Sample records for formations production potential

  1. PRODUCT REPRESENTATION IN LIGHTWEIGHT FORMATS FOR PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    PRODUCT REPRESENTATION IN LIGHTWEIGHT FORMATS FOR PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM) Lian Ding environments and the entire product lifecycle. There are new requirements for product representations, including: platform/application independence, support for the product lifecycle, rapidly sharing information

  2. WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials Biomass production potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 1 Biomass production potentials in Central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios Final report of WP3 of the VIEWLS project, funded by DG-Tren #12;WP 3 Report: Biomass Potentials 2 Report Biomass production potentials in central and Eastern Europe under different scenarios

  3. Study of the geothermal production potential in the Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Min H.

    1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary studies of geothermal production potential for the North Dakota portion of the Williston Basin have been carried out. Reservoir data such as formation depth, subsurface temperatures, and water quality were reviewed for geothermal brine production predictions. This study, in addition, provides important information about net pay thickness, porosity, volume of geothermal water available, and productivity index for future geothermal direct-use development. Preliminary results show that the Inyan Kara Formation of the Dakota Group is the most favorable geothermal resource in terms of water quality and productivity. The Madison, Duperow, and Red River Formations are deeper formations but because of their low permeability and great depth, the potential flow rates from these three formations are considerably less than those of the Inyan Kara Formation. Also, poor water quality and low porosity will make those formations less favorable for geothermal direct-use development.

  4. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Executive Summary This Service Report, Potential Oil Production from the...

  5. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment Preface Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

  6. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  7. Modes of Production and Social Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, Samir

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and from slavery to feudalism. production are not Onmode of production: hence feudalism rested on an embryonicThis Zapse int o feudalism appeared as a regression and a

  8. Formation lengths of hadrons in lepto-production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levon Grigoryan

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The average formation lengths of the hadrons produced during the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of leptons on protons are studied in the framework of the symmetric Lund model. It is shown that these formation lengths essentially depend on the electric charges of the hadron. For electro-production and charged current (CC) neutrino-production, the average formation lengths of positively charged particles are larger than those of negatively charged antiparticles. This situation is reversed for CC antineutrino-production. In all the mentioned cases, the main mechanism is the direct production of hadrons. The additional mechanism of hadron production, through the decay of resonances, is essential only for pions and leads to a decrease in the average formation lengths.

  9. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use

  10. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Tidal Streams...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tidal Streams in the United States Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Tidal Streams in the United States The project documented in this report created a national...

  11. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline Report summarizing the results of...

  12. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 1. Overview of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Background The Arctic...

  13. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 2. Analysis Discussion Resource Assessment The USGS most recent...

  14. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment References Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2000,...

  15. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  16. Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Succinic Acid Production with Reduced By-Product Formation in the Fermentation; accepted 13 July 2000 Abstract: Succinic acid was produced by fermentation of Anaerobiospirillum-product acetic acid. The gram ratio of suc- cinic acid to acetic acid was 25.8:1, which is 6.5 times higher than

  17. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash,...

  18. Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    Oil and Gas Production Optimization; Lost Potential due to Uncertainty Steinar M. Elgsaeter Olav.ntnu.no) Abstract: The information content in measurements of offshore oil and gas production is often low, and when in the context of offshore oil and gas fields, can be considered the total output of production wells, a mass

  19. Examination of the Potential for Formation of Energetic Compounds in Dry Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report details initial results from an investigation of the potential formation and fate of energetic compounds in Savannah River Site sludge.

  20. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment 3. Summary The 1.5 million-acre coastal plain of the 19 million-acre...

  1. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  2. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  3. National Microalgae Biofuel Production Potential and Resource Demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.; Skaggs, Richard; Huesemann, Michael H.; Lane, Leonard J.

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Microalgae continue to receive global attention as a potential sustainable "energy crop" for biofuel production. An important step to realizing the potential of algae is quantifying the demands commercial-scale algal biofuel production will place on water and land resources. We present a high-resolution national resource and oil production assessment that brings to bear fundamental research questions of where open pond microalgae production can occur, how much land and water resource is required, and how much energy is produced. Our study suggests under current technology microalgae have the potential to generate 220 billion liters/year of oil, equivalent to 48% of current U.S. petroleum imports for transportation fuels. However, this level of production would require 5.5% of the land area in the conterminous U.S., and nearly three times the volume of water currently used for irrigated agriculture, averaging 1,421 L water per L of oil. Optimizing the selection of locations for microalgae production based on water use efficiency can greatly reduce total water demand. For example, focusing on locations along the Gulf Coast, Southeastern Seaboard, and areas adjacent to the Great Lakes, shows a 75% reduction in water demand to 350 L per L of oil produced with a 67% reduction in land use. These optimized locations have the potential to generate an oil volume equivalent to 17% of imports for transportation fuels, equal to the Energy Independence and Security Act year 2022 "advanced biofuels" production target, and utilizing some 25% of the current irrigation consumptive water demand for the U. S. These results suggest that, with proper planning, adequate land and water are available to meet a significant portion of the U.S. renewable fuel goals.

  4. Formation of a localized acceleration potential during magnetic reconnection with a guide field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egedal, Jan

    Formation of a localized acceleration potential during magnetic reconnection with a guide field JV have recently been observed by the Wind spacecraft.3 This is conclusive evidence that reconnection of both the electrons and the ions. Here we introduce the acceleration potential, , as a mea- sure

  5. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability must not be compromised--binding agent should not react with the NAS product and binding agent should not create an unfavorable pH environment that may cause accelerated leaching. It is the goal of the present study to survey cementitious waste forms based on Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Ceramicrete, and hydroceramic binders by correlating waste loading, density and compressive strength and then determine if these binders affect the product performance in terms of the PCT response. This will be done by making a one-to-one comparison of the PCT response measured on granular NAS mineral product (mixed bed and fines products) with the PCT response of the monolithed NAS product in the different binders. Future studies may include, refining the above binders, and examining other binders. It is likely that binders formed from kaolin would be most compatible with the chemistry of the THOR{reg_sign} mineral waste form which is made by steam reforming of kaolin and sodium rich wastes. The economics of production on a large scale have yet to be investigated for any of the binders tested.

  6. Simulating Potential Switchgrass Production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, T. O.; Parrish, David J.; Tyler, Donald D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Using results from field trials of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) in the United States, the EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) process-level agroecosystem model was calibrated, validated, and applied to simulate potential productivity of switchgrass for use as a biofuel feedstock. The model was calibrated with a regional study of 10-yr switchgrass field trials and subsequently tested against a separate compiled dataset of field trials from across the eastern half of the country. An application of the model in a national database using 8-digit watersheds as the primary modeling unit produces 30-yr average switchgrass yield estimates that can be aggregated to 18 major watersheds. The model projects average annual switchgrass productivity of greater than 7 Mg ha-1 in the Upper Mississippi, Lower Mississippi, and Ohio watersheds. The major factors limiting simulated production vary by region; low precipitation is the primary limiting factor across the western half of the country, while moderately acidic soils limit yields on lands east of the Mississippi River. Average projected switchgrass production on all crop land in the continental US is 5.6 Mg ha-1. At this level of productivity, 28.6 million hectares of crop land would be required to produce the 16 billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol called for by 2022 in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. The model described here can be applied as a tool to inform the land-use and environmental consequences of switchgrass production.

  7. The in-situ effects of soil water potential on Phymatotrichum omnivorum sclerotial formation and germination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Tammy Lynn

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE IN-SITU EFFECTS OF SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ON PHPPfA TOTRICHMCY1iVI VORLP1 SCLEROT I AL FORMATION AND GERMINATION A Thesis by TIFF LYNN WHITE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A@1 University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Plant Pathology THE IN-SITU EFFECTS OF SOIL WATER POTENTIAL ON PHYLA TOTRICHg1 CYfiVI VOiPLP1 SCLEROT I AL FORMATION AND GERMINAT ION A Thesis by TAMMY LYNN WHITE Approved...

  8. Factors Affecting Carbohydrate Production and the Formation of Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) by Diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    factors affect carbohydrate and TEP production by diatoms, and consequently influences aggregate formation. These influences have a profound impact on biogeochemical cycling of carbon....

  9. Seismic Evaluation of the Fruitland Formation with Implications on Leakage Potential of Injected CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Thomas H.

    on the analysis of 3D seismic from the area. 3D seismic interpretation reveals that the Late Cretaceous FruitlandSeismic Evaluation of the Fruitland Formation with Implications on Leakage Potential of Injected CO Basin pilot test include acquisition of geophysical logs, time lapse VSP and analysis of 3D seismic data

  10. Facies analysis and petroleum potential of Smackover Formation, western and northern areas, East Texas basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancharik, J.M.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Smackover Formation (Upper Jurassic) in northeast Texas is a transgressive-regressive carbonate sequence which has been extensively dolomitized. The Smackover Formation is subdivided informally into a lower and upper member based on distinctive lithologic characteristics. The lower member, which rests conformably on the fluvial-deltaic sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation, contains a laminated, organic carbonate mudstone facies that grades into an overlying locally fossiliferous, pelletalmicritic facies. The upper member of the Smackover Formation consists mainly of broken skeletal debris and pelletal allochems in a micritic matrix. The sediments are better winnowed and better sorted upward in the sequence. Interbedded with and overlying the skeletal-pelletal facies is a clean well-sorted dolomitized oolitic-grainstone facies. This upper-most informal member marks the beginning of a progradational sequence which lasts throughout the remainder of Smackover deposition and continues through deposition of the evaporities and red beds of the overlying Buckner Formation. Most of the Smackover production in northeast Texas occurs along the Mexia-Talco fault zone in the deeper gentle salt-related anticlines and salt-graben systems. Reservoir rocks are primarily leached and dolomitized oolitic grainstones and dolomite. Laminated organic carbonate mudstones which characterize the lower, transgressive phase of the Smackover Formation provide an excellent source rock for petroleum. Exploration targets for the Smackover Formation are the areas were dolomitized oolitic and skeletal grainstones occur on top of structurally high areas such as over salt ridges or swells in the deeper portions of the basin.

  11. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binkley, Dan

    The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand, Brazil f Veracel Celulose, Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil g International Paper do Brasil, Mogi Guacu, Sao Paulo, Brazil h Suzano Papel e Celulose, Teixeira de Freitas, Bahia, Brazil i CENIBRA, Ipatinga, Minas

  12. Potential Fusion Market for Hydrogen Production Under Environmental Constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konishi, Satoshi [Kyoto University (Japan)

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential future hydrogen market and possible applications of fusion were analyzed. Hydrogen is expected as a major energy and fuel mediun for the future, and various processes for hydrogen production can be considered as candidates for the use of fusion energy. In order to significantly contribute to reduction of CO{sub 2} emission, fusion must be deployed in developing countries, and must substitute fossil based energy with synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. Hydrogen production processes will have to evaluated and compared from the aspects of energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission. Fusion can provide high temperature heat that is suitable for vapor electrolysis, thermo-chemical water decomposition and steam reforming with biomass waste. That is a possible advantage of fusion over renewables and Light water power reactor. Despite of its technical difficulty, fusion is also expected to have less limitation for siting location in the developing countries. Under environmental constraints, fusion has a chance to be a major primary energy source, and production of hydrogen enhances its contribution, while in 'business as usual', fusion will not be selected in the market. Thus if fusion is to be largely used in the future, meeting socio-economic requirements would be important.

  13. Identifying and Remediating High Water Production Problems in Basin-Centered Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Billingsley

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through geochemical analyses of produced waters, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation we developed concepts and approaches for mitigating unwanted water production in tight gas reservoirs and for increasing recovery of gas resources presently considered noncommercial. Only new completion research (outside the scope of this study) will validate our hypothesis. The first task was assembling and interpreting a robust regional database of historical produced-water analyses to address the production of excessive water in basin-centered tight gas fields in the Greater Green (GGRB ) and Wind River basins (WRB), Wyoming. The database is supplemented with a sampling program in currently active areas. Interpretation of the regional water chemistry data indicates most produced waters reflect their original depositional environments and helps identify local anomalies related to basement faulting. After the assembly and evaluation phases of this project, we generated a working model of tight formation reservoir development, based on the regional nature and occurrence of the formation waters. Through an integrative approach to numerous existing reservoir concepts, we synthesized a generalized development scheme organized around reservoir confining stress cycles. This single overarching scheme accommodates a spectrum of outcomes from the GGRB and Wind River basins. Burial and tectonic processes destroy much of the depositional intergranular fabric of the reservoir, generate gas, and create a rock volume marked by extremely low permeabilities to gas and fluids. Stress release associated with uplift regenerates reservoir permeability through the development of a penetrative grain bounding natural fracture fabric. Reservoir mineral composition, magnitude of the stress cycle and local tectonics govern the degree, scale and exact mechanism of permeability development. We applied the reservoir working model to an area of perceived anomalous water production. Detailed water analyses, seismic mapping, petrophysics, and reservoir simulation indicate a lithologic and structural component to excessive in situ water permeability. Higher formation water salinity was found to be a good pay indicator. Thus spontaneous potential (SP) and resistivity ratio approaches combined with accurate formation water resistivity (Rw) information may be underutilized tools. Reservoir simulation indicates significant infill potential in the demonstration area. Macro natural fracture permeability was determined to be a key element affecting both gas and water production. Using the reservoir characterization results, we generated strategies for avoidance and mitigation of unwanted water production in the field. These strategies include (1) more selective perforation by improved pay determination, (2) using seismic attributes to avoid small-scale fault zones, and (3) utilizing detailed subsurface information to deliberately target optimally located small scale fault zones high in the reservoir gas column. Tapping into the existing natural fracture network represents opportunity for generating dynamic value. Recognizing the crucial role of stress release in the natural generation of permeability within tight reservoirs raises the possibility of manmade generation of permeability through local confining stress release. To the extent that relative permeabilities prevent gas and water movement in the deep subsurface a reduction in stress around a wellbore has the potential to increase the relative permeability conditions, allowing gas to flow. For this reason, future research into cavitation completion methods for deep geopressured reservoirs is recommended.

  14. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  15. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  16. Use of tamarisk as a potential feedstock for biofuel production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Norman, Kirsten

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the energy and water use of saltcedar (or tamarisk) as biomass for biofuel production in a hypothetical sub-region in New Mexico. The baseline scenario consists of a rural stretch of the Middle Rio Grande River with 25% coverage of mature saltcedar that is removed and converted to biofuels. A manufacturing system life cycle consisting of harvesting, transportation, pyrolysis, and purification is constructed for calculating energy and water balances. On a dry short ton woody biomass basis, the total energy input is approximately 8.21 mmBTU/st. There is potential for 18.82 mmBTU/st of energy output from the baseline system. Of the extractable energy, approximately 61.1% consists of bio-oil, 20.3% bio-char, and 18.6% biogas. Water consumptive use by removal of tamarisk will not impact the existing rate of evapotranspiration. However, approximately 195 gal of water is needed per short ton of woody biomass for the conversion of biomass to biocrude, three-quarters of which is cooling water that can be recovered and recycled. The impact of salt presence is briefly assessed. Not accounted for in the baseline are high concentrations of Calcium, Sodium, and Sulfur ions in saltcedar woody biomass that can potentially shift the relative quantities of bio-char and bio-oil. This can be alleviated by a pre-wash step prior to the conversion step. More study is needed to account for the impact of salt presence on the overall energy and water balance.

  17. Dynamics of the Core Tryptophan during the Formation of a Productive Molten Globule Intermediate of Barstar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    in the intermediates that are populated during the salt-induced transition of the D form to the molten globule B formDynamics of the Core Tryptophan during the Formation of a Productive Molten Globule Intermediate formation in the denatured D form at pH 12, by addition of increasing concentrations of the stabilizing salt

  18. Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

  19. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  20. Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas on recycled paper #12;1 Potential Direct and Indirect Effects of Global Cellulosic Biofuel Production. Melillo*, John M. Reilly§ , and Sergey Paltsev§ Abstract The production of cellulosic biofuels may have

  1. Absorption and elimination of formate following oral administration of calcium formate in female human subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Eells, Janis T.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published abstract: Calcium formate is a water-soluble salt of an essential mineral nutrient with potential for use as a dietary calcium supplement. Formate ion is a product of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, but sustained high plasma formate...

  2. ARM Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition (CIN) Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Michael

    2014-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ARM soundings are used to determine Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition (CIN) and associated properties, using the following relationships;

  3. ARM Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition (CIN) Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jensen, Michael

    ARM soundings are used to determine Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective Inhibition (CIN) and associated properties, using the following relationships;

  4. Potential Oil Production from the Coastal Plain of the Arctic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Slope ANWR: Arctic National Wildlife Refuge BBbls: billion barrels Bbls: barrels Daily Petroleum Production Rate: The amount of petroleum extracted per day from a well, group of...

  5. Assessment of the potential for karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, John Clay

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an independent assessment of the potential for karst dissolution in evaporitic strata of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. Review of the available data suggests that the Rustler strata thicken and thin across the area in depositional patterns related to lateral variations in sedimentary accommodation space and normal facies changes. Most of the evidence that has been offered for the presence of karst in the subsurface has been used out of context, and the different pieces are not mutually supporting. Outside of Nash Draw, definitive evidence for the development of karst in the Rustler Formation near the WIPP site is limited to the horizon of the Magenta Member in drillhole WIPP-33. Most of the other evidence cited by the proponents of karst is more easily interpreted as primary sedimentary structures and the localized dissolution of evaporitic strata adjacent to the Magenta and Culebra water-bearing units. Some of the cited evidence is invalid, an inherited baggage from studies made prior to the widespread knowledge of modern evaporite depositional environments and prior to the existence of definitive exposures of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP shafts. Some of the evidence is spurious, has been taken out of context, or is misquoted. Lateral lithologic variations from halite to mudstone within the Rustler Formation under the WIPP site have been taken as evidence for the dissolution of halite such as that seen in Nash Draw, but are more rationally explained as sedimentary facies changes. Extrapolation of the known karst features in Nash Draw eastward to the WIPP site, where conditions are and have been significantly different for half a million years, is unwarranted. The volumes of insoluble material that would remain after dissolution of halite would be significantly less than the observed bed thicknesses, thus dissolution is an unlikely explanation for the lateral variations from halite to mudstone and siltstone. Several surficial depressions at WIPP, suggested to be sinkholes, do not have enough catchment area to form a sinkhole, and holes drilled to investigate the subsurface strata do not support a sinkhole interpretation. Surface drainage across the WIPP site is poorly developed because it has been disrupted by migrating sand dunes and because precipitation is not focused by defined catchment areas in this region of low precipitation and low-dip bedding, not because it has been captured by sinkholes. There are no known points of discharge from the Rustler Formation at WIPP that would indicate the presence of a subsurface karst drainage system. The existing drillholes across the WIPP site, though small in diameter, are sufficient to assess the probability of karst development along the horizontal fractures that are common in the Rustler Formation, and the area of investigation has been augmented significantly by the mapping of four large-diameter shafts excavated into the WIPP repository. The general absence of dissolution, karsting, and related conduits is corroborated by the pumping tests which have interrogated large volumes of the Rustler Formation between drillholes. Diffusion calculations suggest that separate isotopic signatures for the water found in the fractures and the water found in the pores of the matrix rock between fractures are unlikely, thus the isotopic evidence for ancient Rustler formation waters is valid. Geophysical techniques show a number of anomalies, but the anomalies do not overlap to portray consistent and mutually supporting patterns that can be definitively related to karst void space at any given location. The coincidence of the Culebra and Magenta potentiometric heads between Nash Draw and the WIPP site is the inevitable intersection of two non-parallel surfaces rather than an indication of karst-related hydraulic communication between the two units. The proponents of karst in the Rustler Formation at the WIPP site tend to mix data, to take data out of context, and to offer theory as fact. They do not analyze the data or synthesize

  6. POTENTIAL BENCHMARKS FOR ACTINIDE PRODUCTION IN HANFORD REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PUIGH RJ; TOFFER H

    2011-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant experimental program was conducted in the early Hanford reactors to understand the reactor production of actinides. These experiments were conducted with sufficient rigor, in some cases, to provide useful information that can be utilized today in development of benchmark experiments that may be used for the validation of present computer codes for the production of these actinides in low enriched uranium fuel.

  7. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  8. Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, Francis

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  9. Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined include triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, together with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as ?0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium is shown to form homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials are used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. This method requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor an estimate for the SHE potential and thus allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media.

  10. Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate Research Assistant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential of Using Poultry Litter as a Feedstock for Energy Production Rangika Perera, Graduate................................................................................................... 9 5. Environmental and Social Issues of Energy Production using Poultry Litter ....................................... 10 5.1 Issues on the anaerobic digestion of poultry litter for energy production

  11. Assessment of the potential for ammonium nitrate formation and reaction in Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two principal scenarios by which ammonium nitrate may be formed were considered: (a) precipitation of ammonium nitrate in the waste, and (b) ammonium nitrate formation via the gas phase reaction of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide. The first of these can be dismissed because ammonium ions, which are necessary for ammonium nitrate precipitation, can exist only in negligibly small concentrations in strongly alkaline solutions. Gas phase reactions between ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor in the gas phase represent the most likely means by which ammonium nitrate aerosols could be formed in Tank 241-SY-101. Predicted ammonium nitrate formation rates are largely controlled by the concentration of nitrogen dioxide. This gas has not been detected among those gases vented from the wastes using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) or mass spectrometry. While detection limits for nitrogen dioxide have not been established experimentally, the maximum concentration of nitrogen dioxide in the gas phase in Tank 241-SY-101 was estimated at 0.1 ppm based on calculations using the HITRAN data base and on FTIR spectra of gases vented from the wastes. At 50 C and with 100 ppm ammonia also present, less than one gram of ammonium nitrate per year is estimated to be formed in the tank. To date, ammonium nitrate has not been detected on HEPA filters in the ventilation system, so any quantity that has been formed in the tank must be quite small, in good agreement with rate calculations. The potential for runaway exothermic reactions involving ammonium nitrate in Tank 241-SY-101 is minimal. Dilution by non-reacting waste components, particularly water, would prevent hazardous exothermic reactions from occurring within the waste slurry, even if ammonium nitrate were present. 41 refs.

  12. ARM - PI Product - Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), Convective

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat fluxChinaNewsRateProductsContinuous Forcing

  13. Alternating minimal energy approach to ODEs and conservation laws in tensor product formats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolgov, Sergey V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an algorithm for solution of high-dimensional evolutionary equations (ODEs and discretized time-dependent PDEs) in tensor product formats. The solution must admit an approximation in a low-rank separation of variables framework, and the right-hand side of the ODE (for example, a matrix) must be computable in the same low-rank format at a given time point. The time derivative is discretized via the Chebyshev spectral scheme, and the solution is sought simultaneously for all time points from the global space-time linear system. To compute the solution adaptively in the tensor format, we employ the Alternating Minimal Energy algorithm, the DMRG-flavored alternating iterative technique. Besides, we address the problem of maintaining system invariants inside the approximate tensor product scheme. We show how the conservation of a linear function, defined by a vector given in the low-rank format, or the second norm of the solution may be accurately and elegantly incorporated into the tensor product metho...

  14. Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 published by Elsevier BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    9th Conference for Biomass and Energy, Copenhagen, 1996 ­ published by Elsevier 1 BIOMASS ENERGY PRODUCTION: THE GLOBAL POTENTIAL AND THE NET INFLUENCE ON THE CO2 CONCENTRATION G. AHAMER Austrian Federal

  15. Evaluation of the Gas Production Potential of Marine HydrateDeposits in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Kim, Se-Joon; Seol,Yongkoo; Zhang, Keni

    2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Although significant hydrate deposits are known to exist in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea, their survey and evaluation as a possible energy resource has not yet been completed. However, it is possible to develop preliminary estimates of their production potential based on the limited data that are currently available. These include the elevation and thickness of the Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL), the water depth, and the water temperature at the sea floor. Based on this information, we developed estimates of the local geothermal gradient that bracket its true value. Reasonable estimates of the initial pressure distribution in the HBL can be obtained because it follows closely the hydrostatic. Other critical information needs include the hydrate saturation, and the intrinsic permeabilities of the system formations. These are treated as variables, and sensitivity analysis provides an estimate of their effect on production. Based on the geology of similar deposits, it is unlikely that Ulleung Basin accumulations belong to Class 1 (involving a HBL underlain by a mobile gas zone). If Class 4 (disperse, low saturation accumulations) deposits are involved, they are not likely to have production potential. The most likely scenarios include Class 2 (HBL underlain by a zone of mobile water) or Class 3 (involving only an HBL) accumulations. Assuming nearly impermeable confining boundaries, this numerical study indicates that large production rates (several MMSCFD) are attainable from both Class 2 and Class 3 deposits using conventional technology. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the dependence of production on the well design, the production rate, the intrinsic permeability of the HBL, the initial pressure, temperature and hydrate saturation, as well as on the thickness of the water zone (Class 2). The study also demonstrates that the presence of confining boundaries is indispensable for the commercially viable production of gas from these deposits.

  16. Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Supporting Information for: A Global Comparison of National Biodiesel Production Potentials Matt Biodiesel Potential · Table S.2: Variables Used in Calculating Biodiesel Volumes and Prices · Figure S.3: U) · Table S.5: Well-Managed Vegetable Oil Yields · Table S.6: A Complete List of Absolute Biodiesel

  17. Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Electrolysed palladium has the potential to increase methane production by a mixed rumen population the proportion of protozoa with attached methanogens decreased, however no estimate of CH4 production under were re-filled with H2:CO2, sealed with butyl rubber stoppers and incubated at 39°C with shaking

  18. Sulfur by-product formation in the Stretford process. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trofe, T.W.; DeBerry, D.W.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid redox sulfur recovery processes remove H2S from sour gas streams and produce elemental sulfur for sale or disposal. The Stretford Process is one of the oldest commercial liquid redox processes and it is based on a vanadium and anthraquinone redox system. Improvements in the operability and reliability of the Stretford process would be beneficial to the process user. The report presents results of research focused on developing an understanding of the process parameters and factors that impact sulfur by-product formation (e.g., sodium thiosulfate and sodium sulfate) in the Stretford process. The information in the report can help current Stretford plant process users better understand the operations of their plants, especially with regards to sulfur by-product formation and control strategies.

  19. The dependence of potential well formation on the magnetic field strength and electron injection current in a polywell device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, S., E-mail: cornish@physics.usyd.edu.au; Gummersall, D.; Carr, M.; Khachan, J. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A capacitive probe has been used to measure the plasma potential in a polywell device in order to observe the dependence of potential well formation on magnetic field strength, electron injection current, and polywell voltage bias. The effectiveness of the capacitive probe in a high energy electron plasma was determined by measuring the plasma potential of a planar diode with an axial magnetic field. The capacitive probe was translated along the axis of one of the field coils of the polywell, and the spatial profile of the potential well was measured. The confinement time of electrons in the polywell was estimated with a simple analytical model which used the experimentally observed potential well depths, as well as a simulation of the electron trajectories using particle orbit theory.

  20. Hybrid density functional calculations of redox potentials and formation energies of transition metal compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    We compare the accuracy of conventional semilocal density functional theory (DFT), the DFT+U method, and the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional for structural parameters, redox reaction energies, and formation ...

  1. Isotope production potential at Sandia National Laboratories: Product, waste, packaging, and transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trennel, A.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy to establish a domestic source of molybdenum-99, an essential isotope used in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacology. An Environmental Impact Statement for production of {sup 99}Mo at one of four candidate sites is being prepared. As one of the candidate sites, Sandia National Laboratories is developing the Isotope Production Project. Using federally approved processes and procedures now owned by the U.S. Department of Energy, and existing facilities that would be modified to meet the production requirements, the Sandia National Laboratories` Isotope Project would manufacture up to 30 percent of the U.S. market, with the capacity to meet 100 percent of the domestic need if necessary. This paper provides a brief overview of the facility, equipment, and processes required to produce isotopes. Packaging and transportation issues affecting both product and waste are addressed, and the storage and disposal of the four low-level radioactive waste types generated by the production program are considered. Recommendations for future development are provided.

  2. Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian D. Metzger; Rodrigo Fernández

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Mergers of binary neutron stars (NSs) usually result in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). Whether- and when this remnant collapses to a black hole (BH) depends primarily on the equation of state and on angular momentum transport processes, both of which are uncertain. Here we show that the lifetime of the merger remnant may be directly imprinted in the radioactively powered kilonova emission following the merger. We employ axisymmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of remnant accretion disks orbiting a HMNS of variable lifetime, and characterize the effect of this delay to BH formation on the disk wind ejecta. When BH formation is relatively prompt (~ 100 ms), outflows from the disk are sufficiently neutron rich to form heavy r-process elements, resulting in ~ week-long emission with a spectral peak in the near-infrared (NIR), similar to that produced by the dynamical ejecta. In contrast, delayed BH formation allows neutrinos from the HMNS to raise the electron fraction in the polar direction to values such that potentially Lanthanide-free outflows are generated. The lower opacity would produce a brighter, bluer, and shorter-lived ~ day-long emission (a `blue bump') prior to the late NIR peak from the dynamical ejecta and equatorial wind. This new diagnostic of BH formation should be useful for events with a signal to noise lower than that required for direct detection of gravitational waveform signatures.

  3. Simulation of production and injection performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagoort, J. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a simple yet comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of injection and production performance of gas storage caverns in salt formations. The model predicts the pressure and temperature of the gas in the cavern and at the wellhead for an arbitrary sequence of production and injection cycles. The model incorporates nonideal gas properties, thermodynamic heat effects associated with gas expansion and compression in the cavern and tubing, heat exchange with the surrounding salt formation, and non-uniform initial temperatures but does not include rock-mechanical effects. The model is based on a mass and energy balance for the gas-filled cavern and on the Bernoulli equation and energy balance for flow in the wellbore. Cavern equations are solved iteratively at successive timesteps, and wellbore equations are solved within an iteration cycle of the cavern equations. Gas properties are calculated internally with generally accepted correlations and basic thermodynamic relations. Example calculations show that the initial temperature distribution has a strong effect on production performance of a typical gas storage cavern. The primary application of the model is in the design, planning, and operation of gas storage projects.

