proper management of large volumes of spent oil shale requires an understanding of the mineralogy and the disposal environment chemistry. Simulated laboratory weathering is one method to rapidly and inexpensively assess the long-term potential for spent oil shales to degrade the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the solubility relationships of fluorine (F) and molybdenum (Mo) in Green River Formation spent oil shale, to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique, and to examine the data from spent oil shale literature. Combusted oil shales from the Green River Formation and New Albany Shale were used in the examination of the leachate chemistry and mineralogy.

Essington, M.E.; Wills, R.A.; Brown, M.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Depositional environment of Lower Permian Stone Corral Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lower Permian Stone Corral Formation is a 5-8 ft thick unit of dolomitic limestone and shale in a sequence of red beds that crops out in south-central Kansas. It forms a good stratigraphic marker bed in the subsurface, where it consists mainly of anhydrite (the Cimmaron anhydrite) up to 100 ft thick. At outcrop, the formation is weathered and consists of 2 interfingering facies - a crinoidal-echinoidal grainstone (in the north) and a laminated mudstone (in the south). Both the grainstone and mudstone exhibit diagenetic alteration. The grainstone is composed of well-rounded allochems of crinoid and echinoid fragments with scattered ooids, sponge spicules, peloids, and possible foraminifers and ostracods. Layers of sponge spicules alternate with peloid or ooid layers. The mudstone facies has a clotted texture and has laminations defined by the occurrence of fenestral fabric and peloids. Dolomite occurring in the Stone Corral Formation is of secondary origin. The grainstone is interpreted as being lagoonal in origin, whereas the mudstone facies is interpreted as supratidal. The grumous (clotted) texture may indicate phreatic diagenesis. The absence of anhydrite on outcrop, where it was presumably leached by surface waters leaving the less soluble dolomite, is additional evidence for a regional disconformity above the unit on the eastern side of a large, shallow, evaporitic basin.

Hylton, A.K.; Merriam, D.F.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Hydrocarbon potential of Spearfish Formation in eastern Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

More than 36 million bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic traps in sandstones of the Triassic-Jurassic Spearfish Formation in the eastern part of the Williston basin. Newburg field has produced 32 million bbl of oil and Waskada field, discovered in 1980, is estimated to have over 10 million bbl of oil in reserves. A binocular microscopic and petrographic examination of cores from each of the fields has revealed considerable differences in the characteristics of producing sandstones. Cores and sample cuttings from 30 wells in the US and Canada form the basis for this comparison of the two fields. The Spearfish Formation consists of porous, permeable, well-sorted, very fine-grained sandstones with a sucrosic dolomite matrix that are interbedded with impermeable sandstones, siltstones, and shale. The environment of deposition is believed to be the intertidal zone (tidal flat). Sediments of the Spearfish Formation were deposited by a transgressive sea on an eroded Mississippian carbonate section. Oil found in the Spearfish sandstones is derived from the Mississippian.

Dodge C.J.N.; Reid, F.S.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

Burton, III, Robert S. (Mesa, CO)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

140

Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

142

Heating systems for heating subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

143

Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Simulations of pulsar wind formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present initial results of the first self-consistent numerical model of the outer magnetosphere of a pulsar. By using the relativistic ``particle-in-cell'' method with special boundary conditions to represent plasma dynamics in 3D, we are able to follow magnetospheric plasma through the light cylinder into the wind zone for arbitrary magnetic inclination angles. For aligned rotators we confirm the ``disk-dome'' charge-separated structure of the magnetosphere and find that this configuration is unstable to a 3D nonaxisymmetric diocotron instability. This instability allows plasma to move across the field lines and approach the corotating Goldreich-Julian solution within several rotation periods. For oblique rotators formation of the spiral ``striped wind'' in the equatorial direction is demonstrated and the acceleration of the wind and its magnetization is discussed. We find that the wind properties vary with stellar latitude; however, whether injection conditions at the pulsar are responsible for the observed jet-equator geometry of Crab and Vela is currently under investigation. We also comment on the electrodynamics of the simulated magnetospheres, their current closure, and future simulations.

Anatoly Spitkovsky; Jonathan Arons

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

Depositional facies and environments of the lower Mineral Wells formation, Pennsylvanian Strawn group, north central Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formation to exclude the Thurber coal, the Mingus shale, and the Brazos River sandstone and conglomerate (Plummer and Hornberger, 1935; Hendricks, 1957). In their publication on the geology of Palo Pinto County, Plummer and Hornberger (1935) followed... boundary was lowered and redefined as the unconformity at the base of the Lake Pinto sandstone. Some workers have continued to use the earlier nomenclature followed by Sellards (1932) and Plummer and Hornberger (1935), while others use the nomenclature...

Bradshaw, Susan Elizabeth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Absorption and elimination of formate following oral administration of calcium formate in female human subjects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Published abstract: Calcium formate is a water-soluble salt of an essential mineral nutrient with potential for use as a dietary calcium supplement. Formate ion is a product of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, but ...

Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, S. C.; Eells, J. T.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The dark side of galaxy formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...formation. | I discuss the discovery of a population of extremely...rsta.2002.1088 The dark side of galaxy formation...October 2002 I discuss the discovery of a population of extremely...Galaxy which creates the dark lanes in our view of...schematic of the spectral energy distribution of a luminous...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Bridge MBA ProgrAM Program Format  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bridge MBA ProgrAM Program Format Program Duration 12 months Program Format Cohort (lockstep) Class Requirements · Application Form and $55 fee. · Resume · Essay outlining why you wish to join the Bridge MBA program, and how you expect the Bridge to aid your future job search (500 words or less) · Official

Carter, John

149

Formation of $??$ atoms in $K_{?4} decay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive the decay rate of $\\pi\\mu$ atom formation in $K_{\\mu 4}$ decay. Using the obtained expressions we calculate the decay rate of atom formation and point out that considered decay can give a noticeable contribution as a background to the fundamental decay $K^+\\to \\pi^+\

S. R. Gevorkyan; A. V. Tarasov; O. O. Voskresenskaya

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

The Star Formation History of NGC 6822  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Images of five fields in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 obtained with the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} in the F555W and F814W filters are presented. Photometry for the stars in these images was extracted using the Point-Spread-Function fitting program HSTPHOT/MULTIPHOT. The resulting color-magnitude diagrams reach down to $V\\approx26$, a level well below the red clump, and were used to solve quantitatively for the star formation history of NGC 6822. Assuming that stars began forming in this galaxy from low-metallicity gas and that there is little variation in the metallicity at each age, the distribution of stars along the red giant branch is best fit with star formation beginning in NGC 6822 12-15 Gyr ago. The best-fitting star formation histories for the old and intermediate age stars are similar among the five fields and show a constant or somewhat increasing star formation rate from 15 Gyr ago to the present except for a possible dip in the star formation rate from 3 to 5 Gyr ago. The main differences among the five fields are in the higher overall star formation rate per area in the bar fields as well as in the ratio of the recent star formation rate to the average past rate. These variations in the recent star formation rate imply that stars formed within the past 0.6 Gyr are not spatially very well mixed throughout the galaxy.

Ted K. Wyder

2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Tafel Musik: Formatting algorithm of tables  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper provides a description on the formatting algorithm of tables that the authors have developed. This algorithm is an important component of the so called TafeMusik (Tafel Musik) environment. TafeMusikprovides the user with an environment to ... Keywords: First-fit algorithm, Linear programming, Optimization, Tables, Tabular formatting, Tabular layout

K. -H. Shin; K. Kobayashi; A. Suzuki

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

153

Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 1 Grtice J. Vincent Le logiciel Tigre en formation PLC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Tigre" en formation PLC 1 Grétice J. Vincent Le logiciel « Tigre » en formation PLC J. Vincent Le;______________________________________________________________________________________ Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 2 Grétice J. Vincent 1.1. La lecture Voici l'écran d;______________________________________________________________________________________ Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 3 Grétice J. Vincent Figure 3 1.2. La démonstration Voici l

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

I/O Formats at NERSC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

I/O Formats I/O Formats I/O Formats Software I/O continues to be one of the main bottlenecks for scientific applications. Here are two software packages that many application developers use to manage input/output of heterogeneous types of binary application data used on many different platforms. HDF5 and NETCDF are both implemented on top of MPI-IO and have gained popularity as alternatives to basic POSIX API. HDF5 is a machine-independent and self-documenting file format. Each HDF5 file "looks" like a directory tree, with subdirectories, and leaf nodes that contain the actual data. This means that data can be found in a file by referring to its name, rather than its location in the file. NetCDF is a file format and support library developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR).

155

Sequentially Triggered Star Formation in OB Associations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss observational evidence for sequential and triggered star formation in OB associations. We first review the star formation process in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest OB association to the Sun, where several recent extensive studies have allowed us to reconstruct the star formation history in a rather detailed way. We then compare the observational results with those obtained for other OB associations and with recent models of rapid cloud and star formation in the turbulent interstellar medium. We conclude that the formation of whole OB subgroups (each consisting of several thousand stars) requires large-scale triggering mechanisms such as shocks from expanding wind and supernova driven superbubbles surrounding older subgroups. Other triggering mechanisms, like radiatively driven implosion of globules, also operate, but seem to be secondary processes, forming only small stellar groups rather than whole OB subgroups with thousands of stars.

Thomas Preibisch; Hans Zinnecker

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

CO2 Sequestration in Basalt Formations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 SequeStratiOn in BaSalt FOrmatiOnS Background There is growing concern that buildup of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is contributing to global climate change. One option for mitigating this effect is to sequester CO 2 in geologic formations. Numerous site assessments for geologic sequestration of CO 2 have been conducted in virtually every region of the United States. For the most part, these studies have involved storing CO 2 in saline formation, deep coal seams, and depleted oil and gas reservoirs. Another option, however, is basalt formations. Basalt is a dark-colored, silica-rich, volcanic rock that contains cations-such as calcium, magnesium, and iron-that can combine with CO 2 to form carbonate minerals. Basalt formations have not received much

157

OIL SHALE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Seyitömer, Himmeto?lu and Hat?lda? oil shale deposits. The results demonstrate that these oil shales are

Fields (in-situ Combustion Approach; M. V. Kök; G. Guner; S. Bagci?

158

New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources February 7, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Exploration and field development in the largest continuous oil play in the lower 48 states, located in North Dakota and eastern Montana, will be guided by new geo-models developed with funding from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The three-year project to develop exploration and reservoir models for the Bakken Shale resource play was conducted by the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), through research funded by FE's Oil and Natural Gas Program. A "play" is a shale formation containing significant accumulations of natural gas or oil. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates the Bakken Shale

159

New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources February 7, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Exploration and field development in the largest continuous oil play in the lower 48 states, located in North Dakota and eastern Montana, will be guided by new geo-models developed with funding from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). The three-year project to develop exploration and reservoir models for the Bakken Shale resource play was conducted by the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), through research funded by FE's Oil and Natural Gas Program. A "play" is a shale formation containing significant accumulations of natural gas or oil. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates the Bakken Shale

160

Abandonment of the name Elephant Canyon Formation in southeastern Utah: Physical and temporal implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At its type locality near the confluence of the Green and Colorado rivers, the Elephant Canyon Formation consists of about 1,000 ft (310 m) of cyclically interbedded sandstones, limestones, and shales. The base of the formation was previously interpreted as an angular unconformity, with Wolfcampian (Lower Permian) strata resting directly on a Missourian (lower Upper Pennsylvanian) sequence composed of similar-appearing strata called the Honaker Trail Formation. The authors however, have traced individual strata within the lower Elephant Canyon and upper Honaker Trail and have found no evidence of the angular unconformity that supposedly defines their contact. After recollecting the type section of the Elephant Canyon, they found faunal evidence indicating that the lower 450 ft (138 m) of the formation is uppermost Pennsylvanian (Virgilian) in age rather than Permian (Wolfcampian). Owing to the illusory nature of the angular unconformity and the lack of biostratigraphic evidence for a major stratigraphic break at the base of the type section, they are here abandoning Elephant Canyon Formation and reinstating the pre-1962, lithostratigraphically-based terminology. Until better physical correlations between the type locality of the Rico Formation and the Canyonlands area are available, they recommend the informal term lower Cutler beds rather than Rico Formation for the rocks below the Cedar Mesa Sandstone and above the upper member of the Hermosa Formation. In addition, interpretations of the origin and history of the Meander Anticline based on the existence of an angular unconformity within the upper Paleozoic strata of the study area must be modified.

Loope, D.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA)); Sanderson, G.A. (Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (USA)); Verville, G.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gas Hydrate Formation Process Gas Hydrate Formation Process Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking collaborative research and licensing partners interested in implementing United States Non-provisional Patent Application entitled "Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Process." Disclosed in this application is a method and device for producing gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas such as methane (CH 4 ) or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone, which may be contained within the body of the spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction vessel, under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for gas hydrate formation. The reaction

162

Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

MAES Project Review Procedures SEMINAR FORMAT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MAES Project Review Procedures SEMINAR FORMAT The peer review seminar will be styled after oral the project's past accomplishments (if renewal) Discuss the new project proposal 2. Open Discussion ­ (approx

Maxwell, Bruce D.

164

Gas hydrate formation in fine sand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gas hydrate formation from two types of dissolved gas (methane and mixed gas) was studied under varying thermodynamic conditions in ... Sea. The testing media consisted of silica sand particles with diameters of ...

XiaoYa Zang; DeQing Liang; NengYou Wu

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Kinetics of acrylamide formation in potato chips  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in potato chips. Seven potato cultivars were analyzed to determine their influence on acrylamide formation during traditional and vacuum frying. The White Rose cultivar produced the highest level of acrylamide during both traditional and vacuum frying...

Granda, Claudia Esthela

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

166

Cyclic Imide Dioxime: Formation and Hydrolytic Stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Poly(acrylamidoximes) play an important role in the uranium extraction from seawater. The present work reports solution studies of simple analogs to address the formation and stability of two binding sites present in these polymers, open-chain amidoximes and cyclic imide dioximes, including: 1) conditions that maximize the formation of the cyclic form, 2) existence of a base-induced conversion from open-chain to cyclic form, and 3) degradation under acid and base conditions.

Kang, S.O. [University of Kansas; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Entanglement of formation from optimal decomposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new method of analytically deriving the entanglement of formation of the bipartite mixed state. The method realizes the optimal decomposition families of states. Our method can lead to many new results concerning entanglement of formation, its additivity and entanglement cost. We illustrate it by investigating the two-qubit state, the separable state, the maximally correlated state, the isotropic state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2007-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

168

Ettringite formation and behaviour in clayey soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failures in soil stabilization have been reported previously as being due to the formation of ettringite, an expansive mineral which develops in the presence of sulfate, calcium, and aluminum compounds of clay fraction in high pH levels between 10.36 and 14. By comparing the pattern of formation of ettringite, formed from different possible sources and specifically in stabilized soil, it is expected that a clearer picture of the kinetics of ettringite formation from different sources will be obtained. In this paper, a set of physico-chemical experiments and XRD tests were performed to investigate the process of ettringite formation and to explore its possible performance in clayey soils. The growth of the ettringite XRD peaks was used as a measure of the rate and its formation pattern. It is shown that the rate of ettringite formation in soil stabilization is much slower than that of artificial ettringite. Furthermore, it is shown that ettringite swells to the order of 50% and its fluid retention is significantly higher (by as much as 400%) than that of the soil sample studied in this research.

Vahid R. Ouhadi; Raymond N. Yong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Oil gravity segregation in the Monterey formation, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Monterey Formation is a fractured siliceous shale that is the principal reservoir and source rock for oil fields in the Santa Maria basin and the western Santa Barbara Channel. Monterey crudes in producing offshore fields are high-sulfur oils that range from 10[degrees] to 35[degrees] API. The oils in Monterey fractured reservoirs display a systematic increase in API gravity with increasing height above the oil-water contact. The rate of change in API gravity with depth in Monterey oil fields generally ranges from 0.5[degrees] to 1.2[degrees] API/100 ft. The oil-water contact usually occurs at an oil gravity of 10[degrees] API (the gravity at which the density of the oil and the water is equal). The maximum API gravity in a Monterey oil field is related to the level of thermal exposure experienced by the formation in the adjacent depocenter. Monterey oils are sourced by high-sulfur kerogens that generate heavy oils at low levels of thermal exposure, but generate progressively higher gravity oils at higher levels of thermal maturity. Comparison of the maximum API gravity found in 33 Monterey-sourced oil fields with the maximum temperature experienced by the Monterey Formation within three miles of the field (the most likely migration distance) suggests that a temperature of 260[degrees]F (127[degrees]C) is required to generate 20[degrees] API oil, and a temperature of 330[degrees]F (166[degrees]C) is required to generate 30[degrees] API oil.

Hornafius, J.S. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Macrodispersion in sand-shale sequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Macrodispersion in sand-shale sequences is investigated by a series of numerical tracer tests. Hydraulic conductivity is modeled as a binary, spatially correlated random function. Realizations of the random conductivity field are simulated on a nodal grid discretizing the heterogeneous formation. Corresponding realizations of the random velocity field are obtained by solving the equation for saturated steady state flow. Particle tracking, with flux-weighted tracer injection and detection, is used to generate experimental residence time distributions (RTDs). Moments of the RTD are used to characterize longitudinal tracer spreading. Results show that macrodispersive transport in sand-shale sequences cannot be represented by a Fickian model. RTDs display a bimodal structural caused by the fast arrival of particles traveling along preferential sandstone and shale. The relative importance of channeling and tortuous flow transport mechanisms is determined by sand-shale conductivity contrast, shale volume fraction, and conductivity spatial correlation structure. Channeling is promoted by high conductivity contrasts, low shale fractions, and flow parallel to bedding in anisotropic media. Low contrasts, high shale fractions, and flow perpendicular to bedding act to break up channels and to enhance tracer spreading.

Desbarats, A.J. (Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Adsorption of pyridine by combusted oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large volumes of solid waste material will be produced during the commercial production of shale oil. An alternative to the disposal of the solid waste product is utilization. One potential use of spent oil shale is for the stabilization of hazardous organic compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of pyridine, commonly found in oil shale process water, by spent oil shale. The adsorption of pyridine by fresh and weathered samples of combusted New Albany Shale and Green River Formation oil shale was examined. In general, pyridine adsorption can be classified as L-type and the isotherms modeled with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. For the combusted New Albany Shale, weathering reduced the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum and increased the amount of pyridine adsorption maximum. The pyridine adsorption isotherms were similar to those mathematically described by empirical models, the reduction in solution concentrations of pyridine was generally less than 10 mg L{sup {minus}1} at an initial concentration of 100 mg L{sup {minus}1}. 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Essington, M.E.; Hart, B.K.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Nitrogen chemistry during oil shale pyrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Real time evolution of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), two major nitrogen-containing volatiles evolved during oil shale pyrolysis, was measured by means of a mass spectrometer using chemical ionization and by infrared spectroscopy. While the on-line monitoring of NH{sub 3} in oil shale pyrolysis games was possible by both techniques, HCN measurements were only possible by IR. We studied one Green River Formation oil shale and one New Albany oil shale. The ammonia from the Green River oil shale showed one broad NH{sub 3} peak maximizing at a high temperature. For both oil shales, most NH{sub 3} evolves at temperatures above oil-evolving temperature. The important factors governing ammonia salts such as Buddingtonite in Green River oil shales, the distribution of nitrogen functional groups in kerogen, and the retorting conditions. The gas phase reactions, such as NH{sub 3} decomposition and HCN conversion reactions, also play an important role in the distribution of nitrogen volatiles, especially at high temperatures. Although pyrolysis studies of model compounds suggests the primary nitrogen product from kerogen pyrolysis to be HCN at high temperatures, we found only a trace amount of HCN at oil-evolving temperatures and none at high temperatures (T {gt} 600{degree}C). 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Oh, Myongsook S.; Crawford, R.W.; Foster, K.G.; Alcaraz, A.

1990-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

173

Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

174

The hydrogeology of the Lake Waco Formation: Eagle Ford Group, central Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lake Waco Formation in central Texas crops out west of a major urban growth corridor along Interstate Highway 35. The development associated with this corridor increases the need for landfills and the possibility of leaks and spills. The Lake Waco Formation is predominantly shale and presently used for a regional landfill in the study area. It is not considered an aquifer and subsequently limited hydrogeological information exists. However, a numerous shallow wells occur in the weathered bedrock veneer and the shallow groundwater is directly connected to surface streams. Investigations revealed flow along bedding plane separations and fractures. The effective porosity is estimated to be less than .5 percent. Lab permeameter tests, slug tests, and constant-rate pumping tests were used to evaluate hydrogeologic parameters. Storage coefficient values range from .0017 to .0063 with a mean value of .0032. Hydraulic conductivity values decreased with depth and averaged 1.7 [times] 10 [sup [minus]4] cm/s for weathered shale and 1.4 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s for unweathered shale. Groundwater flow studies using piezometers exhibit topographic control of flow with horizontal to vertical anisotropy due to increased fracturing near the surface, but no noticeable horizontal anisotropic influence from fractures. Multiple-well pumping tests reveal horizontal anisotropic flow under pumping stress that is not present under static conditions and is complicated by heterogeneity.

Bradley, R.G.; Yelderman, J.C. Jr. (Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States). Geology Dept.)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

On Damage Propagation in a Soft Low-Permeability Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this presentation, we develop a mathematical model of fluid flow with changing formation properties. The modification of formation permeability is caused by development of a connected system of fractures. As the fluids are injected or withdrawn from the reservoir, the balance between the pore pressure and the geostatic formation stresses is destroyed. If the strength of the rock is not sufficient to accommodate such an imbalance, the cementing bonds between the rock grains become broken. Such a process is called damage propagation. The micromechanics and the basic mathematical model of damage propagation have been studied in [7]. The theory was further developed in [3], where new nonlocal damage propagation model has been studied. In [2] this theory has been enhanced by incorporation of the coupling between damage propagation and fluid flow. As it has been described above, the forced fluid flow causes changes in the rock properties including formation permeability. At the same time, changing permeability facilitates fluid flow and, therefore, enhances damage propagation. One of the principle concepts introduced in [3] and [2] is the characterization of damage by a dimensionless ratio of the number of broken bonds to the number of bonds in pristine rock per unit volume. It turns out, that the resulting mathematical model consist of a system of two nonlinear parabolic equations. As it has been shown in [6] using modeling of micromechanical properties of sedimentary rocks, at increasing stress the broken bonds coalesce into a system of cracks surrounding practically intact matrix blocks. These blocks have some characteristic size and a regular geometry. The initial microcracks expand, interact with each other, coalesce and form bigger fractures, etc. Therefore, as the damage is accumulated, the growing system of connected fractures determines the permeability of the reservoir rock. Significant oil deposits are stored in low-permeability soft rock reservoirs such as shales, chalks and diatomites [9, 10]. The permeability of the pristine formation matrix in such reservoirs is so low that oil production was impossible until hydraulic fracturing was applied. For development of correct production policy, it is very significant to adequately understand and predict how fast and to what extend the initial damage induced by drilling and hydrofracturing will propagate into the reservoir. The importance of fractures for rock flow properties is a well-established and recognized fact [4, 9, 5]. Different conceptual models have been developed [8]. In this study, we propose a damage propagation model based on a combination of the model of double-porosity and double-permeability medium [4] and a modification of the model of damage propagation developed in [2].

Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Barenblatt, G.I.

2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

176

Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

177

Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference...

178

Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

179

Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

180

Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2. Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2. Abstract:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Control of Formation and Cellular Detachment from Shewanella...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation and Cellular Detachment from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms by Cyclic di-GMP. Control of Formation and Cellular Detachment from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms...

182

Biogenic formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 . Biogenic formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 ....

183

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...

184

Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electroche...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Abstract: Many...

185

DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Owen, L.B.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Formation of a flux core spheromak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An alternate design for compact tori specifically of the spheromak type is studied. In this design the ‘‘flux core spheromak’’ [Nucl. Fusion 29 219 (1989)] the externally imposed bias field links the confinement region of closed flux surfaces. The advantages of this configuration are: (i) it enjoys greater stability to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes particularly the tilt and shift; (ii) it has a poloidal divertor and an amount of poloidal flux separating the closed flux surface region from the walls; and (iii) it might be sustained by helicity injection. Results are presented showing the dependence of the geometry on the distribution of bias flux on the conducting walls and showing the optimization of the 2?D formation scheme to minimize the contact of the plasma with coils electrodes and walls. This last topic involves taking advantage of current sheet formation and subsequent tearing as in formation of the MS spheromak [Phys. Fluids 28 3154 (1985)]. The parameters which can be varied to produce this favorable formation scheme via tearing rather than a formation that proceeds off the reversal coils are explored. In addition it is found that there is strong viscous heating of the ions in this early reconnection phase.

John M. Finn; Parvez N. Guzdar

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO); Fernandes, Robert J. (Bakersfield, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Barnett Shale Municipal Oil and Gas Ordinance Dynamics: A Spatial Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the recent optimization of horizontal drilling, has substantially increased United States oil and gas production. Hydrocarbon firms perfected and use hydraulic fracturing on the Barnett Shale in North Texas; due to the nature of the formation, gas companies...

Murphy, Trey Daniel-Aaron

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

189

Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2011 ) Natural gas: Should fracking stop? Nature 477 ( 7364...Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 ( 30...hydraulically fractured shale to aquifers . Ground Water 50...constitute the two primary aquifer li- thologies in northeastern...

Robert B. Jackson; Avner Vengosh; Thomas H. Darrah; Nathaniel R. Warner; Adrian Down; Robert J. Poreda; Stephen G. Osborn; Kaiguang Zhao; Jonathan D. Karr

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Shale-Gas Permeability and Diffusivity Inferred by Improved Formulation of Relevant Retention and Transport Mechanisms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A theoretically improved model incorporating the relevant mechanisms of gas retention and transport in gas-bearing shale formations is presented for determination of intrinsic gas permeability and diffusivity. Th...

Faruk Civan; Chandra S. Rai; Carl H. Sondergeld

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Category:Formatting Templates | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Category Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Category:Formatting Templates Jump to: navigation, search Formatting Templates are Templates used primarily to achieve a certian layout or style on a wiki page. They can be generic, like Template:Clear or specific, like Template:Definition. For help on creating templates, see Help:Templates. Subcategories This category has only the following subcategory. Q [×] Query Results Templates‎ 4 pages Pages in category "Formatting Templates" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 465 total. (previous 200) (next 200) A Abraham Hot Springs Geothermal Area

192

Star Formation in Las Campanas Compact Groups  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compact groups (CGs) of galaxies offer an exceptional laboratory for the study of dense galaxian environments --- where interactions, tidally induced activity, and mergers are expected to be at their highest rate of occurrence. Here, we present first results from a new catalogue of compact groups, one based upon the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS). Using the equivalent width of [OII]3727, we have studied the star formation activity in LCRS CGs: we find strong evidence of depressed star formation in CGs relative to that in loose groups or the field. Although much of this effect can be ascribed to morphological mix (CGs contain a high fraction of early-type galaxies), there is some evidence that the star formation rate in late-type galaxies is particularly deficient --- perhaps only one-half to one-third that of field spirals. We conclude that gas stripping mechanisms may play a role in CG environments.

Sahar S. Allam; Douglas L. Tucker; Huan Lin; Yasuhiro Hashimoto

1999-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

193

In situ oxidation of subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

194

Astronomy 9603B -Star Formation Star Formation: Astronomy 9603B (Winter 2012)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Astronomy 9603B - Star Formation Star Formation: Astronomy 9603B (Winter 2012) Lecturer: Prof below. Contact information: Martin Houde Associate Professor Department of Physics and Astronomy Room 207, Physics and Astronomy Building E-mail: mhoude2@uwo.ca Phone: (519) 661-2111 x: 86711 (office) Fax

Lennard, William N.

195

The simplest model of galaxy formation – I. A formation history model of galaxy stellar mass growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......parametrizing the physics function as a simple...derived star formation rates as a function of...simple form of the physics function provides...haloes grow, they pass through the region...of the peak of the physics function and its...the star formation rate-halo mass relation......

Simon J. Mutch; Darren J. Croton; Gregory B. Poole

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Planet Formation: Planet Formation: Evolution of The Solar NebulaEvolution of The Solar Nebula  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Planet Formation: Planet Formation: Evolution of The Solar NebulaEvolution of The Solar Nebula #12;Evolution of the Solar NebulaEvolution of the Solar Nebula 1.1. Nebula collapses into a disk 2000 KTemperatures near the Sun reach 2000 K #12;Evolution of the Solar NebulaEvolution of the Solar

Herrick, Robert R.

197

Method for closing a drift between adjacent in-situ oil shale retorts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

Hines, A.E.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

Hines, Alex E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Isotope Evidence for Ozone Formation on Surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Remarkably, the gas-phase recombination or association reaction of ozone has an unusually large (?10%) isotope effect and shows almost equal enrichments of the ozone molecules containing two different oxygen isotopes. ... For a better understanding of the pressure and temperature dependence of ozone isotopic composition in oxygen discharges, we developed a relatively simple isotope kinetic model that accounts for the processes of (i) heterogeneous ozone formation at the reactor walls, (ii) isotope exchange of oxygen atoms with O2 molecules, and (iii) ozone formation in the gas phase. ...

Christof Janssen; Béla Tuzson

2010-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

200

Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

On Superheavy Element Formation and Beyond  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low energy collisions of very heavy nuclei (238U+238U, 232Th+250Cf and 238U+248Cm) have been studied within the realistic dynamical model based on multi-dimensional Langevin equations. Large charge and mass transfer was found due to the ''inverse quasi-fission'' process leading to formation of survived superheavy long-lived neutron-rich nuclei. In many events lifetime of the composite system consisting of two touching nuclei turns out to be rather long; sufficient for spontaneous positron formation from super-strong electric field, a fundamental QED process.

Zagrebaev, Valery [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reaction, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Greiner, Walter [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, 60325 Frankfurt (Germany)

2007-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

202

Modelling and control of satellite formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELLING AND CONTROL OF SATELLITE FORMATIONS A Dissertation by VEERA VENKATA SESHA SAI VADDI Submitted to the O±ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful¯llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2003... Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering MODELLING AND CONTROL OF SATELLITE FORMATIONS A Dissertation by VEERA VENKATA SESHA SAI VADDI Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial ful¯llment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Vaddi, Veera Venkata Sesha Sai

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

203

Parallel heater system for subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

204

Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

205

DOE Gas Hydrate R&D: Shale Gas Déjà Vu?  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

More than 30 years ago, DOE looked into the future and saw the potentially large benefit of developing promising but difficult-to-extract unconventional natural gas resources, particularly those from shale formations. As a result, it began sponsoring research and development (R&D), partnering with industry and academia, and, among other things, invested about $137 million in the Eastern Gas Shale Program between 1978 and 1992.

206

Cost Share-Cost Reimbursement Invoice Format Example | The Ames...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Share-Cost Reimbursement Invoice Format Example Effective Date: 102014 File (public): Cost Share-Cost...

207

Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

208

Erratum: Formation Control of Multiple Mobile Robots Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper entitled “Formation Control of Multiple Mobile Robots Systems” by Zhanfeng Li, Youliang Ma...

Zhanfeng Li; Youliang Ma; Tong Ren

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Formation and Reactivity of Biogenic Iron Microminerals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of the project is to explore and quantify the processes that control the formation and reactivity of biogenic iron microminerals and their impact on the solubility of metal contaminants. The research addresses how surface components of bacterial cells, extracellular organic material, and the aqueous geochemistry of the DIRB microenvironment impacts the mineralogy, chemical state and micromorphology of reduced iron phases.

Beveridge, Terrance J.; Glasauer, Susan; Korenevsky, Anton; Ferris, F. Grant

2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

210

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can Photo-Evaporation Trigger Planetesimal Formation? Henry Throop John Bally SWRI Univ.Colorado / CASA DPS 12-Oct-2004 #12;Orion Nebula Photo-evaporation by extr 4 O/B stars, UV-bright, 105 solar luminosities 2000 solar-type stars with disks Photo-evaporation (PE) by external O/B stars removes disks on 105

Throop, Henry

211

6 - Fundamentals of ferrite formation in steels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: The diffusional formation of ferrite at low undercoolings has, historically, been extensively researched, which has led to well-established mechanisms for nucleation and growth. These have been verified against experimental data to allow modelling with good agreement to experiment, often as transformation diagrams. These mechanisms are summarised here and opportunities for improvement through advances in experimentation and computation are highlighted.

M. Strangwood

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

UAV Flight Formation Control Jose Alfredo GUERRERO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UAV Flight Formation Control Jose Alfredo GUERRERO Rogelio LOZANO Version 0.5, hal-00923127,version. Modeling and Control of Mini UAV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 G. Flores , J.A. Guerrero , J2014 #12;x hal-00923127,version1-2Jan2014 #12;Chapter 1 Modeling and Control of Mini UAV This Chapter

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

213

The formation of the solar system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solar system started to form about 4.56 Gyr ago and despite the long intervening time span, there still exist several clues about its formation. The three major sources for this information are meteorites, the present solar system structure and the planet-forming systems around young stars. In this introduction we give an overview of the current understanding of the solar system formation from all these different research fields. This includes the question of the lifetime of the solar protoplanetary disc, the different stages of planet formation, their duration, and their relative importance. We consider whether meteorite evidence and observations of protoplanetary discs point in the same direction. This will tell us whether our solar system had a typical formation history or an exceptional one. There are also many indications that the solar system formed as part of a star cluster. Here we examine the types of cluster the Sun could have formed in, especially whether its stellar density was at any stage hi...

Pfalzner, S; Gounelle, M; Johansen, A; Muenker, C; Lacerda, P; Zwart, S Portegies; Testi, L; Trieloff, M; Veras, D

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Quasistatic Formation of the Spheromak Plasma Configuration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel method for creating the spheromak configuration has been proposed and verified experimentally. The scheme is based on a transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic fluxes into a plasma from a "flux core." We present the first experimental verification of this quasistatic (?Alfve´n??formformation scheme, which is suitable for future scaleup to fusion-reactor parameters.

M. Yamada; H. P. Furth; W. Hsu; A. Janos; S. Jardin; M. Okabayashi; J. Sinnis; T. H. Stix; K. Yamazaki

1981-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

215

Vertebrate development: Multiple phases to endoderm formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results support a two-step model for endoderm formation in amphibian embryos, in which endoderm is initially specified by localised maternal factors, including the transcription factor VegT, but is then maintained by extracellular signalling molecules of the transforming growth factor-? family.

Leslie Dale

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Cluster Formation in Contracting Molecular Clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore, through a simplified, semi-analytic model, the formation of dense clusters containing massive stars. The parent cloud spawning the cluster is represented as an isothermal sphere. This sphere is in near force balance between self-gravity and turbulent pressure. Self-gravity, mediated by turbulent dissipation, drives slow contraction of the cloud, eventually leading to a sharp central spike in density and the onset of dynamical instability. We suggest that, in a real cloud, this transition marks the late and rapid production of massive stars. We also offer an empirical prescription, akin to the Schmidt law, for low-mass star formation in our contracting cloud. Applying this prescription to the Orion Nebula Cluster, we are able to reproduce the accelerating star formation previously inferred from the distribution of member stars in the HR diagram. The cloud turns about 10 percent of its mass into low-mass stars before becoming dynamically unstable. Over a cloud free-fall time, this figure drops to 1 percent, consistent with the overall star formation efficiency of molecular clouds in the Galaxy.

Eric Huff; Steven Stahler

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

217

ACOUSTIC FORMING FOR ENHANCED DEWATERING AND FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The next generation of forming elements based on acoustic excitation to increase drainage and enhances formation both with on-line control and profiling capabilities has been investigated in this project. The system can be designed and optimized based on the fundamental experimental and computational analysis and investigation of acoustic waves in a fiber suspension flow and interaction with the forming wire.

Cyrus K Aidun

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

part-timemba evening & Weekend Formats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

part-timemba the ross part-time mba evening & Weekend Formats #12;2 welcome #12;1 welcome welcome emphasize leadership. most make a point of connecting theory to practice. So, you may ask, why ross? the ross difference is action-based learning, an approach that is significantly different from other mba

Michigan, University of

219

MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan D. Kalyon S. Kovenklioglu Stevens Picatinny Arsenal's process for making alumina coated nanoparticles of aluminum involves the conversion of gaseous aluminum, in the presence of helium carrier gas, to solid nanoparticles and their subsequent

220

Star Formation Histories in the Local Group  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deep color magnitude diagrams extending to the main sequence provide the most direct measure of the detailed star formation history in a stellar population. With large investments of observing time, HST can obtain such data for populations out to 1 Mpc, but its field of view is extremely small in comparison to the size of Local Group galaxies. This limitation severely constrains our understanding of galaxy formation. For example, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, Andromeda, offers an ideal laboratory for studying the formation of large spiral galaxies, but the galaxy shows substructure on a variety of scales, presumably due to its violent merger history. Within its remaining lifetime, HST can only sample a few sight-lines through this complex galaxy. In contrast, a wide field imager could provide a map of Andromeda's halo, outer disk, and tidal streams, revealing the spatially-dependent star formation history in each structure. The same data would enable many secondary studies, such as the age variation in Andromeda's globular cluster system, gigantic samples of variable stars, and microlensing tracers of the galaxy's dark matter distribution.

Thomas M. Brown

2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Interchange Format for Hybrid Systems: Abstract Semantics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of implicit equations [4, 5]. The language is object-oriented and objects can be instantiated inside otherInterchange Format for Hybrid Systems: Abstract Semantics Alessandro Pinto1 , Luca P. Carloni3 general enough to accommodate the translation across the various modeling approaches used in the ex

Carloni, Luca

222

Star Formation from Galaxies to Globules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The empirical laws of star formation suggest that galactic-scale gravity is involved, but they do not identify the actual triggering mechanisms for clusters in the final stages. Many other triggering processes satisfy the empirical laws too, including turbulence compression and expanding shell collapse. The self-similar nature of the gas and associated young stars suggests that turbulence is more directly involved, but the small scale morphology of gas around most embedded clusters does not look like a random turbulent flow. Most clusters look triggered by other nearby stars. Such a prominent local influence makes it difficult to understand the universality of the Kennicutt and Schmidt laws on galactic scales. A unified view of multi-scale star formation avoids most of these problems. Ambient self-gravity produces spiral arms and drives much of the turbulence that leads to self-similar structures, while localized energy input from existing clusters and field supernovae triggers new clusters in pre-existing clouds. The hierarchical structure in the gas made by turbulence ensures that the triggering time scales with size, giving the Schmidt law over a wide range of scales and the size-duration correlation for young star fields. The efficiency of star formation is determined by the fraction of the gas above a critical density of around 10^5 m(H2)/cc. Star formation is saturated to its largest possible value given the fractal nature of the interstellar medium.

Bruce G. Elmegreen

2002-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

223

Low temperature synthesis of methyl formate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas reaction process for the preferential production of methyl formate over the co-production of methanol wherein the reactant ratio of CO/H.sub.2 is upgraded and this reaction takes place at low temperatures of 50.degree.-150.degree. C. and moderate pressures of .gtoreq.100 psi.

Mahajan, Devinder (Selden, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Grand unified strings and galaxy formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility that topologically stable strings formed at a grand unification phase transition led to galaxy formation is discussed. A large class of solutions describing non-self-intersecting loops is presented. The gravitational field and power radiated from a simple class of oscillating configurations of string is calculated, and the possibility of its detection discussed. Unique features of the string scenario are emphasized.

Neil Turok

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Evaluation of western and eastern shale oil residua as asphalt pavement recycling agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this investigation was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the utility of residual materials prepared from Green River Formation (western) and New Albany Shale (eastern) shale oils as recycling agents for aged asphalt pavement. Four petroleum asphalts were first aged by a thin-film accelerated-aging test, which simulates long service life of asphalt in pavement. The aged asphalts were mixed (recycled) with Green River Formation shale oil distillation residua to restore the original viscosities. Separately, for comparison, a commercial recycling agent was used to recycle the aged asphalts under the same circumstances. The recycled asphalts were reaged and the properties of both binder and asphalt-aggregate mixtures studied. Originally, the same study was intended for an eastern shale residua. However, the eastern shale oil distillation residua with the required flash point specification also had the properties of a viscosity builder; therefore, it was studied as such with asphalts that do not achieve sufficient viscosity during processing to serve as usable binders. Results show that Green River Formation shale oil residuum can be used to restore the original asphalt properties with favorable rheological properties, the shale oil residuum has a beneficial effect on resistance to moisture damage, the low-temperature properties of the shale oil residuum recycled asphalts are not adversely affected, and the low-temperature properties of the shale oil residuum recycled asphalts are dependent upon the chemistry of the mixture. The eastern shale oil residua was blended with soft petroleum asphalts. Results show the products have higher viscosities than the starting materials, the rheological properties of the soft asphalt-eastern shale oil residue blends are acceptable, and the eastern shale oil residue has dispersant properties despite its high viscosity. 11 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Ordovician carbonate formation waters in the Illinois Basin: Chemical and isotopic evolution beneath a regional aquitard  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation waters from carbonate reservoirs in the upper Ordovician Galena Group of the Illinois Basin have been analyzed geochemically to study origin of salinity, chemical and isotopic evolution, and relation to paleohydrologic flow systems. These carbonate reservoirs underlie the Maquoketa Shale Group of Cincinnatian age, which forms a regional aquitard. Cl-Br relations and Na/Br-Cl/Br systematics indicate that initial brine salinity resulted from subaerial evaporation of seawater to a point not significantly beyond halite saturation. Subsequent dilution in the subsurface by meteoric waters is supported by delta D-delta O-18 covariance. Systematic relations between Sr-87/Sr-86 and 1/Sr suggest two distinct mixing events: introduction of a Sr-87 enriched fluid from a siliciclastic source, and a later event which only affected reservoir waters from the western shelf of the basin. The second mixing event is supported by covariance between Sr-87/Sr-86 and concentrations of cations and anions; covariance between Sr and O-D isotopes suggests that the event is related to meteoric water influx. Systematic geochemical relations in ordovician Galena Group formation waters have been preserved by the overlying Maquoketa shale aquitard. Comparison with results from previous studies indicates that waters from Silurian-Devonian carbonate strata evolved in a manner similar to yet distinct from that of the Ordovician carbonate waters, whereas waters from Mississippian-Pennsylvanian strata that overlie the New Albany Shale Group regional aquitard are marked by fundamentally different Cl-Br-Na and Sr isotope systematics. Evolution of these geochemical formation-water regimes apparently has been influenced significantly by paleohydrologic flow systems.

Stueber, A.M. (Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (United States)); Walter, L.M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thermal decomposition of Colorado and Kentucky reference oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Isothermal pyrolysis studies have been conducted on a Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado and a New Albany oil shale from Kentucky. The conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas, and residue products was obtained for different isothermal reaction times in the temperature range of 375/degree/C to 440/degree/C (707/degree/ to 824/degree/F) using a heated sand bath reactor system. Particular attention was paid to the formation of the bitumen intermediate during decomposition of the two shales. The maximum amount of extractable bitumen in the New Albany shale was 14% or less of the original kerogen at any given temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas, and residue products is a major pathway of conversion of this shale during pyrolysis. In contrast, a significant fraction of the Colorado oil shale kerogen was converted to the intermediate bitumen during pyrolysis. The bitumen data imply that the formation of soluble intermediates may depend on original kerogen structure and may be necessary for producing high yields by pyrolysis. 24 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Turner, T.F.; Ennen, L.W.; Chong, S.L.; Glaser, R.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Thermal modeling of Bakken Formation of Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic geochemical analyses provide a quantitative basis on which conceptual models of thermal maturation may be built. Contour maps of maturation indices of the Mississippian-Devonian Bakken Formation of the Williston basin show anomalous patterns that are not dependent on burial depth. One such area is on the western side of the Nesson anticline. One-dimensional modeling incorporating a uniform, constant heat flow, lithology-dependent thermal conductivities, and decompaction factors indicates that these areas are less mature than surrounding regions. This is due primarily to decreasing burial depth and thinning of low-thermal-conductivity Tertiary and Cretaceous shales. Additional heat transfer to these regions may be due in part to heat transfer by fluid movement through aquifers or vertical fractures. The influence of these fluid systems is simulated through the use of a two-dimensional finite difference program. Basic assumptions are made concerning heat flow, thermal properties, and ground-water flow rates through time. Modeling of the time-temperature history is simplified by restricting the study to the time of greatest maturation, the post-Jurassic.