  4. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  5. Potential Role of Chlorination Pathways in PCDD/F Formation in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    municipal waste combustion studies. Introduction Treatment of organic wastes in municipal waste incinerators or transformed during combustion. (Estimates for municipal solid waste are 6-50 ng I-TEQ/kg waste, where IPotential Role of Chlorination Pathways in PCDD/F Formation in a Municipal Waste Incinerator J A E

  6. Fuel-sodium reaction product formation in breached mixed-oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bottcher, J.H.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Ukai, S.; Shibahara, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The run-beyond-cladding-breach (RBCB) operation of mixed-oxide LMR fuel pins has been studied for six years in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as part of a joint program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan. The formation of fuel-sodium reaction product (FSRP), Na/sub 3/MO/sub 4/, where M = U/sub 1-y/Pu/sub y/, in the outer fuel regions is the major phenomenon governing RBCB behavior. It increases fuel volume, decreases fuel stoichiometry, modifies fission-product distributions, and alters thermal performance of a pin. This paper describes the morphology of Na/sub 3/MO/sub 4/ observed in 5.84-mm diameter pins covering a variety of conditions and RBCB times up to 150 EFPD's. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Regional Differences in Corn Ethanol Production: Profitability and Potential Water Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Lindsey M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Production and Use ............39 Sector Impacts ..............................................................................41 Quantification of Comprehensive Impacts...................................49 Valuation of Comprehensive Impacts... of recycled water include storm 5 water, treated waste water, and reclaimed ground water, with the proper methods, all have the potential of being used in an ethanol plant (Wenninger 2007). Figure 1. Inflows and Outflows of Water Use in Ethanol...

  8. Preliminary analyses of scenarios for potential human interference for repositories in three salt formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary analyses of scenarios for human interference with the performance of a radioactive waste repository in a deep salt formation are presented. The following scenarios are analyzed: (1) the U-Tube Connection Scenario involving multiple connections between the repository and the overlying aquifer system; (2) the Single Borehole Intrusion Scenario involving penetration of the repository by an exploratory borehole that simultaneously connects the repository with overlying and underlying aquifers; and (3) the Pressure Release Scenario involving inflow of water to saturate any void space in the repository prior to creep closure with subsequent release under near lithostatic pressures following creep closure. The methodology to evaluate repository performance in these scenarios is described and this methodology is applied to reference systems in three candidate formations: bedded salt in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas; bedded salt in the Paradox Basin, Utah; and the Richton Salt Dome, Mississippi, of the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Basin.

  9. Smectite dehydration and gas production in Forbes Formation, Sacramento Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.A.; Berry, R.W.

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mineralogical investigation was made of shale cuttings from three wells (Tenneco Poundstone 32-1, 30-1 and 24-1) in the Cretaceous Forbes Formation, Grimes field, Sacramento Valley, California. The -0.5 ..mu..m and the -4 ..mu..m size fractions were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. Clay mineral changes (smectite dehydration) begin near 7000 ft and continue to the depth of the wells. Natural gas shows begin to occur several hundred feet into the smectite to illite conversion zone. The initiation temperature for smectite dehydration in these wells is near 80/sup 0/C. Quartz concentrations show a direct correlation with changes in relative permeability, determined from dual guard induction logs. Quartz increases correlate with relative permeability decreases. As smectite dehydration proceeds with depth, it yields silica as a reaction product. This silica can precipitate from pore fluids reducing permeability in finer grained beds. Zones of higher quartz concentrations exist stratigraphically adjacent to gas reservoirs, implying silica cementation while providing a hydrocarbon-trapping mechanism. Continued smectite dehydration, yielding water as a reaction product, likely contributed to overpressuring of the Forbes Formation.

  10. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  11. Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrateaccumulations in oceanic sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we evaluate the gas production potential ofdisperse, low-saturation (SH<0.1) hydrate accumulations in oceanicsediments. Such hydrate-bearing sediments constitute a significantportion of the global hydrate inventory. Using numerical simulation, weestimate (a) the rates of gas production and gas release from hydratedissociation, (b) the corresponding cumulative volumes of released andproduced gas, as well as (c) the water production rate and the mass ofproduced water from disperse, low-SH hydrate-bearing sediments subject todepressurization-induced dissociation over a 10-year production period.We investigate the sensitivity of items (a) to (c) to the followinghydraulic properties, reservoir conditions, and operational parameters:intrinsic permeability, porosity, pressure, temperature, hydratesaturation, and constant pressure at which the production well is kept.The results of this study indicate that, despite wide variations in theaforementioned parameters (covering the entire spectrum of suchdeposits), gas production is very limited, never exceeding a few thousandcubic meters of gas during the 10-year production period. Such lowproduction volumes are orders of magnitude below commonly acceptedstandards of economic viability, and are further burdened with veryunfavorable gas-to-water ratios. The unequivocal conclusion from thisstudy is that disperse, low-SH hydrate accumulations in oceanic sedimentsare not promising targets for gas production by means ofdepressurization-induced dissociation, and resources for early hydrateexploitation should be focused elsewhere.

  12. Mechanism of Formation of a Productive Molten Globule Form of Barstar Bhadresh R. Rami and Jayant B. Udgaonkar*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

    into a molten globule B form by incremental addition of the salt Na2SO4 at pH 12 . At very low concentrationsMechanism of Formation of a Productive Molten Globule Form of Barstar Bhadresh R. Rami and Jayant B of a productive molten globule in the folding pathway. In this model, the high-pH-unfolded form (D form

  13. FOAM FORMATION IN THE SALTSTONE PRODUCTION FACILITY: EVALUATION OF SOURCES AND MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Production Facility receives waste from Tank 50H for treatment. Influents into Tank 50H include the Effluent Treatment Project waste concentrate, H-Canyon low activity waste and General Purpose Evaporator bottoms, Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit decontaminated salt solution, and salt solution from the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjust campaign. Using the Waste Characterization System (WCS), this study tracks the relative amounts of each influent into Tank 50H, as well as the total content of Tank 50H, in an attempt to identify the source of foaming observed in the Saltstone Production Facility hopper. Saltstone has been using antifoam as part of routine processing with the restart of the facility in December 2006. It was determined that the maximum admix usage in the Saltstone Production Facility, both antifoam and set retarder, corresponded with the maximum concentration of H-Canyon low activity waste in Tank 50H. This paper also evaluates archived salt solutions from Waste Acceptance Criteria analysis for propensity to foam and the antifoam dosage required to mitigate foaming. It was determined that Effluent Treatment Project contributed to the expansion factor (foam formation) and General Purpose Evaporator contributed to foaminess (persistence). It was also determined that undissolved solids contribute to foam persistence. It was shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced both the expansion factor and foaminess of salt solutions. The evaluation of foaming in the grout hopper during the transition from water to salt solution indicated that higher water-to-premix ratios tended to produce increased foaming. It was also shown that additions of Dow Corning Q2-1383a antifoam reduced foam formation and persistence.

  14. Environmental characterization of two potential locations at Hanford for a new production reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, E.C.; Becker, C.D.; Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Imhoff, K.L.; McCallum, R.F.; Myers, D.A.; Page, T.L.; Price, K.R.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Rice D.G.; Schreiber D.L.; Skumatz L.A.; Sommer D.J.; Tawil J.J.; Wallace R.W.; Watson D.G.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes various environmental aspects of two areas on the Hanford Site that are potential locations for a New Production Reactor (NPR). The area known as the Skagit Hanford Site is considered the primary or reference site. The second area, termed the Firehouse Site, is considered the alternate site. The report encompasses an environmental characterization of these two potential NPR locations. Eight subject areas are covered: geography and demography; ecology; meteorology; hydrology; geology; cultural resources assessment; economic and social effects of station construction and operation; and environmental monitoring. 80 refs., 68 figs., 109 tabs.

  15. Estimate of federal relighting potential and demand for efficient lighting products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankle, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Elliott, D.B.; Richman, E.E.; Grover, S.E.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing level of electric utility rebates for energy-efficient lighting retrofits has recently prompted concern over the adequacy of the market supply of energy-efficient lighting products (Energy User News 1991). In support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Management Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has developed an estimate of the total potential for energy-efficient lighting retrofits in federally owned buildings. This estimate can be used to address the issue of the impact of federal relighting projects on the supply of energy-efficient lighting products. The estimate was developed in 1992, using 1991 data. Any investments in energy-efficient lighting products that occurred in 1992 will reduce the potential estimated here. This analysis proceeds by estimating the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings. The lighting technology screening matrix is then used to determine the minimum life-cycle cost retrofit for each type of existing lighting fixture. Estimates of the existing stock are developed for (1) four types of fluorescent lighting fixtures (2-, 3-, and 4-lamp, F40 4-foot fixtures, and 2-lamp, F96 8-foot fixtures, all with standard magnetic ballasts); (2) one type of incandescent fixture (a 75-watt single bulb fixture); and (3) one type of exit sign (containing two 20-watt incandescent bulbs). Estimates of the existing stock of lighting fixtures in federally owned buildings, estimates of the total potential demand for energy-efficient lighting products if all cost-effective retrofits were undertaken immediately, and total potential annual energy savings (in MWh and dollars), the total investment required to obtain the energy savings and the present value of the efficiency investment, are presented.

  16. Potential Nationwide Improvements in Productivity and Health from Better Indoor Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical considerations and empirical data suggest that existing technologies and procedures can improve indoor environments in a manner that significantly increases productivity and health. Existing literature contains moderate to strong evidence that characteristics of buildings and indoor environments significantly influence rates of respiratory disease, allergy and asthma symptoms, sick building symptoms, and worker performance. While there is considerable uncertainty in our estimates of the magnitudes of productivity gains that may be obtained by providing better indoor environments, the projected gains are very large. For the U.S., we estimate potential annual savings and productivity gains of $6 to $19 billion from reduced respiratory disease, $1 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and asthma, $10 to $20 billion from reduced sick building syndrome symptoms, and $12 to $125 billion from direct improvements in worker performance that are unrelated to health. In two example calculations, the potential financial benefits of improving indoor environments exceed costs by a factor of 8 and 14. Productivity gains that are quantified and demonstrated could serve as a strong stimulus for energy efficiency measures that simultaneously improve the indoor environment.

  17. Todilto Formation: a Jurassic salina and its petroleum potential in east-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, S.G.; Kietzke, K.K.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Todilto Formation of northern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado was deposited during the Middle Jurassic (middle Callovian) by a landlocked, saline lake (salina) developed in the Entrada erg. Evaporative pumping drew marine water from the Curtis sea in eastern Utah, which percolated through porous Entrada dune sands into the salina basin. The Todilto salina deposited organic-rich limestone (source rock) within a porous eolian sandstone (reservoir rock). In the San Juan basin, organic-rich Todilto limestones are a primary source of Entrada oil. There, the Todilto Limestone is generally overlain by a thick, impermeable gypsum sequence that allows Todilto hydrocarbons to migrate only into the underlying Entrada. In east-central New Mexico, the Todilto limestones pinch out into the Entrada and are not overlain by gypsum. Therefore, Todilto hydrocarbons should migrate either into the main Entrada body below the Todilto or into the Exeter member of the Entrada above. The Todilto/Entrada in east-central New Mexico has generally been overlooked in oil exploration because of its limited outcrop area and because burial depths did not seem sufficient for hydrocarbon maturation. However, until the late Cenozoic, the Todilto probably was continuous from western Quay County to the Four Corners, and east-central New Mexico was covered by a thick sequence of Cretaceous marine rocks. Furthermore, migrating Todilto hydrocarbons need not be restricted to existing Todilto outcrops, but may be expected up Entrada paleodip wherever porosity and stratigraphic traps allow accumulation.

  18. Influence of Gas Flow Rate for Formation of Aligned Nanorods in ZnO Thin Films for Solar-Driven Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shet, S.; Chen, L.; Tang, H.; Nuggehalli, R.; Wang, H.; Yan, Y.; Turner, J.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO thin films have been deposited in mixed Ar/N{sub 2} gas ambient at substrate temperature of 500 C by radiofrequency sputtering of ZnO targets. We find that an optimum N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio in the deposition ambient promotes the formation of well-aligned nanorods. ZnO thin films grown in ambient with 25% N{sub 2} gas flow rate promoted nanorods aligned along c-axis and exhibit significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, compared with ZnO thin films grown in an ambient with different N{sub 2}-to-Ar gas flow ratios. Our results suggest that chamber ambient is critical for the formation of aligned nanostructures, which offer potential advantages for improving the efficiency of PEC water splitting for H{sub 2} production.

  19. Evaluation of a deposit in the vicinity of the PBU L-106 Site, North Slope, Alaska, for a potential long-term test of gas production from hydrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moridis, G.J.; Reagan, M.T.; Boyle, K.L.; Zhang, K.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the effort to investigate the technical feasibility of gas production from hydrate deposits, a long-term field test (lasting 18-24 months) is under consideration in a project led by the U.S. Department of Energy. We evaluate a candidate deposit involving the C-Unit in the vicinity of the PBU-L106 site in North Slope, Alaska. This deposit is stratigraphically bounded by impermeable shale top and bottom boundaries (Class 3), and is characterized by high intrinsic permeabilities, high porosity, high hydrate saturation, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The C-unit deposit is composed of two hydrate-bearing strata separated by a 30-ft-thick shale interlayer, and its temperatrure across its boundaries ranges between 5 and 6.5 C. We investigate by means of numerical simulation involving very fine grids the production potential of these two deposits using both vertical and horizontal wells. We also explore the sensitivity of production to key parameters such as the hydrate saturation, the formation permeability, and the permeability of the bounding shale layers. Finally, we compare the production performance of the C-Unit at the PBU-L106 site to that of the D-Unit accumulation at the Mount Elbert site, a thinner, single-layer Class 3 deposit on the North Slope of Alaska that is shallower, less-pressurized and colder (2.3-2.6 C). The results indicate that production from horizontal wells may be orders of magnitude larger than that from vertical ones. Additionally, production increases with the formation permeability, and with a decreasing permeability of the boundaries. The effect of the hydrate saturation on production is complex and depends on the time frame of production. Because of higher production, the PBU-L106 deposit appears to have an advantage as a candidate for the long-term test.

  20. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL FORMATION OF ORGANIC SOLIDS IN CHONDRITES AND COMETS THROUGH POLYMERIZATION OF INTERSTELLAR FORMALDEHYDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Cody, George D. [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)] [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5251 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); David Kilcoyne, A. L., E-mail: ykebukawa@ciw.edu, E-mail: yoko@ep.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Mail Stop 7R0222, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde, first through the formose reaction and then through subsequent condensation reactions, provides a plausible explanation for how abundant and highly chemically complex organic solids may have come to exist in primitive solar system objects. In order to gain better insight on the reaction, a systematic study of the relationship of synthesis temperature with resultant molecular structure was performed. In addition, the effect of the presence of ammonia on the reaction rate and molecular structure of the product was studied. The synthesized formaldehyde polymer is directly compared to chondritic insoluble organic matter (IOM) isolated from primitive meteorites using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transform infrared, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The molecular structure of the formaldehyde polymer is shown to exhibit considerable similarity at the functional group level with primitive chondritic IOM. The addition of ammonia to the solution enhances the rate of polymerization reaction at lower temperatures and results in substantial incorporation of nitrogen into the polymer. Morphologically, the formaldehyde polymer exists as submicron to micron-sized spheroidal particles and spheroidal particle aggregates that bare considerable similarity to the organic nanoglobules commonly observed in chondritic IOM. These spectroscopic and morphological data support the hypothesis that IOM in chondrites and refractory organic carbon in comets may have formed through the polymerization of interstellar formaldehyde after planetesimal accretion, in the presence of liquid water, early in the history of the solar system.

  1. Vacuum Potentials for the Two Only Permanent Free Particles, Proton and Electron. Pair Productions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The two only species of isolatable, smallest, or unit charges +e and -e present in nature interact with the universal vacuum in a polarisable dielectric representation through two uniquely defined vacuum potential functions. All of the non-composite subatomic particles containing one-unit charges, +e or -e, are therefore formed in terms of the IED model of the respective charges, of zero rest masses, oscillating in either of the two unique vacuum potential fields, together with the radiation waves of their own charges. In this paper we give a first principles treatment of the dynamics of charge in a dielectric vacuum, based on which, combined with solutions for the radiation waves obtained previously, we subsequently derive the vacuum potential function for a given charge q, which we show to be quadratic and consist each of quantised potential levels, giving therefore rise to quantised characteristic oscillation frequencies of the charge and accordingly quantised, sharply-defined masses of the IED particles. By further combining with relevant experimental properties as input information, we determine the IED particles built from the charges +e,-e at their first excited states in the respective vacuum potential wells to be the proton and the electron, the observationally two only stable (permanently lived) and "free" particles containing one-unit charges. Their antiparticles as produced in pair productions can be accordingly determined. The characteristics of all of the other more energetic non-composite subatomic particles can also be recognised. We finally discuss the energy condition for pair production, which requires two successive energy supplies to (1) first disintegrate the bound pair of vaculeon charges +e,-e composing a vacuuon of the vacuum and (2) impart masses to the disintegrated charges.

  2. Evaluation of the Acceptability of Potential Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Products at the Envirocare Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to review and document the capability of potential products of depleted UF{sub 6} conversion to meet the current waste acceptance criteria and other regulatory requirements for disposal at the facility in Clive, Utah, owned by Envirocare of Utah, Inc. The investigation was conducted by identifying issues potentially related to disposal of depleted uranium (DU) products at Envirocare and conducting an initial analysis of them. Discussions were then held with representatives of Envirocare, the state of Utah (which is a NRC Agreement State and, thus, is the cognizant regulatory authority for Envirocare), and DOE Oak Ridge Operations. Provisional issue resolution was then established based on the analysis and discussions and documented in a draft report. The draft report was then reviewed by those providing information and revisions were made, which resulted in this document. Issues that were examined for resolution were (1) license receipt limits for U isotopes; (2) DU product classification as Class A waste; (3) use of non-DOE disposal sites for disposal of DOE material; (4) historical NRC views; (5) definition of chemical reactivity; (6) presence of mobile radionuclides; and (7) National Environmental Policy Act coverage of disposal. The conclusion of this analysis is that an amendment to the Envirocare license issued on October 5, 2000, has reduced the uncertainties regarding disposal of the DU product at Envirocare to the point that they are now comparable with uncertainties associated with the disposal of the DU product at the Nevada Test Site that were discussed in an earlier report.

  3. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Stubbins

    2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  4. Biofuels from Microalgae: Review of Products, Processes and Potential, with Special Focus on Dunaliella sp.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Benemann, John R.

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There is currently great interest in using microalgae for the production of biofuels, mainly due to the fact that microalgae can produce biofuels at a much higher productivity than conventional plants and that they can be cultivated using water, in particular seawater, and land not competing for resources with conventional agriculture. However, at present such microalgae-based technologies are not yet developed and the economics of such processes are uncertain. We review power generation by direct combustion, production of hydrogen and other fuel gases and liquids by gasification and pyrolysis, methane generation by anaerobic digestion, ethanol fermentations, and hydrogen production by dark and light-driven metabolism. We in particular discuss the production of lipids, vegetable oils and hydrocarbons, which could be converted to biodiesel. Direct combustion for power generation has two major disadvantages in that the high N-content of algal biomass causes unacceptably high NOx emissions and losses of nitrogen fertilizer. Thus, the use of sun-dried microalgal biomass would not be cost-competitive with other solid fuels such as coal and wood. Thermochemical conversion processes such as gasification and pyrolysis have been successfully demonstrated in the laboratory but will be difficult to scale up commercially and suffers from similar, though sometimes not as stringent, limitations as combustion. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal cells yields only about 0.3 L methane per g volatile solids destroyed, about half of the maximum achievable, but yields can be increased by adding carbon rich substrates to circumvent ammonia toxicity caused by the N-rich algal biomass. Anaerobic digestion would be best suited for the treatment of algal biomass waste after value-added products have been separated. Algae can also be grown to accumulate starches or similar fermentable products, and ethanol or similar (e.g., butanol) fermentations could be applied to such biomass, but research is required on increasing solvent yields. Dark fermentation of algal biomass can also produce hydrogen, but, as for other fermentations, only at low yields. Hydrogen can also be generated by algae in the light, however, this process has not yet been demonstrated in any way that could be scaled up and, in any event, Dunaliella, is not known to produce hydrogen. In response to nutrient deficiency (nitrogen or silicon), some microalgae accumulate neutral lipids which, after physical extraction, could be converted, via transesterification with methanol, to biodiesel. Nitrogen-limitation does not appear to increase either cellular lipid content or lipid productivity in Dunaliella. Results from life cycle energy analyses indicate that cultivation of microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds has a positive energy output ratio (EOR), approaching up to 10 (i.e., the caloric energy output from the algae is 10 times greater than the fossil energy inputs), but EOR are less than 1 for biomass grown in engineered photobioreactors. Thus, from both an energetic as well as economic perspective, only open ponds systems can be considered. Significant long-term R&D will be required to make microalgal biofuels processes economically competitive. Specifically, future research should focus on (a) the improvement of biomass productivities (i.e., maximizing solar conversion efficiencies), (b) the selection and isolation of algal strains that can be mass cultured and maintained stably for long periods, (c) the production of algal biomass with a high content of lipids, carbohydrates, and co-products, at high productivity, (d) the low cost harvesting of the biomass, and (e) the extraction and conversion processes to actually derive the biofuels. For Dunaliella specifically, the highest potential is in the co-production of biofuels with high-value animal feeds based on their carotenoid content.

  5. Toward Production From Gas Hydrates: Current Status, Assessment of Resources, and Simulation-Based Evaluationof Technology and Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew; Moridis, George J.; Collett, Timothy; Boswell, Ray; Kurihara, M.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Koh, Carolyn; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrates are a vast energy resource with global distribution in the permafrost and in the oceans. Even if conservative estimates are considered and only a small fraction is recoverable, the sheer size of the resource is so large that it demands evaluation as a potential energy source. In this review paper, we discuss the distribution of natural gas hydrate accumulations, the status of the primary international R&D programs, and the remaining science and technological challenges facing commercialization of production. After a brief examination of gas hydrate accumulations that are well characterized and appear to be models for future development and gas production, we analyze the role of numerical simulation in the assessment of the hydrate production potential, identify the data needs for reliable predictions, evaluate the status of knowledge with regard to these needs, discuss knowledge gaps and their impact, and reach the conclusion that the numerical simulation capabilities are quite advanced and that the related gaps are either not significant or are being addressed. We review the current body of literature relevant to potential productivity from different types of gas hydrate deposits, and determine that there are consistent indications of a large production potential at high rates over long periods from a wide variety of hydrate deposits. Finally, we identify (a) features, conditions, geology and techniques that are desirable in potential production targets, (b) methods to maximize production, and (c) some of the conditions and characteristics that render certain gas hydrate deposits undesirable for production.

  6. Chemicals from biomass: an assessment of the potential for production of chemical feedstocks from renewable resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Culberson, O.L.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the potential for production of commodity chemicals from renewable biomass resources is based on (1) a Delphi study with 50 recognized authorities to identify key technical issues relevant to production of chemicals from biomass, and (2) a systems model based on linear programming for a commodity chemicals industry using renewable resources and coal as well as gas and petroleum-derived resources. Results from both parts of the assessment indicate that, in the absence of gas and petroleum, coal undoubtedly would be a major source of chemicals first, followed by biomass. The most attractive biomass resources are wood, agricultural residues, and sugar and starch crops. A reasonable approximation to the current product slate for the petrochemical industry could be manufactured using only renewable resources for feedstocks. Approximately 2.5 quads (10/sup 15/ Btu (1.055 x 10/sup 18/ joules)) per year of oil and gas would be released. Further use of biomass fuels in the industry could release up to an additional 1.5 quads. however, such an industry would be unprofitable under current economic conditions with existing or near-commercial technology. As fossil resources become more expensive and biotechnology becomes more efficient, the economics will be more favorable. Use of the chemicals industry model to evaluate process technologies is demonstrated. Processes are identified which have potential for significant added value to the system if process improvements can be made to improve the economics. Guidelines and recommendations for research and development programs to improve the attractiveness of chemicals from biomass are discussed.

  7. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Powder River Basin for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvasnicka, D.E.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Powder River Basin. General research, based on a review of published literature from both private and public sources, indicates that the shallow, thick subbituminous coal seams found in the Powder River Basin exhibit significant potential for the application of this patented process. These coal deposits can be characterized, on the basis of established coalbed methane production, as being highly water productive. The desorption and economic recovery of coalbed methane, widely believed to be biogenic in origin, from these low-grade deposits will require the subsequent dewatering of these geologic formations. The patented process, developed by Mr. McIntyre and described in the compendium of this study, may offer a cost-effective means of methane recovery and downhole disposal of produced groundwaters.

  8. The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel for terrestrial carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production. For P. strobus, above- ground plant carbon harvest for biofuel would result in no net carbon sequestration as declines in soil carbon offset plant

  9. CO{sub 2} reduction potential in power production and its cost efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aijala, M.; Salokoski, P.; Alin, J.; Siikavirta, H.; Nykaenen, J.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} reduction potential and the economy of it in power production are handled in this presentation. The main focus is on combined heat and power production, CHP. The reference case has been the conventional coal fired condensing power plant and district heating with heavy fuel oil. Various CHP concepts are handled as substitutive technology for the reference case. Considered fuels are coal and biomass. CO{sub 2} produced in biomass firing processes is not regarded to increase the net CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. Reference case can be substituted by a more efficient coal-fired power plant, so called USC plant or by natural gas-fired combined cycle power plant. Both changes lead to very limited reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. On the other hand the shifting is profitable. CO{sub 2} reduction potential differs in various CHP concepts according to the fuel used. With biomass the reduction is 100% and in the smallest considered coal-fired industrial power plant it is only 6%. Looking at CO{sub 2} reduction costs, ECU/t CO{sub 2}, the best alternative seems to be the changing to coal-fired CHP in industrial power plants. Due to different reduction potentials of different methods the reduction cost illustrates poorly the quality of the method. For example, in a case where the profitability is good but reduction potential is small the reduction cost is strongly negative and the case seems to be cost-effective. To avoid the previous effects the profitability of the changes has to be studied with and without CO{sub 2} emission fees. Biomass-CHP will be cost-effective compared to coal-CHP with the prices 2.5--5 ECU/t CO{sub 2} saved. The industrial CHP plant will be cost-effective despite of the fuel used and without CO{sub 2} emission fees. The district heating CHP plant will be cost-effective, if the plant size is large. The small district heating CHP plants are cost-effective, if the saved CO{sub 2} ton has a price.

  10. Potential petroleum source rock deposition in the middle Cretaceous Wasia Formation, Rub'Al Khali, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, K.D.; Hennington, R.D.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stratigraphic correlation and regional geochemical sampling in the Rub'Al Khali (The Empty Quarter) of Saudi Arabia indicate at least two potential petroleum source rock units occur in the middle Cretaceous Wasia Formation. These two sequences, informally named the Safaniya ''source rock'' and the lower Mishrif, are dominated by oil-prone amorphous (Type II) organic matter, in places in excess of 10 weight percent organic carbon. Both units are fine-grained pelagic lime mudstones which were probably deposited in relatively quiet anoxic waters of large intraplatform embayments or basins. The Safaniya ''source rock'' and the lower Mishrif reflect strong marine transgressions on the Arabian craton in Albian to Cenomanian and Cenomanian to Turonian time, respectively. Regressive-phase sedimentary rocks overlying these two transgressive organic-rock phases are generally poor in organic carbon despite being deposited, in part, in similar forereef open-marine depositional settings. The sealevel high-stands associated with the Safaniya ''source rock'' and the lower Mishrif are partly synchronous with two recently described ''oceanic anoxic events'' respectively occurring in late Barremian to late Albian time and late Cenomanian to early Turonian time. Although there is a credible time correlation of these organic-rock units with oceanic anoxic events, their connection to oceanic anoxic events could be strengthened if they could be traced out to the vicinity of the middle Cretaceous continental margin.

  11. Infrared absorption strengths of potential gaseous diffusion plant coolants and related reaction products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trowbridge, L.D.; Angel, E.C.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE gaseous diffusion plant complex makes extensive use of CFC-114 as a primary coolant. As this material is scheduled for production curtailment within the next few years, a search for substitutes is underway, and apparently workable alternatives have been found and are under testing. The presently favored substitutes, FC-c3l8 and FC-3110, satisfy ozone depletion and operational chemical compatibility concerns, but will be long-lived greenhouse gases, and thus may be regulated on that basis in the future. A further search is therefore underway for compounds with shorter atmospheric lifetimes which could otherwise satisfy operational physical and chemical requirements. A number of such candidates are in the process of being screened for chemical compatibility in a fluorinating environment. This document presents infrared spectral data developed and used in that study for candidates recently examined, and also for many of their fluorination reaction products. The data include gas-phase infrared spectra, quantitative peak intensities as a function of partial pressure, and integrated absorbance strength in the IR-transparent atmospheric window of interest to global warming modeling. Combining this last property with literature or estimated atmospheric lifetimes, rough estimates of global warming potential for these compounds are also presented.

  12. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work, permitting, barging, ice road/pad construction, drilling, completion, tie-in, long-term production testing and surveillance, data analysis and technology transfer. The PRA project team and North Slope have recommended moving forward to the execution phase of this project.

  13. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022. Within the mandate, amounts of advanced biofuels, including biomass-based diesel and cellulosic biofuels, are required beginning in 2009. Imported renewable fuels are also eligible for the RFS. Another key U.S. policy is the $1.01 per gal tax credit for producers of cellulosic biofuels enacted as part of the 2008 Farm Bill. This credit, along with the DOE's research, development and demonstration (RD&D) programs, are assumed to enable the rapid expansion of U.S. and global cellulosic biofuels production needed for the U.S. to approach the 2022 RFS goal. While the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has yet to issue RFS rules to determine which fuels would meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and land use restrictions specified in EISA, we assume that cellulosic ethanol, biomass-to-liquid fuels (BTL), sugar-derived ethanol, and fatty acid methyl ester biodiesel would all meet the EISA advanced biofuel requirements. We also assume that enough U.S. corn ethanol would meet EISA's biofuel requirements or otherwise be grandfathered under EISA to reach 15 B gal per year.

  14. Anionic group 6B metal carbonyls as homogeneous catalysts for carbon dioxide/hydrogen activation: the production of alkyl formates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Ovalles, C.

    1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of alkyl formates from the hydrocondensation of carbon dioxide in alcohols utilizing anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides as catalysts is herein reported. HM(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ (M = Cr, W; derived from ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/) and their products of carbon dioxide insertion, HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, have been found to be effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO/sub 2/ in alcohols under rather mild conditions (loading pressures of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/, 250 psi each, and 125/sup 0/C) to provide alkyl formates. The only metal carbonyl species detected in solution via spectroscopy, both at the end of a catalytic period and during catalysis, were M(CO)/sub 6/ and HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/. The metal hexacarbonyls were independently shown to be catalytically inactive. A catalytic cycle is proposed which initially involves release of formic acid from the metal center, either by reductive elimination of the hydrido formato ligands or ligand-assisted heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen with loss of formic acid. In a rapid subsequent process HCOOH reacts with alcohols to yield HCOOR. The addition of carbon monoxide retards alkyl formate production, strongly implying CO/sub 2/ to be the primary source of the carboxylic carbon atom in HCOOR. This was verified by carrying out reactions in the presence of HCO/sub 2/W(/sup 13/CO)/sub 5//sup -/ which provided only H/sup 12/COOR after short reaction periods. However, in the absence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/ species were observed to be effective catalyst precursors for converting CO and methanol into methyl formate. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to economically Page viable gas production. The overallare not promising targets for gas production. AcknowledgmentEnergy, Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Technology,

  16. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol. 2(1):26-40.1995 19941216. Commercial ethanol production process.facility and commercial ethanol production process.

  17. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Municipal Solid Waste: A Technical and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1982 19801205. Ethanol and fuel product production.The first generation fuel ethanol is derived from starch andfor bioconversion to fuel ethanol because it not only

  18. Gas production potential of disperse low-saturation hydrate accumulations in oceanic sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, George J.; Sloan, E. Dendy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EG. Formation of gas hydrates in natural gas transmissiongeology of natural gas hydrates. Amsterdam: Springer-Verlag;Soloviev, VA. Submarine gas hydrates. St. Petersburg;1998.

  19. Optimizing the distribution network of perishable products to Small Format Stores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sachin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FoodCo is a leading foods company that has reputed brands and global operations with revenues in excess of USD 5Bn. Although FoodCo's sales to Small Format Stores (SFS) customers are a small part of the overall sales, it ...

  20. SUBTASK 1.7 EVALUATION OF KEY FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL OIL PRODUCTION IN THE BAKKEN FORMATION, NORTH DAKOTA PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen; Damion J. Knudsen; John A. Harju; Edward N. Steadman

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Production from the Bakken and Three Forks Formations continues to trend upward as forecasts predict significant production of oil from unconventional resources nationwide. As the U.S. Geological Survey reevaluates the 3.65 billion bbl technically recoverable estimate of 2008, technological advancements continue to unlock greater unconventional oil resources, and new discoveries continue within North Dakota. It is expected that the play will continue to expand to the southwest, newly develop in the northeastern and northwestern corners of the basin in North Dakota, and fully develop in between. Although not all wells are economical, the economic success rate has been near 75% with more than 90% of wells finding oil. Currently, only about 15% of the play has been drilled, and recovery rates are less than 5%, providing a significant future of wells to be drilled and untouched hydrocarbons to be pursued through improved stimulation practices or enhanced oil recovery. This study provides the technical characterizations that are necessary to improve knowledge, provide characterization, validate generalizations, and provide insight relative to hydrocarbon recovery in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. Oil-saturated rock charged from the Bakken shales and prospective Three Forks can be produced given appropriate stimulation treatments. Highly concentrated fracture stimulations with ceramic- and sand-based proppants appear to be providing the best success for areas outside the Parshall and Sanish Fields. Targeting of specific lithologies can influence production from both natural and induced fracture conductivity. Porosity and permeability are low, but various lithofacies units within the formation are highly saturated and, when targeted with appropriate technology, release highly economical quantities of hydrocarbons.

  1. avoiding by-product formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utilization Engineering Websites Summary: Center for By-Products Utilization USE OF CLEAN-COAL ASH FOR MANAGING ASR By Zichao Wu and Tarun R College of Engineering and Applied...

  2. Impact of U.S. Wholesale Demand for Canned Sardines on Market Accessibility of Potential Gulf of Mexico Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of U.S. Wholesale Demand for Canned Sardines on Market Accessibility of Potential Gulf market, three product groups, which comprise the market, are analyzed at the wholesale level to detennine can to a 425 round no. 1 tall can (Lanier, 1981). In this paper we examine the U.S. wholesale demand

  3. Compost: A study of the development process and end-product potential for suppression of turfgrass disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boland, Greg J.

    Review Compost: A study of the development process and end-product potential for suppression, biological control, compost, disease, fungi, microbiology, pathogen, suppression, turf, turfgrass Summary The relationships among the chemical, physical and biological aspects of compost and their role in suppression

  4. NEPHELINE FORMATION POTENTIAL IN SLUDGE BATCH 4 AND ITS IMPACT ON DURABILITY: SELECTING GLASSES FOR A PHASE 3 STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K

    2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory's frit development effort for SB4 is being driven by the most current CBU option for this sludge, referred to as Case 15C Blend 1. Candidate frits have been identified for this option via a paper study approach developed by Peeler and Edwards with the intent of down-selecting to a set of key frits whose operating windows (i.e., WL intervals that meet PCCS MAR criteria) are robust to and/or selectively optimal for this sludge option. The primary frits that appear attractive on paper (i.e., down-selected via the paper study) are now being incorporated into this experimental study. The potential for the formation of a nepheline primary crystalline phase is an important factor in frit development for SB4, due to the high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} content of this sludge. Based upon earlier work by Li et al., glasses that do not satisfy the constraint: (SiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} + Na{sub 2}O + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) > 0.62 where the oxides are expressed as mass fractions in the glass, will precipitate nepheline as their primary crystalline phase, hindering the durability of the glass. Based on the most recent compositional projection from the CBU for SB4 (Case 15C Blend 1), 16 glasses have been selected to complement the earlier work by continuing the investigation into the ability of the above constraint to predict the occurrence of a nepheline primary crystalline phase for SB4 glasses and into the impact of such phases on the durability of the SB4 glasses. Glasses were selected to cover WLs which tightly bound the nepheline discriminator value of 0.62, with the intent of refining this value to a level of confidence where it can be incorporated into offline administrative controls and/or the PCCS to support SME acceptability decisions. In addition, glass specimens at WLs of 35 and 40% will be prepared and analyzed to contribute needed data to the ComPro{trademark} database in anticipation of a variability study for SB4. The glasses in Table 4-3 are to batched and fabricated using standard procedures. Visual observations and other analytical techniques are to be used, as needed, to assess the presence of crystals with specific interest in the nepheline primary phase. The durability of these glasses (for both quenched and centerline canister cooled versions) is to be measured using the ASTM PCT Method A. The results from these efforts are to be documented in a subsequent report. The results of this study will provide valuable input for the frit development efforts and subsequent feedback to the CBU regarding the relative viability of the current SB4 option under consideration. The refined nepheline discriminator value will provide a guideline for the avoidance of nepheline crystallization in SB4 glasses and aid in down-selection of frit compositions. These data will be combined with the results of melt rate studies and a paper study of the frits robustness with regard to variability in the sludge composition to provide an optimized frit recommendation to DWPF for immobilization of SB4.

  5. Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

  6. Prediction of gas-hydrate formation conditions in production and surface facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ameripour, Sharareh

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas hydrates are a well-known problem in the oil and gas industry and cost millions of dollars in production and transmission pipelines. To prevent this problem, it is important to predict the temperature and pressure under which gas hydrates...

  7. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvasnicka, D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Northern and Central Appalachian basin areas. General research, based on a review of published literature from both public and private sources, indicates that the generally thin, but numerous coalbeds found in the greater Appalachian Basin area do exhibit some potential for the application of this patented process. Estimates of total gas reserves in-place (Gas Research Institute, July 1991) for coalbeds in the Central and Northern Appalachian Basin areas are 5 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 61 TCF respectively. Produced waters associated with coal deposits in the greater Appalachian Basin area can be characterized on the basis of established but limited production of coalbed methane. Central Appalachian coals generally produce small quantities of water (less than 50 barrels of water per day for the average producing well) which is high in total dissolved solids (TDS), greater than 30,000 parts per million (ppM). The chemical quality of water produced from these coal seams represents a significant disposal challenge to the operators of methane-producing wells in the Central Appalachian Basin. By contrast, water associated with the production of coalbed methane in the Northern Appalachian Basin is generally fair to good quality, and daily production volumes are low. However, the relatively slow desorption of methane gas from Northern Appalachian coals may result in a greater net volume of produced water over the economic life of the well. The well operator must respond to long-term disposal needs.

  8. Radiation effects in moist-air systems and the influence of radiolytic product formation on nuclear waste glass corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Emery, J.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Wang, L.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionizing radiation may affect the performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water to produce a variety of radiolytic products. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of radiolysis under high gas/liquid ratios. Results indicate that nitrate is the predominant radiolytic product produced following both gamma and alpha radiation exposure, with lesser amounts of nitrite and carboxylic acids. The formation of nitrogen acids during exposure to long-lived, alpha-particle-emitting transuranic elements indicates that these acids may play a role in influencing nuclear waste form reactions in a long-term unsaturated disposal scenario. Experiments were also conducted with samples that simulate the composition of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste glasses. Radiolytic product formation in batch tests (340 m{sup {minus}1}, 90 C) resulted in a small increase in the release rates of many glass components, such as alkali and alkaline earth elements, although silicon and uranium release rates were slightly reduced indicating an overall beneficial effect of radiation on waste form stability. The radiolytic acids increased the rate of ion exchange between the glass and the thin film of condensate, resulting in accelerated corrosion rates for the glass. The paragenetic sequence of alteration phases formed on both the irradiated and nonirradiated glass samples reacted in the vapor hydration tests matches closely with those developed during volcanic glass alteration in naturally occurring saline-alkaline lake systems. This correspondence suggests that the high temperatures used in these tests have not changed the underlying glass reaction mechanism relate to that which controls glass reactions under ambient surficial conditions.

  9. Amine Degradation in CO2 Capture. 2. New degradation products of MEA. Pyrazine and alkyl pyrazines: analysis, mechanism of formation and toxicity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Amine Degradation in CO2 Capture. 2. New degradation products of MEA. Pyrazine and alkyl pyrazines Degradation in CO2 Capture. 2. New degradation products of MEA. Pyrazine and alkyl pyrazines: analysis degradation products, and some of them could be potentially dangerous to humans or environment according

  10. Red or blue? A potential kilonova imprint of the delay until black hole formation following a neutron star merger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Brian D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mergers of binary neutron stars (NSs) usually result in the formation of a hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). Whether- and when this remnant collapses to a black hole (BH) depends primarily on the equation of state and on angular momentum transport processes, both of which are uncertain. Here we show that the lifetime of the merger remnant may be directly imprinted in the radioactively powered kilonova emission following the merger. We employ axisymmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of remnant accretion disks orbiting a HMNS of variable lifetime, and characterize the effect of this delay to BH formation on the disk wind ejecta. Our models follow the system evolution over several seconds, and include the effect of nuclear recombination, viscous heating, and neutrino irradiation by both the HMNS and the disk. When BH formation is relatively prompt ( 140, resulting in ~week-long emission with a spectral peak in the near-infrared (NIR), similar to that produced by the dynamical ejecta. In contrast, de...

  11. THE POTENTIAL OF THE SOLID OXIDE ELECTROLYSER FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHETIC FUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the 1980'es. The discussions focussed on the use of heat from solar concentrators or waste heat from power to a potential of high electricity efficiency (60%) as compared to ordinary gas turbine power plants (30%- 40

  12. Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume,234 0% 0% #12;Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel;Absolute Biodiesel Potential Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume (liters

  13. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  14. Geographic Variation in Potential of Rooftop Residential Photovoltaic Electric Power Production in the United States

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper describes a geographic evaluation of Zero Energy Home (ZEH) potential, specifically an assessment of residential roof-top solar electric photovoltaic (PV) performance around the United States and how energy produced would match up with very-efficient and super-efficient home designs. We performed annual simulations for 236 TMY2 data locations throughout the United States on two highly-efficient one-story 3-bedroom homes with a generic grid-tied solar electric 2kW PV system. These annual simulations show how potential annual solar electric power generation (kWh) and potential energy savings from PV power vary geographically around the U.S. giving the user in a specific region an indication of their expected PV system performance.

  15. Potential for by-product recovery in geothermal energy operations issue paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document identifies and discusses the significant issues raised by the idea of recovering useful by-products from wastes (primarily spent brine) generated during geothermal power production. The physical availability of numerous valuable materials in geothermal brines has captured the interest of geothermal resource developers and other parties ever since their presence was known. The prospects for utilizing huge volumes of highly-saline geothermal brines for electricity generation in the Imperial Valley of California have served to maintain this interest in both private sector and government circles.

  16. Potential for hydrogen production with inducible chloroplast gene expression in Chlamydomonas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halazonetis, Thanos

    Raymond Surzycki*, Laurent Cournac§ , Gilles Peltier§ , and Jean-David Rochaix*¶ *Departments of Molecular for hydrogen production. Upon addition of copper to cells pregrown in copper-deficient medium, PSII levels of these proteins, e.g., membrane proteins, may be toxic to the cells and could impair their growth. Second

  17. Bioenergy Potential of the United States Constrained by Satellite Observations of Existing Productivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montana, University of

    liters ethanol, which implies an even larger increase in biomass demand (primary energy), from roughly 2 billion liters of ethanol (secondary bioenergy) in 2009, approximately half of the world's total ethanol ethanol production of 136 billion liters by 2022.2 Yet, these bioenergy targets are largely derived from

  18. Soft X-ray irradiation of methanol ice: Formation of products as a function of photon energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.-J.; Juang, K.-J.; Yih, T.-S. [Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32054, Taiwan (China); Ciaravella, A.; Cecchi-Pestellini, C. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy); Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Jiménez-Escobar, A., E-mail: aciaravella@astropa.unipa.it [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, Torrejón de Ardoz, E-28850 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pure methanol ices have been irradiated with monochromatic soft X-rays of 300 and 550 eV close to the 1s resonance edges of C and O, respectively, and with a broadband spectrum (250-1200 eV). The infrared (IR) spectra of the irradiated ices show several new products of astrophysical interest such as CH{sub 2}OH, H{sub 2}CO, CH{sub 4}, HCOOH, HCOCH{sub 2}OH, CH{sub 3}COOH, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, HCOOCH{sub 3}, and (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, as well as HCO, CO, and CO{sub 2}. The effect of X-rays is the result of the combined interactions of photons and electrons with the ice. A significant contribution to the formation and growth of new species in the CH{sub 3}OH ice irradiated with X-rays is given by secondary electrons, whose energy distribution depends on the energy of X-ray photons. Within a single experiment, the abundances of the new products increase with the absorbed energy. Monochromatic experiments show that product abundances also increase with the photon energy. However, the abundances per unit energy of newly formed species show a marked decrease in the broadband experiment as compared to irradiations with monochromatic photons, suggesting a possible regulatory role of the energy deposition rate. The number of new molecules produced per absorbed eV in the X-ray experiments has been compared to those obtained with electron and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation experiments.

  19. Fossil fuel potential of Turkey: A statistical evaluation of reserves, production, and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korkmaz, S.; Kara-Gulbay, R.; Turan, M. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since Turkey is a developing country with tremendous economic growth, its energy demand is also getting increased. Of this energy, about 70% is supplied from fossil fuels and the remaining 30% is from renewable sources. Among the fossil fuels, 90% of oil, natural gas, and coal are imported, and only 10% is from domestic sources. All the lignite is supplied from domestic sources. The total share of renewable sources and lignite in the total energy production is 45%. In order for Turkey to have sufficient and reliable energy sources, first the renewable energy sources must be developed, and energy production from fossil fuels, except for lignite, must be minimized. Particularly, scarcity of fossil fuels and increasing oil prices have a strong effect on economic growth of the country.

  20. Study of gas production potential of New Albany Shale (group) in the Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasenmueller, N.R.; Boberg, W.S.; Comer, J.; Smidchens, Z. (Indiana Geological Survey, Bloomington (United States)); Frankie, W.T.; Lumm, D.K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States)); Hamilton-Smith, T.; Walker, J.D. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington (United States))

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Albany Shale (Devonian and Mississippian) is recognized as both a source rock and gas-producing reservoir in the Illinois basin. The first gas discovery was made in 1885, and was followed by the development of several small fields in Harrison County, Indiana, and Meade County, Kentucky. Recently, exploration for and production of New Albany gas has been encouraged by the IRS Section 29 tax credit. To identify technology gaps that have restricted the development of gas production form the shale gas resource in the basin, the Illinois Basin Consortium (IBC), composed of the Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky geological surveys, is conducting a cooperative research project with the Gas Research Institute (GRI). An earlier study of the geological and geochemical aspects of the New Albany was conducted during 1976-1978 as part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The current IBC/GRI study is designed to update and reinterpret EGSP data and incorporate new data obtained since 1978. During the project, relationships between gas production and basement structures are being emphasized by constructing cross sections and maps showing thickness, structure, basement features, and thermal maturity. The results of the project will be published in a comprehensive final report in 1992. The information will provide a sound geological basis for ongoing shale-gas research, exploration, and development in the basin.

  1. Potential for future development of salt cavern storage in the upper Silurian Syracuse Formation of south-central New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, J.P.; Sarwar, G.; Guo, B. [Brooklyn College of the City Univ. of New York, Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although depleted reservoirs remain the dominant structures used for storage fulfilling the demand for base load gas supply during the heating season, the current general surge in storage projects, nationwide, takes advantage of opportunities in Order 636, and makes greater use of salt caverns for gas storage. This reflects the increasing need by gas users, local distribution companies in particular, to quickly cycle a storage facility`s gas supply for services such as peak shaving, emergency supply, and system balancing to meet hourly swings. Occurrence of thick deposits of bedded salt deposits provides New York the capability to develop high deliverability salt cavern storage facilities. Furthermore, New York is uniquely positioned at the gateway to major northeastern markets to provide peak load storage services of natural gas supply. The thickest units of bedded salt in New York occur in the {open_quotes}F{close_quotes} horizon of the Upper Silurian Syracuse Formation. Three bedded salt cavern storage facilities have been recently proposed in New York. Two of these projects is much larger (with 5 Bcfg ultimate capacity), is under construction, and will provide valuable storage service to the Ellisburg-Leidy market center hub in Pennsylvania. Identification of possible sites for future salt cavern storage projects has been achieved chiefly by defining areas of thick beds of salt at sufficient depths close to gas transmission lines, with access to a freshwater supply for leaching, and possessing an acceptable method of brine disposal.

  2. Potential effects of the fire protection system sprays at Browns Ferry on fission product transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemczyk, S.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fire protection system (FPS) sprays within any nuclear plant are not intended to mitigate radioactive releases to the environment resulting from severe core-damage accidents. However, it has been shown here that during certain postulated severe accident scenarios at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, the functioning of FPS sprays could have a significant impact on the radioactive releases. Thus the effects of those sprays need to be taken into account for realistic estimation of source terms for some accident scenarios. The effects would include direct ones such as cooling of the reactor building atmosphere and scrubbing of radioactivity from it, as well as indirect effects such as an altered likelihood of hydrogen burning and flooding of various safety-related pumps in the reactor building basement. Thus some of the impacts of the sprays would be beneficial with respect to mitigating releases to the environment but some others might not be. The effects of the FPS would be very scenario dependent with a wide range of potential effects often existing for a given accident sequence. Any generalization of the specific results presented here for Browns Ferry to other nuclear plants must be done cautiously, as it appears from a preliminary investigation that the relevant physical and operational characteristics of FPS spray systems differ widely among even otherwise apparently similar plants. Likewise the standby gas treatment systems, which substantially impact the effects of the FPS, differ significantly among plants. More work for both Mark I plants and other plants, BWRs and PWRs alike, is indicated so the potential effects of FPS spray systems during severe accidents can be at least ball-parked for more realistic accident analyses.

  3. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating equipment maintenance mitigation for the remote village are challenges to a biomass energy system in Port Graham that can be addressed through comprehensive planning prior to implementation.

  4. Potential Soil Moisture Products from the Aquarius Radiometer and Scatterometer Using an Observing System Simulation Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yan [I.M. Systems Group at NOAA/NCEP/EMC; Feng, Xia [George Mason University; Houser, Paul [George Mason University; Anantharaj, Valentine G [ORNL; Fan, Xingang [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green; De Lannoy, Gabrielle [Ghent University, Belgium; Zhan, Xiwu [NOAA/NESDIS Center for Satellite Applications and Research; Dabbiru, Lalitha [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE), we investigate the potential soil moisture retrieval capability of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aquarius radiometer (L-band 1.413 GHz) and scatterometer (L-band, 1.260 GHz). We estimate potential errors in soil moisture retrievals and identify the sources that could cause those errors. The OSSE system includes (i) a land surface model in the NASA Land Information System, (ii) a radiative transfer and backscatter model, (iii) a realistic orbital sampling model, and (iv) an inverse soil moisture retrieval model. We execute the OSSE over a 1000 2200 km2 region in the central United States, including the Red and Arkansas river basins. Spatial distributions of soil moisture retrieved from the radiometer and scatterometer are close to the synthetic truth. High root mean square errors (RMSEs) of radiometer retrievals are found over the heavily vegetated regions, while large RMSEs of scatterometer retrievals are scattered over the entire domain. The temporal variations of soil moisture are realistically captured over a sparely vegetated region with correlations 0.98 and 0.63, and RMSEs 1.28% and 8.23% vol/vol for radiometer and scatterometer, respectively. Over the densely vegetated region, soil moisture exhibits larger temporal variation than the truth, leading to correlation 0.70 and 0.67, respectively, and RMSEs 9.49% and 6.09% vol/vol respectively. The domain-averaged correlations and RMSEs suggest that radiometer is more accurate than scatterometer in retrieving soil moisture. The analysis also demonstrates that the accuracy of the retrieved soil moisture is affected by vegetation coverage and spatial aggregation.

  5. Coal-bed methane production in eastern Kansas: Its potential and restraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoeckinger, B.T.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1921 and again in 1988, workers demonstrated that the high volatile A and B coals of the Pennsylvanian Cherokee Group can be produced economically from vertically drilled holes, and that some of these coals have a gas content as high as 200 ft{sup 3}/ton. Detailed subsurface mapping on a county-by-county basis using geophysical logs shows the Weir coal seam to be the thickest (up to 6 ft thick) and to exist in numerous amoeba-shaped pockets covering several thousand acres. Lateral pinch-out into deltaic sands offers a conventional gas source. New attention to geophysical logging shows most coals have a negative SP response, high resistivities, and densities of 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. Highly permeable coals cause lost circulation during drilling and thief zones during cementing, and they are the source of abundant unwanted salt water. Low-permeability coals can be recognized by their high fracture gradients, which are difficult to explain but are documented to exceed 2.2. Current successful completions use both limited-entry, small-volume nitrogen stimulations or an open hole below production casing. Subsurface coals are at normal Mid-Continent pressures and may be free of water. Initially, some wells flow naturally without pumping. Saltwater disposal is often helped by the need for water in nearby waterflood projects and the easy availability of state-approved saltwater disposal wells in Mississippi and Arbuckle carbonates. Recent attempts to recomplete coal zones in slim-hole completions are having mixed results. The major restraints to coal-bed methane production are restricted to low permeability of the coals and engineering problems, not to the availability or gas content of the coals.

  6. Radiochemically-Supported Microbial Communities: A Potential Mechanism for Biocolloid Production of Importance to Actinide Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moser, Duane P [DRI; Hamilton-Brehm, Scott D [DRI; Fisher, Jenny C [DRI; Bruckner, James C [DRI; Kruger, Brittany [DRI; Sackett, Joshua [DRI; Russell, Charles E [DRI; Onstott, Tullis C [Princeton University; Czerwinski, Ken [University of Nevada-Las Vegas; Zavarin, Mavrik [lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Campbell, James H [Northwest Missouri State University

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons testing, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS)) contains millions of Curies of radioactive contamination. Presented here is a summary of the results of the first comprehensive study of subsurface microbial communities of radioactive and nonradioactive aquifers at this site. To achieve the objectives of this project, cooperative actions between the Desert Research Institute (DRI), the Nevada Field Office of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the Underground Test Area Activity (UGTA), and contractors such as Navarro-Interra (NI), were required. Ultimately, fluids from 17 boreholes and two water-filled tunnels were sampled (sometimes on multiple occasions and from multiple depths) from the NNSS, the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and a reference hole in the Amargosa Valley near Death Valley. The sites sampled ranged from highly-radioactive nuclear device test cavities to uncontaminated perched and regional aquifers. Specific areas sampled included recharge, intermediate, and discharge zones of a 100,000-km2 internally-draining province, known as the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS), which encompasses the entirety of the NNSS/NTTR and surrounding areas. Specific geological features sampled included: West Pahute and Ranier Mesas (recharge zone), Yucca and Frenchman Flats (transitional zone), and the Western edge of the Amargosa Valley near Death Valley (discharge zone). The original overarching question underlying the proposal supporting this work was stated as: Can radiochemically-produced substrates support indigenous microbial communities and subsequently stimulate biocolloid formation that can affect radionuclides in NNSS subsurface nuclear test/detonation sites? Radioactive and non-radioactive groundwater samples were thus characterized for physical parameters, aqueous geochemistry, and microbial communities using both DNA- and cultivation-based tools in an effort to understand the drivers of microbial community structure (including radioactivity) and microbial interactions with select radionuclides and other factors across the range of habitats surveyed.

  7. Paleoenvironments and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation of southwestern Alabama and adjacent coastal water area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Upper Jurassic Norphlet sediments in southwestern Alabama and the adjacent coastal water area accumulated under arid climatic conditions. The Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States extended into southwestern Alabama, providing a barrier for air and water circulation during Norphlet deposition. Norphlet paleogeography was dominated by a broad desert plain rimmed to the north and east by the Appalachians and to the south by a developing shallow sea. Initiation of Norphlet sedimentation was a result of erosion of the southern Appalachians. Norphlet conglomerates were deposited in coalescing alluvial fans in proximity to an Appalachian source. The conglomeratic sandstones grade downdip into red-bed lithofacies that accumulated in distal portions of alluvial fan and wadi systems. Quartzose sandstones (Denkman Member) were deposited as dune and interdune sediments on a broad desert plain. The source of the sand was the updip and adjacent alluvial fan, plain, and wadi deposits. A marine transgression was initiated late in Denkman deposition, resulting in the reworking of previously deposited Norphlet sediments. Norphlet hydrocarbon potential in southwestern and offshore Alabama is excellent with four oil and gas fields already established. Petroleum traps discovered to date are primarily structural traps involving salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps associated with salt movement. Reservoir rocks consist of quartzose sandstones, which are principally eolian in origin. Smackover algal carbonate mudstones were probably the source for the Norphlet hydrocarbons.

  8. Potential of Ozone Formation by the Smog Mechanism to shield the surface of the Early Earth from UV radiation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Lee Grenfell; Barbara Stracke; Beate Patzer; Ruth Titz; Heike Rauer

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose that the photochemical smog mechanism produced substantial ozone (O3) in the troposphere during the Proterozoic, which contributed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation shielding hence favoured the establishment of life. The smog mechanism is well-established and is associated with pollution hazes which sometimes cover modern cities. The mechanism proceeds via the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as methane (CH4) in the presence of UV radiation and nitrogen oxides (NOx). It would have been particularly favoured during the Proterozoic given the high levels of CH4 (up to 1000 ppm) recently suggested. Proterozoic UV levels on the surface of the Earth were generally higher compared with today, which would also have favoured the mechanism. On the other hand, Proterozoic O2 required in the final step of the smog mechanism to form O3 was less abundant compared with present times. Further, results are sensitive to Proterozoic NOx concentrations, which are challenging to predict, since they depend on uncertain quantities such as NOx source emissions and OH concentrations. We review NOx sources during the Proterozoic and apply a photochemical box model having methane oxidation with NOx, HOx and Ox chemistry to estimate the O3 production from the smog mechanism. Runs suggest the smog mechanism during the Proterozoic can produce about double present day ozone columns for NOx levels of 1.53 10-9 by volume mixing ratio, which was attainable according to our NOx source analysis, with 1 per-cent present atmospheric levels (PALs) of O2. Clearly, forming ozone in the troposphere is a trade-off for survivability. On the one hand harmful UV is blocked, but on the other hand ozone is a respiratory irratant, which becomes fatal at concentrations exceeding about 1 ppmv.

  9. GAMMA RADIATION INTERACTS WITH MELANIN TO ALTER ITS OXIDATION-REDUCTION POTENTIAL AND RESULTS IN ELECTRIC CURRENT PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turick, C.; Ekechukwu, A.; Milliken, C.

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of melanin pigments in organisms is implicated in radioprotection and in some cases, enhanced growth in the presence of high levels of ionizing radiation. An understanding of this phenomenon will be useful in the design of radioprotective materials. However, the protective mechanism of microbial melanin in ionizing radiation fields has not yet been elucidated. Here we demonstrate through the electrochemical techniques of chronoamperometry, chronopotentiometry and cyclic voltammetry that microbial melanin is continuously oxidized in the presence of gamma radiation. Our findings establish that ionizing radiation interacts with melanin to alter its oxidation-reduction potential. Sustained oxidation resulted in electric current production and was most pronounced in the presence of a reductant, which extended the redox cycling capacity of melanin. This work is the first to establish that gamma radiation alters the oxidation-reduction behavior of melanin, resulting in electric current production. The significance of the work is that it provides the first step in understanding the initial interactions between melanin and ionizing radiation taking place and offers some insight for production of biomimetic radioprotective materials.

  10. Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Impacts from Large-Scale Use and Production of Hydrogen in Energy and Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

  11. AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR EPSILON-METAL WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Aashish; Strachan, Denis M.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines and ranks a total of seven materials processing techniques that may be potentially utilized to consolidate the undissolved solids from nuclear fuel reprocessing into a low-surface area form. Commercial vendors of processing equipment were contacted and literature researched to gather information for this report. Typical equipment and their operation, corresponding to each of the seven techniques, are described in the report based upon the discussions and information provided by the vendors. Although the report does not purport to describe all the capabilities and issues of various consolidation techniques, it is anticipated that this report will serve as a guide by highlighting the key advantages and disadvantages of these techniques. The processing techniques described in this report were broadly classified into those that employed melting and solidification, and those in which the consolidation takes place in the solid-state. Four additional techniques were examined that were deemed impractical, but were included for completeness. The techniques were ranked based on criteria such as flexibility in accepting wide-variety of feed-stock (chemistry, form, and quantity), ease of long-term maintenance, hot cell space requirements, generation of additional waste streams, cost, and any special considerations. Based on the assumption of ~2.5 L of waste to be consolidated per day, sintering based techniques, namely, microwave sintering, spark plasma sintering and hot isostatic pressing, were ranked as the top-3 choices, respectively. Melting and solidification based techniques were ranked lower on account of generation of volatile phases and difficulties associated with reactivity and containment of the molten metal.