Anderson, D.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Rapid pyrolysis of Green River and New Albany oil shales in solid-recycle systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We are studying second generation oil shale retorting by a combined laboratory and modeling program coupled with operation of a 1 tonne-per-day solid-recycle pilot retorting facility. In the retort, we have measured oil yields equal to Fischer assay for Western, Green River shale and Eastern, New Albany shale. Laboratory experiments have measured yields of 125% of Fischer assay under ideal conditions in sand fluidized beds. However, when oxidized (or spent) shale is present in the bed, a decline in yield is observed along with increased coke formation. Recycling clay catalysts may improve oil yield by olefin absorption on active sites, preventing coke formation on these sites and allowing olefin incorporation into the oil. We studied the solid mixing limits in solid-recycle systems and conclude that nearly intimate mixing is required for adequate heat transfer and to minimize oil coke formation. Recycling oxidized shale has shown to self-scrub H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ when processing Western shale. Cooling of spent shale with water from 500/degree/C releases H/sub 2/S. We describe an apparatus which uses solid-recycle to reduce the temperature before water spray to cool the shale without H/sub 2/S release. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Cena, R.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Halo Formation Rate and its link to the Global Star Formation Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The star formation history of the universe shows strong evolution with cosmological epoch. Although we know mergers between galaxies can cause luminous bursts of star formation, the relative importance of such mergers to the global star formation rate (SFR) is unknown. We present a simple analytic formula for the rate at which halos merge to form higher-mass systems, derived from Press-Schechter theory and confirmed by numerical simulations (for high halo masses). A comparison of the evolution in halo formation rate with the observed evolution in the global SFR indicates that the latter is largely driven by halo mergers at z>1. Recent numerical simulations by Kolatt et al. (1999) and Knebe & Muller (1999) show how merging systems are strongly biased tracers of mass fluctuations, thereby explaining the strong clustering observed for Lyman-break galaxies without any need to assume that Lyman-break galaxies are associated only with the most massive systems at z~3.

W. J. Percival; L. Miller; W. E. Ballinger

1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

Enhancing online forms: Use format specifications for fields with format restrictions to help respondents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......variables differed between the format restrictions, a Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was conducted. The nonparametric...restrictions used, but also between the different tasks. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA indicates that the factor task shows......

Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Sébastien Orsini; Hannah Piosczyk; Dominic Urwyler; Klaus Opwis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Low voltage arc formation in railguns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

Hawke, R.S.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

233

Low voltage arc formation in railguns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

Hawke, R.S.

1987-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

Low voltage arc formation in railguns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Scaling studies of spheromak formation and equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation and equilibrium studies have been performed on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Spheromaks are formed with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and equilibrium is established in both small (d small =0.16 m) and large (d large =3d small =0.50 m) copper flux conservers. Using magnetic probe arrays it has been verified that spheromak formation is governed solely by gun physics (in particular the ratio of gun current to flux ? 0 I gun /? gun ) and is independent of the flux conserver dimensions. It has also been verified that equilibrium is well described by the force free condition ?× B =? B (?= constant) particularly early in decay. Departures from the force-free state are due to current profile effects described by a quadratic function ?=?(?) . Force-free SSX spheromaks will be merged to study magnetic reconnection in simple magnetofluid structures.

C. G. R. Geddes; T. W. Kornack; M. R. Brown

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Can photo-evaporation trigger planetesimal formation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose that UV radiation can stimulate the formation of planetesimals in externally-illuminated protoplanetary disks. We present a numerical model of disk evolution including vertical sedimentation and photo-evaporation by an external O or B star. As solid material grows and settles toward the disk midplane, the outer layers of the disk become dust depleted. When such a disk is exposed to UV radiation, heating drives photo-evaporative mass-loss from its surface, generating a dust-depleted outflow. The dust:gas surface density ratio in the disk interior grows until dust in the disk midplane becomes gravitationally unstable. Thus, UV radiation fields may induce the rapid formation of planetesimals in disks where sedimentation has occurred.

Henry B. Throop; John Bally

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

On Star Formation Rates in Dwarf Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present evolutionary synthesis models of starbursts on top of old stellar populations to investigate in detailed time evolution the relation between Ha luminosity and star formation rate (SFR). The models show that several effects have an impact on the ratio between L(Ha) and SFR. Metallicity different from solar abundance, a time delay between star formation and maximum Ha-luminosity, and a varying stellar initial mass function give rise to strong variations in the ratio of Ha luminosity to SFR and can cause large errors in the determination of the SFR when employing well-known calibrations. When studying star-bursting dwarf galaxies, and sub-galactic fragments at high redshift, which show SFR fluctuating on short timescales, these effects can add up to errors of two orders of magnitude compared with the calibrations. To accurately determine the true current SFR additional data in combination with models for the spectral energy distribution are needed.

Peter M. Weilbacher; Uta Fritze-v. Alvensleben

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

238

Practical exploration model for Smackover Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Smackover Formation has been an important exploration target for many years, with production coming from a variety of structural, stratigraphic, diagenetic, and combination traps. The Smackover is also one of the most studied of Gulf Coast formations. The resulting exploration models have either been rigid in their applications, or have been based on core and thin-section analysis not readily available to the prospect-generating geologist. A proposed model looks at the Smackover as a lithology rather than a time unit. The model uses primarily subsurface logs, and can be applied either to wildcat or exploitation drilling. The Smackover is a mature exploration target, but with enhanced understanding it is still an economically attractive objective.

Lieber, R.B. (First Energy Corp., Houston, TX (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Reconstructing the Star Formation Histories of Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a methodological study to find out how far back and to what precision star formation histories of galaxies can be reconstructed from CMDs, from integrated spectra and Lick indices, and from integrated multi-band photometry. Our evolutionary synthesis models GALEV allow to describe the evolution of galaxies in terms of all three approaches and we have assumed typical observational uncertainties for each of them and then investigated to what extent and accuracy different star formation histories can be discriminated. For a field in the LMC bar region with both a deep CMD from HST observations and a trailing slit spectrum across exactly the same field of view we could test our modelling results against real data.

Uta Fritze; Thomas Lilly

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

240

Defect formation in long Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according to the power law with the exponent of either 0.25 or 0.5 depending on the temperature variation in the critical current density.

Gordeeva, Anna V. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, B309, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Pankratov, Andrey L. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, RAS, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

242

Bubble formation in Rangely Field, Colorado  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

tc Determine the Effect of Times Of. Standing on Time &equired for Bubble Formation at 67 psi Supersaturaticns. Page 20 Tests to Determine Bubble Frequency. Average Bubble Frequency Data. 23 27 The data reported in this thesis deal... if present, or would tend to form one. However, as the pressure on the saturated oil declines, the oil becomes supersatur- ated, except as bubbles may form and diffusion take place tc eliminate the supersaturation. This research is devoted to a study...

Wood, J. W

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

"El Torito" Bootable CD-ROM Format  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"El Torito" Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification Version 1.0 January 25, 1995 Curtis E. Stevens WITHOUT CHARGE FOR USE IN DEVELOPING COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND CD-ROM DRIVES. THE DEVELOPERS OF THIS DOCUMENT.0 THE INT 13 ACCESSIBLE IMAGE 14 4.0 INT 13 AND CD-ROMS 14 4.1 INT 13 Function 08 14 4.2 INT 13 Function 48

Gummadi, Ramakrishna

244

ANALYTICAL STAR FORMATION RATE FROM GRAVOTURBULENT FRAGMENTATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an analytical determination of the star formation rate (SFR) in molecular clouds, based on a time-dependent extension of our analytical theory of the stellar initial mass function. The theory yields SFRs in good agreement with observations, suggesting that turbulence is the dominant, initial process responsible for star formation. In contrast to previous SFR theories, the present one does not invoke an ad hoc density threshold for star formation; instead, the SFR continuously increases with gas density, naturally yielding two different characteristic regimes, thus two different slopes in the SFR versus gas density relationship, in agreement with observational determinations. Besides the complete SFR derivation, we also provide a simplified expression, which reproduces the complete calculations reasonably well and can easily be used for quick determinations of SFRs in cloud environments. A key property at the heart of both our complete and simplified theory is that the SFR involves a density-dependent dynamical time, characteristic of each collapsing (prestellar) overdense region in the cloud, instead of one single mean or critical freefall timescale. Unfortunately, the SFR also depends on some ill-determined parameters, such as the core-to-star mass conversion efficiency and the crossing timescale. Although we provide estimates for these parameters, their uncertainty hampers a precise quantitative determination of the SFR, within less than a factor of a few.

Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, Ecole Normale Superieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Chabrier, Gilles [Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, CRAL, UMR CNRS 5574, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

245

Boron mullite: Formation and basic characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Decrease of B-mullite formation temperature with increasing boron content. ? Decrease of lattice parameters b and c with increasing boron content. ? Significant reduction of thermal expansion (?15%) due to incorporation of boron. ? Decomposition of B-mullite at 1400 °C, long-term stability at 800 °C. -- Abstract: A series of boron doped mullites (B-mullite) was prepared from single-phase gels with initial compositions based on a 1:1 isomorphous substitution of Si by B, starting from a 3:2 mullite composition (Al{sub 4.5}Si{sub 1.5}O{sub 9.75}). A high amount of boron (>10 mol.%) can be incorporated into the crystal structure of mullite where it most likely replaces Si. In situ phase formation of B-mullites was studied with high temperature X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. A decrease of the formation temperature for B-mullite with increasing boron content was observed. With increasing boron content lattice parameters b and c significantly decrease, while no systematic evolution of a is observed. Long annealing at 1400 °C results in decomposition of B-mullite to boron free mullite and ?-alumina. At 800 °C B-mullite appears to be stable over a period of at least 12 days. The mean thermal expansion coefficient was reduced by 15% upon incorporation of boron which makes the material technologically interesting.

Lührs, Hanna, E-mail: hanna.luehrs@uni-bremen.de [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Fischer, Reinhard X. [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Schneider, Hartmut [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany) [Universität Bremen, FB 5 Geowissenschaften, Klagenfurter Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Universität Köln, Institut für Kristallographie, Greinstraße 6, D-50939 Kölm (Germany)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Voids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the detection of molecular gas using CO(1-0) line emission and follow up Halpha imaging observations of galaxies located in nearby voids. The CO(1-0) observations were done using the 45m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) and the optical observations were done using the Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT). Although void galaxies lie in the most under dense parts of our universe, a significant fraction of them are gas rich, spiral galaxies that show signatures of ongoing star formation. Not much is known about their cold gas content or star formation properties. In this study we searched for molecular gas in five void galaxies using the NRO. The galaxies were selected based on their relatively higher IRAS fluxes or Halpha line luminosities. CO(1--0) emission was detected in four galaxies and the derived molecular gas masses lie between (1 - 8)E+9 Msun. The H$\\alpha$ imaging observations of three galaxies detected in CO emission indicates ongoing star formation and the derived star forma...

Das, M; Iono, D; Honey, M; Ramya, S

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Predictions from star formation in the multiverse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10x10{sup 9} years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central 2{sigma} of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within 3{sigma}. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Toarcian Black Shales In the Dutch Central Graben: Record of Energetic, Variable Depositional Conditions During An Oceanic Anoxic Event  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Posidonia Shale Formation and is thus depleted relative to the average shale (580-ppm...copper, molybdenum, nickel, vanadium, uranium, and zinc in the sediments. In the...Toarcian) of SW-Germany: an oxygen-depleted ecosystem controlled by sea level and...

João Trabucho-Alexandre; Roel Dirkx; Harry Veld; Gerard Klaver; Poppe L. de Boer

249

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

250

DOE-Funded Primer Underscores Technology Advances, Challenges of Shale Gas  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE-Funded Primer Underscores Technology Advances, Challenges of DOE-Funded Primer Underscores Technology Advances, Challenges of Shale Gas Development DOE-Funded Primer Underscores Technology Advances, Challenges of Shale Gas Development April 14, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces the release of "Modern Shale Gas Development in the United States: A Primer." The Primer provides regulators, policy makers, and the public with an objective source of information on the technology advances and challenges that accompany deep shale gas development. Natural gas production from hydrocarbon rich deep shale formations, known as "shale gas," is one of the most quickly expanding trends in onshore domestic oil and gas exploration. The lower 48 states have a wide

251

In the OSTI Collections: Oil Shales | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Oil Shales Oil Shales Extraction Water Use History References Additional References Research Organizations Reports Available through OSTI's SciTech Connect Petroleum is commonly extracted from pores in rock formations below the earth's surface. Different kinds of rock have petroleum in their pores, but the petroleum is not part of the rock itself. Kerogen, another hydrocarbon material, is a constituent material of a type of rock called oil shale. While oil shales can be burned directly as a fuel, it's possible to extract a liquid substitute for petroleum from kerogen by heating the oil shale to a high temperature, thus producing a vapor, which is then cooled. Some of the cooled vapor remains gaseous (and is called "combustible oil-shale gas"), while the rest condenses

252

Natural gas potential of the New Albany shale group (Devonian-Mississippian) in southeastern Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data from geologic and geochemical studies of the New Albany shale group indicate that a 19-country area of southeastern Illinois is a favorable area to explore for gas in Devonian shale. Although gas shows in the shales have been encountered in several wells drilled in this area, no attempts were made to complete or evaluate a shale gas well until 1979. It is found that conventional rotary drilling with mud base drilling fluids likely causes extensive formation damage and may account for the paucity of gas shows and completion attempts in the Devonian shales; therefore, commercial production of shale gas in Illinois probably will require novel drilling completion techniques not commonly used by local operators. 16 refs.

Cluff, R.M.; Dickerson, D.R.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

In situ method for recovering hydrocarbon from subterranean oil shale deposits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes in situ method for recovering hydrocarbons from subterranean oil shale deposits, the deposits comprising mineral rock and kerogen, comprising (a) penetrating the oil shale deposit with at least one well; (b) forming a zone of fractured and/or rubbilized oil shale material adjacent the well by hydraulic or explosive fracturing; (c) introducing a hydrogen donor solvent including tetralin into the portion of the oil shale formation treated in step (b) in a volume sufficient to fill substantially all of the void space created by the fracturing and rubbilizing treatment; (d) applying hydrogen to the tetralin and maintaining a predetermined pressure for a predetermined period of time sufficient to cause disintegration of the oil shale material; (e) thereafter introducing an oxidative environment into the portion of the oil shale deposit (f) producing the solvent in organic fragments to the surface of the earth, and (g) separating the organic fragments from the solvent.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

254

90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy 90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board 90-day Interim Report on Shale Gas Production - Secretary of Energy Advisory Board The Shale Gas Subcommittee of the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board is charged with identifying measures that can be taken to reduce the environmental impact and improve the safety of shale gas production. Natural gas is a cornerstone of the U.S. economy, providing a quarter of the country's total energy. Owing to breakthroughs in technology, production from shale formations has gone from a negligible amount just a few years ago to being almost 30 percent of total U.S. natural gas production. This has brought lower prices, domestic jobs, and the prospect of enhanced national security due to the potential of substantial

255

Cobalt-cement catalysts for the synthesis of motor fuel components from synthesis gas obtained from oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly effective cobalt-cement catalysts for the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H2, which are formed upon the thermolysis or gasification of oil shale or coals, are considered. The formation of t...

A. L. Lapidus; E. Z. Golosman; Yu. A. Strizhakova

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. How is Shale Gas Produced? Shale gas formations are "unconventional" reservoirs - i.e., reservoirs of low "permeability." Permeability refers to the capacity of a porous, sediment, soil - or rock in this case - to transmit a fluid. This contrasts with a "conventional" gas reservoir produced from sands and carbonates (such as limestone). The bottom line is that in a conventional reservoir, the gas is in interconnected pore spaces, much like a kitchen sponge, that allow easier flow to a well; but in an unconventional reservoir, like shale, the reservoir must be mechanically "stimulated" to

257

Permian Dollarhide formation, southern Smoky Mountains, south-central Idaho: depositional environment and petroleum potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Permian Dollarhide formation occurs as an allochthon west of the Big Wood River in the Smoky Mountains of south-central Idaho. It is part of the Idaho Black Shale belt described during pioneering studies by W.E. Hall. The formation contains carbonaceous limestones, fine-grained calcareous sandstones, and carbonaceous, siliceous, or calcareous siltites. The rocks contain high amounts of carbonaceous matter and local concentrations of syngenetic silver, zinc, and lead. The Dollarhide has been contact-metamorphosed by the Cretaceous Idaho batholith. The carbonaceous matter occurs as graphite. However, the possibility exists that unmetamorphosed Dollarhide with petroleum source rock potential occurs outside the Smoky Mountains. It is also possible that other allochthons within the Black Shale belt, if unmetamorphosed, could have petroleum source rock material. Near Willow Creek, SW 1/4 Buttercup Mountain Quadrangle, Blaine and Camas Counties, Idaho, the Dollarhide is 2100 m thick and was deposited in a submarine slope environment. Sandy graded beds with convolute bedding, cross-bedding, synsedimentary folds, and load casts are evidence of turbidite and debris flow deposition. Interbedded laminated and massive siltites, which are more abundant upward, represent pelagic deposition between times of turbidite activity. Stratigraphic marker horizons with anomalously high amounts of carbonaceous material and trace metals represent more euxinic conditions in the basin. These markers serve as valuable correlation lines in the dominantly unfossiliferous strata.

Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

259

Tracer stirring around a meddy: The formation of layering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamics of the formation of layering surrounding meddy-like vortex lenses is investigated using Primitive Equation (PE), Quasi Geostrophic (QG) and tracer advection models. Recent in situ data inside a meddy confirmed the formation of highly ...

Thomas Meunier; Claire Ménesguen; Richard Schopp; Sylvie Le Gentil

260

The mechanism of the formation and transformation of ettringite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation and transformation of ettringite were studied by measuring the ion concentration...3A, gypsum, lime and C?S?H gel on ettringite formation and transformation were also investigated. The ... compositi...

Peng Jiahui; Zhang Jianxin; Qu Jindong

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Interchange formats for hybrid systems: review and proposal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interchange formats have been the backbone of the EDA industry for several years. They are used as a way of helping the development of design flows that integrate foreign tools using formats with different syntax and, more importantly, different semantics. ...

Alessandro Pinto; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli; Luca P. Carloni; Roberto Passerone

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2SiO2Si Interfaces . Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at...

263

The plate is not available in electronic format  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

The plate is not available in electronic format. Please email lm.records@lm.doe.gov to request the plate....

264

Grazing resistance allows bloom formation and may explain ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grazing resistance allows bloom formation and may explain invasion success of Gonyostomum semen. Karen Lebret, María Fernández Fernández, Camilla ...

265

Competitive positioning through strategic alliance formation: review and synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explores competitive positioning through network competition on the basis of alliance formation (strategic alliances, joint ventures). From a strategic perspective, technological competition will be refined and expanded into new markets, or new markets will be created through alliance formation. Alliance formation could speed up competitive positioning and technological leadership in strategically important, though geographically diverse, markets. Revenue management tools can help in linking alliance formation to better competitive outcomes, thereby improving strategic directions.

Hans-Werner Gottinger

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

STAR FORMATION NEAR BERKELEY 59: EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group of suspected protostars in a dark cloud northwest of the young (?2 Myr) cluster Berkeley 59 and two sources in a pillar south of the cluster have been studied in order to determine their evolutionary stages and ascertain whether their formation was triggered by Berkeley 59. Narrowband near-infrared observations from the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic, {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2) and SCUBA-2 (450 and 850 ?m) observations from the JCMT, 2MASS, and WISE images, and data extracted from the IPHAS survey catalog were used. Of 12 sources studied, two are Class I objects, while three others are flat/Class II, one of which is a T Tauri candidate. A weak CO outflow and two potential starless cores are present in the cloud, while the pillar possesses substructure at different velocities, with no outflows present. The CO spectra of both regions show peaks in the range v {sub LSR} = –15 to –17 km s{sup –1}, which agrees with the velocity adopted for Berkeley 59 (–15.7 km s{sup –1}), while spectral energy distribution models yield an average interstellar extinction A{sub V} and distance of 15 ± 2 mag and 830 ± 120 pc, respectively, for the cloud, and 6.9 mag and 912 pc for the pillar, indicating that the regions are in the same vicinity as Berkeley 59. The formation of the pillar source appears to have been triggered by Berkeley 59. It is unclear whether Berkeley 59 triggered the association's formation.

Rosvick, J. M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8 (Canada); Majaess, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Cosmological evolution and hierarchical galaxy formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a new multi-waveband compilation of the data describing the cosmological evolution of quasars, and discuss a model that attributes the evolution to variation in the rate of merging between dark halos in a hierarchical universe. We present a new Press-Schechter calculation of the expected merger rate and show that this can reproduce the principal features of the evolution. We also show that the evolution in the star-formation history of the universe is well-described by this model.

L. Miller; W. J. Percival

1998-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

268

Formation of C- by radiative association  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present paper the problem of the radiative association of atoms of carbon C with electrons $e^{-}$ for kinetic temperatures $T_{c}$ of $100 < T_{c} < 3000$ K is considered. The calculation of the rate rate constant of the radiative associations is made with principle of detailed balance. It is shown that the rate has correct behavior (it increase with the temperature) and its behavior is look-like that for the $H^{-}$ formation rate coefficient, which also increase with the temperature.

J. Campos; A. Lipovka; J. Saucedo

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

269

Star Formation in the Local Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present preliminary results of a long-term study aimed at answering a number of open questions on the evolution of starbursts in local galaxies. The project employes mainly HST data from the ultraviolet to the red of the stellar continuum and of the nebular emission from the galaxies. Here we concentrate on NGC5253 and NGC5236 (M83), that form a dwarf--massive galaxy pair at about 4 Mpc distance. The recent star formation history of the centers of the two galaxies is investigated in order to identify similarities and differences in the evolution of their central starbursts.

Daniela Calzetti; Jason Harris

2001-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

270

Scalar Field Dark Matter and Galaxy Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a general description of the scalar field dark matter (SFDM) hypothesis in the cosmological context. The scenario of structure formation under such a hypothesis is based on Jeans instabilities of fluctuations of the scalar field. It is shown that it is possible to form stable long lived objects consisting of a wide range of typical galactic masses around $10^{12}M_{\\odot}$ once the parameters of the effective theory are fixed with the cosmological constraints. The energy density at the origin of such an object is smooth as it should.

Miguel Alcubierre; F. Siddhartha Guzman; Tonatiuh Matos; Dario Nunez; L. Arturo Urena-Lopez; Petra Wiederhold

2002-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

271

Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

272

Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

273

Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Comparing infrared star formation rate indicators with optically derived quantities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......infrared star formation rate indicators with optically...USA 4 School of Physics, Astronomy, and...Spitzer 24-mum band pass and Halpha-measured star formation rate varies from galaxy...Spitzer 8.0-mum band pass, ultraviolet-excited...track star formation rate (SFR; e.g. Calzetti......

J. E. Young; C. Gronwall; J. J. Salzer; J. L. Rosenberg

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Accepted Manuscript Title: Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript Title: Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation and Coupled effect. Gascoin, P. Gillard, M. Bouchez, J. Steelant, Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation Coke Formation and Coupled effect on Permeability2 G. Fau1* , N. Gascoin1 , P. Gillard1 , M. Bouchez2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

276

Molecular Cell R-Loop Formation Is a Distinctive Characteristic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular Cell Article R-Loop Formation Is a Distinctive Characteristic of Unmethylated Human Cp of GC skew leads to the formation of long R loop structures. Furthermore, we show that GC skew and R, we provide evidence that R loop formation protects from DNMT3B1, the primary de novo DNA

Chédin, Frédéric

277

Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

278

Development of gas-bearing reservoirs in the Trenton Llimestone Formation of New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Authority completed a study of the natural gas-bearing potential of New York State's Trenton Limestone Formation. The report includes an analysis of existing gas-well information and geological maps covering 33 counties in western and central New York State. The Trenton Limestone Formation is a limestone sequence with zones of shale interbeds that, when jointed and fractured, form reservoirs for natural gas. These reservoirs appear to be large and capable of sustained production, providing the production rates are carefully monitored to maintain reservoir pressure. Test wells have shown evidence of natural gas in all areas where the formation is present. The areas with the greatest reservoir potential trend from northeast to southwest beginning near the Adirondack foothills in Oneida County. When reservoir volumes are matched with a high success rate of discovery and minimum drilling costs, the northeastern part of central New York State appears to be the most likely region for both local use and commercial exploration. The Trenton formation in this area of the State generally contains gas at above-normal hydrostatic pressure. This indicates that the gas reservoirs are extensive and reach considerable depths. Due to the geophysical conditions of the reservoirs, however, it is important to carefully manage production and maintain pre-production pressure for optimum gas recovery.

Robinson, J.E.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The nano-mechanical morphology of shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shale, the sealing formations in most hydrocarbon reservoirs, is made of highly compacted clay particles of sub-micrometer size, nanometric porosity and different mineralogy. In this paper, we propose and validate a technique to identify the nano-mechanical morphology of such a nanocomposite material. In particular, by means of a massive nanoindentation campaign at two different scales on a large range of shale materials, we show that the highly compacted plate- or sheet-like clay particles have a distinct nano-mechanical morphology with no privileged orientation of the particle-to-particle contact surface, as evidenced by a mechanical percolation threshold of ?0 ? 0.5. Furthermore, the nanoindentation results provide strong evidence that the nano-mechanical elementary building block of shales is transversely isotropic in stiffness, and isotropic and frictionless in strength. These observations lead to a sphere-like mechanical morphology for visibly plate- or sheet-like clay particles. The contact forces between the sphere-like particles activate the intrinsicly anisotropic elastic properties within the clay particles and the cohesive bonds between the clay particles. The mechanical stiffness and strength properties of porous clay scale with the clay packing density toward a unique set of shale-invariant material properties. The determination of mechanical microstructure and invariant material properties are of great importance for the development of predictive microporomechanical models of the stiffness and strength properties of shale. The approach presented here also applies to other chemically and mechanically complex materials exhibiting nanogranular behavior.

Christopher Bobko; Franz-Josef Ulm

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Enthalpy of Formation of Nitrosylpentaammineruthenium(II)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enthalpy of Formation of Nitrosylpentaammineruthenium(II) from NO+(aq) Enthalpy of Formation of Nitrosylpentaammineruthenium(II) from NO+(aq) and Aquopentaammineruthenium(II) James F. Wishart, Henry Taube, Kenneth J. Breslauer and Stephan S. Isied Inorg. Chem. 25, 1479-1481 (1986) Abstract: An estimate of the enthalpy change associated with the substitution of H2O on (NH3)5RuOH22+ with NO+(aq) has been made by thermochemical measurements on a cycle of reactions, which includes the reaction of (NH3)5RuOH22+ with NO2-(aq) and which involves the assumption that the heat of dissolution of NOBF4(s) to produce NO+(aq) + BF4-(aq) is close to the heat of dissolution of CsBF4(s). The chemistry is complicated because the reaction of (NH3)5RuOH22+ with NO2-(aq) ultimately produces trans-[(NH3)4Ru(OH)NO]2+(aq) rather than [(NH3)5RuNO]3+(aq). Reasonably

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281

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Alfoterra-38 (0.05 wt%), Alfoterra-35 (0.05 wt%), SS-6656 (0.05 wt%), and DTAB (1 wt%) altered the wettability of the initially oil-wet calcite plate to an intermediate/water-wet state. Low IFT ({approx}10{sup -3} dynes/cm) is obtained with surfactants 5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability and mobilization studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have acquired field oil and core samples and field brine compositions from Marathon. We have conducted preliminary adsorption and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Receding contact angles increase with surfactant adsorption. Plans for the next quarter include conducting adsorption, phase behavior and wettability studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover more than 40% of the oil in about 50 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 28% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Residual oil saturation showed little capillary number dependence between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -2}. Wettability alteration increases as the number of ethoxy groups increases in ethoxy sulfate surfactants. Plans for the next quarter include conducting mobilization, and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Simulation studies indicate that both wettability alteration and gravity-driven flow play significant role in oil recovery from fractured carbonates. Anionic surfactants (Alfoterra 35, 38) recover about 55% of the oil in about 150 days by imbibition driven by wettability alteration and low tension in the core-scale. Anionic surfactant, Alfoterra-68, recovers about 40% of the oil by lower tension aided gravity-driven imbibition in the core-scale. Cationic surfactant, DTAB recovers about 35% of the oil. Plans for the next quarter include conducting simulation and imbibition studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. We have conducted adsorption, phase behavior, interfacial tension (IFT) and wettability studies. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases IFT with a minimum at about 0.2 M. Addition of surfactant decreases IFT further. In the absence of surfactant the minerals are oil-wet after aging with crude oil. Addition of surfactant solution decreases the contact angle to intermediate-wet for many surfactants and water-wet for one surfactant. Addition of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} decreases anionic surfactant adsorption on calcite surface. Plans for the next quarter include conducting core adsorption, phase behavior, wettability and mobilization studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)] [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)] [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)] [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

288

The Premature Formation of High Redshift Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ~ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ~ 200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early Universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ~ 6. It is difficult to understand how ~ 10^9 solar-mass black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local Universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R_h=ct Universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as L...

Melia, Fulvio

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show that imbibition rate is not very sensitive to the surfactant concentration (in the range of 0.05-0.2 wt%) and small amounts of trapped gas saturation. It is however very sensitive to oil permeability and water-oil-ratio. Less than 0.5 M Na2CO3 is needed for in situ soap generation and low adsorption; NaCl can be added to reach the necessary total salinity. The simulation result matches the laboratory imbibition experimental data. Small fracture spacing and high permeability would be needed for high rate of recovery.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Pattern formation in the exciton inner ring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on the two-beam study of indirect excitons in the inner ring in the exciton emission pattern. One laser beam generates the inner ring and a second weaker beam is positioned in the inner ring. The beam positioned in the inner ring is found to locally suppress the exciton emission intensity. We also report on the inner ring fragmentation and formation of multiple rings in the inner ring region. These features are found to originate from a weak spatial modulation of the excitation beam intensity in the inner ring region. The modulation of exciton emission intensity anticorrelates with the modulation of the laser excitation intensity. The three phenomena—inner ring fragmentation, formation of multiple rings in the inner ring region, and emission suppression by a weak laser beam in the inner ring—have a common feature: a reduction of exciton emission intensity in the region of enhanced laser excitation. This effect is explained in terms of exciton transport and thermalization.

M. Remeika, A. T. Hammack, S. V. Poltavtsev, L. V. Butov, J. Wilkes, A. L. Ivanov, K. L. Campman, M. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

293

Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both up-flow and down-flow of fluid at rates that range between 0.5 to 214 cm/yr and 2-162 cm/yr, respectively. The fluid flow system at the mound and background sites are coupled having opposite polarities that oscillate episodically between 14 days to {approx}4 months. Stability calculations suggest that despite bottom water temperature fluctuations, of up to {approx}3 C, the Bush Hill gas hydrate mound is presently stable, as also corroborated by the time-lapse video camera images that did not detect change in the gas hydrate mound. As long as methane (and other hydrocarbon) continues advecting at the observed rates the mound would remain stable. The {_}{sup 13}C-DIC data suggest that crude oil instead of methane serves as the primary electron-donor and metabolic substrate for anaerobic sulfate reduction. The oil-dominated environment at Bush Hill shields some of the methane bubbles from being oxidized both anaerobically in the sediment and aerobically in the water column. Consequently, the methane flux across the seafloor is higher at Bush hill than at non-oil rich seafloor gas hydrate regions, such as at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia. The methane flux across the ocean/atmosphere interface is as well higher. Modeling the methane flux across this interface at three bubble plumes provides values that range from 180-2000 {_}mol/m{sup 2} day; extrapolating it over the Gulf of Mexico basin utilizing satellite data is in progress.

Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

294

Stratigraphy and depositional environments of Fox Hills Formation in Williston basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fox Hills Formation (Maestrichtian), representing part of a regressive wedge deposited during the withdrawal of the sea from the Western Interior at the close of the Cretaceous, consists of marginal marine strata transitional between the offshore deposits of the underlying Pierre Shale and the terrestrial deltaic and coastal deposits of the overlying Hell Creek Formation. An investigation of outcrops of the Fox Hills Formation along the western and southern flanks of the Williston basin and study of over 300 oil and gas well logs from the central part of the basin indicate that the formation can be divided both stratigraphically and areally. Stratigraphically, the Fox Hills can be divided into lower and upper sequences; the lower includes the Trail City and Timber Lake Members, and the upper sequence includes the Colgate Member in the west and the Iron Lightning and Linton Members in the east. Areally, the formation can be divided into a northeastern and western part, where the strata are 30-45 m thick and are dominated by the lower sequence, and into a southeastern area where both the lower and upper sequences are well developed in a section 80-130 m thick. Typically, the lower Fox Hills consists of upward-coarsening shoreface or delta-front sequences containing hummocky bedding and a limited suite of trace fossils, most notably Ophiomorpha. In the southeast, however, these strata are dominated by bar complexes, oriented northeast-southwest, composed of cross-bedded medium to very fine-grained sand with abundant trace and body fossils. The upper Fox Hills represents a variety of shoreface, deltaic, and channel environments. The strata of the Fox Hills Formation exhibit facies similar to those reported for Upper Cretaceous gas reservoirs in the northern Great Plains.

Daly, D.J.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Exciton formation assisted by LO phonons in quantum wells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics of exciton formation involving LO phonons is investigated in quantum wells. Considering the formation of an exciton from a free excited electron-hole pair due to LO-phonon emission, an expression is derived for the rate of formation of an exciton as a function of carrier densities, temperature, and wave vector K? of the center of mass of excitons in quantum wells, and the formation time of an exciton is also calculated. The theory is applied to GaAs quantum wells, in which it is found that the exciton formation dominantly occurs at K??0.

I.-K. Oh, Jai Singh, A. Thilagam, and A. S. Vengurlekar

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

297

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater Water Treatment System Cleans Marcellus Shale Wastewater April 13, 2011 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A water treatment system that can turn wastewater into clean water has been shown to reduce potential environmental impacts associated with producing natural gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin. Altela Inc.'s AltelaRain® 4000 water desalination system was tested at BLX, Inc.'s Sleppy well site in Indiana County, Pa. as part of a National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)-sponsored demonstration. During nine continuous months of operation, the unit successfully treated 77 percent of the water stream onsite, providing distilled water as the product. The average treated water cost per barrel over the demonstration period was

298

Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage In September 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy announced the award of 11 projects with a total project value of $75.5 million* to conduct site characterization of promising geologic formations for CO2 storage. These Recovery Act projects will increase our understanding of the potential for these formations to safely and permanently store CO2. The information gained from these projects (detailed below) will further DOE's efforts to develop a national assessment of CO2 storage capacity in deep geologic formations. Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage * Subsequently, the Board of Public Works project in Holland, MI has been

299

Best Practices for Portable Document Format (PDF) Creation | Scientific and  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Best Practices for Portable Document Format (PDF) Creation Best Practices for Portable Document Format (PDF) Creation Print page Print page Email page Email page Best Practices for Portable Document Format (PDF) Creation October 2013 The Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) is responsible for permanently storing the Department of Energy's (DOE) scientific and technical information (STI) collection. The STI must be collected in a digital format that can be preserved and accessible for years to come. In the late 1990's, OSTI selected the Portable Document Format (PDF) as the preferred format for receiving STI. OSTI continues to use this format for the submission and storage of STI documents. Preservation, content, and accessibility are enhanced by following these best practices for generating

300

Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) Author Shakeel Ahmed Published Publisher Not Provided, 2013 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org Online Internet link for Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) Citation Shakeel Ahmed. Formation Micro-Imager Logs (FMI) [Internet]. 2013. [cited 2013/10/09]. Available from: http://petphy.blogspot.com/2011/12/formation-micro-imager-logs-fmi.html Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Formation_Micro-Imager_Logs_(FMI)&oldid=687994" Categories: References Geothermal References Uncited References What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERN FORMATION IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW OF PRIMITIVE STREAK FORMATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultimately convert the single layered-blastoderm into a trilaminar blastoderm comprising prospective endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal tissue. During streak formation a group of cells moves anteriorly and mammalian gastrulation, and while it is not present in amphibian blastulae, they contain an analogous

Maini, Philip K.

302

Venture Formation | BNL Technology Commercialization and Partnerships  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Entrepreneurs and Investors Entrepreneurs and Investors Venture Formation Resources Entrepreneurship Resource Center - Entrepreneurship.org was created by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation as a free, online international resource with a vast array of content designed to assist entrepreneurs, business mentors, policy makers, academics and investors through each phase of the entrepreneurial process. U.S. Small Business Administration - The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) is a federally funded organization developed to aid, counsel, assist and protect the interests of small business concerns and new ventures in the United States. Wall Street Journal Entrepreneur Resource - An online how to guide for small businesses and start ups with tips from The Wall Street Journal's reporters and columnists.

303

Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the c...

Heller, René; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Mechanism for puddle formation in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When graphene is close to charge neutrality, its energy landscape is highly inhomogeneous, forming a sea of electron-like and hole-like puddles that determine the properties of graphene at low carrier density. However, the details of the puddle formation have remained elusive. We demonstrate numerically that in sharp contrast to monolayer graphene, the normalized autocorrelation function for the puddle landscape in bilayer graphene depends only on the distance between the graphene and the source of the long-ranged impurity potential. By comparing with available experimental data, we find quantitative evidence for the implied differences in scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of electron and hole puddles for monolayer and bilayer graphene in nominally the same disorder potential.

S. Adam; Suyong Jung; Nikolai N. Klimov; Nikolai B. Zhitenev; Joseph A. Stroscio; M. D. Stiles

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

305

Formation of nanofilament field emission devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device. The process enables the formation of high aspect ratio, electroplated nanofilament structure devices for field emission displays wherein a via is formed in a dielectric layer and is self-aligned to a via in the gate metal structure on top of the dielectric layer. The desired diameter of the via in the dielectric layer is on the order of 50-200 nm, with an aspect ratio of 5-10. In one embodiment, after forming the via in the dielectric layer, the gate metal is passivated, after which a plating enhancement layer is deposited in the bottom of the via, where necessary. The nanofilament is then electroplated in the via, followed by removal of the gate passification layer, etch back of the dielectric, and sharpening of the nanofilament. A hard mask layer may be deposited on top of the gate metal and removed following electroplating of the nanofilament.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Formation of morphogen gradients: Local accumulation time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spatial regulation of cell differentiation in embryos can be provided by morphogen gradients, which are defined as the concentration fields of molecules that control gene expression. For example, a cell can use its surface receptors to measure the local concentration of an extracellular ligand and convert this information into a corresponding change in its transcriptional state. We characterize the time needed to establish a steady-state gradient in problems with diffusion and degradation of locally produced chemical signals. A relaxation function is introduced to describe how the morphogen concentration profile approaches its steady state. This function is used to obtain a local accumulation time that provides a time scale that characterizes relaxation to steady state at an arbitrary position within the patterned field. To illustrate the approach we derive local accumulation times for a number of commonly used models of morphogen gradient formation.

Alexander M. Berezhkovskii; Christine Sample; Stanislav Y. Shvartsman

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

307

Semarkona: Lessons for chondrule and chondrite formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the evidence presented by the LL3.0 chondrite Semarkona, including its chondrule fraction, chondrule size distribution and matrix thermal history. We show that no more than a modest fraction of the ambient matrix material in the Solar Nebula could have been melted into chondrules; and that much of the unprocessed matrix material must have been filtered out at some stage of Semarkona's parent body formation process. We conclude that agglomerations of many chondrules must have formed in the Solar Nebula, which implies that chondrules and matrix grains had quite different collisional sticking parameters. Further, we note that the absence of large melted objects in Semarkona means that chondrules must have exited the melting zone rapidly, before the chondrule agglomerations could form. The simplest explanation for this rapid exit is that chondrule melting occurred in surface layers of the disk. The newly formed, compact, chondrules then settled out of those layers on short time scales.

Hubbard, Alexander

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Abundance ratios in hierarchical galaxy formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chemical enrichment and stellar abundance ratios of galaxies which form in a hierarchical clustering scheme are calculated. For this purpose I adopt the star formation histories (SFH) as they are delivered by semi-analytic models in Kauffmann (1996}. It turns out that the average SFH of cluster ellipticals does not yield globally alpha-enhanced stellar populations. The star burst that occurs when the elliptical forms in the major merger plays therefore a crucial role in producing alpha-enhancement. Only under the assumption that the IMF is significantly flattened with respect to the Salpeter value during the burst, a Mg/Fe overabundant population can be obtained. In particular for the interpretation of radial gradients in metallicity and alpha-enhancement, the mixing of global and burst populations are of great importance. The model predicts bright field galaxies to be less alpha-enhanced than their counterparts in clusters.

D. Thomas

1999-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mental Representations Formed From Educational Website Formats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing popularity of web-based distance education places high demand on distance educators to format web pages to facilitate learning. However, limited guidelines exist regarding appropriate writing styles for web-based distance education. This study investigated the effect of four different writing styles on reader’s mental representation of hypertext. Participants studied hypertext written in one of four web-writing styles (e.g., concise, scannable, objective, and combined) and were then administered a cued association task intended to measure their mental representations of the hypertext. It is hypothesized that the scannable and combined styles will bias readers to scan rather than elaborately read, which may result in less dense mental representations (as identified through Pathfinder analysis) relative to the objective and concise writing styles. Further, the use of more descriptors in the objective writing style will lead to better integration of ideas and more dense mental representations than the concise writing style.

Elizabeth T. Cady; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Tuan Q. Tran; Bernardo de la Garza; Peter D. Elgin

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Premature Formation of High Redshift Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations with WFC3/IR on the Hubble Space Telescope and the use of gravitational lensing techniques have facilitated the discovery of galaxies as far back as z ~ 10-12, a truly remarkable achievement. However, this rapid emergence of high-z galaxies, barely ~ 200 Myr after the transition from Population III star formation to Population II, appears to be in conflict with the standard view of how the early Universe evolved. This problem has much in common with the better known (and probably related) premature appearance of supermassive black holes at z ~ 6. It is difficult to understand how ~ 10^9 solar-mass black holes could have appeared so quickly after the big bang without invoking non-standard accretion physics and the formation of massive seeds, neither of which is seen in the local Universe. In earlier work, we showed that the appearance of high-z quasars could instead be understood more reasonably in the context of the R_h=ct Universe, which does not suffer from the same time compression issues as LCDM does at early epochs. Here, we build on that work by demonstrating that the evolutionary growth of primordial galaxies was consistent with the current view of how the first stars formed, but only with the timeline afforded by the R_h=ct cosmology. We also show that the growth of high-z quasars was mutually consistent with that of the earliest galaxies, though it is not yet clear whether the former grew from 5-20 solar-mass seeds created in Population III or Population II supernova explosions.

Fulvio Melia

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

311

In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Interactive chemical effects and instability of shale derived middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of instability of shale-derived fuels. Changes in fuel properties with time have been a continuing problem in the use of middle distillate fuels. The authors define instability as the formation of insoluble sediments and gums as well as the production of peroxides and color bodies. Nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles have long been implicated in fuel degradation, but present knowledge is limited regarding the chemistry of their autoxidation reactions in the complex fuel media. Based on the GC/MS identification of nitrogen heterocyclic constituents in several shale-derived middle distillate fuels, the authors have conducted gravimetric instability tests employing three model nitrogen heterocycles in shale-derived diesel fuels. Model sulfur compound dopant studies on shale-derived jet fuels were conducted by monitoring hydroperoxide formation/decomposition and the decreased quantity of sulfur compound. Potential interactive effects have been defined for these model dopants.

Mushrush, G.W.; Beal, E.J.; Watkins, J.M.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells Abstract Stabilized formation temperatures were estimated at different depths in 40 wells from the Los Humeros geothermal field, Mexico, using the Horner and the spherical radial flow (SRF) methods. The results showed that the Horner method underestimates formation temperatures, while the SRF method gives temperatures that are closer to the true formation temperatures. This was supported by numerical simulation of a combined circulation and shut-in period in several wells, and results for well H-26 are presented. Numerical reproduction of logged temperature is more feasible if an initial

314

Consumers’ responses to price presentation formats in rebate advertisements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although rebates offer an important and popular promotion tool in retailing, little research has investigated whether their presentation format can influence consumers’ evaluations of and purchase intentions toward products featured in rebate ads. Retailers generally use two different rebate ad formats: one that transparently shows both before- and after-rebate prices and the other that displays the after-rebate price in relatively large print and the before-rebate price in small print. Three experimental studies attempt to determine which format is more effective for eliciting favorable consumers’ responses, and the results show that the format emphasizing only after-rebate prices generally leads to lower purchase intentions because of the negative affect it elicits. Furthermore, the effect of a rebate presentation format is moderated by the rebate amount, consumers’ price knowledge, and rebate processing time. The results show that consumers’ responses to different rebate presentation formats entail both emotional responses and rational evaluations.

Hyeong Min Kim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Paleotectonic controls on deposition of upper Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation, east-central Chihuahua, Mexico  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface mapping of the basal Mesozoic La Casita Formation (upper Upper Jurassic) in east-central Chihuahua, Mexico, indicates initial Mesozoic sedimentation occurred in a segmented, interconnected subbasin of the Chihuahua trough. La Casite Formation (1200 m thick) is a tectonostratigraphic unit resting with angular unconformity on the Lower Permian Plomosas Formation. It consists primarily of siliciclastic material with sporadic interbedded limestones. The dominant lithofacies, approximately 1000 m thick, consists of turbiditic sandstone units (10-20 m) alternating with thicker, monotonous shale sequences. In the mapped area (approximately 30 km/sup 2/), flute cast measurements indicate flows from both the northeast (N20/degree/E) and southwest (S58/degree/W). Turbiditic sandstone units appear to pinch out and/or interfinger as they extend from the north and south into the central portion of the area. The initial opening of the Chihuahua trough is often associated with Late Jurassic block faulting, related to development of the ancestral Gulf of Mexico. Synrift depositional sequences of a similar age have been described in southern Coahuila, northern Zacatecas, and western Chiapas, Mexico. The subbasin (graben ) examined here may be ascribed a paleoposition near the western edge of the early Chihuahua trough. The western boundary of the early trough may have comprised a series of these subbasins, forming a cuspate or serrated coastline. Late Jurassic ammonites recovered from this and other localities along the length of the Chihuahua trough suggest that the subbasins were interconnected by means of an eastern continuous seaway.