  12. The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black Warrior (105 BCF; gas in place 20 TCF), and current production represents only a fraction of the nation`s estimated 675 TCF of in-place coalbed gas. Coal beds in the Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado hold almost half of the gas in place (314 TCF) and are an important source of gas for low-permeability Almond sandstones. Because total gas in place in the Greater Green River Basin is reported to exceed 3,000 TCF (Law et al., 1989), the basin may substantially increase the domestic gas resource base. Therefore, through integrated geologic and hydrologic studies, the coalbed gas potential of the basin was assessed where tectonic, structural, and depositional setting, coal distribution and rank, gas content, coal permeability, and ground-water flow are critical controls on coalbed gas producibility. Synergism between these geologic and hydrologic controls determines gas productivity. High productivity is governed by (1) thick, laterally continuous coals of high thermal maturity, (2) basinward flow of ground water through fractured and permeable coals, down the coal rank gradient toward no-flow boundaries oriented perpendicular to the regional flow direction, and (3) conventional trapping of gas along those boundaries to provide additional sources of gas beyond that sorbed on the coal surface.

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power estimates from the Stommel model and to help determine the size and capacity of arrays necessary to extract the maximum theoretical power, further estimates of the available power based on the distribution of the kinetic power density in the undisturbed flow was completed. This used estimates of the device spacing and scaling to sum up the total power that the devices would produce. The analysis has shown that considering extraction over a region comprised of the Florida Current portion of the Gulf Stream system, the average power dissipated ranges between 4-6 GW with a mean around 5.1 GW. This corresponds to an average of approximately 45 TWh/yr. However, if the extraction area comprises the entire portion of the Gulf Stream within 200 miles of the US coastline from Florida to North Carolina, the average power dissipated becomes 18.6 GW or 163 TWh/yr. A web based GIS interface, http://www.oceancurrentpower.gatech.edu/, was developed for dissemination of the data. The website includes GIS layers of monthly and yearly mean ocean current velocity and power density for ocean currents along the entire coastline of the United States, as well as joint and marginal probability histograms for current velocities at a horizontal resolution of 4-7 km with 10-25 bins over depth. Various tools are provided for viewing, identifying, filtering and downloading the data.

  14. Climate change and hydropower production in the Swiss Alps:potential impacts and modelling uncertainties Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(3), 11911205, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    climate change scenarios based on global-mean warming scenarios, the corresponding discharge model). Apart from the obvious economic interest in electricity production from water accumulated in reservoirsClimate change and hydropower production in the Swiss Alps:potential impacts and modelling

  15. Macroalgae Analysis A National GIS-based Analysis of Macroalgae Production Potential Summary Report and Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roesijadi, Guritno; Coleman, Andre M.; Judd, Chaeli; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Thom, Ronald M.; Buenau, Kate E.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Ward, Jeffrey A.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall project objective is to conduct a strategic analysis to assess the state of macroalgae as a feedstock for biofuels production. The objective in FY11 is to develop a multi-year systematic national assessment to evaluate the U.S. potential for macroalgae production using a GIS-based assessment tool and biophysical growth model developed as part of these activities. The initial model development for both resource assessment and constraints was completed and applied to the demonstration areas. The model for macroalgal growth was extended to the EEZ off the East and West Coasts of the United States, and a plan to merge the findings for an initial composite assessment was developed. In parallel, an assessment of land-based, port, and offshore infrastructure needs based on published and grey literature was conducted. Major information gaps and challenges encountered during this analysis were identified. Also conducted was an analysis of the type of local, state, and federal requirements that pertain to permitting land-based facilities and nearshore/offshore culture operations

  16. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  17. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  20. Mapping the Potential for Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: Differences in Definitions, Data and Models across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Sarah M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Land availability for biofuel production. Environ. Sci.of land available for biofuel production. Environ. Sci.so marginal land for biofuel crops is limited. Energy Policy

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. Mapping the Potential for Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: Differences in Definitions, Data and Models across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Sarah M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Evaluation of renewable energy potential using a GISpotential locations for integrating renewable energies into

  6. Chemical characterization of fluids and their modeling with respect to their damage potential in injection on production processes using an expert system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, L.G. [Geological Survey of Brandenburg (Germany); Albertsen, M. [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Mineraloelwissenschaft und Kohlechemie e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Perdeger, A. [Free Univ., Berlin (Germany); Knoke, H.H.K.; Horstmann, B.W.; Schenk, D. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep groundwaters, esp. oil field waters, from different sedimentary basins in Germany were characterized and evaluated with respect to their damage potential in production and injection processes. Geochemical modeling with different computer programs (PHRF-EQE, PHRQPITZ, SOLMINEQ etc.) was used to evaluate fluid-rock-interactions as well as their damage potential during operation processes. The geochemical program PHREEQE was integrated in an expert system (XPS FROCKI) for the evaluation of operational problems (scaling, fines mobilization, reduced permeability) in production or injection wells.

  7. THE POTENTIAL OF FRESHWATER MACROALGAE AS A BIOFUELS FEEDSTOCK AND THE INFLUENCE OF NUTRIENT AVAILABILITY ON FRESHWATER MACROALGAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive efforts have been made to evaluate the potential of microalgae as a biofuel feedstock during the past 4-5 decades. However, filamentous freshwater macroalgae have numerous characteristics that favor their potential use as an alternative...

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy of GaNAs alloys with high As content for potential photoanode applications in hydrogen production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikov, S. V.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photoanode applications in hydrogen production S. V.of sunlight into hydrogen by pho- toelectrochemical ͑PEC͒is crucial for efficient hydrogen production using the PEC

  9. Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    1 Combined heat and power has the potential to significantly increase energy production efficiency and thus reduce greenhouse gas emissions, however current market penetration analyses suggest that California will not reach the targets for combined heat and power set for it by the Air Resources Board (ARB

  10. Evaluating the potential use of winter cover crops in cornsoybean systems for sustainable co-production of food and fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    in displacement of grain crops with dedicated bioenergy crops such as switch grass, miscanthus, and hybrid poplar. Meeting the ambitious goals that have been set for bioenergy production without impacting food production, specifically that by displacing food production it will lead to higher food prices, increased incidence

  11. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  12. Effects of momentum-dependent nuclear potential on two-nucleon correlation functions and light cluster production in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions RID A-2398-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model, we study the effects due to the momentum dependence of isoscalar nuclear potential as well as that of symmetry potential on two-nucleon correlation functions and light cluster production...

  13. Causes of variable production rates of Pottsville Formation Coalbed Gas Wells, Virginia Mine Field, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, W.B. Jr. (S.A. Holditch Associates, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)); Ferguson, P.A. (Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1991, 27 coalbed gas wells were drilled, creating Virginia Mines field. In early 1993, average production rate was 55 Mcf/d per well, less than the geometric mean of 63 Mcf/d for wells in this region of the Warrior Basin. To clarify controls on gas production rates, we evaluated the production trends and the geologic setting. Strata on the southeast side of the project dip steeply northwestward off the Birmingham Anticlinorium toward the synclinal axis of the basin, which plunges approximately 2[degrees] southwestward. Northeast-trending normal faults having throws as great as 115 ft divide the project area into horsts and graben. Virginia Mines coalbed gas wells are completed in 13 to 16 ft of coal in 2 coal groups. Closure pressure (minimum stress) varies with structural setting and is 1,500 to 2,300 psi in the Black Creek group and 950 to 1,900 psi in overlying the Mary Lee group. Fracture gradient is greatest (commonly > 1.0 psi/ft) on the southeast of the project, along basin margin, suggesting that induced fractures have complex (T-shaped) geometries. Peak gas production at Virginia Mines occurred within the first 2 months and ranged from 40 to 180 Mcf/d; production rates fell sharply to 30 to 80 Mcf/d in the 18th month. Gas production rates are highest in the northern part of the project and lowest on the southeast side of the project and in one major fault block. Water production rates were 95 to 330 b/d initially but decreased an average of less than 40 b/d by the 18th month. Rapid gas and water decline rates are attributed to ineffective stimulations due to high fracture gradients and to low permeability caused by high in-situ stress. In-situ stress differences, in turn, reflect a highly variable structural setting. To improve production from low-rate wells will require new completion and stimulation techniques. Such techniques could have far-reaching implications, because coal beds in many other areas have high in-situ stresses.

  14. Causes of variable production rates of Pottsville Formation Coalbed Gas Wells, Virginia Mine Field, Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, W.B. Jr. [S.A. Holditch & Associates, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Ferguson, P.A. [Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1991, 27 coalbed gas wells were drilled, creating Virginia Mines field. In early 1993, average production rate was 55 Mcf/d per well, less than the geometric mean of 63 Mcf/d for wells in this region of the Warrior Basin. To clarify controls on gas production rates, we evaluated the production trends and the geologic setting. Strata on the southeast side of the project dip steeply northwestward off the Birmingham Anticlinorium toward the synclinal axis of the basin, which plunges approximately 2{degrees} southwestward. Northeast-trending normal faults having throws as great as 115 ft divide the project area into horsts and graben. Virginia Mines coalbed gas wells are completed in 13 to 16 ft of coal in 2 coal groups. Closure pressure (minimum stress) varies with structural setting and is 1,500 to 2,300 psi in the Black Creek group and 950 to 1,900 psi in overlying the Mary Lee group. Fracture gradient is greatest (commonly > 1.0 psi/ft) on the southeast of the project, along basin margin, suggesting that induced fractures have complex (T-shaped) geometries. Peak gas production at Virginia Mines occurred within the first 2 months and ranged from 40 to 180 Mcf/d; production rates fell sharply to 30 to 80 Mcf/d in the 18th month. Gas production rates are highest in the northern part of the project and lowest on the southeast side of the project and in one major fault block. Water production rates were 95 to 330 b/d initially but decreased an average of less than 40 b/d by the 18th month. Rapid gas and water decline rates are attributed to ineffective stimulations due to high fracture gradients and to low permeability caused by high in-situ stress. In-situ stress differences, in turn, reflect a highly variable structural setting. To improve production from low-rate wells will require new completion and stimulation techniques. Such techniques could have far-reaching implications, because coal beds in many other areas have high in-situ stresses.

  15. Mapping the Potential for Biofuel Production on Marginal Lands: Differences in Definitions, Data and Models across Scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Sarah M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corominas, J. Evaluation of renewable energy potential usingJ.M. ; Mabee, W.E. Toward renewable energy geo-informationAPEC Economies; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL):

  16. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

  17. Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gitelson, Anatoly

    purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which near-infrared (NIR) to red reflectance ratios productive waters using red and near-infrared bands Giorgio Dall'Olmoa,b,*, Anatoly A. Gitelsona,b , Donald C estimation of Chl in turbid productive waters has so far not been feasible from satellite sensors. The main

  18. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

  19. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  20. Microalgae-derived HEFA jet fuel : environmental and economic impacts of scaled/integrated growth facilities and global production potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ames, Jacob L. (Jacob Lee)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels have the potential to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation and offer increased energy security through the displacement of conventional jet fuel. This study investigates strategies designed to reduce the ...

  1. Potential for CO2 Sequestration and Enhanced Coalbed Methane Production, Blue Creek Field, NW Black Warrior Basin, Alabama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Ting

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    basin, Alabama. It considered the injection and production rate, the components of injected gas, coal dewatering, permeability anisotropy, various CO2 soak times, completion of multiple reservoir layers and pressure constraints at the injector...

  2. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  3. Frio sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface along the Texas Gulf Coast: their potential for production of geopressured geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bebout, D.G.; Loucks, R.G.; Gregory, A.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed geological, geophysical, and engineering studies conducted on the Frio Formation have delineated a geothermal test well site in the Austin Bayou Prospect which extends over an area of 60 square miles. A total of 800 to 900 feet of sandstone will occur between the depths of 13,500 and 16,500 feet. At leat 30 percent of the sand will have core permeabilities of 20 to 60 millidarcys. Temperature at the top of the sandstone section will be 300/sup 0/F. Water, produced at a rate of 20,000 to 40,000 barrels per day, will probably have to be disposed of by injection into shallower sandstone reservoirs. More than 10 billion barrels of water are in place in these sandstone reservoirs of the Austin Bayou Prospect; there should be approximately 400 billion cubic feet of methane in solution in this water. Only 10 percent of the water and methane (1 billion barrels of water and 40 billion cubic feet of methane) will be produced without reinjection of the waste water into the producing formation. Reservoir simulation studies indicate that 90 percent of the methane can be produced with reinjection. 106 figures.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  9. Synthesis of crystalline americium hydroxide, Am(OH){sub 3}, and determination of its enthalpy of formation; estimation of the solubility-product constants of actinide(III) hydroxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morss, L.R.; Williams, C.W.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports a new synthesis of pure, microcrystalline Am(OH){sub 3}, its characterization by x-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, and the calorimetric determination of its enthalpy of solution in dilute hydrochloric acid. From the enthalpy of solution the enthalpy of formation of Am(OH){sub 3} has been calculated to be {minus}1371.2{plus_minus}7.9 kj{center_dot}mol{sup {minus}1}, which represents the first experimental determination of an enthalpy of formation of any actinide hydroxide. The free energy of formation and solubility product constant of Am(OH){sub 3} (K{sub sp} = 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}31}) have been calculated from our enthalpy of formation and entropy estimates and are compared with literature measurements under near-equilibrium conditions. Since many properties of the tripositive lanthanide and actinide ions (e.g., hydrolysis, complex-ion formation, and thermochemistry) change in a regular manner, these properties can be interpreted systematically in terms of ionic size. This paper compares the thermochemistry of Am(OH){sub 3} with thermochemical studies of lanthanide hydroxides. A combined structural and acid-base model is used to explain the systematic differences in enthalpies of solution between the oxides and hydroxides of the 4f{sup n} and 5f{sup n} subgroups and to predict solubility-product constants for the actinide(III) hydroxides of Pu through Cf.

  10. Escherichia coli Enhanced Hydrogen Production, Genome-wide Screening for Extracellular DNA, and Influence of GGDEF Proteins on Early Biofilm Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez Torres, Viviana

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    for applications such as production of biofuels and biofilm control. The aims of this work were the application of protein engineering to increase E. coli hydrogen production, the identification of the proteins regulating extracellular DNA production (e...

  11. Potential role of the Fast Flux Test Facility and the advanced test reactor in the U.S. tritium production system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dautel, W.A.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Deparunent of Energy is currently engaged in a dual-track strategy to develop an accelerator and a conunercial light water reactor (CLWR) as potential sources of tritium supply. New analysis of the production capabilities of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Site argues for considering its inclusion in the tritium supply,system. The use of the FFTF (alone or together with the Advanced Test Reactor [ATR] at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) as an integral part of,a tritium production system would help (1) ensure supply by 2005, (2) provide additional time to resolve institutional and technical issues associated with the- dual-track strategy, and (3) reduce discounted total life-cycle`costs and near-tenn annual expenditures for accelerator-based systems. The FFRF would also provide a way to get an early start.on dispositioning surplus weapons-usable plutonium as well as provide a source of medical isotopes. Challenges Associated With the Dual-Track Strategy The Departinent`s purchase of either a commercial reactor or reactor irradiation services faces challenging institutional issues associated with converting civilian reactors to defense uses. In addition, while the technical capabilities of the individual components of the accelerator have been proven, the entire system needs to be demonstrated and scaled upward to ensure that the components work toge ther 1548 as a complete production system. These challenges create uncertainty over the ability of the du2a-track strategy to provide an assured tritium supply source by 2005. Because the earliest the accelerator could come on line is 2007, it would have to operate at maximum capacity for the first few years to regenerate the reserves lost through radioactive decay aftei 2005.

  12. Technical support for the Ohio Clean Coal Technology Program. Volume 2, Baseline of knowledge concerning process modification opportunities, research needs, by-product market potential, and regulatory requirements: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olfenbuttel, R.; Clark, S.; Helper, E.; Hinchee, R.; Kuntz, C.; Means, J.; Oxley, J.; Paisley, M.; Rogers, C.; Sheppard, W.; Smolak, L. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1989-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared for the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) under Grant Agreement No. CDO/R-88-LR1 and comprises two volumes. Volume 1 presents data on the chemical, physical, and leaching characteristics of by-products from a wide variety of clean coal combustion processes. Volume 2 consists of a discussion of (a) process modification waste minimization opportunities and stabilization considerations; (b) research and development needs and issues relating to clean coal combustion technologies and by-products; (c) the market potential for reusing or recycling by-product materials; and (d) regulatory considerations relating to by-product disposal or reuse.

  13. Western Gas Sands Project: production histories of the Piceance and Uinta basins of Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.; Kohout, J. (comp.)

    1980-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Current United States geological tight sand designations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins' Western Gas Sands Project include the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations. Others, such as the Dakota, Cedar Mountain, Morrison and Mancos may eventually be included. Future production from these formations will probably be closely associated with existing trends. Cumulative gas production through December 1979, of the Mesaverde Group, Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Piceance and Uinta Basins is less than 275 billion cubic feet. This contrasts dramatically with potential gas in place estimates of 360 trillion cubic feet. If the geology can be fully understood and engineering problems surmounted, significant potential reserves can be exploited.

  14. Potential for travertine formation: Fossil Creek, Arizona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossil Springs and at full baseflow during turbine maintenance. Analyses resulted in a rate of 11,923 kg with the soil zone, carbonate aquifers, organic material, or regional geothermal activity to produce H2CO3

  15. Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnetti, David J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this thesis covers the design and implementation of a depleted uranium (DU) powder production system and the initial results of a DU-Zr-Mg alloy alpha phase sintering experiment where the Mg is a surrogate ...

  16. Using Flue Gas Huff 'n Puff Technology and Surfactants to Increase Oil Production from the Antelope Shale Formation of the Railroad Gap Oil Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Michael

    2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to test cyclic injection of exhaust flue gas from compressors located in the field to stimulate production from Antelope Shale zone producers. Approximately 17,000 m{sup 3} ({+-}600 MCF) of flue gas was to be injected into each of three wells over a three-week period, followed by close monitoring of production for response. Flue gas injection on one of the wells would be supplemented with a surfactant.

  17. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  18. SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loreta N. Gashi; Sabedin A. Meha; Besnik A. Duriqi; Fatos S. Haxhimusa

    In recent years solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth due to the technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and also governments policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. In this paper we will present possibilities for development and deployment of solar energy. We will use Kosovo to compare the existing power production potential and future possible potential by using solar energy.

  19. Evaluation of water production in tight gas sands in the Cotton Valley formation in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozobeme, Charles Chinedu

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    .........................................39 3.1.2 Open-hole Logs..................................................................................40 3.1.3 Core Data............................................................................................41 3.1.4 Geological Maps... and Well Locations ................................................41 3.1.5 Production Data..................................................................................41 vii Page 3.2 Log Data Preparation...

  20. Uranium Powder Production Via Hydride Formation and Alpha Phase Sintering of Uranium and Uranium-zirconium Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnetti, David J.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this thesis covers the design and implementation of a depleted uranium (DU) powder production system and the initial results of a DU-Zr-Mg alloy alpha phase sintering experiment where the Mg is a surrogate for Pu and Am. The powder...

  1. Proteases Potentiate Fibrocyte Differentiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvis Carvajal, Elkin David

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    by the presence of the plasma protein Serum Amyloid P (SAP). Tryptase and thrombin potentiate fibrocyte differentiation in the presence of SAP, suggesting that these proteases can be part of a triggering mechanism for scar tissue formation in both healing wounds...

  2. Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Brandon

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale formations has significantly increased since the advent of sophisticated recovery techniques which allow for economical production from such formations. The primary formation properties that operators...

  3. Epoxidation of the methamphetamine pyrolysis product, trans-phenylpropene, to trans-phenylpropylene oxide by CYP enzymes and stereoselective glutathione adduct formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanga, Madhu [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Younis, Islam R. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Tirumalai, Padma S. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Bland, Tina M. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Banaszewska, Monica [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Konat, Gregory W. [Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Tracy, Timothy S. [Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gannett, Peter M. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Callery, Patrick S. [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, 1 Medical Center Drive, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)]. E-mail: pcallery@hsc.wvu.edu

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolytic products of smoked methamphetamine hydrochloride are well established. Among the various degradation products formed, trans-phenylpropene (trans-{beta}-methylstyrene) is structurally similar to styrene analogues known to be bioactivated by CYP enzymes. In human liver microsomes, trans-phenylpropene was converted to the epoxide trans-phenylpropylene oxide (trans-2-methyl-3-phenyloxirane) and cinnamyl alcohol. Incubation of trans-phenylpropene with microsomes in the presence of enzyme-specific P450 enzyme inhibitors indicated the involvement of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 enzymes. Both (R,R)-phenylpropylene oxide and (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide were formed in human liver microsomal preparations. Enantiomers of trans-phenylpropylene oxide were stereoselectively and regioselectively conjugated in a Phase II drug metabolism reaction catalyzed by human liver cytosolic enzymes consisting of conjugation with glutathione. The structure of the phenylpropylene oxide-glutathione adduct is consistent with nucleophilic ring-opening by attack at the benzylic carbon. Exposure of cultured C6 glial cells to (S,S)-phenylpropylene oxide produced a cytotoxic response in a concentration-dependent manner based on cell degeneration and death.

  4. Formation depths of Fraunhofer lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurtovenko, E A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have summed up our investigations performed in 1970--1993. The main task of this paper is clearly to show processes of formation of spectral lines as well as their distinction by validity and by location. For 503 photospheric lines of various chemical elements in the wavelength range 300--1000 nm we list in Table the average formation depths of the line depression and the line emission for the line centre and on the half-width of the line, the average formation depths of the continuum emission as well as the effective widths of the layer of the line depression formation. Dependence of average depths of line depression formation on excitation potential, equivalent widths, and central line depth are demonstrated by iron lines.

  5. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  6. Phase 2: Seminars to US industry of TDA feasibility study. US export potential for oil and gas suppliers to Russian production associations. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Russian Production Association Varyeganneftegas Joint Stock Company (VNG JSC). It is a report Phase II of the Russian Oilfield Study, and it had two main objectives. The first was to enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. private sector in sales of oilfield equipment and services; the second goal was to assist the World Bank and VNG JSC in efforts to rehabilitate their oilfields by familiarizing VNG representatives with U.S. production and service capabilities in the petroleum sector. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Background; (2) The Planning Stage; (3) The Implementation Stage; and (4) Conclusions.

  7. Alternate Thesis & Dissertation Formats Manuscript Format Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    Alternate Thesis & Dissertation Formats Manuscript Format Guidelines In addition to the standard format for dissertation/thesis, the Graduate School allows for the use of an alternative format. The manuscript format refers to the use of articles and/or book chapters to replace the standard dissertation

  8. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  9. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

  10. Potential Land Use Implications of a Global Biofuels Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurgel, Angelo C.

    In this paper we investigate the potential production and implications of a global biofuels industry. We

  11. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  12. BAROCLINIC VORTICITY PRODUCTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. VORTEX GROWTH AND LONGEVITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Keith

    BAROCLINIC VORTICITY PRODUCTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. II. VORTEX GROWTH AND LONGEVITY Mark R -- instabilities -- methods: numerical -- solar system: formation -- turbulence Online material: color figures 1 the surface. Thus, the potential energy of the tilted isopycnals is converted into the kinetic energy

  13. Wilcox sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface along the Texas Gulf Coast: their potential for production of geopressured geothermal energy. Report of Investigations No. 117

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debout, D.G.; Weise, B.R.; Gregory, A.R.; Edwards, M.B.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional studies of the lower Eocene Wilcox Group in Texas were conducted to assess the potential for producing heat energy and solution methane from geopressured fluids in the deep-subsurface growth-faulted zone. However, in addition to assembling the necessary data for the geopressured geothermal project, this study has provided regional information of significance to exploration for other resources such as lignite, uranium, oil, and gas. Because the focus of this study was on the geopressured section, emphasis was placed on correlating and mapping those sandstones and shales occurring deeper than about 10,000 ft. The Wilcox and Midway Groups comprise the oldest thick sandstone/shale sequence of the Tertiary of the Gulf Coast. The Wilcox crops out in a band 10 to 20 mi wide located 100 to 200 mi inland from the present-day coastline. The Wilcox sandstones and shales in the outcrop and updip shallow subsurface were deposited primarily in fluvial environments; downdip in the deep subsurface, on the other hand, the Wilcox sediments were deposited in large deltaic systems, some of which were reworked into barrier-bar and strandplain systems. Growth faults developed within the deltaic systems, where they prograded basinward beyond the older, stable Lower Cretaceous shelf margin onto the less stable basinal muds. Continued displacement along these faults during burial resulted in: (1) entrapment of pore fluids within isolated sandstone and shale sequences, and (2) buildup of pore pressure greater than hydrostatic pressure and development of geopressure.

  14. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  15. A hybrid genetic algorithm for manufacturing cell formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José F. Gonçalves

    ... in cellular manufacturing is the formation of product families and machine cells. ... Computational experience with the algorithm on a set of group technology ...

  16. South Mississippi's Hosston, Sligo formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hosston and Sligo formations, of Early Cretaceous age, lie above the Cotton Valley group and below the Pine Island formation. The beds dip southwesterly and become thicker within the Mississippi Interior Salt basin, where virtually all of the Hosston/Sligo oil and gas production occurs. The 3500 ft of alternating sands and shales found at 10,000-17,000 ft depths have the attributes of fluvial deltaic sediments. The Newsom, Bowie Creek, and Seminary fields are representative of recent gas discoveries in the Hosston/Sligo.

  17. High-level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, P.; Bailey, A.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by the breakdown of the glass structure due to an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of the product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components.

  18. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. Abstract: We...

  19. Profitable Biodiesel Potential from Increased Agricultural Yields Country Name

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Profitable Biodiesel Potential from Increased Agricultural Yields Country Name Production Cost ($/liter) Potential Biodiesel Volume (liters) Total Export Profits ($) HDI Rank GDP/ cap Corrupt Rank FDI

  20. agonists potential utility: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will present possibilities for development and deployment of solar energy. We will use Kosovo to compare the existing power production potential and future possible potential by...

  1. apoptosis inducing potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will present possibilities for development and deployment of solar energy. We will use Kosovo to compare the existing power production potential and future possible potential by...

  2. aryl azides potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will present possibilities for development and deployment of solar energy. We will use Kosovo to compare the existing power production potential and future possible potential by...

  3. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Potential Impacts to Utilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of Bad CholesteroliManage Presentation3 DATE: March 14,62008 U.S.!1

  4. Biomedical device potential for robust, implantable product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess Stories Site Map Printable Version Share this

  5. activity potential novo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulations of spiral galaxies with an active potential: molecular cloud formation and gas dynamics Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We describe simulations of the response of a...

  6. In-situ combustion in hydrocarbon-bearing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garthoffner, E.H.

    1986-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of simulating production in a formation bearing heavy oil or tar, comprising injecting into the formation colloidal particles of metallic magnesium and causing the magnesium to be ignited, thereafter to be exothermally reacted with water in-situ, whereby exothermally to produce magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas in the formation.

  7. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  8. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  9. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  10. Reply to Engelder: Potential for fluid migration from the Marcellus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    LETTER Reply to Engelder: Potential for fluid migration from the Marcellus Formation remains) and brines by imbibition and capillary binding seals the Marcellus Formation and precludes the flow of fluids between the Marcellus Formation and shallow aquifers in northeastern Pennsylvania (2). First, considerable

  11. ABSTRACT & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi

    2 ABSTRACT & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDELINES The Knowledge Navigation Center (second floor these guidelines. The most up-to-date version of the Abstract and Dissertation Format Guidelines is available;2 Abstract Format Guidelines ABSTRACT Title of the Dissertation by by Student's Name Chair: Chair's name Text

  12. Thermochemical conversion of waste materials to valuable products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, S. [Engineering Technologies, Lombard, IL (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential offered by a large variety of solid and liquid wastes for generating value added products is widely recognized. Extensive research and development has focused on developing technologies to recover energy and valuable products from waste materials. These treatment technologies include use of waste materials for direct combustion, upgrading the waste materials into useful fuel such as fuel gas or fuel oil, and conversion of waste materials into higher value products for the chemical industry. Thermal treatment in aerobic (with oxygen) conditions or direct combustion of waste materials in most cases results in generating air pollution and thereby requiring installation of expensive control devices. Thermochemical conversion in aerobic (without oxygen) conditions, referred to as thermal decomposition (destructive distillation) results in formation of usable liquid, solid, and gaseous products. Thermochemical conversion includes gasification, liquefaction, and thermal decomposition (pyrolysis). Each thermochemical conversion process yields a different range of products and this paper will discuss thermal decomposition in detail. This paper will also present results of a case study for recovering value added products, in the form of a liquid, solid, and gas, from thermal decomposition of waste oil and scrap tires. The product has a high concentration of benzene, xylene, and toluene. The solid product has significant amounts of carbon black and can be used as an asphalt modifier for road construction. The gas product is primarily composed of methane and is used for heating the reactor.

  13. Energy Impacts of Productivity Improvements in Manufacturing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitrovic, B.; Muller, M. R.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for potential improvements in energy use in concert with examination of waste streams and potential productivity improvements. The benefits of this new approach are substantial in particular with respect to productivity improvements. Such projects are much...

  14. Potential Implications for Cataract Formation - Redox Changes at the Sulfur

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal7 Estimated Award6,Atom of

  15. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential Means to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and BatteryUS-EU-JapanCatalysts |Development | Department of

  16. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  17. Petroleum geology of the Norphlet formation (Upper Jurassic), S. W. and offshore Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.

    1984-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent successful gas test in the Norphlet formation (up to 26 million CF/day) at depths exceeding 20,500 ft in the Mobile Bay area demonstrate a high potential for hydrocarbon production in the Alabama offshore area. In addition, wells drilled in the upper Mobile Bay area could encounter gas condensate in the Norphlet formation; gas condensate is being produced from wells in Hatter's Pond field about 14 miles north of Mobile Bay and 45 miles north of the Lower Mobile Bay-Mary Ann field. With continued petroleum exploration, additional Norphlet petroleum fields should be discovered in southwestern and offshore Alabama in the years ahead. In light of the recent discoveries in Escambia County and in the lower Mobile Bay area, Mobile, Baldwin, and Escambia counties and Mobile Bay appear to be the most prospective hydrocarbon areas.