Roberts, D.C.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Coal petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of lignite samples from the Ogwashi–Asaba Formation, Nigeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic sediments picked up randomly from seven small outcrops within the Ogwashi–Asaba Formation, southern Nigeria, are examined and evaluated by means of coal petrology and chemical and mineralogical analyses in order to determine the palaeoenvironmental conditions and the factors controlling their formation. Six samples proved to be low-rank coals C to B (lignite), one carbonaceous shale. The lignite samples display low ash yield, low telohuminite and high detrohuminite and liptinite contents; they contain small amounts of clastic minerals, mainly quartz and clays, which point to the topogenous character of the depositional palaeoenvironment. The palaeomires formed in a continental basin crossed by the mid-Tertiary palaeo-Niger River; the latter, as well as the tropical rainfall supplied the mires with water. The dense vegetation cover on the mire surface and the surroundings and/or the low relief energy of the broad area restricted the inorganic influx resulting in high-grade coal formation. As the outcrops are distributed over a distance of 60 km, the expected reserves of good quality lignite constitute a very promising exploration target.

Jude Ogala; George Siavalas; Kimon Christanis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Formation of Constellation III in the Large Magellanic Cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a detailed reconstruction of the star-formation history of the Constellation III region in the Large Magellanic Cloud, to constrain the formation mechanism of this enigmatic feature. Star formation in Constellation III seems to have taken place during two distinct epochs: there is the 8-15 Myr epoch that had previously been recognized, but we also see strong evidence for a separate "burst" of star formation 25-30 Myr ago. The "super-supernova" or GRB blast wave model for the formation of Constellation III is difficult to reconcile with such an extended, two-epoch star formation history, because the shock wave should have induced star formation throughout the structure simultaneously, and any unconsumed gas would quickly be dissipated, leaving nothing from which to form a subsequent burst of activity. We propose a "truly stochastic" self-propagating star formation model, distinct from the canonical model in which star formation proceeds in a radially-directed wave from the center of Constellation III to its perimeter. As others have noted, and we now confirm, the bulk age gradients demanded by such a model are simply not present in Constellation III. In our scenario, the prestellar gas is somehow pushed into these large-scale arc structures, without simultaneously triggering immediate and violent star formation throughout the structure. Rather, star formation proceeds in the arc according to the local physical conditions of the gas. Self-propagating star formation is certainly possible, but in a truly stochastic manner, without a directed, large scale pattern.

Jason Harris; Dennis Zaritsky

2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

319

Method and apparatus for vibrating a substrate during material formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for affecting the properties of a material include vibrating the material during its formation (i.e., "surface sifting"). The method includes the steps of providing a material formation device and applying a plurality of vibrations to the material during formation, which vibrations are oscillations having dissimilar, non-harmonic frequencies and at least two different directions. The apparatus includes a plurality of vibration sources that impart vibrations to the material.

Bailey, Jeffrey A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Roger, Johnson N. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; John, Munley T. (Benton City, WA) [Benton City, WA; Walter, Park R. (Benton City, WA) [Benton City, WA

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

320

Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

322

Recovery Act: Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage A Report on the The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program within the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE's) Coal Program...

323

Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based liquid chromatography mobile phases as interference ions in liquid Formation of iron complexs from trifluoroacetic acid based...

324

Formation of membranes from aliphatic polyamide-polyvinylpyrrolidone blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of polyacrylic acid of various molecular weights and of its ... Na2EDTA as inhibitors of deposit formation and as dispersants was examined.

O. V. Suberlyak; Yu. Ya. Mel’nik; N. M. Baran

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Star formation triggered by SNR impact into magnetized neutral clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considering the physical conditions that are relevant for triggering star formation in interactions involving SN shocks and neutral clouds, we have built diagrams of the SNR radius versus the cloud density in which these conditions constrain a shaded zone where star formation is allowed. The diagrams are also tested with fully 3-D MHD radiative cooling simulations involving a SNR and a self-gravitating cloud and we find that the numerical analysis is consistent with the results predicted by the diagrams. While the inclusion of a homogeneous magnetic field approximately perpendicular to the impact velocity of the SNR with an intensity ~1 $mu$G results only a small shrinking of the star formation zone in the diagrams, a larger magnetic field (~10 $\\mu$G) causes a significant shrinking, as expected. Applications of our results to real star formation regions in our own galaxy have revealed that their formation could have been triggered by a SN shock wave. Finally, we have evaluated the effective global star formation efficiency of this sort of interactions and found that it is smaller than the observed values in our Galaxy (SFE ~0.01-0.3). This result is consistent with previous work in the literature and also suggests that the mechanism presently investigated, though very powerful to drive structure formation, supersonic turbulence and eventually, local star formation, does not seem to be sufficient to drive global star formation in normal star forming galaxies.

M. R. M. Leao; E. M. de Gouveia Dal Pino; D. Falceta-Goncalves; C. Melioli; F. G. Geraissate

2008-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

326

Category:Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Formation Testing Techniques page? For detailed information on...

327

Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENAC/ Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment David G Research, Microbiology of Interfaces, Magdeburg (Germany) EDCE 2011 / From activated sludge flocs

328

International Human Capital Formation, Brain Drain and Brain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems, individuals' abilities, sunk educational investment costs, government grants, and expected capital formation, brain gain, brain drain, international migration, sunk costs, educational grants

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Remarks on the formation and decay of multidimensional shock waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we present a formula describing the formation and decay of shock wave type solutions in some special cases.

V. G. Danilov

2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

330

Investigation of White Etching Crack (WEC) Formation Mechanisms...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Investigation of White Etching Crack (WEC) Formation Mechanisms Under Non-hydrogen Charged Test Conditions Presented by Alex Richardson, Afton Chemical (representing University of...

331

Mitigation of Delayed Ettringite Formation in Laboratory Specimens .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The objective of this study was to determine if the growth of delayed ettringite formation (DEF) in existing concrete can be reduced or even prevented… (more)

Shaikh, Hafiz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Characterization of Delayed Ettringite Formation in Maryland Bridges .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The research investigated the significance of Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) presences in the Maryland Bridge Inventory. The objective of the research included investigating possible presence… (more)

Ceary, Micah

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Using Numerical Techniques to Accelerate Delayed Ettringnite Formation Test Methods.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Delayed ettringite formation (DEF) in concrete can cause significant damage to structures. Finding the severity of the DEF is beneficial. Currently to measure the potential… (more)

Robertson, John Bret

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Overall Project Goal: To research, develop and demonstrate large format lithium ion cells with energy density > 500 WhL Barriers addressed: - Low energy density - Cost -...

335

Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

illustrate ash particle growth and formation pathways, and influence of lubricant chemistry and exhaust conditions on fundamental ash properties deer12kamp.pdf More Documents...

336

Value Creation Through Joint Venture and Strategic Alliance Formation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This study examines the price reaction to the announcements of joint venture and strategic alliance formation, the main determinants of the partnering firm's choices to… (more)

Pana, Elisabeta

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A...

338

Recognition of hydrocarbon expulsion using well logs: Bakken Formation, Williston Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Upper Mississippian-Lower Devonian Bakken Formation forms a source/carrier/reservoir system in the Williston basin. Hydrocarbon expulsion within the Bakken has been identified by overlaying sonic and resistivity logs. Typically, these curves track in organically lean, water-saturated mudrocks because both respond mainly to porosity; however, in thermally mature organic-rich rocks and hydrocarbon reservoirs or carrier beds, the curves separate due to the anomalously high resistivity associated with replacement of pore water by hydrocarbons. Sonic/resistivity-log overlays for wells throughout the Montana and North Dakota parts of the Williston basin reveal significant increases and maximum in-curve separation within the middle siltstone member of the Bakken at subsurface temperatures of about 170 and 200{degree}F, respectively. Sequence-stratigraphic characteristics of the Bakken define the framework within which the expulsion process operates. The organic-rich upper and lower shale members represent the transgressive and early highstand systems tracts of two adjacent depositional sequences. A sequence boundary within the intervening middle siltstone member separates nearshore siltstone and sandstone of the late highstand systems tract in the lower sequence from cross-bedded subtidal to intertidal sandstones of the lowstand systems tract in the upper sequence. Reservoir properties vary across this sequence boundary. The authors attribute the log separation in the siltstone member to hydrocarbons expelled from the adjacent shales. Abrupt shifts in several geochemical properties of the shale members, indicative of hydrocarbon generation occur over the same subsurface temperature range as the rapid increase in log separation in the middle siltstone, thus indicating the contemporaneity of generation and expulsion.

Cunningham, R.; Zelt, F.B.; Morgan, S.R.; Passey, Q.R. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Snavely, P.D. III; Webster, R.L. (Exxon Co., U.S.A., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies: Progress report, October 1987--September 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been to examine end-member shales to develop a data base that will aid in evaluations if shales are ever considered as a repository host rock. Five end-member shales were selected for comprehensive characterization: the Chattanooga Shale from Fentress County, Tennessee; the Pierre Shale from Gregory County, South Dakota; the Green River Formation from Garfield County, Colorado; and the Nolichucky Shale and Pumpkin Valley Shale from Roane County, Tennessee. Detailed micromorphological and mineralogical characterizations of the shales were completed by Lee et al. (1987) in ORNL/TM-10567. This report is a supplemental characterization study that was necessary because second batches of the shale samples were needed for additional studies. Selected physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties were determined for the second batches; and their properties were compared with the results from the first batches. Physical characterization indicated that the second-batch and first-batch samples had a noticeable difference in apparent-size distributions but had similar primary-particle-size distributions. There were some differences in chemical composition between the batches, but these differences were not considered important in comparison with the differences among the end-member shales. The results of x-ray diffraction analyses showed that the second batches had mineralogical compositions very similar to the first batches. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

Lee, S. Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hyder, L. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Baxter, P. M. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Sulfate aerosols and polar stratospheric cloud formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Before the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole, it was generally assumed that gas-phase chemical reactions controlled the abundance of stratospheric ozone. However, the massive springtime ozone losses over Antarctica first reported by Farman et al in 1985 could not be explained on the basis of gas-phase chemistry alone. In 1986, Solomon et al suggested that chemical reactions occurring on the surfaces of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) could be important for the observed ozone losses. Since that time, an explosion of laboratory, field, and theoretical research in heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry has occurred. Recent work has indicated that the most important heterogeneous reaction on PSCs is ClONO[sub 2] + HCl [yields] Cl[sub 2] + HNO[sub 3]. This reaction converts inert chlorine into photochemically active Cl[sub 2]. Photolysis of Cl[sub 2] then leads to chlorine radicals capable of destroying ozone through very efficient catalytic chain reactions. New observations during the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition found stoichiometric loss of ClONO[sub 2] and HCl in air processed by PSCs in accordance with reaction 1. Attention is turning toward understanding what kinds of aerosols form in the stratospheric, their formation mechanism, surface area, and specific chemical reactivity. Some of the latest findings, which underline the importance of aerosols, were presented at a recent National Aeronautics and Space Administration workshop in Boulder, Colorado.

Tolbert, M.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States))

1994-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasma formation in metallic wire Z pinches is modeled using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics code. Modified Thomas-Fermi equations of state and dense plasma transport coefficients allow the phase transitions from solid to plasma to be approximated. Results indicate the persistence of a two-component structure with a cold, dense core embedded within a much hotter, low density, m=0 unstable corona. Extensive benchmark testing against data from a number of single-wire experiments is presented. Artificial laser schlieren and x-ray back-lighting images generated from the code data are compared directly to experimental results. The results were found to be insensitive to inaccuracies in the equations of state and transport coefficients. Simulations of individual wires in a wire array show different behavior to that observed experimentally due to the absence of three-dimensional effects. Simulations with similar conditions to wires in an array show a general trend in the plasma structure at start of implosion from discrete wires with large m=0 perturbation amplitudes to partially merged wires with smaller perturbation amplitudes as the number of wires is increased. Results for a wire number scan with aluminum wire arrays on the SATURN generator suggest that the observed sharp transition to high x-ray power at around 40 wires corresponds to a sharp decrease in m=0 perturbation amplitude and hence a sharp decrease in the seed perturbation for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

J. P. Chittenden; S. V. Lebedev; J. Ruiz-Camacho; F. N. Beg; S. N. Bland; C. A. Jennings; A. R. Bell; M. G. Haines; S. A. Pikuz; T. A. Shelkovenko; D. A. Hammer

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Planet Formation in the Outer Solar System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper Belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35-50 AU, single annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50-500 km objects on timescales of 10-30 Myr in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. Planets form more rapidly in more massive nebulae. All models yield two power law cumulative size distributions, N_C propto r^{-q} with q = 3.0-3.5 for radii larger than 10 km and N_C propto r^{-2.5} for radii less than 1 km. These size distributions are consistent with observations of Kuiper Belt objects acquired during the past decade. Once large objects form at 35-50 AU, gravitational stirring leads to a collisional cascade where 0.1-10 km objects are ground to dust. The collisional cascade removes 80% to 90% of the initial mass in the nebula in roughly 1 Gyr. This dust production rate is comparable to rates inferred for alpha Lyr, beta Pic, and other extrasolar debris disk systems.

Scott J. Kenyon

2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

343

Excavation Damaged Zones In Rock Salt Formations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Salt formations have long been proposed as potential host rocks for nuclear waste disposal. After the operational phase of a repository the openings, e.g., boreholes, galleries, and chambers, have to be sealed in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the biosphere. For optimising the sealing techniques knowledge about the excavation damaged zones (EDZ) around these openings is essential. In the frame of a project performed between 2004 and 2007, investigations of the EDZ evolution were performed in the Stassfurt halite of the Asse salt mine in northern Germany. Three test locations were prepared in the floor of an almost 20 year old gallery on the 800-m level of the Asse mine: (1) the drift floor as existing, (2) the new drift floor shortly after removing of a layer of about 1 m thickness of the floor with a continuous miner, (3) the new drift floor 2 years after cutting off the 1-m layer. Subject of investigation were the diffusive and advective gas transport and the advective brine transport very close to the opening. Spreading of the brine was tracked by geo-electric monitoring in order to gain information about permeability anisotropy. Results obtained showed that EDZ cut-off is a useful method to improve sealing effectiveness when constructing technical barriers. (authors)

Jockwer, N.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fur Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Formation and decay of a spheromak plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The magnetic properties of the spheromak configuration produced by a combination of slow theta and Z discharges in the University of Maryland Spheromak experiment (MS) are reported. The magnetic structure of the plasma in MS has been mapped out by arrays of passive magnetic pickup coils. The Taylor relaxation process is observed during the formation phase. The magnetic profile evolves in such a way that the ratio of poloidal current I p to poloidal flux ? in the plasma approaches a constant value where ?0 I p =k el ?. When the spheromak is formed the magnetic field configuration is close to Taylor’s minimum energy state ?0 j=kB. This constant k is related to the size of the spheromak produced. A spheromak with 1.0 T maximum field corresponding to 650 kA poloidal current has been produced in MS. However due to the high plasma density (6–8×1020 m?3) and the presence of low?Z impurities (mainly carbon and oxygen) the plasma is radiation dominated with electron temperature ?15 eV. The magnetic field decays exponentially during the decay phase. Axisymmetric equilibrium states that could exist in the configuration are calculated with a Grad–Shafranov equilibrium code. Comparison of the numerical calculation with the experimental measurements indicates that the magnetic?field structure stays close to the equilibrium state as the plasma decays.

C. Chin?Fatt; A. W. DeSilva; G. C. Goldenbaum; R. Hess; C. Coté; A. Filuk; J.?L. Gauvreau; F. K. Hwang

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Supernova Explosions and Neutron Star Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The current picture of the collapse and explosion of massive stars and the formation of neutron stars is reviewed. According to the favored scenario, however by no means proven and undisputed, neutrinos deposit the energy of the explosion in the stellar medium which surrounds the nascent neutron star. Observations, in particular of Supernova~1987A, suggest that mixing processes play an important role in the expanding star, and multi-dimensional simulations show that these are linked to convective instabilities in the immediate vicinity of the neutron star. Convectively enhanced energy transport inside the neutron star can have important consequences for the neutrino emission and thus the neutrino-heating mechanism. This also holds for a suppression of the neutrino interactions at nuclear densities. Multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, general relativity, and a better understanding of the neutrino interactions in neutron star matter may be crucial to resolve the problem that state-of-the-art spherical models do not yield explosions even with a very accurate treatment of neutrino transport by solving the Boltzmann equation.

H. -Th. Janka; K. Kifonidis; M. Rampp

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Fourier and autocorrelation analysis of estuarine tidal rhythmites, lower Breathitt Formation (Pennsylvania), eastern Kentucky, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Outcrops of the Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation in eastern Kentucky reveal a rhythmic pattern of siliciclastic sedimentation in a marginal marine coastal setting. A 15-23 m thick stratigraphic interval of thinly interbedded, fine sandstone and shale displays tidally generated features such as flaser and wavy current ripple bedding, bipolar paleocurrents, and cyclic thickening and thinning of mud-draped sandstone layers. A statistical analysis of sand layer thickness was carried out using shale partings as bounding surfaces for the individual sand units. Fourier and autocorrelation analyses were performed on two vertical sequences containing a total of over 2,100 layers. The results reveal the presence of four cycles of thickness variation. First-order cycles consist of alternating thick-thin sand layers. These daily couplets may reflect unequal flood and ebb currents during a single tidal cycle or dominant and subordinate tidal deposits in an ebb or flood dominated semidiurnal or mixed system. Second-order cycles typically consist of 11-14 sand layers and reflect spring-neap variations in tidal range and current velocities. Third-order cycles are usually composed of 24-35 layers and are formed in response to monthly variations in tidal range resulting from the ellipticity of the moon's orbit. Fourth-order cycles generally contain about 150 layers (range, 100-166) and were caused by seasonal maxima in tidal range associated with the solstice (winter, summer) and seasonal minima associated with the equinox (spring, fall).

Martino, R.L.; Sanderson, D.D. (Marshall Univ., Huntington, WV (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Studies of the New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) and equivalent strata in Indiana  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A formation of black carbonaceous shale, later named the New Albany Shale, was first recognized in 1837 and reported in 1839 by David D. Owen. Since then, the New Albany has been the subject of numerous investigations by individuals affiliated with the Indiana Geological Survey and others. The present comprehensive investigation, involves petrology, mineralogy, stratigraphy, geomorphology, organic and inorganic geochemistry, and physical properties. The lower part of the New Albany Shale is late Middle Devonian in age, and the upper part is Early Mississippian in age.

Hasenmueller, N.R.; Woodard, G.S. (eds.)

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Characterization and stability properties of polar extracts derived from a recent shale liquid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A shale fuel of marginal stability has been used as a source of nitrogen-rich polar extracts. Polar compounds were isolated by mild acid extraction followed by silica gel adsorption and were identified by GC/MS. Alkyl substituted pyridines were the prevalent class of compounds present in most extracts. The effects of adding these shale derived fractions as dopants to a stable shale diesel fuel (D-11) were examined in terms of sediment formation and peroxide number under accelerated storage stability test conditions. The activities of the extracts in inducing fuel instability were correlated with their composition.

Mushrush, G.W.; Cooney, J.V.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Peroxide Formation Rates in a PEMFC Anode and Cathode Effect of Humidity and Temperature Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 formation rates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEMFC anode and cathode were catalyst onto the disk and by varying the temperature, dissolved O2 concentration, and the acidity levels

Weidner, John W.

351

CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS FROM HANFORD FORMATION SEDIMENTS REACTED WITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS FROM HANFORD FORMATION SEDIMENTS REACTED WITH SIMULATED TANK WASTE with the Hanford sediments. I would like to extend my sincere appreciation to Professor Jim Henson, Dan Hardesty for me to have all of my work done. iv #12;CHARACTERIZATION OF COLLOIDS FROM HANFORD FORMATION SEDIMENTS

Flury, Markus

352

An Approach for Optimal Goal Position Assignment in Vehicle Formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper one methodology to solve the goal position assignment (GPA) problem is developed, this is, to assign the corresponding goal position (desired position) for a group of vehicles, knowing the initial positions and the established formation ... Keywords: Assignment, Optimization, Quad-rotor, Vehicle formations

Luis García-Delgado; R. Gómez-Fuentes; A. García-Juárez; A. L. Leal-Cruz; D. Berman-Mendoza; A. Vera-Marquina; A. G. Rojas-Hernández

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

VISCOSITY OF CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS: INFLUENCE OF CLUSTER FORMATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 VISCOSITY OF CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS: INFLUENCE OF CLUSTER FORMATION V.Starov1 , V.Zhdanov1 , M and these forces determine both structure and size of clusters. We assume that viscosity of concentrated suspension of viscosity on a concentration of dispersed particles taking into account cluster formation, is deduced. Under

Boyer, Edmond

354

The Effect of Collision Avoidance for Autonomous Robot Team Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on robot team formation focuses on theoretical analysis where real-world factors, such as the size advance to the era of cooperative robots, many autonomous robot team algorithms have emerged. Shape formation is a common and critical task in many cooperative robot applications. While theoretical studies

Jay Yang, Shanchieh

355

Putting problem sheets on the Web in PDF format  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Putting problem sheets on the Web in PDF format This short document lists the Unix or Linux commands for putting coursework sheets, etc., on the Web in PDF format. They refer to an imaginary course Wright. 1 #12;Further information This document will be placed on the Web at the address http

Cameron, Peter

356

Putting problem sheets on the Web in PDF format  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Putting problem sheets on the Web in PDF format This short document lists the Unix or Linux commands for putting coursework sheets, etc., on the Web in PDF format. They refer to an imaginary course and Francis Wright. 1 #12;Further information This document will be placed on the Web at the address http

Cameron, Peter

357

On column density thresholds and the star formation rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......cloud affect the rate at which stars form...model of the thermal physics of the clouds. However...candidate particle passes a number of tests...shown to reduce the rate of star formation...lower the overall rate of star formation...can capture all the physics required to create......