  18. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  19. Formation of double-$?$ hypernuclei at PANDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gaitanos; A. B. Larionov; H. Lenske; U. Mosel

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation of single- and double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in antiproton-induced reactions relevant for the forthcoming PANDA experiment at FAIR. We use the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model with relativistic mean-fields for the description of non-equilibrium dynamics and the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) for fragment formation. This combined approach describes the dynamical properties of strangeness and fragments in low energy $\\bar{p}$-induced reactions fairly well. We then focus on the formation of double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in high energy $\\bar{p}$-nucleus collisions on a primary target including the complementary $\\Xi$-induced reactions to a secondary one, as proposed by the PANDA collaboration. Our results show that a copious production of double-$\\Lambda$ hyperfragments is possible at PANDA. In particular, we provide first theoretical estimations on the double-$\\Lambda$ production cross section, which strongly rises with decreasing energy of the secondary $\\Xi$-beam.

  20. Application of a Novel Clay Stabilizer to Mitigate Formation Damage due to Clay Swelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Timothy

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Clay swelling and fines migration can cause formation damage of hydrocarbon bearing zones and prevent economic realization of oil/gas wells. Identification and management of clay particles in the formation is a necessary component of production...

  1. Ocular and Systemic Safety Evaluation of Calcium Formate as a Dietary Supplement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altaweel, Michael M.; Hanzlik, Robert P.; Ver Hoeve, James N.; Eells, Janis T.; Zhang, Baoyan

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the ocular and systemic safety of calcium formate, a dietary calcium supplement for prevention and management of osteoporosis. Although formate is an endogenous product...

  2. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity increases, the remaining oil saturation decreases. This is evident from log and core analysis. (5) Using a compositional simulator, we are able to reproduce the important reservoir characteristics by assuming a two layer model. One layer is high permeability region containing water and the other layer is low permeability region containing mostly oil. The results are further verified by using a dual porosity model. Assuming that most of the volatile oil is contained in the matrix and the water is contained in the fractures, we are able to reproduce important reservoir performance characteristics. (6) Evaluation of secondary mechanisms indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding is potentially a viable option if CO{sub 2} is available at reasonable price. We have conducted detailed simulation studies to verify the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process. We are in the process of conducting additional lab tests to verify the efficacy of the same displacement. (7) Another possibility of improving the oil recovery is to inject surfactants to change the near well bore wettability of the rock from oil wet to water wet. By changing the wettability, we may be able to retard the water flow and hence improve the oil recovery as a percentage of total fluid produced. If surfactant is reasonably priced, other possibility is also to use huff-n-puff process using surfactants. Laboratory experiments are promising, and additional investigation continues. (8) Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that vertical wells outperform horizontal wells. Future work in the project would include: (1) Build multi-well numerical model to reproduce overall reservoir performance rather than individual well performance. Special emphasis will be placed on hydrodynamic connectivity between wells. (2) Collect data from adjacent Hunton reservoirs to validate our understanding of what makes it a productive reservoir. (3) Develop statistical methods to rank various reservoirs in Hunton formation. This will allow us to evaluate other Hunton formations based on old well logs, and determine, apriori, if

  3. Polymorphism control and the formation of organic molecular nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaochuan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of organic molecular nanocrystals is a topic of great interest in the pharmaceutical industry because of the potential increase in dissolution rate and solubility of organic crystals below 1 ptm and their ...

  4. An empirical examination of the role of characteristics of the format, standard setting alliance and alliance partners in the market acceptance of formats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan, Sujan Mathew

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New product introductions rely on technologies that are often subject to strongly contested standards wars. In an attempt to ensure that the technical formats that their products are built upon, are the ones that gain widespread market acceptance...

  5. Characterization of organosulfur monolayer formation at gold electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tani Woods, N.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the many types of organic films, covalently-attached organosulfur monolayers have attracted a great deal of attention. The authors have focused their interest on the fundamental characterization of spontaneously adsorbed organosulfur monolayers. An introductory chapter presents general aspects of monolayer preparation and characterization, followed by a few examples that illustrate the range of applications of these films. This thesis contains two papers. In the first paper, three analogous monolayer precursors are studied to determine their similarities and differences in the monolayer structure. A GC-MS analysis of products form the chemisorption process and open circuit potential measurements are used to derive possible mechanisms behind monolayer formation. The second paper focuses on monolayers formed from thioctic acid, including its characterization and application to cytochrome c electrochemistry. Although thiols and disulfides have been extensively studied as monolayer precursors, thioctic acid is particularly interesting because the disulfide functionality of this asymmetric molecule is contained in a strained five-membered ring. Given the ring strain, steric bulk and asymmetry of the molecule, the study of these monolayers lend insight into the factors important for the formation of organosulfur monolayers. This thesis concludes with a general summary and directions for future studies. 40 refs.

  6. Drill-in fluids control formation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, W.S. (Baker Hughes Inteq, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several factors led to development, oil company interest in, and use of payzone drilling fluids, including operator concern about maximizing well production, increasing acceptance of horizontal drilling and openhole completion popularity. This article discusses water-base drill-in'' fluid systems and applications. Payzone damage, including fine solids migration, clay swelling and solids invasion, reduces effective formation permeability, which results in lower production rates. Formation damage is often caused by invasion of normal drilling fluids that contain barite or bentonite. Drill-in systems are designed with special bridging agents to minimize invasion. Several bridging materials designed to form effective filter cake for instantaneous leak-off control can be used. Bridging materials are also designed to minimize stages and time required to clean up wells before production. Fluids with easy-to-remove bridging agents reduce completion costs. Drill-in fluid bridging particles can often be removed more thoroughly than those in standard fluids.

  7. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  8. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Mike; Detwiler, Russell L; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  9. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  10. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kieffer, F.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

  11. Hypernuclei Production by K- at rest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bonomi

    2011-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The creation of a hypernucleus requires the injection of strangeness into the nucleus. This is possible in different ways, mainly using pi+ or K- beams on fixed targets. A review of hypernuclei production by K- at rest is here presented. When a K- stops inside a nucleus it can undergo the so called "strangeness-exchange reaction", in which a neutron is replaced by a Lambda with the emission of a pion. By precisely studying the outgoing pions both the binding energy and the formation probability of the hypernuclei can be measured. New measurements from the FINUDA experiment on 7Li, 9Be, 13C and 16O, coupled with previous measurements on 12C and 16O, allowed for the first time the study of the formation of hypernuclei as a function of the atomic mass number A. The new measurements also offered the possibility of disentangling the effects due to atomic wave-function of the captured K- from those due to the pion optical nuclear potential and from those due to the specific hypernuclear states. These new results on the study of the hypernuclei production by K- at rest are here presented and discussed.

  12. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  13. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  14. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to further characterize the three areas selected as potential CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Thus, we purchased 12 hardcopy well logs (in addition to 15 well logs obtained during previous quarter) from a commercial source and digitized them to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Thus, we correlated and mapped Wilcox Group subdivisions--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations, as well as the coal-bearing intervals of the Yegua and Jackson formations in well logs. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to Big Brown and Martin Lake coal mines. This quarter we also received CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses of the Sandow Mine samples, and we are assessing the results. GEM, a compositional simulator developed by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG), was selected for performing the CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CBM modeling tasks for this project. This software was used to conduct preliminary CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production simulations in a 5-spot injection pattern. We are continuing to pursue a cooperative agreement with Anadarko Petroleum, which has already acquired significant relevant data near one of our potential sequestration sites.

  15. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. (Univ. Lavel, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada)); Coulombe, S. (CANMET, Varennes, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  16. Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

  17. Methods for synthesizing alane without the formation of adducts and free of halides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Knight, Douglas A; Dinh, Long V

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided to synthesize an alane without the formation of alane adducts as a precursor. The resulting product is a crystallized .alpha.-alane and is a highly stable product and is free of halides.

  18. acrylonitrile potentiates hearing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    helps to make the workplace more productive Rajkumar, Ragunathan "Raj" 2 Hearing the Maximum Entropy Potential of a spike-generating Markov process and B. Cessac1 Computer...

  19. Adaptive Optics in Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Brandner

    2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

  20. azides potential photo-affinity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will present possibilities for development and deployment of solar energy. We will use Kosovo to compare the existing power production potential and future possible potential by...

  1. alpha-nucleus optical potential: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    will present possibilities for development and deployment of solar energy. We will use Kosovo to compare the existing power production potential and future possible potential by...

  2. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Star formation bursts in isolated spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Clarke; D. Gittins

    2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the response of the gaseous component of a galactic disc to the time dependent potential generated by N-body simulations of a spiral galaxy. The results show significant variation of the spiral structure of the gas which might be expected to result in significant fluctuations in the Star Formation Rate (SFR). Pronounced local variations of the SFR are anticipated in all cases. Bursty histories for the global SFR, however, require that the mean surface density is much less (around an order of magnitude less) than the putative threshold for star formation. We thus suggest that bursty star formation histories, normally attributed to mergers and/or tidal interactions, may be a normal pattern for gas poor isolated spiral galaxies.

  4. Isolation, Preliminary Characterization and Preliminary Assessment of Scale-Up Potential of Photosynthetic Microalgae for the Production of Both Biofuels and Bio-Active Molecules in the U.S. and Canada: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-372

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pienkos, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion flue gases are a major contributor to carbon dioxide emissions into the Earth's atmosphere, a factor that has been linked to the possible global climate change. It is, therefore, critical to begin thinking seriously about ways to reduce this influx into the atmosphere. Using carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion as a feedstock for the growth, photosynthetic microorganisms can provide a large sink for carbon assimilation as well as a feedstock for the production of significant levels of biofuels. Combining microalgal farming with fossil fuel energy production has great potential to diminish carbon dioxide releases into the atmosphere, as well as contribute to the production of biofuels (e.g., biodiesel, renewable diesel and gasoline and jet fuel) as well as valuable co-products such as animal feeds and green chemicals. CO2 capture may be a regulatory requirement in future new coal or natural gas power plants and will almost certainly become an opportunity for commerce, the results of such studies may provide industries in the US and Canada with both regulatory relief and business opportunities as well as the ability to meet environmental and regulatory requirements, and to produce large volumes of fuels and co-products.

  5. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  6. Cosmic Ray production of Beryllium and Boron at high redshift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmanuel Rollinde; David Maurin; Elisabeth Vangioni; Keith A. Olive; Susumu Inoue

    2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, new observations of Li6 in Pop II stars of the galactic halo have shown a surprisingly high abundance of this isotope, about a thousand times higher than its predicted primordial value. In previous papers, a cosmological model for the cosmic ray-induced production of this isotope in the IGM has been developed to explain the observed abundance at low metallicity. In this paper, given this constraint on the Li6, we calculate the non-thermal evolution with redshift of D, Be, and B in the IGM. In addition to cosmological cosmic ray interactions in the IGM, we include additional processes driven by SN explosions: neutrino spallation and a low energy component in the structures ejected by outflows to the IGM. We take into account CNO CRs impinging on the intergalactic gas. Although subdominant in the galactic disk, this process is shown to produce the bulk of Be and B in the IGM, due to the differential metal enrichment between structures (where CRs originate) and the IGM. We also consider the resulting extragalactic gamma-ray background which we find to be well below existing data. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation considering several star formation histories including Pop III stars. We find that D production is negligible and that a potentially detectable Be and B plateau is produced by these processes at the time of the formation of the Galaxy (z ~ 3).

  7. Compendium of basins for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, P.D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geological and hydrological feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed formations in the San Juan, Powder River, Greater Green River, Piceance, Black Warrior, Appalachian and Michigan basins. Results from the surveys indicated that geology dominated research efforts for many of the basins. Limited information exists on the hydrology and water quality of the basins. All of the basins contain some potential for the use of Jack McIntyre`s patented production process. This process is designed specifically to separate produced water and produced gas in a downhole environment and may allow for more efficient and economical development of coalbed methane resources in this area.

  8. Local and Global Radiative Feedback from Population III Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Brian W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of recent work that focuses on understanding the radiative feedback processes that are potentially important during Population III star formation. Specifically, we examine the effect of the Lyman-Werner (photodissociating) background on the early stages of primordial star formation, which serves to delay the onset of star formation in a given halo but never suppresses it entirely. We also examine the effect that both photodissociating and ionizing radiation in I-fronts from nearby stellar systems have on the formation of primordial protostellar clouds. Depending on the strength of the incoming radiation field and the central density of the halos, Pop III star formation can be suppressed, unaffected, or even enhanced. Understanding these and other effects is crucial to modeling Population III star formation and to building the earliest generations of galaxies in the Universe.

  9. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  10. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  11. Observing Massive Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

  12. JPEG File Interchange Format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Eric

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    interchange format compressed image representation • PC or Mac or Unix workstation compatible • Standard color space: one or three components. For three components, YCbCr (CCIR 601-256 levels) • APP0 marker used to specify Units, X pixel density, Y pixel... by the Macintosh but not by PCs or workstations. JPEG File Interchange Format, Version 1.02 2 Standard color space The color space to be used is YCbCr as defined by CCIR 601 (256 levels). The RGB components calculated by linear conversion from YCbCr shall...

  13. Vega field and potential of Ragusa basin, Offshore Sicily

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schramm, M. Jr.; Livraga, G.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vega, the largest single oil field in the Mediterranean Sea, is located between the southeastern coast of Sicily and the Island of Malta. The field lies entirely in Italian waters. Its discovery in October 1980 was based on interpretation of a very poor-quality seismic survey which, nevertheless, roughly outlined a relatively small structure. A limestone and dolomite fractured reservoir of the Inici, or Siracusa Formation, of Late Jurasic age, may contain in excess of 1 billion bbl of heavy crude (15.5 API) within a productive area of approximately 10,000 acres (4000 ha.). Reservoir properties are excellent, with permeabilities in darcys. The field extends northwest-southeast for 8.5 mi (14 km) and averages 1.7 mi (3 km) in width, according to the 3D seismic survey (2000 km) shot soon after the discovery well was drilled. The gross oil column reaches approximately 820 ft (250 m). The southeasternmost part of the Vega structure is not yet completely defined, and an additional 3D seismic survey is in progress. Should the new seismic results confirm expectations, the Vega structure could extend over 10 mi (17 km). The overlying Inici reservoir consists of dolomite and underlain by limestone in the southwestern part of the basin, and entirely of limestone in the northwestern portion of the basin. The Inici Formation represents the platform facies of the open-sea Villagonia and Giardini sediments. The Cammarata-Pozzillo (discovered in 1959), Perla (1979), Vega (1980), and Prezioso (1983) heavy crude oil fields are related to this formation. The potential for discovery of other fields similar to Vega in the Ragusa basin is excellent.

  14. Relation between thermal expansion and interstitial formation energy in pure Fe and Cr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Relation between thermal expansion and interstitial formation energy in pure Fe and Cr Janne potentials give lower interstitial formation energy, but predict too small thermal expansion. We also show University, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract By fitting a potential of modified Finnis­Sinclair type to the thermal

  15. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  16. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  17. Three Essays on Bioenergy Production in the United States 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wlodarz, Marta

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    competitive, considering both production and market penetration costs. Second, the potential effect of mandate relaxations and carbon market related payments on liquid fuel production potential. Third, the effects of ignoring or considering asset fixity...

  18. Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    1 Potential for Biofuel-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation: Rationale and Potential By Bruce biofuel usage. Biofuel feedstocks are a source of raw material that can be transformed into petroleum for coal. In the USA, liquid fuel biofuel production has not proven to be broadly economically feasible

  19. EIS-0249: Medical Isotopes Production Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to establish a production capability for molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes.

  20. Continuous production of conducting polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

  1. A Blueprint for Forest Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major Model Components - Resource Assessment - Industry Structure - Product/Market Strategy - Economic Impacts Workforce Training Network Formation Resource Assessment Government Support Financing Economic Development Technology Profitability Resource Assessment Current & projected Commercial species Lesser-used species

  2. Exploration et production d'hydrocarbures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liège, Université de

    Exploration et production d'hydrocarbures Printemps des sciences L'Energie ULg ­ 18 au 24 mars 2002 #12;Energies fossiles · Charbon · Pétrole, huile, gaz · Uranium · Géothermie · ... #12;Formation des

  3. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  4. Photogeneration of an active formate-decomposition catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, A.D. Jr.; King, R.B.; Sailers, E.L. III

    1981-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Some preliminary observations on the decomposition of an active formate species in the reaction of the group 6 metal carbonyl catalyzed water gas shift process were made using a photolytically-generated W(CO)/sub 5/ intermediate. H/sub 2/ production from the aqueous solutions containing Na format and W(CO)/sub 6/ was much more rapid for illuminated solutions than for non-illuminated. However, no measurable hydrogen was produced from either illuminated or non-illuminated solutions when Na formate was replaced by KOH. Essentially the same results were noted for the photolytically-catalyzed production of H/sub 2/ when solutions of tetrahydrofuran were used. It is thus concluded that the H/sub 2/ and CO must result from decomposition of the formate ion in the reaction mixture and that the W(CO)/sub 6/ is a precursor of the catalytically active W(CO)/sub 5/. (BLM)

  5. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Production of radioactive ion beams using the in-flight technique B. Harss, a) R. C. Pardo, K. E. Rehm, F. Borasi, b) J. P. Greene, R. V. F. Janssens, C. L. Jiang, J. Nolen, M....

  6. EVALUATION OF THE FLOOD POTENTIAL OF THE SOUTH HOUSE (BLINEBRY) FIELD, LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. Stephen Melzer

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Blinebry (Permian) formation of eastern Lea County, NM has a long history of exploitation for petroleum and continues even today to be a strong target horizon for new drilling in the Permian Basin. Because of this long-standing interest it should be classified of strategic interest to domestic oil production; however, the formation has gained a reputation as a primary production target with limited to no flooding potential. In late May of 1999, a project to examine the feasibility of waterflooding the Blinebry formation was proposed to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Petroleum Technology Office (Tulsa, OK). A new well was proposed in one region (the South House area) to examine the reputation by acquiring core and borehole logging data for the collection of formation property data in order to conduct the waterflood evaluation. Notice of the DOE award was received on August 19, 1999 and the preparations for drilling, coring and logging were immediately made for a drilling start on 9/9/99. The Blinebry formation at 6000 feet, foot depth was reached on 9/16/99 and the coring of two 60 foot intervals of the Blinebry was completed on 9/19/99 with more than 98% core recovery. The well was drilled to a total depth of 7800 feet and the Blinebry interval was logged with spectral gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, porosity, resistivity, and borehole image logs on 8/24/99. The well was determined to be likely productive from the Blinebry interval and five & 1/2 inch casing was cemented in the hole on 9/25/99. Detailed core descriptions including environment of deposition have been accomplished. Whole core (a 4-inch diameter) and plug (1.5 inch diameter) testing for formation properties has been completed and are reported. Acquisition and analysis of the borehole logging results have been completed and are reported. Perforation of the Blinebry intervals was accomplished on November 8, 1999. The intervals were acidized and hydrofraced on 11/9 and 11/11 respectively. Production of oil and gas has been established with several months of production now available to make a reserve analysis. Production histories and reserves estimation are provided. An assessment of the flood potential for the South House project area has been completed with work concentrated on South House rock property and pay thickness characterization and analog studies. For the analogs, the North Robertson area, located twenty miles to the northeast, and the Teague Field, located 20 miles to the south, have been utilized due to their readily available database and previous waterflood studies. The South House area does appear to merit further examination as the rock quality compares favorably with both analog Fields; however, current well spacings of 40-acres will provide only marginal economics based upon $23.00/barrel oil prices. Permeability and porosity relationships are provided as a conditional demonstration that rock quality may be sufficient for successful waterflooding of the project area. Further rock property work and pay continuity studies are recommended.

  7. Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzel, Michael

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of... the nation’s power o Currently 1% of national power supply o Carbon neutral? combustion of biomass is part of the natural carbon cycle o Improved crop residue management has potential to benefit environment, producers, and economy Biomass Btu...

  8. Volume and accessibility of entrained (solution) methane in deep geopressured reservoirs - tertiary formations of the Texas Gulf Coast. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, A.R.; Dodge, M.M.; Posey, J.S.; Morton, R.A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to appraise the total volume of in-place methane dissolved in formation waters of deep sandstone reservoirs of the onshore Texas Gulf Coast within the stratigraphic section extending from the base of significant hydrocarbon production (8000 ft)* to the deepest significant sandstone occurrence. The area of investigation is about 50,000 mi/sup 2/. Factors that determine the total methane resource are reservoir bulk volume, porosity, and methane solubility; the latter is controlled by the temperature, pressure, and salinity of formation waters. Regional assessment of the volume and the distribution of potential sandstone reservoirs was made from a data base of 880 electrical well logs, from which a grid of 24 dip cross sections and 4 strike cross sections was constructed. Solution methane content in each of nine formations or divisions of formations was determined for each subdivision. The distribution of solution methane in the Gulf Coast was described on the basis of five reservoir models. Each model was characterized by depositional environment, reservoir continuity, porosity, permeability, and methane solubility.

  9. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    $5% of world primary energy con- sumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security that can be used for biomass energy production. The third is alternative uses for the land and water

  10. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  11. Planning and Search Exam format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    is the frame problem. Revision 5 #12;Exam topics: planning Classical planning. How the problem definitionPlanning and Search Revision Revision 1 #12;Outline Exam format Exam topics How to revise Revision 2 #12;Exam format 4 questions out of 6 same format as 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 exams (on G52PAS

  12. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  13. Study of net soot formation in hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, R. B.; Farmer, R. C.; Wang, T. S.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen fuel cell is expected to be a valuable addition to the electric utility industry; however, the current fuel supply availability requires that conventional heavier hydrocarbon fuels also be considered as primary fuels. Typical heavier fuels would be No. 2 fuel oil with its accompanying sulfur impurities, compared with the currently used light hydrocarbon gases. The potential future use of alternate fuels which are rich in aromatics would exacerbate the problems associated with hydrogen production. Among the more severe of these problems, is the greater tendency of heavier hydrocarbons to form soot. The development of a quasi-global kinetics model to represent the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions which control the autothermal hydrogen reforming process and the accompanying soot formation and gasification was the objective of this study.

  14. Generalized Fusion Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ofer Aharony

    1993-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, DiFrancesco and Zuber have characterized the RCFTs which have a description in terms of a fusion potential in one variable, and proposed a generalized potential to describe other theories. In this note we give a simple criterion to determine when such a generalized description is possible. We also determine which RCFTs can be described by a fusion potential in more than one variable, finding that in fact all RCFTs can be described in such a way, as conjectured by Gepner.

  15. Stimulation results in the low-permeability Wasatch formation - An evolution to foam fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, P.C.; Bailey, D.E.; Evertz, G.L.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Wasatch Formation of the Uinta Basin in eastern Utah is typical of many formations in the Rocky Mountains, having low permeability and high sensitivity to water. Stimulation treatments with several types of fracturing fluids, including oilwater emulsion fluids, complex gel fluids and foam fluids, have been generally successful. Production decline curves from twenty four wells in the field were used for comparison of the different stimulation methods. Although foam fracturing has been used for the shortest period of time, comparison of the production histories show the relatively higher efficiency of the foam fracturing treatments compared to other stimulation methods in the Wasatch formation. Foam fluids gave higher production rates and higher flowing pressures than offset wells fractured with complex gel fluids. A stimulation model for oil and gas production was used to match the production history from this reservoir. The model allowed a projection of gas production based on early production from the wells and knowledge of the reservoir.

  16. Potential Release Sites

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    found. Some examples of potential release sites include septic tanks and associated drain lines chemical storage areas wastewater outfalls material disposal areas incinerators...

  17. Field matric potential sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of determining matric potential of a sample, the method comprising placing the sample in a container, the container having an opening; and contacting the sample with a tensiometer via the opening. An apparatus for determining matric potential of a sample, the apparatus comprising a housing configured to receive a sample; a portable matric potential sensing device extending into the housing and having a porous member; and a wall closing the housing to insulate the sample and at least a portion of the matric potential sensing device including the porous member.

  18. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  19. Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Odeta; Kovarik, Libor; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Ilton, Eugene S.; Arey, Bruce W.; Tucek, Jiri; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2012-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Olivines, a significant constituent of basaltic rocks, have the potential to immobilize permanently CO2 after it is injected in the deep subsurface, due to carbonation reactions occurring between CO2 and the host rock. To investigate the reactions of fayalitic olivine with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and formation of mineral carbonates, experiments were conducted at temperatures of 35 °C to 80 °C, 90 atm pressure and anoxic conditions. For every temperature, the dissolution of fayalite was examined both in the presence of liquid water and H2O-saturated scCO2. The experiments were conducted in a high pressure batch reactor at reaction time extending up to 85 days. The newly formed products were characterized using a comprehensive suite of bulk and surface characterization techniques X-ray diffraction, Transmission/Emission Mössbauer Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Focused Ion Beam, and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Siderite with rhombohedral morphology was formed at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 80 °C in the presence of liquid water and scCO2. In H2O-saturated scCO2, the formation of siderite was confirmed only at high temperature (80 °C). Characterization of reacted samples in H2O-saturated scCO2 with high resolution TEM indicated that siderite formation initiated inside voids created during the initial steps of fayalite dissolution. Later stages of fayalite dissolution result in the formation of siderite in layered vertical structures, columns or pyramids with a rhombus base morphology.

  20. On the global economic potentials and marginal costs of non-renewable resources and the price dynamics of energy commodities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is presented in this work for simulating endogenously the evolution of the marginal costs of production of energy carriers from non-renewable resources, their consumption, depletion pathways and timescales. Such marginal costs can be used to simulate the long term average price formation of energy commodities. Drawing on previous work where a global database of energy resource economic potentials was constructed, this work uses cost distributions of non-renewable resources in order to evaluate global flows of energy commodities. A mathematical framework is given to calculate endogenous flows of energy resources given an exogenous commodity price path. This framework can be used in reverse in order to calculate an exogenous marginal cost of production of energy carriers given an exogenous carrier demand. Using rigid price inelastic assumptions independent of the economy, these two approaches generate limiting scenarios that depict extreme use of natural resources. This is useful to characterise the cur...

  1. Hydropower Potential Screening Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydropower Potential Screening Study Gillian Charles GRAC 5/28/14 #12;Latest Hydropower Potential Study Creating a Buzz 2014 DOE study on undeveloped stream reaches 84.7 GW undeveloped hydropower in undeveloped stream reaches hydropower in the PNW #12;Studies at both National

  2. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  3. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the San Juan Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, P.D.; Tischer, S.P.; Biezugbe, G.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the completed wells produce methane and wastewater (brine). The produced water is usually treated and released to a surface body of water in conformance with a NPDES permit. Treatment facilities are expensive to construct and operation and maintenance costs can be high. Also, environmental regulations pertaining to the release of wastewater to surface waters of the United States is presently under governmental investigation. A new process patented by Jack W. McIntyre has both economic and environmental advantages over the conventional surface treatment and disposal. This process has been tested in the Michigan Basin and reported to be successful. The process is based on utilizing a single well for both production and water disposal. During production, fluids enter the wellbore, gas rises to the surface and water moves down into the disposal zone either by gravity or mechanical pumping. This method allows separation of gas with simultaneous disposal of the water without the economic and environmental obstacles of bringing the water to the surface. A description and discussion of Jack W. McIntyre`s tool is summarized in the compendium of the seven basins studied under this contract. Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented tool for the recovery of natural gas from coal bed/sand formations in the San Juan Basin through literature surveys. Limited information exists on the hydrology and water quality of the immediate strata above and below the Fruitland formation. Because of the limited information on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand bed waters and the potential disposal zone, minimum effort was put on these zones` compatibility characterization. The study also indicates that water is produced along with gas production from the Fruitland formation. This makes the Basin a potential candidate for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool.

  4. Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    (GLDA) a newly developed environmentally friendly chelate was examined as stand-alone stimulation fluid in deep oil and gas wells. In this study we used GLDA to stimulate carbonate cores (calcite and dolomite). GLDA was also used to stimulate and remove...

  5. Removing of Formation Damage and Enhancement of Formation Productivity Using Environmentally Friendly Chemicals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Nasr Eldin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in the dolomite core as it is a good chelate for magnesium. Coreflood experiments showed that at high pH values (pH =11) GLDA, HEDTA, and EDTA were almost the same in increasing the permeability of both Berea and Bandera sandstone cores. GLDA, HEDTA, and EDTA were...

  6. Wave optics and image formation in gravitational lensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yasusada Nambu

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss image formation in gravitational lensing systems using wave optics. Applying the Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction formula to waves scattered by a gravitational potential of a lens object, we demonstrate how images of source objects are obtained directly from wave functions without using a lens equation for gravitational lensing.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics and Structure Formation in Complex Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio

    Condition · In burning plasmas ignition condition is reached when local power density (self-heating the ignition condition (-particle self-heating) #12;Nonlinear Dynamics and Structure Formation in Complex of charged fusion products · -particle self-heating may be lost due to their transport out of the system

  8. Evidence for Oligomer Formation in Clouds: Reactions of Isoprene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seitzinger, Sybil

    photochemical batch aqueous phase reactions of pyruvic acid and hydrogen peroxide were analyzed for product with an oligomer system were found when pyruvic acid and OH radical were both present. No evidence of oligomer formation was found in a standard mix composed of pyruvic, glyoxylic, and oxalic acids prepared in the same

  9. Product Demonstrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Consortium will pursue a number of demonstrations following the general procedure used by DOE's GATEWAY demonstration program. Specific products to be featured in a demonstration may be...

  10. Black holes, cuspy atmospheres, and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo-heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark halos expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.

  11. FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION La vie moderne et le stress : mettre en place des stratégies de gestion , étudier quelques aspects essentiels de la et cas cliniques composés par les participants ou fournis par le formateur . - Jeux de rôle en sous

  12. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  13. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery Warren; Zevenbergen, Gary Allen

    2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising a first electrode, a second electrode, and a voltage attenuator. The first electrode and the second electrode are both electrically connected to the voltage attenuator. A means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential is connected to the voltage attenuator. The device and method further comprises a means for enabling one or more alarms upon the detection of the dangerous ground potential. Preferably, a first transmitter/receiver is connected to the means for enabling one or more alarms. Preferably, a second transmitter/receiver, comprising a button, is electromagnetically connected to the first transmitter/receiver. Preferably, the means for determining the presence of a dangerous ground potential comprises a means for determining the true RMS voltage at the output of the voltage attenuator, a transient detector connected to the output of the voltage attenuator, or a combination thereof.