Paul C. Clark; Simon C. O. Glover

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

CURRICULUM VITAE FORMAT FOR PROMOTION AND TENURE DOSSIERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CURRICULUM VITAE FORMAT FOR PROMOTION AND TENURE DOSSIERS NAME: (Last) (First) (Initial) EDUCATION in curriculum vitae, including international activities not listed elsewhere. This sectio n can be used received. #12;Page 2 Curriculum Vitae Format PRINT AND ELECTRONIC PUBLICATIONS: Divide publications

Zhou, Yaoqi

359

Ni-Pt Silicide Formation Through Ti Mediating Layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With Ni1-xPtxSi, the variation in queue time between the final surface cleaning and Ni-Pt deposition represents a significant manufacturability issue. A short queue time is often difficult to maintain, leading to the formation of an oxide layer on the Si substrate prior to Ni-Pt deposition that can affect the formation of Ni1-xPtxSi and its texture. In this manuscript, it will be shown that an extended queue time prior to Ni-Pt deposition leads to morphological changes in the Ni1-xPtxSi formation sequence. A layer of Ti deposited between Ni-Pt and Si reduces the native oxide and may facilitate Ni1-xPtxSi formation. With increasing Ti thickness, the presence of metal-rich phases is gradually reduced and the formation temperature of Ni1-xPtxSi increases, suggesting a direct formation of Ni1-xPtxSi from Ni-Pt. In the presence of an interfacial oxide, an increase in formation temperature is also observed with increasing Ti interlayer thickness. When the Ti layer is sufficiently thick, the phase formation sequence becomes relatively insensitive to the presence of an interfacial oxide or extended queue time.

Besser,P.; Lavoie, C.; Ozcan, A.; Murray, C.; Strane, J.; Wong, K.; Gribelyuk, M.; Wang, Y.; Parks, C.; Jordan-Sweet, J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Hydrothermal plume dynamics on Europa: Implications for chaos formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrothermal plume dynamics on Europa: Implications for chaos formation Jason C. Goodman,1 Geoffrey December 2003; accepted 12 January 2004; published 20 March 2004. [1] Hydrothermal plumes may a liquid ocean to the base of its ice shell. This process has been implicated in the formation of chaos

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Communicating Breast Cancer Risks to Women Using Different Formats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...point estimates or range of risks as equally acceptable. Both formats lead to short-term reductions in perceived risk (i.e., greater accuracy...point estimates or range of risks as equally acceptable. Both formats lead to short-term...

Isaac M. Lipkus; William M. P. Klein; and Barbara K. Rimer

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing Junction Michinao Hashimoto the stable formation of trains of mono-, bi-, and tri-disperse bubbles in microfluidic flow- focusing (FF-assembly through the patterns of flow created by the bubbles. 1.1 Bubbles and Droplets in Microfluidics

Prentiss, Mara

363

Geologic Study of the Coso Formation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Study of the Coso Formation Study of the Coso Formation Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Geologic Study of the Coso Formation Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: There have been great advances in the last 20 years in understanding the volcanic, structural, geophysical, and petrologic development of the Coso Range and Coso geothermal field. These studies have provided a wealth of knowledge concerning the geology of the area, including general structural characteristics and kinematic history. One element missing from this dataset was an understanding of the sedimentology and stratigraphy of well-exposed Cenozoic sedimentary strata - the Coso Formation. A detailed sedimentation and tectonics study of the Coso Formation was undertaken to provide a more complete picture of the

364

THE STAR FORMATION LAW AT LOW SURFACE DENSITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the nature of the star formation law at low gas surface densities using a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies with existing H I maps in the literature, UV imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, and optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All of the LSB galaxies have (NUV - r) colors similar to those for higher surface brightness star-forming galaxies of similar luminosity indicating that their average star formation histories are not very different. Based upon four LSB galaxies with both UV and far-infrared (FIR) data, we find FIR/UV ratios significantly less than 1, implying low amounts of internal UV extinction in LSB galaxies. We use the UV images and H I maps to measure the star formation rate (SFR) and hydrogen gas surface density within the same region for all the galaxies. The LSB galaxy star formation rate surface densities lie below the extrapolation of the power law fit to the SFR surface density as a function of the total gas density for higher surface brightness galaxies. Although there is more scatter, the LSB galaxies also lie below a second version of the star formation law in which the SFR surface density is correlated with the gas density divided by the orbital time in the disk. The downturn seen in both star formation laws is consistent with theoretical models that predict lower star formation efficiencies in LSB galaxies due to the declining molecular fraction with decreasing density.

Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D. [California Institute of Technology, MC 278-17, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Heckman, Timothy M.; Szalay, Alex S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lee, Young-Wook; Yi, Sukyoung K. [Center for Space Astrophysics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2009-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

365

into deeper and larger-volume saline formations. Researchers at  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

into deeper and larger-volume saline formations. Researchers at into deeper and larger-volume saline formations. Researchers at Cranfield have been monitoring the injected CO 2 with instrumentation installed nearly two miles beneath the surface to ensure the safe and permanent storage in the Lower Tuscaloosa Formations. The Cranfield project also has been successful in the deployment of pressure-response monitoring techniques in the injection zone ("in-zone") and above the injection zone ("above zone"). Real-time data collected since July 2008

366

Modelling the formation and evolution of disk galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Inspired by recent work on feedback in disk galaxies (Efstathiou 2000, Silk 2003) and on the angular momentum distribution in simulated gas halos (Sharma and Steinmetz 2005), a fully dynamic model of disk galaxy formation and evolution has been developed. This is used to demonstrate how observed galactic systems could have formed from halos similar to those found in simulations and applies physically motivated models of star formation and feedback to explore whether the true nature of these processes would be manifest from local and cosmological observables. This is made possible by computational integration with the galaxy formation model developed originally by the group at Durham University (Cole et al. 2000).

M. J. Stringer; A. J. Benson

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

367

Formation control of multiple mobile robots utilising synchronisation approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a new synchronous control rule is proposed for multiple mobile robot trajectories tracking while maintaining time varying formation. Each robot is controlled to track the desired path while its motion is synchronised with the two neighbouring robots to perform and maintain a desired time-varying formation. The dynamic model of the wheeled mobile robot is derived and divided into a translational and rotational dynamic model. A new synchronous translational controller is proposed to guarantee the asymptotic stability of both position and synchronisation errors. A simulation result of 20 robots has been conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronous controller in the time-varying formation tasks.

Ibrahim M.H. Sanhoury; Shamsudin H.M. Amin; Abdul Rashid Husain

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction with the steps of ion implantation with an ion/element that will chemically reduce the chosen substrate material, implantation of the ion/element to a sufficient concentration and at a sufficient energy for particle formation, and control of the temperature of the substrate during implantation. A preferred embodiment includes the formation of particles which are nano-dimensional (<100 m-n in size). The phase of the particles may be affected by control of the substrate temperature during and/or after the ion implantation process.

Hampikian, Janet M (Decatur, GA); Hunt, Eden M (Atlanta, GA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

370

Pattern formation, logistics, and maximum path probability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of pattern formation, which to current researchers is a synonym for self-organization, carries the connotation of deductive logic together with the process of spontaneous inference. Defining a pattern as an equivalence relation on a set of thermodynamic objects, we establish that a large class of irreversible pattern-forming systems, evolving along idealized quasisteady paths, approaches the stable steady state as a mapping upon the formal deductive imperatives of a propositional function calculus. In the preamble the classical reversible thermodynamics of composite systems is analyzed as an externally manipulated system of space partitioning and classification based on ideal enclosures and diaphragms. The diaphragms have discrete classificationcapabilities which are designated in relation to conserved quantities by descriptors such as impervious, diathermal, and adiabatic. Differentiability in the continuum thermodynamic calculus is invoked as equivalent to analyticity and consistency in the underlying class or sentential calculus. The seat of inference, however, rests with the thermodynamicist. In the transition to an irreversible pattern-forming system the defined nature of the composite reservoirs remains, but a given diaphragm is replaced by a pattern-forming system which by its nature is a spontaneously evolving volume partitioner and classifier of invariants. The seat of volition or inference for the classification system is thus transferred from the experimenter or theoretician to the diaphragm, and with it the full deductive facility. The equivalence relations or partitions associated with the emerging patterns may thus be associated with theorems of the natural pattern-forming calculus. The entropyfunction, together with its derivatives, is the vehicle which relates the logistics of reservoirs and diaphragms to the analog logistics of the continuum. Maximum path probability or second-order differentiability of the entropy in isolation are sufficiently strong interpretations of the second law of thermodynamics to define the approach to and the nature of patterned stable steady states. For many pattern-forming systems these principles define quantifiable stable states as maxima or minima (or both) in the dissipation. An elementary statistical-mechanical proof is offered. To turn the argument full circle, the transformations of the partitions and classes which are predicated upon such minimax entropic paths can through digital modeling be directly identified with the syntactic and inferential elements of deductive logic. It follows therefore that all self-organizing or pattern-forming systems which possess stable steady states approach these states according to the imperatives of formal logic, the optimum pattern with its rich endowment ofequivalence relations representing the central theorem of the associated calculus. Logic is thus ‘‘the stuff of the universe,’’ and biological evolution with its culmination in the human brain is the most significant example of all the irreversible pattern-forming processes. We thus conclude with a few remarks on the relevance of the contribution to the theory of evolution and to research on artificial intelligence.

J. S. Kirkaldy

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.

Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Heat of combustion of Green River oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors derive simple equations for estimating the heat of combustion of raw shale by thermochemical estimates and by linear regression of experimental data. They find that the heat can be estimated well by an exothermic term that accounts for the combustion of organic matter and a constant that accounts for pyrite combustion, carbonate decomposition, and glass formation. The net contribution of reactions included in the constant is endothermic for the standard state products of bomb calorimetry. As a sample application, the authors perform an energy balance on a modified Fischer assay of average Green River shale by using one of our formulas for raw shale along with previously derived formulas for pyrolysis products.

Muehlbauer, M.J.; Burnham, A.K.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Development and application of type curves for pressure transient analysis of horizontal wells in shale gas reservoirs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Even though significant progresses have been made in the past few years, there appears to be a lack of information regarding the characterisation of shale gas formations. A major purpose of this study is to demonstrate impacts of horizontal well geometries and gas flow parameters as well as shale gas reservoir system on horizontal well production behaviour and flow regime on pressure transient analysis (PTA). Extensive numerical simulations were conducted to model transient pressure behaviour of a horizontal well and apply the results to well test analysis in shale gas reservoirs. Based on the results from numerical simulations, a set of type curves have been developed in terms of dimensionless pseudopressure and time. Results from type curve matching for synthetic pressure data in shale gas reservoirs demonstrate that the conventional analysis approach may still be applicable for the quantitative analysis on the transient gas flow behaviour and determination of formation properties. [Received: June 21, 2013; Accepted: August 6, 2013

Sung Jun Lee; Tae Hong Kim; Kun Sang Lee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Planetary formation theory developed, tested: predicts timeline for life  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Planetary formation theory developed, tested: predicts timeline for Planetary formation theory developed, tested: predicts timeline for life After the Big Bang: Theory suggests first planets formed after first generations of stars The researchers' calculations predict properties of first planet and timeline for life. May 3, 2012 image description The researchers state that the formation of Earth-like planets is not itself a sufficient prerequisite for life. Early galaxies contained strong sources of life-threatening radiation, such as supernovae and black holes. Therefore, they conclude that the conditions for life emerged only after the earliest epoch of galaxy formation. Get Expertise Jarrett Johnson Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Email Hui Li Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology

375

A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Miocene Island-Arc Volcanic Seamount- The Takashibiyama Formation, Shimane Peninsula, Sw Japan Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: The Miocene volcanic complex of the Takashibiyama Formation consists largely of subalkali, subaqueous basalt to andesite lavas and andesite to dacite subaqueous volcaniclastic flow deposits. Most of subaqueous lavas are moderately to intensely brecciated with rugged rough surfaces and ramp structures similar to subaerial block lava. Volcaniclastic flow deposits commonly include basalt to andesite lava fragments and/or pyroclastic materials, and are similar in internal

376

Energetics of [alpha]-helix formation in peptides and proteins  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis focuses on the energetics of !-helix formation in peptides and proteins. The [alpha]-helix is the most prevalent type of secondary structure found in proteins, and has arguably dominated our thinking about ...

Schubert, Christian Reinhold

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Star Formation in Mergers and Interacting Galaxies: Gathering the Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Selected results from recent studies of star formation in galaxies at different stages of interaction are reviewed. Recent results from the Spitzer Space Telescope are highlighted. Ideas on how large-scale driving of star formation in interacting galaxies might mesh with our understanding of star formation in isolated galaxies and small scale mechanisms within galaxies are considered. In particular, there is evidence that on small scales star formation is determined by the same thermal and turbulent processes in cool compressed clouds as in isolated galaxies. If so, this affirms the notion that the primary role of large-scale dynamics is to gather and compress the gas fuel. In gas-rich interactions this is generally done with increasing efficiency through the merger process.

Curtis Struck

2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

378

Eddy formation and propagation in the eastern tropical Pacific  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations of eddies in the eastern tropical Pacific from TOPEX altimetry data show that there are seasonal and interannual variations in eddy activity. Comparisons between time of eddy formation and corresponding wind data show that not all...

Jhingran, Vikas Gopal

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

379

CORRELATION OF THE PERMIAN FORMATIONS OF NORTH AMERICA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...History of the Supai formation in Black Mesa, Yavapai County, Arizona: Plateau...Los Pinos Mountains, and northern Chupadera Mesa, Valencia, Tor- ranee, and Socorro...Cedar Hills ss., 77, 78, 79 Cedar Mesa ss., 52, 53, 54 Chase group...

380

Pattern formation in reaction diffusion systems: a Galerkin model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reaction diffusion systems are extremely useful for studying pattern formation in biological systems. We carry out a Lorenz like few mode truncation of a reaction diffusion system and show that it not only giv...

A. Bhattacharyay; J.K. Bhattacharjee

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Significance of Semivolatile Diesel Exhaust Organics for Secondary HONO Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The atmospheric origin of nitrous acid (HONO) is largely unknown despite its estimated importance as an OH source during daytime due to its rapid photolysis. Recently, primary HONO contained in automobile exhaust as well as secondary HONO formation on ...

Lukas Gutzwiller; Frank Arens; Urs Baltensperger; Heinz W. Gäggeler; Markus Ammann

2002-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

382

Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Clarifying the Dominant Sources and Mechanisms of Cirrus Cloud Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation of cirrus clouds depends on the availability of ice nuclei to begin condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Although it is known that only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosols are efficient ice nuclei, the ...

Cziczo, Daniel James

384

Knowledge-based framework for hypothesis formation in biochemical networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Spain, September 28-October 1, 2005 Knowledge-based framework for hypothesis formation...85281, USA Motivation: The current knowledge about biochemical networks is largely...constantly need to revise or extend existing knowledge. The revision and/or extension are......

Nam Tran; Chitta Baral; Vinay J. Nagaraj; Lokesh Joshi

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Water Mass Transformation and Formation in the Labrador Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objectively analyzed surface hydrographic fields and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis fluxes are used to estimate water mass transformation and formation rates in the Labrador Sea, focusing on Labrador Sea Water (LSW). The authors estimate a mean long-term ...

Paul G. Myers; Chris Donnelly

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

A PKN Hydraulic Fracture Model Study and Formation Permeability Determination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydraulic fracturing is an important method used to enhance the recovery of oil and gas from reservoirs, especially for low permeability formations. The distribution of pressure in fractures and fracture geometry are needed to design conventional...

Xiang, Jing

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

388

Mechanism of vacancy formation induced by hydrogen in tungsten  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a hydrogen induced vacancy formation mechanism in tungsten based on classical molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate the vacancy formation in tungsten due to the presence of hydrogen associated directly with a stable hexagonal self-interstitial cluster as well as a linear crowdion. The stability of different self-interstitial structures has been further studied and it is particularly shown that hydrogen plays a crucial role in determining the configuration of SIAs, in which the hexagonal cluster structure is preferred. Energetic analysis has been carried out to prove that the formation of SIA clusters facilitates the formation of vacancies. Such a mechanism contributes to the understanding of the early stage of the hydrogen blistering in tungsten under a fusion reactor environment.

Liu, Yi-Nan [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China) [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China); Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 (Finland); Ahlgren, T.; Bukonte, L.; Nordlund, K. [Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 (Finland)] [Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 (Finland); Shu, Xiaolin; Yu, Yi; Lu, Guang-Hong, E-mail: LGH@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)] [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China); Li, Xiao-Chun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

IC 3418: STAR FORMATION IN A TURBULENT WAKE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Galaxy Evolution Explorer observations of IC 3418, a low surface brightness galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, revealed a striking 17 kpc UV tail of bright knots and diffuse emission. H{alpha} imaging confirms that star formation is ongoing in the tail. IC 3418 was likely recently ram pressure stripped on its first pass through Virgo. We suggest that star formation is occurring in molecular clouds that formed in IC 3418's turbulent stripped wake. Tides and ram pressure stripping (RPS) of molecular clouds are both disfavored as tail formation mechanisms. The tail is similar to the few other observed star-forming tails, all of which likely formed during RPS. The tails' morphologies reflect the forces present during their formation and can be used to test for dynamical coupling between molecular and diffuse gas, thereby probing the origin of the star-forming molecular gas.

Hester, Janice A.; Neill, James D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [Dpto. de Astrofisica, Universidad Computense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Rich, R. Michael, E-mail: jhester@srl.caltech.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

390

In Situ Study of Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

M. J. Bedzyk, "In Situ X-ray Study of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) Formation on Graphene as a Model Li-ion Battery Anode," Chemistry of Materials, 24(15), 3038 -3043...

391

Verifying team formation protocols with probabilistic model checking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multi-agent systems are an increasingly important software paradigm and in many of its applications agents cooperate to achieve a particular goal. This requires the design of efficient collaboration protocols, a typical example of which is team formation. ...

Taolue Chen; Marta Kwiatkowska; David Parker; Aistis Simaitis

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Bruchins: Insect-derived plant regulators that stimulate neoplasm formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Service, Corvallis, OR 97330; Departments of † Horticulture and ¶ Zoology, and ** College of Pharmacy, Oregon State...CW/SS) that were on continuously. Such supplemental lighting reduced the incidence of spontaneous neoplasm formation relative...

Robert P. Doss; James E. Oliver; William M. Proebsting; Sandra W. Potter; SreyReath Kuy; Stephen L. Clement; R. Thomas Williamson; John R. Carney; E. David DeVilbiss

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Polymorphism control and the formation of organic molecular nanocrystals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of organic molecular nanocrystals is a topic of great interest in the pharmaceutical industry because of the potential increase in dissolution rate and solubility of organic crystals below 1 ptm and their ...

Yang, Xiaochuan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Glacial Sedimentology of the Precambrian Gowganda Formation, Ontario, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the stratigraphy and paleocur- rents of the Gowganda Formation east...suggested many im- provements. Financial assistance was provided by The Johns Hopkins...in the Wisconsin glaciation of Minnesota: Geol. Soc. America Bull...

395

Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfated Mesoporous Niobium Oxide Catalyzed 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation from Sugars ... The effectiveness of sulfated mesoporous niobium oxide (MNO-S) as a catalyst for the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) from sugar was studied and is reported herein. ...

Ernest Lau Sze Ngee; Yongjun Gao; Xi Chen; Timothy Misso Lee; Zhigang Hu; Dan Zhao; Ning Yan

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

396

CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC DUITSCHLAND FORMATION, SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC DUITSCHLAND FORMATION, SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS the only unequivocal glacial unit of this era in the Transvaal Basin, South Africa. Lithologic evidence Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa. [American Journal of Science, Vol. 301, March, 2001, P. 261

Kaufman, Alan Jay

397

Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Review ES-127 Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Erin O'Driscoll (PI) Han Wu (Presenter) Dow Kokam May 13,...

398

Star formation histories in early-type galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I discuss the formation of alpha-enhanced metal-rich stellar populations in the nuclei of luminous ellipticals. Based on hierarchical clustering, different galaxy formation scenarios, which imply different star formation histories, are considered. In contrast to the fast clumpy collapse mode, the late merger of two spiral galaxies fails to reproduce significantly $\\alpha$-enhanced abundance ratios, unless the IMF is flattened. Following the star formation history predicted by semi-analytic models of hierarchical clustering for the average elliptical, solar abundance ratios are obtained with Salpeter IMF. According to the models, bright ellipticals in the field are expected to have significantly lower Mg/Fe ratios than their counterparts in a cluster.

D. Thomas

1998-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

399

Study on the Mechanism of Butadiene Formation from Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An specific investigation has been carried out on the mechanism of the catalytic conversion of ethanol to 1,3-butadiene on magnesia–silica ... The mechanism of 1,3-butadiene formation from ethanol was demonstrate...

Meixiang Gao; Zongzhang Liu; Minhua Zhang; Liu Tong

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

formations, including oil and gas reservoirs and deep salineGCS consist mainly of oil and gas reservoirs and deep salinebelow the caprock in oil and gas reservoirs and deep saline

Rutqvist, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Voting patterns and alliance formation in the European Parliament  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and Christian List Voting patterns and alliance formation in the European Parliament...suggests that these transnational party alliances are more than convenient umbrella organizations...European Socialists socialists 215 27.4 Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

The formation of gas bubbles at submerged orifices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For values of Nc greater than 0.85, the formation and release of the bubbles appeared to occur almost simul? taneously. For the formation of bubbles at zero chamber volume and at low flow rates, the following equation was developed. (2) Ve * equilibrium... experimentally. The d determined for water (benzene (

Hayes, William Bell

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Extended correlations of porosity, permeability, and formation resistivity factor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the second is an empirically established correlation between the individual parameters. Although the two relationships are of the same form, the empirical form permits an independent detezmination of characterizing factors that appear in the rela..., and the characterizing factors for several formations have been calculated. These characterizing factors may have some merit for characterizing formations in general. Methods are also suggested for estimating these factors when limited data is available...

Ellis, Keith Wade

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Formation, regeneration and fusion of protoplasts from Gliocladium spp.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FORMATION, REGENERATION AND FUSION OF PROTOPLASTS FROM GLIOCLADIUM SPP. A Thesis by MONICA LEIGH SEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1987 Major Subject: Plant Pathology FORMATION, REGENERATION AND FUSION OF PROTOPLASTS FROM GLIOCLADIUM SPP. A Thesis MONICA LEIGH SEH Approved as to style and content by: Charles M. X nerle (Chairperson of Committee) ic ael D. Thomas...

Seh, Monica Leigh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Crystal Structure and Formation Energy of -carbide Using First  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crystal Structure and Formation Energy of -carbide Using First Principles CalculationsIntroduction · Martensite (') -carbide -carbide -carbide Cementite () · Silicon promotes the formation of -carbide below-456(2008) 900, 100s 200, 20s 250, 30 s Ms = 302(1.0 wt%Si), 293 (1.7 wt%Si) 1.0wt% Si : No -carbide 1.7wt% Si

Cambridge, University of

406

Issues in the Formation of Globular Cluster Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent developments relevant to the formation of globular cluster systems in galaxies are discussed, including (1) The age distribution of the oldest Milky Way clusters, (2) Subgroups and possible accretion and merger remnants in the Galactic halo, (3) Key features of globular cluster systems in giant elliptical galaxies (metallicity distribution functions, luminosity distribution functions, specific frequencies). Processes contributing to the formation of giant ellipticals are summarized.