  14. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda colonizes and degrades insoluble substrates. Major accomplishments of the project include: • Development of media containing dialysis tubing (described by the manufacturer as “regenerated cellulose”) as sole carbon and energy source and a nutritive surface for the growth of cellulolytic bacteria, and development of various microscopic methods to image biofilms on dialysis tubing. • Demonstration that cultures of C. phytofermentans, an obligate anaerobe, C. uda, a facultative aerobe, and T. fusca, a filamentous aerobe, formed microbial communities on the surface of dialysis tubing, which possessed architectural features and functional characteristics typical of biofilms. • Demonstration that biofilm formation on the nutritive surface, cellulose, involves a complex developmental processes, including colonization of dialysis tubing, formation of cell clusters attached to the nutritive surface, cell morphological changes, formation of complex structures embedded in extracellular polymeric matrices, and dispersal of biofilm communities as the nutritive surface is degraded. • Determination of surface specificity and regulatory aspects of biofilm formation by C. phytofermentans, C. uda, and T. fusca. • Demonstration that biofilm formation by T. fusca forms an integral part of the life cycle of this filamentous cellulolytic bacterium, including studies on the role of mycelial pellet formation in the T. fusca life cycle and a comparison of mycelial pellets to surface-attached T. fusca biofilms. • Characterization of T. fusca biofilm EPS, including demonstration of a functional role for EPS constituents. • Correlation of T. fusca developmental life cycle and cellulase gene expression.

  15. Potentiation of chlortetracycline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hesketh, Harold Robert

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H of the crop, proventriculus, giszsrd and duodenum and the serum chlortetrscycline levels of chicks fed sulphuric acid, hydrochloric acid, acetic acid and oxalic acid sa- potentiating agents. 35 The pH of the crap, proventri. culus, gizzard and duodenum... snd the serum chlortetracycline levels of chicks fed ammonium sulphate and sodium oxalate as potentiating agents' 36 12 The effect of dienestrol diacetste on the level of chlortetracycline in serum from three week old chicks . ~ . ?~ ~ . . ~ . 49...

  16. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  17. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae, E-mail: seowy@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  18. Coal precursors for production of carbon and graphite products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, I.C.; Lewis, R.T.; Mayer, H.K. [Ucar Carbon Co., Inc., Parma, OH (United States)

    1996-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this program was to demonstrate the utility of coal extracts from the West Virginia University (WVU) extraction process as suitable base raw materials for the carbon products encompassed by the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) team. These include binder and impregnation pitches, Coke for graphite electrodes, Cokes for anodes and specialty graphite, matrices for C/C composites and raw material for mesophase pitch fibers. Previous work in this program has shown that the WVU coal extraction process coupled with hydrotreatment, does have the potential for achieving this objective. The current effort involved screening and evaluation of extracts produced by the WVU Group and recommending appropriate materials for scaleup for subsequent evaluation by Consortium Team members. The program involved an initial characterization of small-scale extracts using standard analytical methods and mesophase formation studies. This was followed by feedback to the WVU Group and to the CPC partners with recommendation of material for scaleup. Similar analytical and mesophase studies on some of the scaled-up extracts was performed. The activation of the coal extraction residues for the purpose of producing a useful active carbon was investigated. A further task was to fabricate a small graphite artifact using Coke derived from coal extract as the filler and the coal extract itself as a binder. The results of the studies are summarized in this report.

  19. Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Brandon

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    rely on to assess the economic potential of these formations are: total organic carbon (TOC), thermal maturity, hydrocarbon saturation, porosity, mineralogy and brittleness. In this thesis, I investigate rock physics models and methods for the possible...

  20. DOE Seeks Applications for Tracking Carbon Dioxide Storage in Geologic Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy today issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to enhance the capability to simulate, track, and evaluate the potential risks of carbon dioxide storage in geologic formations.

  1. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to (1) determine the effects of permeability anisotropy on performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas, and (2) begin reservoir and economic analyses of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM production using horizontal wells. To evaluate the effects of permeability anisotropy on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds, we conducted deterministic reservoir modeling studies of 100% CO{sub 2} gas injection for the 6,200-ft depth base case (Case 1b) using the most likely values of the reservoir parameters. Simulation results show significant differences in the cumulative volumes of CH{sub 4} produced and CO{sub 2} injected due to permeability anisotropy, depending on the orientation of injection patterns relative to the orientation of permeability anisotropy. This indicates that knowledge of the magnitude and orientation of permeability anisotropy will be an important consideration in the design of CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects. We continued discussions with Anadarko Petroleum regarding plans for additional coal core acquisition and laboratory work to further characterize Wilcox low-rank coals. As part of the technology transfer for this project, we submitted the paper SPE 100584 for presentation at the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium to be held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on May 15-18, 2006.

  2. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  3. Evaluation of the Energy Saving Potential from Flue Gas Pressurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanton, E. H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for recovering energy from low pressure furnace flue products is limited when standard heat recovery equipment is utilized. Efficient energy recovery can be accomplished by providing a flue gas side pressure drop across a heat...

  4. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  5. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

  6. Evaluation of the Role of Water in the H2 Bond Formation by Ni...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . Abstract: We investigate the role of water in the H-H bond formation by a family of nickel molecular catalysts that exhibit high rates for H2 production in acetonitrile solvent....

  7. Precise inversion of logged slownesses for elastic parameters in a gas shale formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Douglas E.

    Dipole sonic log data recorded in a vertical pilot well and the associated production well are analyzed over a 200×1100-ft section of a North American gas shale formation. The combination of these two wells enables angular ...

  8. Star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  9. Star Formation and Galaxy Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. K. C. Yee

    2000-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of star formation rate on galaxian environment is a key issue in the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. However, the study of this subject is complex and observationally challenging. This paper reviews some of the current results, drawing mostly from recent large redshift surveys such the LCRS, the MORPH collaboration, and the CNOC1 and CNOC2 redshift surveys.

  10. Biomass to ethanol : potential production and environmental impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groode, Tiffany Amber, 1979-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study models and assesses the current and future fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol produced from three feedstocks; corn grain, corn stover, and switchgrass. A life-cycle assessment approach ...

  11. Ohio: Devonian evaluated for most favorable potential production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial quantities of gas are likely to occur within closely spaced natural fracture systems close to, or within, organic-rich source beds. Four principal source beds have been identified within the shales of east Ohio. Ranked in order of importance based on geographic distribution and thickness, they are the Huron, Rhinestreet, Cleveland, and Marcellus shales. Within each of these zones, there is believed to be a north-south trending area of most favorable shale lying between immature shales to the west and shales too organically lean to the east. Closely spaced localized fracturing of the Devonian shale sequence is likely to occur along 2 regional trends in east Ohio: the Cambridge arch and the Lake Erie shoreline. Operators drilling within these areas, or near any structurally disturbed area, should evaluate and test shale zones that exhibit indications of being naturally fractured.

  12. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA NewslettersPartnership of theArctic Energy Summit26and Spent

  13. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S. Department of Energy |Article 29 EmployeeAugust 10, 2011Department ofUnited

  14. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has been the subject of attention for the last ten years. The new interest started with the drilling of the West Carney field in 1995 in Lincoln County. Subsequently, many other operators have expanded the search for oil and gas in Hunton formation in other parts of Oklahoma. These fields exhibit many unique production characteristics, including: (1) decreasing water-oil or water-gas ratio over time; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can optimize the production from fields with similar characteristics.

  15. Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Semiclassical wave packet study of anomalous isotope effect in ozone formation Evgeny Vetoshkin represent the metastable O3 * species and play a central role in the process of ozone formation.1063/1.2778432 I. INTRODUCTION Ozone O3 is formed in the stratosphere as a product of the following recombination

  16. Characteristics of potential repository wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Notz, K.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will be disposed of in a geologic repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characterizations include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. This information has been extracted from primary data sources, evaluated, and assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. The Characteristics Data Base provides a standard set of self-consistent data to the various areas of responsibility including systems integration and waste stream analysis, storage, transportation, and geologic disposal. The data will be used for design studies, evaluation of alternatives, and system optimization by OCRWM and supporting contractors. 7 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Potential Operating Orbits for the SAFE-400

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houts, Mike; Kos, Larry; Poston, David [NASA MSFC, TD40, Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama, 35812 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Safety must be ensured during all phases of space fission system design, development, fabrication, launch, operation, and shutdown. One potential space fission system application is fission electric propulsion (FEP), in which fission energy is converted into electricity and used to power high efficiency (Isp > 3000 s) electric thrusters. For these types of systems it is important to determine which operational scenarios ensure safety while allowing maximum mission performance and flexibility. Space fission systems are essentially non-radioactive at launch, prior to extended operation at high power. Once high power operation begins, system radiological inventory steadily increases as fission products build up. For a given fission product isotope, the maximum radiological inventory is typically achieved once the system has operated for a length of time equivalent to several half-lives. After that time, the isotope decays at the same rate it is produced, and no further inventory builds in. For an FEP mission beginning in Earth orbit, altitude and orbital lifetime increase as the propulsion system operates. Two simultaneous effects of fission propulsion system operation are thus (1) increasing fission product inventory and (2) increasing orbital lifetime. Phrased differently, as fission products build up, more time is required for the fission products to naturally convert back into non-radioactive isotopes. Simultaneously, as fission products build up, orbital lifetime increases, providing more time for the fission products to naturally convert back into nonradioactive isotopes. Operational constraints required to ensure safety can thus be quantified. (authors)

  18. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  19. Stable reduction product of misonidazole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panicucci, R.; McClelland, R.A.; Rauth, A.M.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The predominant stable product (greater than 80%) of the anaerobic radiation chemical reduction (pH 7, formate, N/sub 2/O) of misonidazole (MISO) has been identified as the cyclic guanidinium ion MISO-DDI, a 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazolium ion. This cation was prepared as its sulfate salt by the reaction of glyoxal and the appropriate N-substituted guanidinium sulfate. Its formation during MISO reduction was established by NMR spectral comparison and by derivatization as glyoxal bis-oxime, which was formed in 86% yield in fully reduced systems. The toxicity of pure MISO-DDI X sulfate was examined in vivo (C/sub 3/H mice) and in vitro (CHO cells). This product is less toxic than the parent MISO and free glyoxal. A reactive, short-lived, intermediate is suggested as the agent responsible for the toxicity of MISO under hypoxic conditions.

  20. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  1. RMOTC - Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on maximizing the value of the NPR-3 site and will continue with its Production Optimization Projects. NPR-3 includes 9,481 acres with more than 400 oil-producing wells....

  2. On nonsingular potentials of Cox-Thompson inversion scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Palmai; Barnabas Apagyi

    2011-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish a condition for obtaining nonsingular potentials using the Cox-Thompson inverse scattering method with one phase shift. The anomalous singularities of the potentials are avoided by maintaining unique solutions of the underlying Regge-Newton integral equation for the transformation kernel. As a by-product, new inequality sequences of zeros of Bessel functions are discovered.

  3. Methods of cracking a crude product to produce additional crude products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a crude product is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce one or more crude products. At least one of the crude products has a boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. as determined by ASTM Method D5307. The crude product having the boiling range distribution from 38.degree. C. and 343.degree. C. is catalytically cracked to produce one or more additional crude products. At least one of the additional crude products is a second gas stream. The second gas stream has a boiling point of at most 38.degree. C. at 0.101 MPa.

  4. LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY III POTENTIAL ENERGY Lab III - 1 In previous problems, you have been introduced to the concepts of kinetic energy, which is associated with the motion of an object, and internal energy, which is associated with the internal structure of a system. In this section, you work with another form of energy

  5. Fusion potentials I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Di Francesco; J. -B. Zuber

    1992-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We reconsider the conjecture by Gepner that the fusion ring of a rational conformal field theory is isomorphic to a ring of polynomials in $n$ variables quotiented by an ideal of constraints that derive from a potential. We show that in a variety of cases, this is indeed true with {\\it one-variable} polynomials.

  6. TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: THE POTENTIAL AND THE CHALLENGE A Summary Report 2003 #12;June 2003 To the Reader This report summarizes the second James L. Oberstar Forum on Transportation Policy and Technology. Over two days, we explored the chal- lenges and opportunities in intermodal transportation, addressing

  7. Cyclic powder formation during pulsed injection of hexamethyldisiloxane in an axially asymmetric radiofrequency argon discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despax, B.; Makasheva, K. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse 09 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31062 Toulouse cedex 09 (France); Caquineau, H. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse 09 (France)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach of periodic production of dusty plasma consisting of pulsed injection of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) in argon axially asymmetric radiofrequency (RF) discharge was investigated in this work. The range of plasma operating conditions in which this dusty plasma can exist was closely examined. The obtained results clearly show that a net periodicity in the formation/disappearance of dust particles in the plasma can be maintained on a very large scale of discharge duration. The significance of discharge axial asymmetry to the dust particles behaviour in the plasma is revealed by the development of an asymmetric in shape void shifted towards the powered RF electrode. The key role of the reactive gas and its pulsed injection on each stage of the oscillating process of formation/disappearance of dust particles is disclosed by optical and electrical measurements. It is shown that the period of dusty plasma formation/disappearance is inversely related to the HMDSO injection time. Moreover, the impact of time injection over short period (5 s) is examined. It indicates the conflicting role played by the HMDSO on the reduction of dusty plasma during the reactive gas injection and the reappearance of particles in the plasma during the time off. The electronegative behavior of the plasma in the presence of negatively charged particles seems to explain the energetic modifications in the discharge. A frequency analysis of the floating potential reveals all these cyclic processes. Particularly, in the 10-200 Hz frequency range, the presence and the evolution of dust particles in the plasma over one generation can be observed.

  8. A Potential Window to the GUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James E. Lidsey

    1994-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility that the form of the inflationary potential can be reconstructed from a knowledge of the primordial power spectra of scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) perturbations is discussed and reviewed. It is suggested that measurements of the scalar spectral index and the amplitude of the tensor spectrum at one scale should be possible in the near future. This would be sufficient to determine whether the potential is convex or concave over the limited region relevant to the formation of large-scale structure in the universe. Such information would provide an `observation' of physics at energy scales above $10^{14}$GeV. $^*$Invited talk presented at {\\em The Second Alexander Friedmann International Seminar on Gravitation and Cosmology, St. Petersburg, Russia, 12th-19th September 1993.}

  9. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, Mohan

    2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil and ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on long data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time.

  10. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suo, Zhigang

    Supplementary Information Potential for Electricity Generation from Renewable Resources and Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) Electrical energy can be generated from renewable resources the annual potential and actual annual production of electrical energy from renewable energy resources. Only

  12. Constraining Galaxy Formation Models with Dwarf Ellipticals in Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations demonstrate that dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in clusters, despite their faintness, are likely a critical galaxy type for understanding the processes behind galaxy formation. Dwarf ellipticals are the most common galaxy type, and are particularly abundant in rich galaxy clusters. The dwarf to giant ratio is in fact highest in rich clusters of galaxies, suggesting that cluster dEs do not form in groups that later merge to form clusters. Dwarf ellipticals are potentially the only galaxy type whose formation is sensitive to global, rather than local, environment. The dominant idea for explaining the formation of these systems, through Cold Dark Matter models, is that dEs form early and within their present environments. Recent results suggest that some dwarfs appear in clusters after the bulk of massive galaxies form, a scenario not predicted in standard hierarchical structure formation models. Many dEs have younger and more metal rich stellar populations than dwarfs in lower density environments, suggesting processes induced by rich clusters play an important role in dE formation. Several general galaxy cluster observations, including steep luminosity functions, and the origin of intracluster light, are natural outcomes of this delayed formation.

  13. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  14. Nepheline Formation Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4): Phase 1 Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peeler, D. K.; Edwards, T. B.; Reamer, I.A.; Workman, R. J.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Although it is well known that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to borosilicate glasses enhances the durability of the waste form (through creation of network-forming tetrahedral Na+-[AlO{sub 4/2}]{sup -} pairs), the combination of high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}O can lead to the formation of nepheline (NaAlSiO{sub 4})--which can negatively impact durability. Given the projected high concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in SB4 (Lilliston 2005) and the potential use of a high Na{sub 2}O based frit to improve melt rate and a high Na{sub 2}O sludge due to settling problems, the potential formation of nepheline in various SB4 systems continues to be assessed. Twelve SB4-based glasses were fabricated and their durabilities (via the Product Consistency Test [PCT]) measured to assess the potential for nepheline formation and its potential negative impact on durability. In terms of ''acceptability'', the results indicate that all of the study glasses produced are acceptable with respect to durability as defined by the PCT (normalized boron release values for all nepheline (NEPH) glasses were much lower than that of the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass (16.695 g/L)). The most durable glass is NEPH-04 (quenched) with a normalized boron release (NL [B]) of 0.61 g/L, while the least durable glass is NEPH-01 centerline canister cooled (ccc) with an NL [B] of 2.47 g/L (based on the measured composition). In terms of predictability, most of the study glasses are predictable by the {Delta}G{sub p} model. Those that are not predictable (i.e., they fall outside of the prediction limits) actually fall below the prediction interval (i.e., they are over predicted by the model) suggesting the model is conservative. The Phase 1 PCT results suggest that for those glasses prone to nepheline formation (using the 0.62 value developed by Li et al. (2003) as a guide), a statistically significant difference in PCT response was observed for the two heat treatments but the impact on durability was of little or no practical concern. When one couples the PCT responses with the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results and/or visual observations, one could conclude that the formation of nepheline in these glasses does have a negative impact on durability. However, that impact may be of statistical significance, but the practical impact may not be sufficient to avoid a specific candidate frit for the SB4 glass system. The results of this study not only suggest that the 0.62 value appears to be a reasonable guide to monitor sludge--frit systems with respect to potential nepheline formation, but also that the impact of nepheline, although statistically significant, has little or no practical impact in the SB4 system to durability as measured by the PCT. This latter statement must be qualified to some extent given only two glasses were selected which were actually ''prone to nepheline formation'' based on this general guide and the relatively volume % of nepheline formed based on XRD results ({approx} 0.5 vol%). If the presence of nepheline has no appreciable, adverse impact on durability for the recently revised SB4 systems, then as decisions regarding the viability of the SB4 options and the down select of candidate frits are pursued, little weight will be given to minimizing the likelihood of nepheline and the decisions will be dominated by waste throughput criteria. That is, the frit selection process will not have to consider the impact of nepheline on the ultimate durability of the product and can focus on recommending a frit that when coupled with the sludge can be processed over a waste loading (WL) interval of interest to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with melt rates meeting production expectations.

  15. Use-driven concept formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When faced with a complex task, humans often identify domain-specific concepts that make the task more tractable. In this thesis, I investigate the formation of domain-specific concepts of this sort. I propose a set of ...

  16. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro?Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirksey, Jim; Ansari, Sajjad; Malkewicz, Nick; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Knox Supergroup is a significant part of the Cambrian-Ordovician age sedimentary deposition in the Illinois Basin. While there is a very small amount of oil production associated with the upper Knox, it is more commonly used as a zone for both Class I and Class II disposal wells in certain areas around the state. Based on the three penetrations of the Knox Formation at the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration site in Macon County, Illinois, there is potential for certain zones in the Knox to be used for CO2 sequestration. More specifically, the Potosi member of the Knox Formation at about –3,670 feet (ft) subsea depth would be a candidate as all three penetrations had massive circulation losses while drilling through this interval. Each well required the setting of cement plugs to regain wellbore stability so that the intermediate casing could be set and successfully cemented to surface. Log and core analysis suggests significant karst porosity throughout the Potosi member. The purpose of this study is to develop a well plan for the drilling of a CO2 injection well with the capability to inject 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA] CO2 into the Knox Formation over a period of 30 years.

  17. Potential effects of gallium on cladding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Besmann, T.M.; DeVan, J.H.; DiStefano, J.R.; Gat, U.; Greene, S.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Worley, B.A.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper identifies and examines issues concerning the incorporation of gallium in weapons derived plutonium in light water reactor (LWR) MOX fuels. Particular attention is given to the more likely effects of the gallium on the behavior of the cladding material. The chemistry of weapons grade (WG) MOX, including possible consequences of gallium within plutonium agglomerates, was assessed. Based on the calculated oxidation potentials of MOX fuel, the effect that gallium may have on reactions involving fission products and possible impact on cladding performance were postulated. Gallium transport mechanisms are discussed. With an understanding of oxidation potentials and assumptions of mechanisms for gallium transport, possible effects of gallium on corrosion of cladding were evaluated. Potential and unresolved issues and suggested research and development (R and D) required to provide missing information are presented.

  18. Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, A.S.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

  19. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  20. Vacuum Structure and Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. X. Zheng-Johansson

    2007-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on overall experimental observations, especially the pair processes, I developed a model structure of the vacuum along with a basic-particle formation scheme begun in 2000 (with collaborator P-I Johansson). The model consists in that the vacuum is, briefly, filled of neutral but polarizable vacuuons, consisting each of a p-vaculeon and n- vaculeon of charges $+e$ and $-e$ of zero rest masses but with spin motions, assumed interacting each other with a Coulomb force. The model has been introduced in full in a book (Nova Sci, 2005) and referred to in a number of journal/E-print papers. I outline in this easier accessible paper the detailed derivation of the model and a corresponding quantitative determination of the vacuuon size.

  1. Soil microbes drive the classic plant diversity­ productivity pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Klironomos, John N.; HilleRisLambers, Jannek; Kinkel, Linda L.; Reich, Peter B.; Xiao, Kun; Rillig, Matthias C.; Sikes, Benjamin A.; Callaway, Ragan M.; Mangan, Scott A.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ecosystem productivity commonly increases asymptotically with plant species diversity, and determining the mechanisms responsible for this well-known pattern is essential to predict potential changes in ecosystem productivity ...

  2. Streamline-based production data integration in naturally fractured reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Harbi, Mishal H.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Streamline-based models have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. In this work we extend the streamline-based production data integration technique to naturally fractured reservoirs. We use a...

  3. On quantum potential dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon Goldstein; Ward Struyve

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-relativistic de Broglie-Bohm theory describes particles moving under the guidance of the wave function. In de Broglie's original formulation, the particle dynamics is given by a first-order differential equation. In Bohm's reformulation, it is given by Newton's law of motion with an extra potential that depends on the wave function--the quantum potential--together with a constraint on the possible velocities. It was recently argued, mainly by numerical simulations, that relaxing this velocity constraint leads to a physically untenable theory. We provide further evidence for this by showing that for various wave functions the particles tend to escape the wave packet. In particular, we show that for a central classical potential and bound energy eigenstates the particle motion is often unbounded. This work seems particularly relevant for ways of simulating wave function evolution based on Bohm's formulation of the de Broglie-Bohm theory. Namely, the simulations may become unstable due to deviations from the velocity constraint.

  4. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  5. Homogeneous Hydrogenation of CO? to Methyl Formate Utilizing Switchable Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yadav, Mahendra; Linehan, John C.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Van Der Eide, Edwin F.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Capture of CO? and subsequent hydrogenation allows for base/alcohol-catalyzed conversion of CO? to methylformate in one pot. The conversion of CO? proceeds via alkylcarbonates, to formate salts and then formate esters, which can be catalyzed by base and alcohol with the only byproduct being water. The system operates at mild conditions (300 psi H?, 140 °C). Reactivity is strongly influenced by temperature and choice of solvent. In the presence of excess of base (DBU) formate is predominant product while in excess of methanol methyl formate is major product. 110 °C yields formate salts, 140 °C promotes methylformate. The authors acknowledge internal Laboratory Directed Re-search and Development (LDRD) funding from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. STAR FORMATION NEAR BERKELEY 59: EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosvick, J. M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8 (Canada); Majaess, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of suspected protostars in a dark cloud northwest of the young (?2 Myr) cluster Berkeley 59 and two sources in a pillar south of the cluster have been studied in order to determine their evolutionary stages and ascertain whether their formation was triggered by Berkeley 59. Narrowband near-infrared observations from the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic, {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2) and SCUBA-2 (450 and 850 ?m) observations from the JCMT, 2MASS, and WISE images, and data extracted from the IPHAS survey catalog were used. Of 12 sources studied, two are Class I objects, while three others are flat/Class II, one of which is a T Tauri candidate. A weak CO outflow and two potential starless cores are present in the cloud, while the pillar possesses substructure at different velocities, with no outflows present. The CO spectra of both regions show peaks in the range v {sub LSR} = –15 to –17 km s{sup –1}, which agrees with the velocity adopted for Berkeley 59 (–15.7 km s{sup –1}), while spectral energy distribution models yield an average interstellar extinction A{sub V} and distance of 15 ± 2 mag and 830 ± 120 pc, respectively, for the cloud, and 6.9 mag and 912 pc for the pillar, indicating that the regions are in the same vicinity as Berkeley 59. The formation of the pillar source appears to have been triggered by Berkeley 59. It is unclear whether Berkeley 59 triggered the association's formation.

  7. avoiding neptunium production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. 2 Specification Risk Analysis: Avoiding Product Performance Deviations through an FMEA-Based Method MIT - DSpace Summary: This thesis investigates the potential application...

  8. Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Dedicated Wind Power Plant Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant This May 2012 study assesses the costs and potential for remote renewable...

  9. DOE Targets Rural Indiana Geologic Formation for CO2 Storage Field Test

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. Department of Energy team of regional partners has begun injecting 8,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate the carbon storage potential and test the enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential of the Mississippian-aged Clore Formation in Posey County, Ind.

  10. Reactor power history from fission product signatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, David J.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research was to identify fission product signatures that could be used to uniquely identify a specific spent fuel assembly in order to improve international safeguards. This capability would help prevent and deter potential...

  11. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  12. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dursch, Thomas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the University of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusionsub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusionstrategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little

  13. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents &...

  14. Production Forecast, Analysis and Simulation of Eagle Ford Shale Oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, Basel Z S Z J

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    fracturing to liberate the recoverable hydrocarbon reserves. Thousands of wells that have been drilled in the major oil shale formations: Bakken, Permian Basin and Eagle Ford, where oil production peaked in the first few weeks and then showed a sharp...

  15. Production Forecast, Analysis and Simulation of Eagle Ford Shale Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alotaibi, Basel Z S Z J

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    fracturing to liberate the recoverable hydrocarbon reserves. Thousands of wells that have been drilled in the major oil shale formations: Bakken, Permian Basin and Eagle Ford, where oil production peaked in the first few weeks and then showed a sharp...

  16. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  17. Reservoir characterization of the Smackover Formation in southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kopaska-Merkel, D.C.; Hall, D.R.; Mann, S.D.; Tew, B.H.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation is found in an arcuate belt in the subsurface from south Texas to panhandle Florida. The Smackover is the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing formation in Alabama and is an important hydrocarbon reservoir from Florida to Texas. In this report Smackover hydrocarbon reservoirs in southwest Alabama are described. Also, the nine enhanced- and improved-recovery projects that have been undertaken in the Smackover of Alabama are evaluated. The report concludes with recommendations about potential future enhanced- and improved-recovery projects in Smackover reservoirs in Alabama and an estimate of the potential volume of liquid hydrocarbons recoverable by enhanced- and improved-recovery methods from the Smackover of Alabama.

  18. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao-Qing Feng; Gen-Ming Jin; Jun-Qing Li; Werner Scheid

    2007-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118 and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  19. Formation of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhao-Qing; Li, Jun-Qing; Scheid, Werner

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the concept of the dinuclear system (DNS), a dynamical model is proposed for describing the formation of superheavy nuclei in complete fusion reactions by incorporating the coupling of the relative motion to the nucleon transfer process. The capture of two heavy colliding nuclei, the formation of the compound nucleus and the de-excitation process are calculated by using an empirical coupled channel model, solving a master equation numerically and applying statistical theory, respectively. Evaporation residue excitation functions in cold fusion reactions are investigated systematically and compared with available experimental data. Maximal production cross sections of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions with stable neutron-rich projectiles are obtained. Isotopic trends in the production of the superheavy elements Z=110, 112, 114, 116, 118 and 120 are analyzed systematically. Optimal combinations and the corresponding excitation energies are proposed.

  20. Interactions of formate ion with triplets of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate, 1,4-naphthoquinone, benzophenone-4-carboxylate, and benzophenone-4-sulfonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loeff, I.; Goldstein, S.; Treinin, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)); Linschitz, H. (Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States))

    1991-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of formate with the triplet states of naphthoquinone (NQ), anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS), benzophenone-4-carboxylate (BC), and benzophenone-4-sulfonate (BS) was studied by laser flash photolysis. Rate constants were determined either by direct measurement of triplet lifetimes or by inhibition of product yields by competitive reactants. Radical products are formed in two stages, direct reduction by formate and efficient secondary reduction by initially formed CO{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}} radicals. The quinones react by electron transfer with quenching rate constants k{sub q}(NQ) = 3 {times} 10{sup 9} and k{sub q}(AQS) = 4 {times} 10{sup 8} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, giving anion radicals with primary yields of {phi}{sub R}(NQ) {approximately} 0.7 and {phi}{sub R}(AQS) {approximately} 0.3. Formic acid quenches {sup 3}AQS much more slowly. The less strongly oxidizing ketone triplets react by H-atom abstraction, k{sub q}(BC) = 1.3 {times} 10{sup 7} and k{sub q}(BS) = 5.3 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, giving protonated ketyl radicals with primary yields {phi}{sub R} {approximately} 0.7. Photoreduction of BC exhibits a deuterium isotope effect, k{sub H}/k{sub D} = 1.6, whereas AQS shows none. A new, short-lived transient, E, is observed in the {sup 3}AQS-formate reaction, which may be an exciplex or adduct. The redox potential, E{degree}{prime}(NQ/NQ{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}) = {minus}0.12 V, and rate constants for radical reactions of NQ and O{sub 2} were measured by pulse radiolysis. The results are discussed in terms of pertinent redox potentials, bond strengths, and the nature of the exciplex intermediates.

  1. WINDExchange: Potential Wind Capacity

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: EnergyWyandanch,EagaAbout Printable VersionNews ThisPotential

  2. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  3. Methanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael J. (Darien, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  4. Ethanol production method and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, M.J.; Rathke, J.W.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is selectively produced from the reaction of methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the presence of a transition metal carbonyl catalyst. Methanol serves as a solvent and may be accompanied by a less volatile co-solvent. The solution includes the transition metal carbonyl catalysts and a basic metal salt such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal formate, carbonate or bicarbonate. A gas containing a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio, as is present in a typical gasifer product, is contacted with the solution for the preferential production of ethanol with minimal water as a byproduct. Fractionation of the reaction solution provides substantially pure ethanol product and allows return of the catalysts for reuse.