W. E. Harris

1998-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

407

PRIMUS: The relationship between Star formation and AGN accretion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the evidence for a symbiotic connection between active galactic nuclei (AGN) fueling and star formation by investigating the relationship between the X-ray luminosities of AGN and the star formation rates (SFRs) of their host galaxies. We identify a sample of 309 AGN with X-ray luminosities $10^{41}power-law distribution in the probability of hosting an AGN as a function of ...

Azadi, Mojegan; Coil, Alison; Moustakas, John; Mendez, Alexander; Blanton, Michael; Cool, Richard; Eisenstein, Daniel; Wong, Kenneth; Zhu, Guangtun

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Kinetics of Elementary Processes Relevant to Incipient Soot Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soot formation and abatement processes are some of the most important and challenging problems in hydrocarbon combustion. The key reactions involved in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH�s), the precursors to soot, remain elusive. Small aromatic species such as C5H5, C6H6 and their derivatives are believed to play a pivotal role in incipient soot formation. The goal of this project is to establish a kinetic database for elementary reactions relevant to soot formation in its incipient stages. In the past year, we have completed by CRDS the kinetics for the formation and decomposition of C6H5C2H2O2 in the C6H5C2H2 +O2 reaction and the formation of C10H7O2 in the C10H7 + O2 reaction by directly monitoring C6H5C2H2O2 and C10H7O2 radicals in the visible region; their mechanisms have been elucidated computationally by quantum-chemical calculations. The O + C2H5OH reaction has been studied experimentally and computationally and the OH + HNCN reaction has been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital calculation. In addition, a new pulsed slit molecular beam system has been constructed and tested for spectroscopic studies of aromatic radicals and their derivatives by the cavity ringdown technique (CRDS).

M. C. Lin; M. C. Heaven

2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

409

RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

ii Preliminary Stratigraphic Cross Sections of Oil Shale in the Eocene Green River Formation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For more information on the USGS—the Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and living resources, natural hazards, and the environment:

R. Dyni; Mark D. Myers; R. Dyni

411

Mineralogy and organic petrology of oil shales in the Sangkarewang formation, Ombilin Basin, West Sumatra, Indonesia.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The Ombilin Basin, which lies in Sumatra Island, is one of the Tertiary basins in Indonesia. This basin contains a wide variety of rock units,… (more)

Fatimah, Fatimah

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appalachian Basin, DOE/NETL-2011/1478. Burland, J.B. ,Laboratory Report, DOE/NETL-2011/1478. Cardott, B.J. , 2012.

Dobson, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Fast Track Reservoir Modeling of Shale Formations in the Appalachian Basin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was performed in support of the NETL-RUA, Project # 4000.4.650.920.004 #12;2 Outline · Introduction · Lower was performed in support of the NETL- RUA Authors would like to acknowledge: · NETL/DOE for financially

Mohaghegh, Shahab

414

Inventory of Shale Formations in the US, Including Geologic, Hydrological, and Mechanical Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gray et al. , 1982 (METC/EGSP Series 313, 314, 318, 320)Gray et al. , 1982 (METC/EGSP Series 310, 311, 312, 316,

Dobson, Patrick

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Essays on Dynamic Value Change Perspective in Resource Based View, Determinants of Alliance Formation and Risk Preference in Alliance Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ESSAYS ON DYNAMIC VALUE CHANGE PERSPECTIVE IN RESOURCE BASED VIEW, DETERMINANTS OF ALLIANCE FORMATION AND RISK PREFERENCE IN ALLIANCE FORMATION A Dissertation by IK SU JUN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics ESSAYS ON DYNAMIC VALUE CHANGE PERSPECTIVE IN RESOURCE BASED VIEW, DETERMINANTS OF ALLIANCE...

Jun, Ik Su

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

416

Molecular Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2(110). Molecular Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2(110). Abstract: Understanding hydrogen formation on TiO2...

417

ALKALI AGGREGATE REACTION AND DELAYED ETTRINGITE FORMATION: COMMON FEATURES AND DIFFERENCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALKALI AGGREGATE REACTION AND DELAYED ETTRINGITE FORMATION: COMMON FEATURES AND DIFFERENCES Renaud Department, Paris, France Abstract Alkali-Aggregate Reaction (AAR) and Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF effects 1 INTRODUCTION Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR) and Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) are internal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

418

Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Water-induced Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over SupportedCobalt...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over Supported CobaltCeria-Zirconia Catalysts under Ethanol-Steam Conditions. Water-induced Formation of Cobalt Oxides Over Supported Cobalt...

422

Formation of Coking Coal by Thermal Treatment of a Cannel Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... of the higher plants and the microplants (Ölalgen) have both played a part in coal formation: ... formation: coals formed from the former have been called humus ...

H. E. BLAYDEN; J. GIBSON; H. L. RILEY

1947-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - aureus biofilm formation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

multiple important functions including virulence and biofilm formation1... -sensing inhibitor RNAIII-inhibiting peptide to prevent biofilm formation in vivo by drug-resistant...

424

Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

425

Star formation triggered by SNR impact into magnetized neutral clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Considering the physical conditions that are relevant for triggering star formation in interactions involving SN shocks and neutral clouds, we have built diagrams of the SNR radius versus the cloud density in which these conditions constrain a shaded zone where star formation is allowed. The diagrams are also tested with fully 3-D MHD radiative cooling simulations involving a SNR and a self-gravitating cloud and we find that the numerical analysis is consistent with the results predicted by the diagrams. While the inclusion of a homogeneous magnetic field approximately perpendicular to the impact velocity of the SNR with an intensity ~1 $mu$G results only a small shrinking of the star formation zone in the diagrams, a larger magnetic field (~10 $\\mu$G) causes a significant shrinking, as expected. Applications of our results to real star formation regions in our own galaxy have revealed that their formation could have been triggered by a SN shock wave. Finally, we have evaluated the effective global star forma...

Leao, M R M; Falceta-Goncalves, D; Melioli, C; Geraissate, F G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Minturn Formation of Eagle basin: an exploration frontier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Eagle basin, a predominantly Desmoinesian evaporite basin in northwestern Colorado, contains many targets for oil and gas reserves. Facies patterns of the Minturn Formation of the Eagle basin are strikingly similar to those of the prolific Paradox Formation of the Paradox basin. Both basins and formations also contain lens-shaped carbonate algal-bioherms. These algal-bioherms are particularly attractive reservoirs where they flank halite-basin margins, the areas of optimum dolomitization. The Minturn formation has been subdivided into individual rock packages using subsurface control. Facies maps constructed for individual units indicate the Eagle basin is a series of smaller basins, each having served as a center for halite deposition. Data support a deep-water model for the deposition of halite; however, a sabkhalike environment existed between the halite basins and the normal marine facies. Halite depocenters appear to have been structurally controlled. The Minturn Formation is very thick and may contain multiple prospective zones at any one location. Within the past year, two and possibly three Minturn discoveries have been made in northwestern Colorado.

Dodge, C.J.N.; Bartleson, B.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

The Era of Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at $1 1.35$. Using infrared luminosities measured with deep Spitzer/MIPS observations at 24 $\\mu$m, along with robust optical+IRAC photometric redshifts and SED-fitted stellar masses, we present the dust-obscured star-forming fractions, star formation rates and specific star formation rates in these clusters as functions of redshift and projected clustercentric radius. We find that $z\\sim 1.4$ represents a transition redshift for the ISCS sample, with clear evidence of an unquenched era of cluster star formation at earlier times. Beyond this redshift the fraction of star-forming cluster members increases monotonically toward the cluster centers. Indeed, the specific star formation rate in the cores of these distant clusters is consistent with field values at similar redshifts, indicating that at $z>1.4$ environment-dependent quenching had not yet been established in ISCS clusters. Combining these obse...

Brodwin, M; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Zeimann, G R; Snyder, G F; Mancone, C L; Pope, A; Eisenhardt, P R; Stern, D; Alberts, S; Ashby, M L N; Brown, M J I; Chary, R -R; Dey, Arjun; Galametz, A; Gettings, D P; Jannuzi, B T; Miller, E D; Moustakas, J; Moustakas, L A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

Studebaker, Irving G. (Grand Junction, CO); Hefelfinger, Richard (Grand Junction, CO)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Capillary tension and imbibition sequester frack fluid in Marcellus gas shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...gone. Introducing 10 4 m 3 of fracking fluid per horizontal well...sequester the remaining charge of fracking fluid in a matrix porosity of...Formation brine to shallow aquifers in Pennsylvania . Proc Natl Acad...rocks Devonian drilling muds fracking fluids gas shale ground water...

Terry Engelder

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Pseudo-lignin formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

formation formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis Fan Hu, Seokwon Jung, Arthur Ragauskas ⇑ BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 21 November 2011 Received in revised form 5 April 2012 Accepted 10 April 2012 Available online 21 April 2012 Keywords: Poplar Pseudo-lignin Dilute acid pretreatment a-Cellulose Holocellulose a b s t r a c t Pseudo-lignin, which can be broadly defined as aromatic material that yields a positive Klason lignin value and is not derived from native lignin, has been recently reported to form during the dilute acid pre- treatment of poplar holocellulose. To investigate the chemistry of pseudo-lignin formation, GPC, FT-IR and 13 C NMR were utilized to characterize pseudo-lignin

432

one mile underground into a deep saline formation. The injection  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

mile underground into a deep saline formation. The injection, mile underground into a deep saline formation. The injection, which will occur over a three-year period and is slated to start in early 2010, will compress up to 1 million metric tonnes of CO 2 from the ADM ethanol facility into a liquid-like, dense phase. The targeted rock formation, the Mt. Simon Sandstone, is the thickest and most widespread saline reservoir in the Illinois Basin, with an estimated CO 2 storage capacity of 27 to 109 billion metric tonnes. A comprehensive monitoring program, which will be evaluated yearly, will be implemented after the injection to ensure the injected CO 2 is stored safely and permanently. The RCSP Program was launched by the Office of Fossil Energy (FE)

433

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Title Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Liu, Gao, John B. Kerr, and Stephen G. Johnson Journal Synthetic Metals Volume 144 Pagination 1-6 Keywords dark spot, failure mechanism, interface, ito surface, oled Abstract The failure behaviors of ITO/PEDOT;PSS/polyfluorene/Al devices are different depending on the surface roughness of the sputtered ITO anode film. The spikes on ITO surface are responsible for the initial local shorts of the device, which develop into dark spots very quickly. Indium adsorption is observed on the polymer and Al cathode interface. A chemical etching procedure is used to smoothen the ITO surface without changing the ITO thickness and the sheet resistance. Devices made out of smooth ITO show minimum changes at polymer-cathode interface during operation.

434

X-pinch dynamics: Neck formation and implosion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a model that describes the neck formation and implosion in an X-pinch. The process is simulated to go in two stages. The first stage is neck formation. This stage begins with an electrical explosion of the wires forming the X-pinch, and at the end of the stage, a micropinch (neck) is formed in the region where the wires are crossed. The second stage is neck implosion. The implosion is accompanied by outflow of matter from the neck region, resulting in the formation of a “hot spot”. Analytical estimates obtained in the study under consideration indicate that these stages are approximately equal in duration. Having analyzed the neck implosion dynamics, we have verified a scaling which makes it possible to explain the observed dependences of the time of occurrence of an x-ray pulse on the X-pinch current and mass.

Oreshkin, V. I. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Chaikovsky, S. A. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, 53 Leninsky Ave., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Artyomov, A. P.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Fedunin, A. V.; Rousskikh, A. G.; Zhigalin, A. S. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAS, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy lower than 80 eV. After e-beam irradiation, it is found that the D peak, I(D), appears in the Raman spectrum, indicating defect formation in graphene. The evolution of I(D)/I(G) follows the amorphization trajectory with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that graphene goes through a transformation from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline and then further to amorphous carbon. Further, irradiation of graphene with increased water partial pressure does not significantly change the Raman spectra, which suggests that, in the extremely low energy range, e-beam induced chemical reactions between residual water and graphene is not the dominant mechanism driving defect formation in graphene. Single layer graphene, par...

Gao, A; Bijkerk, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Identification of the Sequence of Steps Intrinsic to Spheromak Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A planar coaxial electrostatic helicity source is used for studying the relaxation process intrinsic to spheromak formation Experimental observations reveal that spheromak formation involves: (1) breakdown and creation of a number of distinct arched filamentary plasma?filled flux loops that span from cathode to anode gas nozzles (2) merging of these loops to form a central column (3) jet?like expansion of the central column (4) kink instability of the central column (5) conversion of toroidal flux to poloidal flux by the kink instability. Steps 1 and 3 indicate that spheromak formation involves an MHD pumping of plasma from the gas nozzles into the magnetic flux tube linking the nozzles. In order to measure this pumping the gas puffing system has been modified to permit simultaneous injection of different gas species into the two ends of the flux tube linking the wall. Gated CCD cameras with narrow?band optical filters are used to track the pumped flows.

P. M. Bellan; S. You; G. S. Yun

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

The formation of a single-pulse electrospark deposition spot  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The investigation of the formation mechanism of the rotating-type electrospark deposition (ESD) was presented, based on studying the single-pulse electrospark deposition spot. Four different substrate/electrode couples were selected to produce single-pulse deposition spots. The similar morphology of the spots and element migration tendency were detected. A heuristic physical model was established to interpret this deposition process. The concept of “gush and splash effect” was originally proposed and proved as the dominant factor in the formation mechanism of the single-pulse electrospark deposition spot. In addition, the rotation behavior of the electrode was identified to impact on the formation of the single-pulse deposition spot.

Jun Liu; Ruijun Wang; Yiyu Qian

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Carrier cooling and exciton formation in GaSe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The initial cooling of hot carriers and the subsequent exciton formation in GaSe are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) using femtosecond up-conversion techniques. From the time-resolved PL spectra of this layered III-VI semiconductor two different energy relaxation channels are derived. After an initial subpicosecond cooling due to Fröhlich-type interaction of carriers with longitudinal optical E?(22) phonons a slower regime follows, which is dominated by deformation potential interaction with the nonpolar optical A1?(12) phonons. The coupling constant for nonpolar optical phonon scattering is derived. The subsequent formation of excitons is studied at different carrier densities and detection energies. A cross section for the free-exciton formation is determined based on a rate equation model.

S. Nüsse; P. Haring Bolivar; H. Kurz; V. Klimov; F. Levy

1997-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Chitosan as green kinetic inhibitors for gas hydrate formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetic inhibiting effect of a number of chitosans on hydrate formation was investigated using methane and methane/ethane gas mixtures. The results indicated that chitosan was a good kinetic inhibitor. The induction time of gas hydrate formation evidently increased with the degree of deacetylation (DD), however, when DD was higher than 80%, the effect of DD on the induction time was negligible. Moreover, it was found that the molecular weight (MW) of chitosan and the addition of polyethylene oxide (PEO) had little effect on the induction time. The optimal concentration of chitosan was found to be 0.6 wt%. Finally, the mechanisms of the kinetic inhibitor on the hydrate formation were discussed.

Yongjun Xu; Minlin Yang; Xiaoxi Yang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Study of spin-polaron formation in 1D systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study numerically the formation of spin-polarons in low-dimensional systems. We consider a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model with Hund coupling J{sub H} and localized spins interacting antiferromagnetically with coupling constant J. We investigate the ground state phase diagram as a function of the exchange couplings J{sub H} and J and as a function of the band filling, since it has been observed that doping either on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic regime lead to formation of magnetic domains [1]. We explore the quasi-particle formation and phase separation using the density-matrix renormalization group method, which is a highly efficient method to investigate quasi-one-dimensional strongly correlated systems.

Arredondo, Y.; Navarro, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510 México D.F. (Mexico); Vallejo, E. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Carretera Torreón-Matamoros Km. 7.5 Ciudad Universitaria, 27276 Torreón, Coahuila (Mexico)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

443

Evaluation of the Azinomycin B Biosynthetic Pathway: The Azabicycle Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purified AziC3, AziC4, AziC5 and AziC6 ..... 30 Figure 19 The formation of hydroxamate-Fe3+ complex by AziC3 .......................... 31 Figure 20 Result of hydroxylamine assay by AziC3 ................................................. 31 Figure... 26 The proposed mechanistic scheme of the aziridine ring formation .......... 45 Figure 27 SDS-PAGE of insoluble proteins AziH1 and AziH2 and purified AziH3 47 Appendix Figure 1 Amino acid sequence alignment of AziC2 with LysX homologs 60...

Lee, Rachel Pokei

2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

444

Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

Blandford, J.W.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

445

Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Simulation of structure formation in an electrorheological fluid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temporal evolution of three-dimensional structure in an electrorheological (ER) fluid is examined by a computer simulation. A parameter B characterizing the ratio of the Brownian force to the dipolar force is introduced. For a wide range of B, the ER fluid has a rapid chain formation followed by aggregation of chains into thick columns which has a body-centered tetragonal lattice structure. The Peierls-Landau instability of single chains help formation of thick columns. If the Brownian force is very small, the ER system may be trapped in some local energy-minimum state.

R. Tao and Qi Jiang

1994-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

447

Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil and ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on long data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time.

Kelkar, Mohan

2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

448

Magnetic Fields in the Formation of Sun-Like Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report high-angular-resolution measurements of polarized dust emission toward the low-mass protostellar system NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. We show that in this system the observed magnetic field morphology is in agreement with the standard theoretical models of the formation of Sun-like stars in magnetized molecular clouds at scales of a few hundred astronomical units; gravity has overcome magnetic support, and the magnetic field traces a clear hourglass shape. The magnetic field is substantially more important than turbulence in the evolution of the system, and the initial misalignment of the magnetic and spin axes may have been important in the formation of the binary system.

Josep M. Girart; Ramprasad Rao; Daniel P. Marrone

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

449

Review of texture and texture formation in zircaloy tubing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general review of the texture characteristics in hexagonal close-packed metals is given with special reference to zircaloy tubing used in the nuclear industry. Conclusions concerning the deformation forces and their effect on the resulting deformation mechanisms are detailed. It is shown that the texture formation is governed by the material flow, which for tube reductions is determined by the reduction in cross-section, wall thickness and diameter, and, more specifically, by the relative ratio of wall to diameter reduction. By knowing the relationship between texture formation and reduction pazameters, it is possible to tailor the texture in zircaloy tubing within the given limits, according to in-service requirements.

Tenckhoff, E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Synthesis and apatite-formation ability of akermanite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pure akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7) powders were synthesized by sol–gel method. The akermanite powders were composed of polycrystalline particles with dimensions of 5–40 ?m. The apatite-formation ability of the akermanite was examined by soaking it in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and the result showed that hydroxyapatite (HAp) was formed after soaking for 10 days. Our study indicated that akermanite possessed apatite-formation ability and might be used for preparation of new biomaterials.

Chengtie Wu; Jiang Chang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Commercial Buildings Partnership Projects - Metered Data Format and Delivery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A number of the Commercial Building Partnership Projects (CBPs) will require metering, monitoring, data analysis and verification of savings after the retrofits are complete. Although monitoring and verification (M&V) agents are free to use any metering and monitoring devices that they chose, the data they collect should be reported to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in a standard format. PNNL will store the data collected in its CBP database for further use by PNNL and U.S. Department of Energy. This document describes the data storage process and the deliver format of the data from the M&V agents.

Katipamula, Srinivas

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Formation and Stability of Impurity "snakes" in Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New observations of the formation and dynamics of long-lived impurity-induced helical "snake" modes in tokamak plasmas have recently been carried-out on Alcator C-Mod. The snakes form as an asymmetry in the impurity ion density that undergoes a seamless transition from a small helically displaced density to a large crescent-shaped helical structure inside q < 1, with a regularly sawtoothing core. The observations show that the conditions for the formation and persistence of a snake cannot be explained by plasma pressure alone. Instead, many features arise naturally from nonlinear interactions in a 3D MHD model that separately evolves the plasma density and temperature

L. Delgado-Aparicio, et. al.

2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

453

Diagenetic origin of ironstone crusts in the Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation, Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, a new interpretation of the ironstone crusts of the Bahariya Formation as late diagenetic products is provided. The siliciclastic Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation outcropping in the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Western Desert, Egypt) is subdivided into three informal units that are mainly composed of thinly laminated siltstone, cross-bedded and massive sandstone, fossiliferous sandstone/sandy limestone and variegated shale. Abundant ironstone crusts occur preferentially within its lower and upper units but are absent in the middle unit. The ironstone crusts show selective replacement of carbonate components, including calcretes, by iron oxyhydroxides. More permeable parts of the terrigenous beds such as burrow traces, subaerial exposure surfaces, concretionary features and soft-sediment deformation structures led to heterogeneous distribution of the iron oxyhydroxides. A variety of diagenetic minerals, where goethite and hematite are the main end-products, were characterized by mineralogical analysis (XRD), petrography and SEM observation, and geochemical determinations (EMPA). Other diagenetic minerals include Fe-dolomite/ankerite, siderite, manganese minerals, barite, silica, illite/smectite mixed-layer, and bitumen. These minerals are interpreted to be formed in different diagenetic stages. Some minerals, especially those formed during eodiagenesis, show features indicative of biogenic activity. During burial, dolomite and ankerite replaced preferentially the depositional carbonates and infilled secondary porosity as well. Also during mesodiagenesis, the decomposition of organic matter resulted in the formation of bitumen and created reducing conditions favorable for the mobilization of iron-rich fluids in divalent stage. Telodiagenesis of the Cenomanian Bahariya deposits took place during the Turonian–Santonian uplift of the region. This resulted in partial or total dissolution of Fe-dolomite and ankerite which was concomitant to iron oxyhydroxide precipitation upon mixing with shallow oxygenated water. Circulation of reducing iron-rich fluids through fractures and inter and intrastratal discontinuities is proposed as an alternative model to explain the controversial source of iron for the ironstone crusts of the Bahariya Formation. The origin of iron-rich fluids is probably related to the basement rocks. The provided model relates the fluid movements through fractures and discontinuities with the preferential replacement of carbonates. This combination of processes is consistent with the heterogeneous geometries and the wide distribution of the ironstones.

A.M. Afify; M.E. Sanz-Montero; J.P. Calvo; H.A. Wanas

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Basics of Polar-Format algorithm for processing Synthetic Aperture Radar images.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a background to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image formation using the Polar Format (PFA) processing algorithm. This is meant to be an aid to those tasked to implement real-time image formation using the Polar Format processing algorithm.