  5. Dynamics of assembly production flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite recent developments in management theory, maintaining a manufacturing schedule remains difficult because of production delays and fluctuations in demand and supply of materials. The response of manufacturing systems to such disruptions to dynamic behavior has been rarely studied. To capture these responses, we investigate a process that models the assembly of parts into end products. The complete assembly process is represented by a directed tree, where the smallest parts are injected at leaves and the end products are removed at the root. A discrete assembly process, represented by a node on the network, integrates parts, which are then sent to the next downstream node as a single part. The model exhibits some intriguing phenomena, including overstock cascade, phase transition in terms of demand and supply fluctuations, nonmonotonic distribution of stockout in the network, and the formation of a stockout path and stockout chains. Surprisingly, these rich phenomena result from only the nature of distr...

  6. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom part of the Ugnu and throughout the West Sak. No hydrate-bearing zones were identified either in recovered core or on well logs. The base of the permafrost was found at about 1260 ft. With the exception of the deepest sands in the West Sak and some anomalous thin, tight zones, all sands recovered (after thawing) are unconsolidated with high porosity and high permeability. At 800 psi, Ugnu sands have an average porosity of 39.3% and geometrical mean permeability of 3.7 Darcys. Average grain density is 2.64 g/cc. West Sak sands have an average porosity of 35.5%, geometrical mean permeability of 0.3 Darcys, and average grain density of 2.70 g/cc. There were several 1-2 ft intervals of carbonate-cemented sandstone recovered from the West Sak. These intervals have porosities of only a few percent and very low permeability. On a well log they appear as resistive with a high sonic velocity. In shallow sections of other wells these usually are the only logs available. Given the presence of gas in Hot Ice No. 1, if only resistivity and sonic logs and a mud log had been available, tight sand zones may have been interpreted as containing hydrates. Although this finding does not imply that all previously mapped hydrate zones are merely tight sands, it does add a note of caution to the practice of interpreting the presence of hydrates from old well information. The methane hydrate stability zone below the Hot Ice No. 1 location includes thick sections of sandstone and conglomerate which would make excellent reservoir rocks for hydrates and below the permafrost zone shallow gas. The Ugnu formation comprises a more sand-rich section than does the West Sak formation, and the Ugnu sands when cleaned and dried are slightly more porous and significantly more permeable than the West Sak.

  7. ARTIFACT FORMATION DURING NEUTRALIZATION OF TANK 50 SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crump, S.; Young, J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Degradation products have been identified in the extracts of Tank 50 samples analyzed by semivolatile organic compound analysis (SVOA) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These materials, identified as short chain alkyl alcohols, were formed by acidification during sample preparation. A number of questions were raised about the formation of these and other materials reported in Tank 50 surface samples, and this report serves to address these questions.

  8. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  9. Product Life Cycle, and Market Entry and Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chi, Tailan; Liu, John

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A key characteristic of the product life cycle (PLC) is the depletion of the product’s market potential due to technological obsolescence. Based on this concept, we develop a stochastic model for evaluating market entry and exit decisions during...

  10. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. Mcvay; Walter B. Ayers, Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The primary objectives for this reporting period were to construct a coal geological model for reservoir analysis and to continue modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration performance in coalbed methane reservoirs under various operational conditions. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Therefore, we interpreted and created isopleth maps of coal occurrences, and correlated individual coal seams within the coal bearing subdivisions of the Wilcox Group--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations. Preliminary modeling studies were run to determine if gravity effects would affect the performance of CO{sub 2} sequestration in coalbed methane reservoirs. Results indicated that gravity could adversely affect sweep efficiency and, thus, volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced in thick, vertically continuous coals. Preliminary modeling studies were also run to determine the effect of injection gas composition on sequestration in low-rank coalbeds. Injected gas composition was varied from pure CO{sub 2} to pure N{sub 2}, and results show that increasing N{sub 2} content degrades CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production performance. We have reached a Data Exchange Agreement with Anadarko Petroleum Corporation. We are currently incorporating the Anadarko data into our work, and expect these data to greatly enhance the accuracy and value of our studies.

  11. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. In this reporting period we revised all of the economic calculations, participated in technology transfer of project results, and began working on project closeout tasks in anticipation of the project ending December 31, 2005. In this research, we conducted five separate simulation investigations, or cases. These cases are (1) CO{sub 2} sequestration base case scenarios for 4,000-ft and 6,200-ft depth coal beds in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of east-central Texas, (2) sensitivity study of the effects of well spacing on sequestration, (3) sensitivity study of the effects of injection gas composition, (4) sensitivity study of the effects of injection rate, and (5) sensitivity study of the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection/sequestration. Results show that, in most cases, revenue from coalbed methane production does not completely offset the costs of CO{sub 2} sequestration in Texas low-rank coals, indicating that CO{sub 2} injection is not economically feasible for the ranges of gas prices and carbon credits investigated. The best economic performance is obtained with flue gas (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) injection, as compared to injection of 100% CO{sub 2} and a mixture of 50% CO{sub 2} and 50% N{sub 2}. As part of technology transfer for this project, we presented results at the West Texas Geological Society Fall Symposium in October 2005 and at the COAL-SEQ Forum in November 2005.

  12. Potential Mississippi oil recovery and economic impact from CO sub 2 miscible flooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moring, J.A.; Rogers, R.E. (Petroleum Engineering Dept., Mississippi State Univ., MS (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maturing of Mississippi oil reservoirs has resulted in a steady decline in crude oil production in the state. This paper reports that, to evaluate the potential of enhanced recovery processes, particularly in the use of the state's large CO{sub 2} reserves, for arresting this trend, the subject study was performed. A computer data base of over 1315 Mississippi reservoirs was established. All reservoirs were screened for applicability of the carbon dioxide miscible process. With models developed by the National Petroleum Council and DOE, incremental oil that could be produced from the carbon dioxide miscible process was calculated. Under selected economic conditions, carbon dioxide miscible flooding with utilization of carbon dioxide from the state's Norphlet formation (3-7 tcf reserves of high-purity CO{sub 2}) could produce 120 million barrels of incremental oil in Mississippi. Incremental state revenues as a consequence of this production were calculated to be $45 million of severance taxes, $50 million of corporate income taxes, and $60 million of royalty payments, expressed as present values.

  13. Ground potential rise monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Zachery W. (Mandan, ND); Zevenbergen, Gary A. (Arvada, CO)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for detecting ground potential rise (GPR) comprising positioning a first electrode and a second electrode at a distance from each other into the earth. The voltage of the first electrode and second electrode is attenuated by an attenuation factor creating an attenuated voltage. The true RMS voltage of the attenuated voltage is determined creating an attenuated true RMS voltage. The attenuated true RMS voltage is then multiplied by the attenuation factor creating a calculated true RMS voltage. If the calculated true RMS voltage is greater than a first predetermined voltage threshold, a first alarm is enabled at a local location. If user input is received at a remote location acknowledging the first alarm, a first alarm acknowledgment signal is transmitted. The first alarm acknowledgment signal is then received at which time the first alarm is disabled.

  14. Sources of symmetric potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John W. Barrett

    1997-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments on gravitation are usually performed with objects of constant density, so that the analysis of the forces concerns only the geometry of their shape. In an ideal experiment, the shapes of the constituent parts will be optimised to meet certain mathematical criteria, which ensure that the experiment has maximal sensitivity. Using this idea, the author suggested an experiment to determine the departure of the gravitational force from Newton's force law [1]. The geometrical problem which has to be solved is to find two shapes which differ significantly, but have the same Newtonian potential. Essentially, the experiment determines whether the two objects are distinguishable by their gravitational force. Here, we consider the case when one of them is a round ball. The result, Theorem 1, establishes a fact which appeared in numerical simulations, that the second object has to have a hole in it.

  15. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Formation Interuniversitaire de Physique Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balbus, Steven

    Formation Interuniversitaire de Physique Module : Hydrodynamics S. Balbus 1 #12;TO LEARN.8.3 Piston Driven into Gas Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.8.4 Driven Acoustic Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.2.3 Inertial Drag of a Sphere by an Ideal Fluid . . . . . . . 113 6.3 Line Vortices and Flow

  17. Structurally Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Structurally connected secondary mirror EMFF secondary mirror EMFF Design Electromagnetic Formation for a smaller, simpler system. µEMFF investigates the use of conventional conductors, capacitors, and solar propellants that often limit lifetime, the EMFF system uses solar power to energize a magnetic field

  18. Star Formation in the Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Bousso; Stefan Leichenauer

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a simple semi-analytic model of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. We estimate the SFR for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  19. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  20. VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION MADALENA CHAVES, ROBERT DAY, LUCIA GOMEZ a network of vehicles exchanging information among themselves with the intention of achieving a specified the performance of the vehicle network. A stochastic model for information flow is also considered, allowing

  1. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  2. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (3) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (4) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (5) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions.

  3. Consumer Products

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution And Bylaws | National Nuclearmarkconsumer-products

  4. WORK PROGRAMME 2010 RESEARCH POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milano-Bicocca, Università

    the research potential of research entities established in the Western Balkan Countries' regions equivalent and developing the research potential of research entities established in the Western Balkan Countries' regions

  5. THE POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ELECTRIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    and Environmental Policy University of Delaware April 2005 #12;THE POTENTIAL FOR SOLAR ELECTRIC APPLICATIONSTHE POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ELECTRIC APPLICATIONS FOR DELAWARE'S POULTRY FARMS FINAL REPORT Delaware Energy Office University of Delaware Center for Energy and Environmental Policy University

  6. Council's Regional Hydropower Potential Scoping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Council's Regional Hydropower Potential Scoping Study Generating Resources Advisory Committee 11 to determine potential, and draw conclusions Determine if realistic, reasonable assumption for hydropower at existing non-powered dams, and upgrades at existing hydropower facilities #12;Questions Asked Can

  7. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H. [Bureau of Economic Geology, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  8. Annual Logging Symposium, June 21-24, 2009 Wireline and While-Drilling Formation-Tester Sampling with Oval, Focused,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    . Extending the existing wireline technology requires a new pumping system capable of removing invasion fluidsSPWLA 50th Annual Logging Symposium, June 21-24, 2009 1 Wireline and While-Drilling Formation about the potential of developing new fluid sampling methods with probe-type formation testers has

  9. Diagenesis and porosity evolution, Norphlet Formation in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lock, B.E.; Broussard, S.W.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major deposits of natural gas were discovered in the Norphlet Formation beneath Mobile Bay in 1979. The reservoirs are in arkosic sandstones at depths greater than 20,000 ft, yet the productive interval has porosities up to 25%. Overlying the porous zone is a tight cap of thoroughly cemented sandstone of variable thickness, which poses problems for exploration and production. The tight zone, which together with overlying basal Smackover forms the reservoir seal, may be so thick that the underlying productive interval is substantially reduced. The upper parts of the Norphlet, in common with many other eolian sands, were reworked during a subsequent transgression. There is not a full correspondence, however, between the tight rock and the reworked facies. The origin of the impermeable zone is better understood as a function of the diagenetic history only partially related to depositional facies. It is proposed that, at an early stage of diagenesis, brines derived from the underlying Louann Salt and Werner Formation deposited anhydrite and possibly halite cements in the lower part of the Norphlet Formation. Marine working of the upper sands may have helped to disperse these brines from the upper part of the Norphlet, and the depth of reworking may even have been partially influenced by incipient cementation. The zones not already cemented by evaporites were subsequently cemented by quartz and feldspar overgrowths. At a very late stage, deep in the subsurface, the evaporite cements were flushed from the lower parts of the Norphlet, and locally abundant small feldspar crystals randomly nucleated in the pores. Gas migrated into the formation shortly afterward. Evaporites may play another important role in the petroleum geology of the deep Norphlet: the source of the gas may have been the underlying evaporites.

  10. Potential underground risks associated with CAES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Broome, Scott Thomas; Pfeifle, Thomas W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CAES in geologic media has been proposed to help 'firm' renewable energy sources (wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy was available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive renewable energy time periods. Such a storage media may experience hourly (perhaps small) pressure swings. Salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES, but not in a mode where renewable energy sources are supported. Reservoirs, both depleted natural gas and aquifers represent other potential underground storage vessels for CAES, however, neither has yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for CAES.

  11. An Integrated Modeling and Data Management Strategy for Cellulosic Biomass Production Decisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth Jr.; K. Mark Bryden; Joshua B. Koch

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging cellulosic bioenergy markets can provide land managers with additional options for crop production decisions. Integrating dedicated bioenergy crops such as perennial grasses and short rotation woody species within the agricultural landscape can have positive impacts on several environmental processes including increased soil organic matter in degraded soils, reduced sediment loading in watersheds, lower green house gas (GHG) fluxes, and reduced nutrient loading in watersheds. Implementing this type of diverse bioenergy production system in a way that maximizes potential environmental benefits requires a dynamic integrated modeling and data management strategy. This paper presents a strategy for designing diverse bioenergy cropping systems within the existing row crop production landscape in the midwestern United States. The integrated model developed quantifies a wide range environmental processes including soil erosion from wind and water, soil organic matter changes, and soil GHG fluxes within a geospatial data management framework. This framework assembles and formats information from multiple spatial and temporal scales. The data assembled includes yield and productivity data from harvesting equipment at the 1m scale, surface topography data from LiDAR mapping at the less than 1m scale, soil data from US soil survey databases at the 10m to 100m scale, and climate data at the county scale. These models and data tools are assembled into an integrated computational environment that is used to determine sustainable removal rates for agricultural residues for bioenergy production at the sub-field scale under a wide range of land management practices. Using this integrated model, innovative management practices including cover cropping are then introduced and evaluated for their impact on bioenergy production and important environmental processes. The impacts of introducing dedicated energy crops onto high-risk landscape positions currently being manage in row crop production are also investigated.

  12. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  13. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of precipitation where sequestration begins to decrease.

  14. Nulljob product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on the authors' Central VAX Cluster led them to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

  15. NULLJOB product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughart, N.; Ritchie, D.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ever increasing demand for more CPU cycles for data analysis on our Central VAX Cluster led us to investigate new ways to utilize more fully the resources that were available. A review of the experiment and software development VAX systems on site revealed many unused computing cycles. Furthermore, these systems were all connected by DECnet which would allow easy file transfer and remote batch job submission. A product was developed to allow jobs to be submitted on the Central VAX Cluster but actually to be run on one of the remote systems. The processing of the jobs was arranged, to the greatest extent possible, to be transparent to the user and to have minimal impact on both the Central VAX Cluster and remote systems.

  16. Photophoresis boosts giant planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiser, Jens

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the core accretion model of giant planet formation, a solid protoplanetary core begins to accrete gas directly from the nebula when its mass reaches about 5 earth masses. The protoplanet has at most a few million years to reach runaway gas accretion, as young stars lose their gas disks after 10 million years at the latest. Yet gas accretion also brings small dust grains entrained in the gas into the planetary atmosphere. Dust accretion creates an optically thick protoplanetary atmosphere that cannot efficiently radiate away the kinetic energy deposited by incoming planetesimals. A dust-rich atmosphere severely slows down atmospheric cooling, contraction, and inflow of new gas, in contradiction to the observed timescales of planet formation. Here we show that photophoresis is a strong mechanism for pushing dust out of the planetary atmosphere due to the momentum exchange between gas and dust grains. The thermal radiation from the heated inner atmosphere and core is sufficient to levitate dust grains and to ...

  17. Formation of polar ring galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bournaud; F. Combes

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar ring galaxies are peculiar systems in which a gas rich, nearly polar ring surrounds an early-type or elliptical host galaxy. Two formation scenarios for these objects have been proposed: they are thought to form either in major galaxy mergers or by tidal accretion of the polar material from a gas rich donor galaxy. Both scenarios are studied through N-body simulations including gas dynamics and star formation. Constraints on physical parameters are drawn out, in order to determine which scenario is the most likely to occur. Polar ring galaxies from each scenario are compared with observations and we discuss whether the accretion scenario and the merging scenario account for observational properties of polar ring galaxies. The conclusion of this study is that the accretion scenario is both the most likely and the most supported by observations. Even if the merging scenario is rather robust, most polar ring galaxies are shown to be the result of tidal gas accretion events.

  18. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  19. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  20. Shock Formation in Lovelock Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey S. Reall; Norihiro Tanahashi; Benson Way

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that Lovelock theories of gravity suffer from shock formation, unlike General Relativity. We consider the propagation of (i) a discontinuity in curvature, and (ii) weak, high frequency, gravitational waves. Such disturbances propagate along characteristic hypersurfaces of a "background" spacetime and their amplitude is governed by a transport equation. In GR the transport equation is linear. In Lovelock theories, it is nonlinear and its solutions can blow up, corresponding to the formation of a shock. We show that this effect is absent in some simple cases e.g. a flat background spacetime, and demonstrate its presence for a plane wave background. We comment on weak cosmic censorship, the evolution of shocks, and the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime, in Lovelock theories.

  1. Biogas Potential in the United States (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogas has received increased attention as an alternative energy source in the United States. The factsheet provides information about the biogas (methane) potential from various sources in the country (by county and state) and estimates the power generation and transportation fuels production (renewable natural gas) potential from these biogas sources. It provides valuable information to the industry, academia and policy makers in support of their future decisions.

  2. Harmonic potential and hadron spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael Tumanyan

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The quark-gluon sea in the hadrons is considered as periodically correlated. Energy levels of Shrodinger equation with harmonic potential is used for describing of the spectrum of hadron masses. In the considered cases the effective potential operating on each particle of ensemble, under certain conditions becomes square-law on displacement from a equilibrium point. It can become an explanation of popularity of oscillator potential for the description of a spectrum of masses of elementary particles. The analysis shows that levels of periodic potential better agreed to the spectrum of hadron masses, than levels of other potentials used for an explanation of a spectrum of masses.

  3. Surfactant process for promoting gas hydrate formation and application of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, Rudy E. (Starkville, MS); Zhong, Yu (Brandon, MS)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a method of storing gas using gas hydrates comprising forming gas hydrates in the presence of a water-surfactant solution that comprises water and surfactant. The addition of minor amounts of surfactant increases the gas hydrate formation rate, increases packing density of the solid hydrate mass and simplifies the formation-storage-decomposition process of gas hydrates. The minor amounts of surfactant also enhance the potential of gas hydrates for industrial storage applications.

  4. Kinetic models of opinion formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Toscani

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and discuss certain kinetic models of (continuous) opinion formation involving both exchange of opinion between individual agents and diffusion of information. We show conditions which ensure that the kinetic model reaches non trivial stationary states in case of lack of diffusion in correspondence of some opinion point. Analytical results are then obtained by considering a suitable asymptotic limit of the model yielding a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of opinion among individuals.

  5. Novel forms of carbon as potential anodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to design and synthesize novel carbons as potential electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. A synthetic approach which utilizes inorganic templates is described and initial characterization results are discussed. The templates also act as a catalyst enabling carbon formation at low temperatures. This synthetic approach should make it easier to control the surface and bulk characteristics of these carbons.

  6. Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predicting and mitigating the global warming potential of agro-ecosystems S. Lehugera 1 , B and methane are the main biogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) con-2 tributing to the global warming potential (GWP to design productive16 agro-ecosystems with low global warming impact.17 Keywords18 Global warming potential

  7. Role of protein acetylation, formation and dispersal of biofilms, and their impact on insects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Qun

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    .......................................................... 34 3.3.6 Cellulose inhibits biofilm formation on polystyrene plates ........................................................................... 35 3.3.7 OmpA influences cellulose production and biofilm formation through CpxR... .................................................... 58 4.3.3 BdcA binds c-di-GMP to control phenotypes............. 60 4.3.4 BdcR (YjgJ) regulates bdcA ....................................... 61 4.3.5 Protein engineering of BdcA for biofilm dispersal..... 65 4.4...

  8. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FORMATION AND MODES OF STAR FORMATION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN R3T 2N2 (Canada); Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Young, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica, e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Whitmore, B.; Maybhate, Aparna [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: sgalla4@uwo.ca

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The handful of low-mass, late-type galaxies that comprise Hickson Compact Group 31 (HCG 31) is in the midst of complex, ongoing gravitational interactions, evocative of the process of hierarchical structure formation at higher redshifts. With sensitive, multicolor Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we characterize the large population of < 10 Myr old star clusters (SCs) that suffuse the system. From the colors and luminosities of the young SCs, we find that the galaxies in HCG 31 follow the same universal scaling relations as actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe despite the unusual compact group environment. Furthermore, the specific frequency of the globular cluster system is consistent with the low end of galaxies of comparable masses locally. This, combined with the large mass of neutral hydrogen and tight constraints on the amount of intragroup light, indicate that the group is undergoing its first epoch of interaction-induced star formation. In both the main galaxies and the tidal-dwarf candidate, F, stellar complexes, which are sensitive to the magnitude of disk turbulence, have both sizes and masses more characteristic of z = 1-2 galaxies. After subtracting the light from compact sources, we find no evidence for an underlying old stellar population in F-it appears to be a truly new structure. The low-velocity dispersion of the system components, available reservoir of H I, and current star formation rate of {approx}10 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} indicate that HCG 31 is likely to both exhaust its cold gas supply and merge within {approx}1 Gyr. We conclude that the end product will be an isolated, X-ray-faint, low-mass elliptical.

  9. Onshore and offshore basins of northeast Libya: Their origin and hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shegewi, O.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive data base of more than 3000 km of seismic lines, gravity and magnetic data, more than 30 subsurface well logs, and surface geology data were utilized to examine and interpret the sedimentary and tectonic history of the onshore and offshore parts of Northeast Libya and their hydrocarbon potential. The Dernah-Tobruk and Benghazi offshore basins form the northern parts of the study area. The Cyrenaica Stable Platform represents the southern parts. The Sirual Trough stretches E-W and opens into the Antelat Trough in the west. Between these elements is the uplifted areas of the Al Jabal Al Akhdar. Six principal tectonic phases were responsible for the formation and development of these structural elements: the pre-Mesozoic phase, the Triassic-Jurassic rifting phase, the Neocomian and the Aptian-Albian renewed rifting phases, the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene uplifting phase; and the Eocene-Middle Oligocene rifting phase. Oceanic crust of probable Aptian-Albian age is evident on the seismic lines north of the master fault marking the southern boundary of the rift separating the north African plate and Apulia. The western boundary of the Dernah High displayed clearly NE-SW strike-slip movement of these trajectories. Oceanic crust is also present west of the Dernah High. Positive gravity and magnetic anomalies traverse parallel to the boundary of this oceanic plate Mesogea. The prerequisites for commercial hydrocarbon production are present in abundance. Reservoirs ranging in age from Paleozoic clastics in the Cyrenaica Stable Platform to Mesozoic and Tertiary carbonates throughout the rest of the region. Several deep sites for the generation of hydrocarbons were also present, including the rifted northern parts of the Dernah-Tobruk basin, the Antelat Trough and the Cyrenaica Passive Margin. The Cretaceous and Tertiary section in the study area contain several potential seal rocks. Several potential trap types are also present.

  10. Chapter 20: Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kioussis, Nicholas

    1 Chapter 20: Electric Potential and Electric Potential Energy 2. A 4.5 µC charge moves in a uniform electric field ( )5 ^4.1 10 N/C= ×E x . The change in electric potential energy of a charge that moves against an electric field is given by equation 20-1, 0U q Ed = . If the charge moves in the same

  11. Spatial structure of electric potential near the extraction region in Cs-seeded H{sup -} ion sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukano, A.; Hanatani, J.; Matsumiya, T.; Hatayama, A. [Mechanical Sysytems Engineering Course, Monozukuri Department, Tokyo Metropolitan College of Industrial Technology, Higashioi, Shinagawa, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan); Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure of electric potential near the extraction region in a negative ion source is investigated analytically with the effect of strong surface H{sup -} production. The potential profile is analyzed one dimensional by solving the plasma-sheath equation, which gives the electric potential in the plasma region and the sheath region near the wall self-consistently. The potential profile depends on the production rate and the temperature of negative ions. As the production rate becomes large and the negative ion energy becomes small, the potential near the extraction region decreases. The negative potential peak is formed near the plasma grid (PG) surface for the case of large amount and low energy surface production. As a result, negative ions are reflected by this negative potential peak near the PG and returned to the PG surface. This reflection mechanism by the negative potential peak possibly affects the negative ion extraction.

  12. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  13. Mrar formation of western Libya - evolution of an early Carboniferous delta system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitbread, T. (Univ. of Keele, England); Kelling, G.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lower Carboniferous Mrar Formation is exposed extensively along the southern margin of the Ghadames basin in northwest Libya. The basal part of the Mrar forms the cap rock and possible hydrocarbon source for many of the producing reservoirs in the underlying Tahara sandstones. Furthermore, the Mrar itself is known to contain significant gas shows southwest of the outcrop, associated with some oil potential. The Mrar formation was deposited in a deltaic environment which developed on the northern part of the stable Saharan platform. The history of the Mrar formation's deposition is discussed. (JMT)

  14. Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

  15. Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

  16. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  17. Forest Products Supply Chain --Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Products Supply Chain -- Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production or wood waste biomass · Map Indiana's wood waste for each potential bioenergy supply chain · Develop break-even analyses for transportation logistics of wood waste biomass Isaac S. Slaven Abstract: The purpose

  18. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  19. Oil production response to in situ electrical resistance heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDougal, Fred William

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the electric power through electrical resistance heating with a very small electromagnetic power absorption component. The oil viscosity decreases as the temperature increases thus stimulating oil production. DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this thesis... PROFILE FOR CASE S-2 INTRODUCTION Oil production can be stimulated by applying electrical power to the formation. The electrical power causes a temperature increase that reduces oil viscosity, resulting in increased oil production rates. Electrical...

  20. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  1. Language Production General Points about Speech Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coulson, Seana

    Language Production #12;General Points about Speech Production 15 speech sounds per second => 2, shall I say `t' or `d'' (Levelt) Production side has gotten less attention in Psycholinguistics than the comprehension side. Evidence for speech production behaviour has until recently relied heavily on speech errors

  2. Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control Hoam Chung and S. Shankar Sastry are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. The starting point for safe autonomous into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient space between it and all other vehicles

  3. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis Conditions on Cu/SiO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The coverages and surface lifetimes of copper-bound formates on Cu/SiO2 catalysts, and the steady-state rates of reverse water-gas shift and methanol synthesis have been measured simultaneously by mass (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopies under a variety of elevated pressure conditions at temperatures between 140 and 160°C. DCOO lifetimes under steady state catalytic conditions in CO2:D2 atmospheres were measured by 12C – 13C isotope transients (SSITKA). The values range from 220s at 160°C to 660s at 140°C. The catalytic rates of both reverse water gas shift (RWGS) and methanol synthesis are ~100-fold slower than this formate removal rate back to CO2+1/2 H2, and thus they do not significantly influence the formate lifetime or coverage at steady state. The formate coverage is instead determined by formate’s rapid production / decomposition equilibrium with gas phase CO2+H2. The results are consistent with formate being an intermediate in methanol synthesis, but with the rate-controlling step being after formate production (for example, its further hydrogenation to methoxy). A 2-3 fold shorter life time (faster decomposition rate) was observed for formate under reactions conditions when both D2 and CO2 are present than in pure Ar or D2+Ar alone, attributed to effects of coadsorbates (produced in D2 and CO2) on adsorbed formate reaction pathways. The carbon which appears in the methanol product spends a longer time on the surface than the formate species, 1.8 times as long at 140°C. The additional delay on the surface is attributed in part to readsorption of methanol on the catalyst, thus obscuring the mechanistic link between formate and methanol.

  4. Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins. Final report, June 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R&D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ``typical`` well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic.

  5. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  6. Orbits in a logarithmic potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooverman, R.H.

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The characteristics of charged particle orbits in the logarithmic electrostatic potential field surrounding a straight conducting wire at a fixed potential are investigated. The equations of motion of an electron in a logarithmic potential are derived, the limiting cases are considered, and the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion are presented along with sketches of a few representative orbits. (C.E.S.)

  7. The Formation of Nuclear Rings in Barred Spiral Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael W. Regan; Peter J. Teuben

    2002-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Although nuclear rings of gas and star formation are common in barred spiral galaxies, current theories of why and how they form do not provide the level of detail needed to quantify the effect that these rings can have on the fueling of active galactic nuclei and on the evolution of their host galaxy. In this paper we use detailed modeling to show that existence of nuclear rings is directly related to the existence of the orbit family whose major axis is perpendicular to the major axis of the bar (x_2). We explore a large range of barred galaxy potentials and for each potential we use a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation to determine whether and at what radius a nuclear ring forms. We compare the results of the hydrodynamic simulations to numerical integrations of periodic orbits in a barred potential and show that the rings only form when a minimum amount of x_2 orbits exists. Because the rings migrate inwards with time as they accumulate gas, the radius at which a nuclear ring is seen does not give direct information on the shape of the rotation curve. We also show that the common assumption that nuclear rings are related to an inner Lindblad resonance is incorrect. In fact, we show that there is no RESONANCE at the inner Lindblad resonance in barred galaxies. We also compare the predictions of this theory to HST observations and show that it correctly predicts the observed gas and star formation morphology of nuclear rings.

  8. The chemistry of particulate formation in fluorocarbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, R.J.; Hareland, W.A.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production, suspension and transport of fluorocarbon particulates in rf discharges have been studied using in situ laser light scattering and ex situ chemical analysis. The time evolution of the spatial distribution of suspended particles was obtained by 2-D imaging of the scattered light. The chemistry of the discharge was varied by the use of a range of pure fluorocarbon gases and mixtures with argon, oxygen and hydrogen-containing molecules. The addition of hydrogen to a fluorocarbon discharge increases the rate of formation of particles although these powders are found by FTIR to contain negligible hydrogen. Particle formation rates correlate with polymer deposition rates and are independent of apparatus history. It is proposed that this is a clear example of gas-phase rather than surface processes leading to particle nucleation and growth.

  9. A General Systems Theory for Rain Formation in Warm Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A cumulus cloud model which can explain the observed characteristics of warm rain formation in monsoon clouds is presented. The model is based on classical statistical physical concepts and satisfies the principle of maximum entropy production. Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal fluctuations that are ubiquitous to all dynamical systems in nature, such as physical, chemical, social, etc and are characterized by inverse power law form for power (eddy energy) spectrum signifying long-range space-time correlations. A general systems theory model for atmospheric flows developed by the author is based on the concept that the large eddy energy is the integrated mean of enclosed turbulent (small scale) eddies. This model gives scale-free universal governing equations for cloud growth processes. The model predicted cloud parameters are in agreement with reported observations, in particular, the cloud dropsize distribution. Rain formation can occur in warm clouds within 30minutes lifetime under favourable conditions of moisture supply in the environment.