Doerry, Armin Walter

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Niederdruck-Überschallexpansionen. Eine studie zur formation von kalten wasserstoff und deuteriumatomstrahlen für polarisierte gastargets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Niederdruck-Überschallexpansionen. Eine studie zur formation von kalten wasserstoff und deuteriumatomstrahlen für polarisierte gastargets

Nass, A

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Extractors manual for Oil Shale Data Base System: Major Plants Data Base  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date, persons working in the development of oil shale technology have found limited amounts of reference data. If data from research and development could be made publicly available, however, several functions could be served. The duplication of work could be avoided, documented test material could serve as a basis to promote further developments, and research costs could possibly be reduced. To satisfy the engineering public's need for experimental data and to assist in the study of technical uncertainties in oil shale technology, the Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the development of a data system to store the results of Government-sponsored research. A technology-specific data system consists of data that are stored for that technology in each of the specialized data bases that make up the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) data system. The Oil Shale Data System consists of oil shale data stored in the Major Plants Data Base (MPDB), Test Data Data Base (TDDB), Resource Extraction Data Base (REDB), and Math Modeling Data Base (MMDB). To capture the results of Government-sponsored oil shale research programs, documents have been written to specify the data that contractors need to report and the procedures for reporting them. The documents identify and define the data from oil shale projects to be entered into the MPDB, TDDB, REDB, and MMDB, which will meet the needs of users of the Oil Shale Data System. This document addresses what information is needed and how it must be formatted for entry to the MPDB for oil shale. The data that are most relevant to potential Oil Shale Data System users have been divided into four categories: project tracking needs; economic/commercialization needs; critical performance needs; and modeling and research and development needs. 2 figs., 31 tabs.

Not Available

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Laboratory evidence for efficient water formation in interstellar ices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even though water is the main constituent in interstellar icy mantles, its chemical origin is not well understood. Three different formation routes have been proposed following hydrogenation of O, O2, or O3, but experimental evidence is largely lacking. We present a solid state astrochemical laboratory study in which one of these routes is tested. For this purpose O2 ice is bombarded by H- or D-atoms under ultra high vacuum conditions at astronomically relevant temperatures ranging from 12 to 28 K. The use of reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) permits derivation of reaction rates and shows efficient formation of H2O (D2O) with a rate that is surprisingly independent of temperature. This formation route converts O2 into H2O via H2O2 and is found to be orders of magnitude more efficient than previously assumed. It should therefore be considered as an important channel for interstellar water ice formation as illustrated by astrochemical model calculations.

S. Ioppolo; H. M. Cuppen; C. Romanzin; E. F. van Dishoeck; H. Linnartz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Stable plateau formation and Brillouin suppression in laser plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the variety of ponderomotively induced density structures in laser produced plasmas in one dimension, it is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that the stable plateau formation at critical, subcritical, and above critical density is possible. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering is suppressed with increasing laser intensity.

Mulser, P. [Theoretical Quantum Electronics (TQE), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Weng, S. M. [Theoretical Quantum Electronics (TQE), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-80333 Munich (Germany)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

GUV formation protocol: -Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GUV formation protocol: Materials: - Ethanol, DI water and Kimwipes for cleaning - 5-10 µl glass with ethanol and DI water using Kimwipes alternating the solvents at least twice to make sure any grease-ring using a Kimwipe and ethanol. Use Que-tip or grease slide to apply a thin layer of vacuum grease to one

Movileanu, Liviu

460

Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Formation during Diesel Exhaust Dilution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Ultrafine Particle Formation during Diesel Exhaust Dilution ... In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that ... ... Analyses of Turbulent Flow Fields and Aerosol Dynamics of Diesel Engine Exhaust Inside Two Dilution Sampling Tunnels Using the CTAG Model ...

Ji Ping Shi; Roy M. Harrison

1999-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

462

Pinch spot formation in high atomic number z discharges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A nonlinear, quasi-two-dimensional model for pinch spot formation in radiation-dominated, high atomic number z pinches is presented that reproduces the experimental electrical and radiation characteristics. The high line-radiation rates of such discharges produce localized, high-density pinch spots in contrast to the spindle pinches predicted for hydrogenic discharges.

D. Mosher and D. Colombant

1992-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

463

Duplicated genes evolve independently after polyploid formation in cotton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Duplicated genes evolve independently after polyploid formation in cotton Richard C. Cronn to characterize the evolution of homoeologous loci in allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and in species from organismal history was recovered. In contrast to observations involving repetitive DNAs in cotton

Wendel, Jonathan F.

464

Agent-organized networks for dynamic team formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many multi-agent systems consist of a complex network of autonomous yet interdependent agents. Examples of such networked multi-agent systems include supply chains and sensor networks. In these systems, agents have a select set of other agents with whom ... Keywords: multi-agent systems, organizational learning, team formation

Matthew E. Gaston; Marie desJardins

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Mineral formation during simulated leaks of Hanford waste tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mineral formation during simulated leaks of Hanford waste tanks Youjun Deng a , James B. Harsh a handling by M. Gascoyne Abstract Highly-alkaline waste solutions have leaked from underground tanks mimicking tank leak conditions at the US DOE Hanford Site. In batch experiments, Si-rich solutions

Flury, Markus

466

The Formation and Persistence of Automobile Brand Preferences  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Formation and Persistence of Automobile Brand Preferences Soren T. Anderson Michigan State preferences in the automobile market demonstrate strong persistence, which im- plies that market conditions empirical evidence that (1) individuals tend to choose the same brand of automobile again and again

Silver, Whendee

467

Red fluorescent proteins: chromophore formation and cellular applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Red fluorescent proteins: chromophore formation and cellular applications Atsushi Miyawaki1,2 , Daria M Shcherbakova3,4 and Vladislav V Verkhusha3,4 In the last decade, a number of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) that emit orange, red, and far-red fluorescence have been isolated from anthozoans (corals

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

468

RADIATION MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR COLLAPSE: PROTOSTELLAR CORE FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations of protostellar collapse with and without Ohmic dissipation. We take into account many physical processes required to study star formation processes, including a realistic equation of state. We follow the evolution from molecular cloud cores until protostellar cores are formed with sufficiently high resolutions without introducing a sink particle. The physical processes involved in the simulations and adopted numerical methods are described in detail. We can calculate only about one year after the formation of the protostellar cores with our direct three-dimensional RMHD simulations because of the extremely short timescale in the deep interior of the formed protostellar cores, but successfully describe the early phase of star formation processes. The thermal evolution and the structure of the first and second (protostellar) cores are consistent with previous one-dimensional simulations using full radiation transfer, but differ considerably from preceding multi-dimensional studies with the barotropic approximation. The protostellar cores evolve virtually spherically symmetric in the ideal MHD models because of efficient angular momentum transport by magnetic fields, but Ohmic dissipation enables the formation of the circumstellar disks in the vicinity of the protostellar cores as in previous MHD studies with the barotropic approximation. The formed disks are still small (less than 0.35 AU) because we simulate only the earliest evolution. We also confirm that two different types of outflows are naturally launched by magnetic fields from the first cores and protostellar cores in the resistive MHD models.

Tomida, Kengo [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)] [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tomisaka, Kohji [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan)] [Faculty of Humanity and Environment, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Hori, Yasunori; Saigo, Kazuya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Okuzumi, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: tomida@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tomisaka@th.nao.ac.jp, E-mail: yasunori.hori@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: saigo.kazuya@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp, E-mail: okuzumi@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: machida.masahiro.018@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

469

Instructions on Wide Format Printing Document Setup for Designing Posters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Instructions on Wide Format Printing Document Setup for Designing Posters Microsoft Word: (The--give it the project or poster name 2. Open Word 3. On Main Menu, choose "Page Layout" tab 4. In the "Page Setup 10. Start designing your poster 11. When your poster is complete, "Save" it as a Word Document

Bogaerts, Steven

470

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Concrete vs. Abstract Problem Formats: A Disadvantage of Prior Knowledge Andrew F. Heckler is identified for some questions. When a problem potentially elicits prior knowledge that is contrary to scientific knowledge, e.g. a scientific "misconception", it is found that the concrete representation invokes

Heckler, Andrew F.

471

The formate-pyruvate exchange reaction by Streptococcus faecalis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

!!e, ivlartin J, anci Guthrie, Robert 19;i9 incorporation oi formate- C14 into the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine. J, Bacteriol. 78, 545-549, Reed, L. J. , Gunsalus, I. C, , DuBusk, B. G. anc! Hornberger, C. S. 1951 Crystalline o(-Iipoic acid. A catalisti...

Yeager, Robert Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

Caustic formation in expanding condensates of cold atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the evolution of density in an expanding Bose-Einstein condensate that initially has a spatially varying phase, concentrating on behavior when these phase variations are large. In this regime large density fluctuations develop during expansion. Maxima have a characteristic density that diverges with the amplitude of phase variations and their formation is analogous to that of caustics in geometrical optics. We analyze in detail caustic formation in a quasi-one-dimensional condensate, which before expansion is subject to a periodic or random optical potential, and we discuss the equivalent problem for a quasi-two-dimensional system. We also examine the influence of many-body correlations in the initial state on caustic formation for a Bose gas expanding from a strictly one-dimensional trap. In addition, we study a similar arrangement for noninteracting fermions, showing that Fermi surface discontinuities in the momentum distribution give rise in that case to sharp peaks in the spatial derivative of the density. We discuss recent experiments and argue that fringes reported in time of flight images [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. A 77, 033632 (2008)] are an example of caustic formation.

Chalker, J. T. [Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Shapiro, B. [Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies and QSO activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......cooling flow episodes appears naturally in model 2(1/3) gives...of star formation leading naturally to several short episodes...first cooling flow episode occuring when the galaxy is less than...eds, Proc. IAU Symp. 89, Radiation Hydrodynamics in Stars and......

Amancio C. S. Friaça; Roberto J. Terlevich

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs up to 788 amu (C64H20) were detected in the combustion gases. Only the most applications including heating systems and gas turbines for electric power generation.62­64 The combustionFormation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames K. Siegmanna) Swiss

Sattler, Klaus

475

Pocket formation and the flame surface density equation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The occurrence and properties of singularities in the equation for the surface density function {sigma} {triple_bond}{vert_bar}{del}{Phi}{vert_bar} are analyzed analytically and numerically using data from two dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) of pocket formation in a premixed methane-air flame. The various stages and the relevant time scales associated with pocket formation were determined in a previous study. It was found that isolated pockets form if and only if a nondegenerate critical point of a saddle point type appears. The appearance of a singularity in the isoline representing the flame front may have implications to modeling of the terms in the surface density function (sdf) approach during such transient events as pocket formation. The sink and source terms in sdf are evaluated in the neighborhood of a critical point using DNS data during pocket formation, and an analytic representation of a scalar in the vicinity of the critical point which allows for the computation of all kinematic properties. The analytic and computational results show that the normal restoration and dissipation terms in the sdf become singular at the critical point when the pocket emerges. Furthermore, the analytic results show that the singularities exactly cancel, and therefore, the main conclusion is that it is unnecessary to model the singular behavior of these terms at critical points. However, closure of their sum is recommended.

Kollman, W. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

AN INFRARED CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION IN THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At {approx} 400 pc, the Horsehead Nebula (B33) is the closest radiatively sculpted pillar to the Sun, but the state and extent of star formation in this structure is not well understood. We present deep near-infrared (IRSF/SIRIUS JHK {sub S}) and mid-infrared (Spitzer/IRAC) observations of the Horsehead Nebula to characterize the star-forming properties of this region and to assess the likelihood of triggered star formation. Infrared color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are used to identify young stars based on infrared excess emission and positions to the right of the zero-age main sequence, respectively. Of the 45 sources detected at both near- and mid-infrared wavelengths, three bona fide and five candidate young stars are identified in this 7' x 7' region. Two bona fide young stars have flat infrared spectral energy distributions and are located at the western irradiated tip of the pillar. The spatial coincidence of the protostars at the leading edge of this elephant trunk is consistent with the radiation-driven implosion model of triggered star formation. There is no evidence, however, for sequential star formation within the immediate {approx} 1.'5 (0.17 pc) region from the cloud/H II region interface.

Bowler, Brendan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Waller, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Megeath, S. Thomas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Patten, Brian M. [National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Tamura, Motohide [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)], E-mail: bpbowler@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: william.waller@tufts.edu, E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu, E-mail: bpatten@nsf.gov, E-mail: motohide.tamura@nao.ac.jp

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

477

WS Reallocated-30Aug07.doc MODEL FORMAT FOR REALLOCATED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from storage currently allocated to another project purpose (ie. flood control pool, conservation pool1 WS Reallocated-30Aug07.doc MODEL FORMAT FOR REALLOCATED WATER SUPPLY STORAGE AGREEMENTS AUGUST 30, 2007 APPLICABILITY: This is one of four types of agreements typically used for water supply storage

US Army Corps of Engineers

478

WIPP Salado hydrology program data report No. 1. [Salado Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

WIPP Salado Hydrology Program Data Report {number sign}1 presents hydrologic data collected during permeability tests of the Salado Formation performed from August 1988 through December 1989. Analysis and interpretation of the test data are presented in a separate report. The report presents the results of the drilling and testing of six boreholes drilled from the WIPP underground facility 655 m below ground surface in the Salado Formation. Permeability tests were conducted using multipacker test tools with inflatable packers to isolate borehole intervals to allow formation pore-pressure buildup and subsequent pulse-withdrawal tests. Test data include pressures and temperatures in brine-filled, packer-isolated test intervals and borehole-closure and axial test-tool-movement measurements. Permeability tests were performed after installing multipacker test tools in test boreholes, inflating the packers, and allowing pressures to build up in the isolated intervals. Pulse-withdrawal tests were performed after buildup pressures approached the apparent formation pore pressure. Pulse injections were sometimes performed to increase the fluid pressures in isolated intervals. Compliance tests were conducted in lengths of steel and stainless-steel casing to evaluate the mechanical performance of the multipacker test tools. The stainless-steel compliance-test chamber was installed with externally mounted thermocouples in a downward-angled borehole in Experimental Room 4. Compliance tests included leak tests and simulated pulse-injection and pulse-withdrawal sequences. 9 refs., 143 figs., 2 tabs.

Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Domski, P.S.; Palmer, J.B.; Roberts, R.M.; Stensrud, W.A. (INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (USA)); Jensen, A.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Coke formation during pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most processes involving hydrocarbons or carbon oxides at high temperatures suffer from the disadvantage of coke formation. The formation of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is of significant practical importance. Examples of such processes are the steam cracking of alkanes to produce olefins and the thermal decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC) for the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Even id the rate of coke production is low, the cumulative nature of the solid product will result in reactor fouling. The present work deals with the thermal decomposition of EDC. Coke formation has been studied on metal surfaces in a quartz tubular reactor. The rate of coke deposition was measures on metal foils hanging from one arm of a microbalance. A complete analysis of the product gas was accomplished using on-line gas chromatography. The results show that coke deposition during thermal decomposition of EDC depends on the composition of the feed as well as on the nature of the surface of the metal foil. Small amounts of other components (contamination with other chlorinated hydrocarbons as an example) may have a large influence on the rate of coke formation. The results are discussed in terms of surface composition/morphology of the metal foil and the free radical mechanism for thermal decomposition of FDC.

Holmen, A. [Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Lindvag, O.A. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

480

An Interchange File Format for Graphs Michael Himsolt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

graphical information. It is designed as an extendible format and provides facilities such that other be as flexible and extensible as possible. Other programs should be able to write graph files with low overhead Ascii). Since end of line is encoded differ­ ently on different platform, we choose not to use end­of­line

Pentus, Mati

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "formations shale formations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

UAF THESIS FORMAT HANDBOOK For UAF graduate students  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UAF THESIS FORMAT HANDBOOK For UAF graduate students preparing a Master's thesis or a Ph ARE NO PHYSICAL PAGE NUMBERS ON THE SIGNATURE PAGE OR THE TITLE PAGE By Wil Wheaton RECOMMENDED Examiner does not sign. Do not have someone sign for a committee member (e.g. Joan Smith for Roger Doe) We

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

482

On formation of equation of state of evolving quantum field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stylized model of evolution of matter created in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered. Systematic procedure of computing quantum corrections in the framework of Keldysh formalism is formulated. Analytical expressions for formation of equations of state taking into account leading quantum corrections is worked out, complete description of subleasing corrections and analytical expressions for some of them is presented.

A. V. Leonidov; A. A. Radovskaya

2014-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

483

Formation of topological defects in first order phase transitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze the evolution of scalar and gauge fields during first-order phase transitions and show how the Kibble mechanism for the formation of topological defects emerges from the underlying dynamics, paying particular attention to problems posed by gauge invariance when a local symmetry is spontaneously broken. We discuss also the application of the mechanism to semilocal defects and electroweak strings.

Mark Hindmarsh; Anne-Christine Davis; Robert Brandenberger

1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

Cobalt Nanocrystals as Starting Materials for Shape Modificationand Assembly Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surfactant-coated cobalt nanocrystals can be prepared with areasonable degree of control over particle size and shape using athermolytic route. The small crystallite size, enhanced reactivity andtunable interparticle interactions enable use of this material asstarting material for demonstration of achievement of novel structuresusing extremely simple solution-based approaches. In particular,formation of hollow cobalt sulfide nanocrystals upon chemicalmodification and emergence of long-range orientational order upondrying-mediated assembly of cobalt nanocrystals is reportedhere.Colloidal preparation of Co nanocrystals has been well-studied.Here, we emphasize general principles and crystallographic/morphologicalcharacterization of disk-shaped hcp-Co nanocrystals. Use of surfactantmolecules enables achievement of multiple morphologies in one syntheticsystem.Formation of hollow structures upon in-solution sulfidation of Conanocrystals is presented and discussed. A Kirkendall-type effect,involving dominant outward mass transport during formation of the ionicshell material explains the results naturally. It is expected that thisphenomenon will generalize extensively to formation of hollow structuresof an enormous variety of compositions. Detailed study of particlemorphology as a function of reaction conditions suggest phenomena likelyto be generally relevant to use of this approach. A short report ofcrystallographic co-alignment into vortex-like structures is alsoprovided. Our current best picture of this process involves an interplayof packing and magnetic interactions between facetedparticles.

Erdonmez, Can Kerem

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

485

Effect of gaseous inhibitors on PCDD/F formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from municipal waste incineration are currently a subject of considerable public concern because of their extreme toxicity. PCDD/F formation in incineration processes is being studied widely, but studies on inhibition are quite sparse, especially in a pilot-plant scale. In this work, the effect of four gaseous inhibitors (sulfur dioxide, ammonia, dimethylamine, and methyl mercaptan) on PCDD/PCDF formation in the combustion of liquid fuel was studied using a pilot-scale plant. The inhibitors were injected into the flue gas stream after the first economizer at a temperature of 670 C and just before the second economizer at 410 C. Both the chlorophenol and PCDD and PCDF concentrations decreased when inhibitors were added. Particle-phase PCDD/F concentrations in particular decreased by up to 98%. The results suggest that the formation of PCDD/Fs is hindered in the particle phase at the early stages of the PCDD/F formation chain, probably even before precursors such as chlorophenols have been formed.

Ruokojaervi, P.H.; Halonen, I.A.; Tuppurainen, K.A.; Tarhanen, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)] [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)

1998-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Effectsof ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effectsof ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud experimental and ray campaign, four 220halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground- based polarization lidar of the aircraft, which collecteda total of 84slides byimpaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic

Takano, Yoshihide

487

A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

488

NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NITROGEN EVOLUTION AND SOOT FORMATION DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS by Haifeng Zhang DURING SECONDARY COAL PYROLYSIS Haifeng Zhang Department of Chemical Engineering Doctor of Philosophy Economical NOx control techniques used in pulverized coal furnaces, such as air/fuel staging, promote

Fletcher, Thomas H.

489

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Formation of Hollow Gallium Nitride Spheres via Silica Sphere Templates ... To form reasonably uniform gallium oxide shells, the amounts of urea and water added to the reaction mixture were varied. ... Due to the low solubility of urea in 2-propanol, addition of a larger amount of urea than that used in this study is not desirable. ...

Chun-Neng Lin; Michael H. Huang

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

490

OFFRE DE FORMATION mardi 11 septembre 2012 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

site Web - Assistants - ingénieurs en technologies Intranet/Internet - Gestionnaires de sites Web et de Domaine : SCIENCES TECHNOLOGIES SANTE Mention : SYSTEMES INFORMATIQUES ET LOGICIELS Intitulé : Systèmes Sciences et Techniques Objectifs de la formation et débouchés : Objectifs : L'explosion des technologies

Herrmann, Samuel

491

Nonlinear formation of holographic images of obscurations in laser beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear formation of holographic images of obscurations in laser beams C. Clay Widmayer, David of obscurations in laser beams. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with measurements the intensity and fluence of the beam at each component in the laser chain. Dam- age threats to the system can

492

Theoretical Aspects of Star Formation Richard B. Larson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

astrophysical processes: not only do the properties of stellar systems of all types depend on how their stars involved are just too numerous and too complex: star formation depends on many processes and many variables, all interrelated in complex ways that make the subject difficult to treat in a deterministic way

Larson, Richard B.

493

Chromium(III)-Ettringite Formation and its Thermal Stability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Attempts have been made to replace aluminium(III) by chromium(III) in the ettringite structure because of practical importance of a...6[Cr(OH)6]2(SO4)3?26H2O formation and its thermal stability are reported.

K. Wieczorek-Ciurowa; K. Fela; A. J. Kozak

494

Treating-pressure analysis in the Bakken formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bakken formation is an oil-producing interval in the Williston basin. Usually, commercial Bakken wells are linked to an anisotropic natural fracture network. Hydraulic fracturing treatments have been used extensively in vertical wells and to a limited extent in horizontal wells. In this paper, bottom hole treating pressure (BHTP's) are analyzed to improve understanding of hydraulic fracture propagation in the Bakken.

Cramer, D.D. (BJ Services (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Vibration of spinning discs and powder formation in centrifugal atomization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Research articles 1006 121 117 Vibration of spinning discs and powder formation...liquid film. In this paper, the vibration of an atomizing disc excited by...melt is analysed and the role of vibration in the disintegration of the melt...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Interactive television format development - could participatory design bridge the gap?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an exploratory study, part of my Ph.D., focusing on 'viewer empowerment' in the audiovisual industry due to digitization and the emerging 'architecture of participation' [1] of Web2.0. In the 'traditional' broadcasting ... Keywords: broadcasting industry, end-user participation, interactive television format development, participatory design, web2.0

Skylla J. Janssen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Random formation, inelastic response and scale effects in paper  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The uniaxial MD and CD standard tests (Tappi T-494) were performed in an Intron tensile...conditioned and tested at 23 C, 20% RH (Tappi Standard T-402). In the biaxial tests...The texture analysis of paper formation. TAPPI J. 73, 175{185. Cundall, P. A...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Development of a Robust and Sustainable Process for Nucleoside Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development of a Robust and Sustainable Process for Nucleoside Formation