  10. Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariwan A. Rasheed; Mohamad A. Brza

    Abstract-- Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes and by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases. Index Term- Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation. I.

  11. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  12. Target Space Duality III: Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlando Alvarez; Blazej Ruszczycki

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We generalize previous results on target space duality to the case where there are background fields and the sigma model lagrangian has a potential function.

  13. Powertrain Trends and Future Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    parties. Automotive Technology 12 Evolution in Clean Diesel & Gasoline Technology 1) turbo-charged with downsizing and var. valve timing (VVT); 2) max. potential w downsizing,...

  14. Homological Product Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey Bravyi; Matthew B. Hastings

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum codes with low-weight stabilizers known as LDPC codes have been actively studied recently due to their simple syndrome readout circuits and potential applications in fault-tolerant quantum computing. However, all families of quantum LDPC codes known to this date suffer from a poor distance scaling limited by the square-root of the code length. This is in a sharp contrast with the classical case where good families of LDPC codes are known that combine constant encoding rate and linear distance. Here we propose the first family of good quantum codes with low-weight stabilizers. The new codes have a constant encoding rate, linear distance, and stabilizers acting on at most $\\sqrt{n}$ qubits, where $n$ is the code length. For comparison, all previously known families of good quantum codes have stabilizers of linear weight. Our proof combines two techniques: randomized constructions of good quantum codes and the homological product operation from algebraic topology. We conjecture that similar methods can produce good stabilizer codes with stabilizer weight $n^a$ for any $a>0$. Finally, we apply the homological product to construct new small codes with low-weight stabilizers.

  15. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Economical Production of Pu-238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Howe; Douglas Crawford; Jorge Navarro; Terry Ring

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238. The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100 M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. The new process will also produce dramatically less waste. Potentially, the front end costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. Under a NASA Phase I NIAC grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce at least 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. In addition, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  17. Four-nucleon potential due to exchange of pions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robilotta, M.R.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A four-body force due to the exchange of pions has been derived by means of It includes effects corresponding to pion-pion scattering, pion production, and pion-nucleon rescattering. The strength parameters of this four-body potential are typically one order of magnitude smaller than those of the two-pion-exchange three-body force.

  18. Climate change mitigation through forestry measures: potentials, options, practice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Harvested wood products (HWP) · Contributions of biomass/HWP in Energy and Industrial sectors. #12;18 May mitigation potential (Europe) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Avoided deforestation Afforestation Forest deforestation rates in Europe are generally small Will tend to be relevant to MS with areas of land available

  19. Large Scale U.S. Unconventional Fuels Production and the Role of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Technologies in Reducing Their Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the role that carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies could play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions if a significant unconventional fuels industry were to develop within the United States. Specifically, the paper examines the potential emergence of a large scale domestic unconventional fuels industry based on oil shale and coal-to-liquids (CTL) technologies. For both of these domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources, this paper models the growth of domestic production to a capacity of 3 MMB/d by 2050. For the oil shale production case, we model large scale deployment of an in-situ retorting process applied to the Eocene Green River formation of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming where approximately 75% of the high grade oil shale resources within the United States lies. For the CTL case, we examine a more geographically dispersed coal-based unconventional fuel industry. This paper examines the performance of these industries under two hypothetical climate policies and concludes that even with the wide scale availability of cost effective carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies, these unconventional fuels production industries would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2 in addition to storing potentially 1000 to 5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized domestic CTL industry could result in 4000 to 5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000 to 22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period up to 2050. Preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. However, additional analyses plus detailed regional and site characterization is needed, along with a closer examination of competing storage demands.

  20. Geological and production characteristics of strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.; Jackson, S.; Madden, M.P.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) primary mission in the oil research program is to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. The Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program supports DOE`s mission through cost-shared demonstrations of improved Oil Recovery (IOR) processes and reservoir characterization methods. In the past 3 years, the DOE has issued Program Opportunity Notices (PONs) seeking cost-shared proposals for the three highest priority, geologically defined reservoir classes. The classes have been prioritized based on resource size and risk of abandonment. This document defines the geologic, reservoir, and production characteristics of the fourth reservoir class, strandplain/barrier islands. Knowledge of the geological factors and processes that control formation and preservation of reservoir deposits, external and internal reservoir heterogeneities, reservoir characterization methodology, and IOR process application can be used to increase production of the remaining oil-in-place (IOR) in Class 4 reservoirs. Knowledge of heterogeneities that inhibit or block fluid flow is particularly critical. Using the TORIS database of 330 of the largest strandplain/barrier island reservoirs and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (sufactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000.

  1. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to perform reservoir simulation and economic sensitivity studies to (1) determine the effects of injection gas composition, (2) determine the effects of injection rate, and (3) determine the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection on CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas. To predict CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds for these three sensitivity studies, we constructed a 5-spot pattern reservoir simulation model and selected reservoir parameters representative of a typical depth, approximately 6,200-ft, of potential LCB coalbed reservoirs in the focus area of East-Central Texas. Simulation results of flue gas injection (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern (40-ac well spacing) indicate that LCB coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 0.46 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with a median ECBM recovery of 0.94 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 4,270 days (11.7 years). Simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicated that these same coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 1.75 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft with a median ECBM recovery of 0.67 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 1,650 days (4.5 years). Breakthrough was defined as the point when CO{sub 2} comprised 5% of the production stream for all cases. The injection rate sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to injection rate. The main difference is in timing, with longer breakthrough times resulting as injection rate decreases. Breakthrough times for 80-acre patterns (40-acre well spacing) ranged from 670 days (1.8 years) to 7,240 days (19.8 years) for the reservoir parameters and well operating conditions investigated. The dewatering sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection. As time to start CO{sub 2} injection increases, the time to reach breakthrough also increases. Breakthrough times for 80-acre patterns (40-acre well spacing) ranged from 850 days (2.3 years) to 5,380 days (14.7 years) for the reservoir parameters and well injection/production schedules investigated. Preliminary economic modeling results using a gas price of $7-$8 per Mscf and CO{sub 2} credits of $1.33 per ton CO{sub 2} indicate that injection of flue gas (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) and 50% N{sub 2}-50% CO{sub 2} are more economically viable than injecting 100% CO{sub 2}. Results also indicate that injection rate and duration and timing of dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection have no significant effect on the economic viability of the project(s).

  2. A Random Walk through Star and Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maness, Holly

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and its Neptune-Mass Planet 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . .of Low Mass Star Formation . . . . . 1.3 Planet FormationConstraining Theories of Planet Formation and Evolution .

  3. A study of algal biomass potential in selected Canadian regions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamic assessment model has been developed for evaluating the potential algal biomass and extracted biocrude productivity and costs, using nutrient and water resources available from waste streams in four regions of Canada (western British Columbia, Alberta oil fields, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia). The purpose of this model is to help identify optimal locations in Canada for algae cultivation and biofuel production. The model uses spatially referenced data across the four regions for nitrogen and phosphorous loads in municipal wastewaters, and CO{sub 2} in exhaust streams from a variety of large industrial sources. Other data inputs include land cover, and solar insolation. Model users can develop estimates of resource potential by manipulating model assumptions in a graphic user interface, and updated results are viewed in real time. Resource potential by location can be viewed in terms of biomass production potential, potential CO{sub 2} fixed, biocrude production potential, and area required. The cost of producing algal biomass can be estimated using an approximation of the distance to move CO{sub 2} and water to the desired land parcel and an estimation of capital and operating costs for a theoretical open pond facility. Preliminary results suggest that in most cases, the CO{sub 2} resource is plentiful compared to other necessary nutrients (especially nitrogen), and that siting and prospects for successful large-scale algae cultivation efforts in Canada will be driven by availability of those other nutrients and the efficiency with which they can be used and re-used. Cost curves based on optimal possible siting of an open pond system are shown. The cost of energy for maintaining optimal growth temperatures is not considered in this effort, and additional research in this area, which has not been well studied at these latitudes, will be important in refining the costs of algal biomass production. The model will be used by NRC-IMB Canada to identify promising locations for both demonstration and pilot-scale algal cultivation projects, including the production potential of using wastewater, and potential land use considerations.

  4. General inflaton potentials in supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Rube, Tomas [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a way to construct supergravity models with an arbitrary inflaton potential V({phi}) and show that all other scalar fields in this class of models can be stabilized at the inflationary trajectory by a proper choice of the Kaehler potential.

  5. Tritium Formation and Mitigation in High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Carl Stoots

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tritium is a radiologically active isotope of hydrogen. It is formed in nuclear reactors by neutron absorption and ternary fission events and can subsequently escape into the environment. In order to prevent the tritium contamination of proposed reactor buildings and surrounding sites, this paper examines the root causes and potential solutions for the production of this radionuclide, including materials selection and inert gas sparging. A model is presented that can be used to predict permeation rates of hydrogen through metallic alloys at temperatures from 450–750°C. Results of the diffusion model are presented for one steadystate value of tritium production in the reactor.

  6. Simulations of Variable Bottomhole Pressure Regimes to Improve Production from the Double-Unit Mount Elbert, Milne Point Unit, North Slope Alaska Hydrate Deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy; Anderson, Brian; Rose, Kelly; Boswell, Ray

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas production was predicted from a reservoir model based on the Mount Elbert gas hydrate accumulation located on the Alaska North slope at various simulator submodels and production scenarios. Log, core, and fluid measurements were used to provide a comprehensive reservoir description. These data were incorporated with experimentally derived saturations, porosities, permeability values, parameters for capillary pressure, and relative permeability functions. The modeled reservoir exposed to depressurization at a constant bottomhole pressure (2.7 MPa) has shown limited production potential due to its low temperature profile. To improve production the bottomhole pressure was allowed to vary from 2.7 (above the quadruple point) to 2.0 MPa over a 15-year period. The results indicate that gas production was nearly doubled in comparison with a constant-pressure regime. Extensive ice formation and hydrate reformation that could severely hinder gas production were avoided in the variable-pressure regime system. A use of permeability variation coupled with porosity change is shown to be crucial to predict those phenomena at a reservoir scale.

  7. Analysis of Renewable Energy Potential on U. S. National Forest Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvolanek, E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K.

    2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) completed an assessment of the potential for solar and wind energy development on National Forest System (NFS) public lands managed by the US Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service (USFS). This report provides an update of the analysis in the NREL report, and extends the analysis with additional siting factors for solar and wind energy. It also expands the scope to biomass and geothermal energy resources. Hydropower is acknowledged as another major renewable energy source on NFS lands; however, it was not analyzed in this project primarily because of the substantially different analysis that would be needed to identify suitable locations. Details about each renewable energy production technology included in the study are provided following the report introduction, including how each resource is converted to electrical power, and examples of existing power plants. The analysis approach was to use current and available Geographic Information System (GIS) data to map the distribution of the subject renewable energy resources, major siting factors, and NFS lands. For each major category of renewable energy power production, a set of siting factors were determined, including minimum levels for the renewable energy resources, and details for each of the other siting factors. Phase 1 of the analysis focused on replicating and updating the 2005 NREL analysis, and Phase 2 introduced additional siting factors and energy resources. Source data were converted to a cell?based format that helped create composite maps of locations meeting all the siting criteria. Acreages and potential power production levels for NFS units were tabulated and are presented throughout this report and the accompanying files. NFS units in the southwest United States were found to have the most potentially suitable land for concentrating solar power (CSP), especially in Arizona and New Mexico. In total, about 136,032 acres of NFS lands were found potentially suitable for CSP development, potentially yielding as much as 13,603 megawatts (MW) of electricity, assuming 10 acres per MW. For photovoltaic solar power (PV), the top NFS units were more widely distributed than CSP. Notably, more than 150,000 acres in Comanche National Grassland in Colorado were found to be potentially suitable for PV development, accounting for more than 25% of the potentially suitable NFS lands combined. In total, about 564,698 acres of NFS lands were found potentially suitable for PV development, potentially yielding as much as 56,469 MW of electricity, assuming 10 acres per MW. NFS units most suitable for wind power are concentrated in the northern Great Plains. In total, about 3,357,792 acres of NFS lands were found potentially suitable for wind development, potentially yielding as much as 67,156 MW of electricity, assuming 50 acres per MW. Of that area, 571,431 acres (11,429 MW) are located within the Bankhead?Jones Farm Tenant Act Land in Montana. NFS lands in Alaska have considerable wind resources, but other siting factors eliminated almost the entire area. The southwest coast of Chugach National Forest, near Seward, Alaska, maintains the majority of the remaining acreage. NFS units with highly suitable biomass resources are located from Idaho to Louisiana. In total, about 13,967,077 acres of NFS lands are potentially highly suitable for biomass from logging and thinning residue development. Of that, 1,542,247 acres is located in Fremont?Winema National Forest in Oregon. Not surprisingly, most NFS units have at least some level of potentially suitable biomass resources. In general, biomass resources such as these could significantly offset consumption of coal and petroleum?based fuels. NFS units deemed potentially highly suitable for enhanced geothermal system (EGS) development were distributed widely from California to Virginia, accounting for some 6,475,459 acres. Mark Twain National Forest in Missouri has the largest area of all the NFS units, with 900,637 acres. While more rigorous studies are needed

  8. Pollution Prevention Through Productivity Improvement Harry W. Edwards, Michael F. Kostrzewa, and Cynthia K. Ketzenberger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Pollution Prevention Through Productivity Improvement 99-151 Harry W. Edwards, Michael F that recommended productivity improvement practices can also prevent formation of wastes and polluting emissions. A total of 61 productivity improvement recommendations were made, 14 of which provide pollution prevention

  9. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  10. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this section, we examine the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence to inhomogeneous turbulence with zonal flows. Statistical equations of motion can be derived from the quasilinear approximation to the Hasegawa-Mima equation. We review recent work that finds a bifurcation of these equations and shows that the emergence of zonal flows mathematically follows a standard type of pattern formation. We also show that the dispersion relation of modulational instability can be extracted from the statistical equations of motion in a certain limit. The statistical formulation can thus be thought to offer a more general perspective on growth of coherent structures, namely through instability of a full turbulent spectrum. Finally, we offer a physical perspective on the growth of large-scale structures.

  11. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodman, Angela L. [U.S. DOE; Bromhal, Grant S. [U.S. DOE; Strazisar, Brian [U.S. DOE; Rodosta, Traci D. [U.S. DOE; Guthrie, William J. [U.S. DOE; Allen, Douglas E. [ORISE; Guthrie, George D. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  12. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  13. ? Production in Heavy Ion Collisions at LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kai Zhou; Nu Xu; Pengfei Zhuang

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the {\\Upsilon} production in heavy ion collisions at LHC energy in the frame of a dynamical transport approach. Both the initial production and in-medium regeneration and both the cold and hot nuclear matter effects are included in the calculations. In comparison with the ground state {\\Upsilon}(1s), the excited state {\\Upsilon}(2s) is much more sensitive to the heavy quark potential at finite temperature.

  14. Isotope Science and Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isotope Science and Production 35 years of experience in isotope production, processing, and applications. Llllll Committed to the safe and reliable production of radioisotopes, products, and services nuclear materials in trucks and cargo containers. Isotopes for Threat Reduction Isotope production at Los

  15. Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

  16. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

    2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  17. Geohydrological feasibility study of the Black Warrior Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, P.D.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geological and hydrological feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack W. Mclntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Black Warrior Basin of Mississippi and Alabama through literature surveys. Methane gas from coalbeds in the Black Warrior Basin is confined to the coal fields of northern Alabama. Produced water from degasification of coalbeds is currently disposed by surface discharge. Treatment prior to discharge consists of short-term storage and in-stream dilution. Mr. Mclntyre`s process appears to be applicable to the Black Warrior Basin and could provide an environmentally sound alternative for produced water production.

  18. Completeness for sparse potential scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Zhongwei, E-mail: zzs0004@auburn.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper is devoted to the scattering theory of a class of continuum Schrödinger operators with deterministic sparse potentials. We first establish the limiting absorption principle for both modified free resolvents and modified perturbed resolvents. This actually is a weak form of the classical limiting absorption principle. We then prove the existence and completeness of local wave operators, which, in particular, imply the existence of wave operators. Under additional assumptions on the sparse potential, we prove the completeness of wave operators. In the context of continuum Schrödinger operators with sparse potentials, this paper gives the first proof of the completeness of wave operators.

  19. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  20. Formation of super-heavy elements in astrophysical nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The unexplored area of heavy neutron-rich nuclides is extremely important for the understanding of the r process of astrophysical nucleogenesis. For elements with Z>100 only neutron deficient isotopes (located to the left of the stability line) have been synthesized so far. The 'north-east' area of the nuclear map can be reached neither in fusion reactions nor in fragmentation processes. Low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions are quite promising for the production and study of neutron-rich heavy nuclei including those located at the superheavy (SH) island of stability [1]. The neutron capture process is considered here as an alternative method for the production of SH nuclei. Requirements for the pulsed reactors of the next generation that could be used for the synthesis of long-living neutron rich SH nuclei are formulated. Formation of SH nuclei in supernova explosions is also discussed and the abundance of SH elements in nature is estimated.

  1. Covered Product Category: Cool Roof Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including cool roof products, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  2. Light nuclei production in heavy ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. H. Khan; M. K. Suleymanov; Z. Wazir; E. U. Khan; Mahnaz Q. Haseeb; M. Ajaz

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Light nuclei production as a result of nuclear coalescence effect can give some signals on final state of Quark Gluon Plasma formation. We are studying the behavior of nuclear modification factor as a function of different variables using the simulated data coming from the FASTMC generator. This data is necessary to extract information on coalescence mechanism from experimental data on high energy nuclear-nuclear interactions.

  3. Coalbed Methane Procduced Water Treatment Using Gas Hydrate Formation at the Wellhead

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BC Technologies

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Water associated with coalbed methane (CBM) production is a significant and costly process waste stream, and economic treatment and/or disposal of this water is often the key to successful and profitable CBM development. In the past decade, advances have been made in the treatment of CBM produced water. However, produced water generally must be transported in some fashion to a centralized treatment and/or disposal facility. The cost of transporting this water, whether through the development of a water distribution system or by truck, is often greater than the cost of treatment or disposal. To address this economic issue, BC Technologies (BCT), in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Petroleum Environmental Consortium (IPEC), proposed developing a mechanical unit that could be used to treat CBM produced water by forming gas hydrates at the wellhead. This process involves creating a gas hydrate, washing it and then disassociating hydrate into water and gas molecules. The application of this technology results in three process streams: purified water, brine, and gas. The purified water can be discharged or reused for a variety of beneficial purposes and the smaller brine can be disposed of using conventional strategies. The overall objectives of this research are to develop a new treatment method for produced water where it could be purified directly at the wellhead, to determine the effectiveness of hydrate formation for the treatment of produced water with proof of concept laboratory experiments, to design a prototype-scale injector and test it in the laboratory under realistic wellhead conditions, and to demonstrate the technology under field conditions. By treating the water on-site, producers could substantially reduce their surface handling costs and economically remove impurities to a quality that would support beneficial use. Batch bench-scale experiments of the hydrate formation process and research conducted at ORNL confirmed the feasibility of the process. However, researchers at BCT were unable to develop equipment suitable for continuous operation and demonstration of the process in the field was not attempted. The significant achievements of the research area: Bench-scale batch results using carbon dioxide indicate >40% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor was converted to hydrate in a single pass; The batch results also indicate >23% of the feed water to the hydrate formation reactor (>50% of the hydrate formed) was converted to purified water of a quality suitable for discharge; Continuous discharge and collection of hydrates was achieved at atmospheric pressure. Continuous hydrate formation and collection at atmospheric conditions was the most significant achievement and preliminary economics indicate that if the unit could be made operable, it is potentially economic. However, the inability to continuously separate the hydrate melt fraction left the concept not ready for field demonstration and the project was terminated after Phase Two research.

  4. Radio Triggered Star Formation in Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. McNamara

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The giant galaxies located at the centers of cluster cooling flows are frequently sites of vigorous star formation. In some instances, star formation appears to have been triggered by the galaxy's radio source. The colors and spectral indices of the young populations are generally consistent with short duration bursts or continuous star formation for durations much less than 1 Gyr, which is less than the presumed ages of cooling flows. The star formation properties are inconsistent with fueling by a continuously accreting cooling flow, although the prevalence of star formation is consistent with repeated bursts and periodic refueling. Star formation may be fueled, in some cases, by cold material stripped from neighboring cluster galaxies.

  5. Potential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project Office PressPostdoctoraldecadal7 Estimated Award6,

  6. Hertz Potentials and Differential Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouas, Jeffrey David

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    , and I present techniques for introducing gauge terms of arbitrary order. Finally, I give a treatment of one application of Hertz potentials, namely calculating electromagnetic Casimir interactions for a couple of systems....

  7. Groundwater Contamination Potential from Stormwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    1 Groundwater Contamination Potential from Stormwater Infiltration Robert Pitt, University (CSOs). Introduction (cont.) · Scattered information is available addressing groundwater impacts cities · EPA 1983 NURP work on groundwater beneath Fresno and Long Island infiltration basins · NRC 1994

  8. A NEW CLASS MESOPOROUS ALUMINOPHOSPHATES AS POTENTIAL CATALYSTS IN THE UPGRADING PETROLEUM FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive investigation was conducted towards the synthesis and catalytic evaluation of high surface areas, uniform pore size, mesoporous aluminophosphates (AlPO{sub 4}) as potential catalysts for the upgrading of heavy petroleum feedstock, such as heavy crudes and petroleum residuum. The influence of several synthesis variables (including, the nature of the reactants, chemical composition of reaction mixtures, time and temperature) on the synthesis and physicochemical characteristics of the resulting products was explored. Phosphoric acid and three different aluminum sources, namely, aluminum hydroxide, aluminum isopropoxide and psuedobohemite alumina, were used as the inorganic precursors. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (C{sub 16}TACl) surfactant was used as charge compensating cation and structure directing agent in the surfactant-micellar-mediated synthesis pathway employed. Synthesis were conducted from reaction mixtures within the following typical molar composition range: xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}:P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:yC{sub 16}TMACl: zTHMAOH: wH{sub 2}O, where x = 0.29-2.34, y = 0.24-0.98, z = 0.34-1.95, w = 86-700. Selected materials were evaluated for the conversion of isopropylbenzene (cumene) in order to understand the nature of any acid sites created. The synthesis products obtained depended strongly on the molar composition of the synthesis mixture. A lamellar (layered) phase was favored by synthesis mixtures comprised of low Al/P ratios (<0.33), low TMAOH content, high C{sub 16}TACl concentrations and high synthesis temperature (110 C). Formation of the desired hexagonal (tubular) phase was favored by higher Al/P ratios and TMAOH content, pH range between 8-10, low C{sub 16}TACl concentration and ambient temperature. The aluminum source had significant influence on the products obtained. With aluminum hydroxide (A1(OH){sub 3}) as the hydroxide source, the resulting hexagonal phase in the ''as-synthesized'' form demonstrated well defined ordered mesoporous structure for synthesis mixtures of Al/P ratios in the range of 0.47-1.25, above which increasingly disordered products were observed. The products were however unstable to calcination in air above 400 C to remove the organic template, under which structural collapsed was observed. Products formed using pseudoboehmite alumina (catapal B), were more thermally stable than those formed with aluminum isopropoxide, though all products experienced some degree of structural collapsed on calcination and yielded micro- or micro-mesoporous materials ranging from low (<500 m{sup 2}/g) to high surface areas (>500 m{sup 2}/g) and pore sizes ranging from microporous (< 1.5 nm) in some products to mesoporous (up to 3.6 nm) in other. Improvement in thermal stability was not observed when Mg and Co or bridging organic functional groups were incorporated with the mesoporous framework. The products showed negligible activity for the conversion of cumene at 300 C. Further research is necessary to investigate alternative synthesis strategies to strengthen and improve the thermal stabilities of these aluminophosphates.

  9. Method for Producing Flame Retardant Porous Products and Products Produced Thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  10. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, I.O.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame. 1 fig.

  11. Method for producing flame retardant porous products and products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fire retarding porous products used for thermal energy storage and products produced thereby is provided. The method includes treating the surface of the phase change material-containing porous products with a urea fire-retarding agent. Upon exposure to a flame, the urea forms an adduct with the phase change material which will not sustain combustion (is self-extinguishing) in air. No halogens or metal oxides are contained in the fire retardant, so no potentially noxious halide smoke or fumes are emitted if the product is continuously exposed to a flame.

  12. In situ formation of cosmogenic 14 C by cosmic ray nucleons in polar ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In situ formation of cosmogenic 14 C by cosmic ray nucleons in polar ice Aleksandr Nesterenok 2011 Available online 8 October 2011 Keywords: Cosmic rays Polar ice Radiocarbon In situ production a b s t r a c t We study interactions of cosmic ray particles with the Earth's atmosphere and polar ice

  13. Volatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Ethan L.

    and Geophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA b Institute for Energy and the EnvironmentVolatile organic acids and microbial processes in the Yegua formation, east-central Texas Joyanto production of VOAs by microorganisms in mudstones, and net consumption of VOAs by SO4 reducing bacteria (SRB

  14. Formation of drug-bearing vesicles in mixed colloids of bile salts and phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hjelm, R.P.; Mang, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hofmann, A.F.; Schteingart, C. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Alkan-Onyuksel, H.; Ayd, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used small-angle neutron scattering to study drug interactions with mixed colloids of bile salt and phosphatidylcholine. Because the mixed colloids form liposomes spontaneously, this system is a model for drug-bile interactions that are important in understanding the efficacy of oral drug formulations and in advanced applications for liposome drug delivery systems. The authors studied particle formation in incorporation of enzymatic products formed in the gut and the effects of cholesteric drugs and taxol on vesicle formation. The studies show that particle morphology is not affected by inclusion of most cholesteric drugs and taxol, and is not affected by incorporation of the products of enzymatic action. The findings suggest that particle form is important for the physiological function of bile and they are beginning to show which drugs affect liposome formation.

  15. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  16. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  17. Neutron sources: Present practice and future potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cierjacks, S.; Smith, A.B.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present capability and future potential of accelerator-based monoenergetic and white neutron sources are outlined in the context of fundamental and applied neutron-nuclear research. The neutron energy range extends from thermal to 500 MeV, and the time domain from steady-state to pico-second pulsed sources. Accelerator technology is summarized, including the production of intense light-ion, heavy-ion and electron beams. Target capabilities are discussed with attention to neutron-producing efficiency and power-handling capabilities. The status of underlying neutron-producing reactions is summarized. The present and future use of neutron sources in: fundamental neutron-nuclear research, nuclear data acquisition, materials damage studies, engineering tests, and biomedical applications are discussed. Emphasis is given to current status, near-term advances well within current technology, and to long-range projections. 90 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  19. Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

  20. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  2. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  3. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  4. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  5. Theoretical Investigations on the Formation and Dehydrogenation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of boron-nitrogen-hydrogen (BNHx) compounds that are promising materials for chemical hydrogen storage. Understanding the kinetics and reaction pathways of formation of these...

  6. Japanese Computing Center Discusses Potential Collaborations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Japanese Computing Center Discusses Potential Collaborations Japanese Computing Center Discusses Potential Collaborations February 26, 2011 Representatives from Japan's Tsukuba...

  7. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Carney Field produces from Hunton Formation. All the wells produce oil, water and gas. The main objective of this study is to understand the unique behavior observed in the field. This behavior includes: (1) Decrease in WOR over time; (2) Decrease in GOR at initial stages; (3) High decline rates of oil and gas; and (4) strong hydrodynamic connectivity between wells. This report specifically addresses two issues relevant to our understanding of the West Carney reservoir. By using core and log data as well as fluorescence information, we demonstrate that our hypothesis of how the reservoir is formed is consistent with these observations. Namely, oil migrated in water wet reservoir, over time, oil changed the wettability of some part of the reservoir, oil eventually leaked to upper formations prompting re-introduction of water into reservoir. Because of change in wettability, different pore size distributions responded differently to water influx. This hypothesis is consistent with fluorescence and porosity data, as we explain it in this quarterly report. The second issue deals with how to best calculate connected oil volume in the reservoir. The log data does not necessarily provide us with relevant information regarding oil in place. However, we have developed a new material balance technique to calculate the connected oil volume based on observed pressure and production data. By using the technique to four different fields producing from Hunton formation, we demonstrate that the technique can be successfully applied to calculate the connected oil in place.

  8. Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    Marine renewable energy: potential benefits to biodiversity? An urgent call for research Richard 1 Centre for Ecology and Conservation and Peninsula Research Institute for Marine Renewable Energy driver. In response, many governments have initiated programmes of energy production from renewable

  9. from Isotope Production Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cancer-fighting treatment gets boost from Isotope Production Facility April 13, 2012 Isotope Production Facility produces cancer-fighting actinium 2:32 Isotope cancer treatment...

  10. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of December. A preliminary report shows methane content values for the desorbed coal samples ranged between 330 and 388 scf/t., on ''as received'' basis. Residual gas content of the coals was not included in the analyses, which results in an approximate 5-10% underestimation of in-situ gas content. Coal maps indicate that total coal thickness is 40-70 ft in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group in the vicinity of the Sam K. Seymour power plant. A conservative estimate indicates that methane in place for a well on 160-acre spacing is approximately 3.5 Bcf in Lower Calvert Bluff coal beds. When they receive sorption isotherm data from the laboratory, they will determine the amount of CO{sub 2} that it may be possible to sequester in Wilcox coals. In December, when the final laboratory and field test data are available, they will complete the reservoir model and begin to simulate CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CH{sub 4} production.

  11. Underground coal gasification product quality parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruggink, P.R.; Davis, B.E.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified model is described which will indicate the economic value of the raw product gas from an experimental underground coal gasification test on a real-time basis in order to aid in the optimization of the process during the course of the test. The model relates the properties of the product gas and the injection gas to the cost of producing each of five potential commercial products. This model was utilized to evaluate data during the Gulf-DOE underground coal gasification test at Rawlins, Wyoming in the fall of 1981. 6 refs.

  12. Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) - summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kjeldgaard, E.A.; Saloio, J.H.; Vannoni, M.G.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear weapons have been produced in the US since the early 1950s by a network of contractor-operated Department of Energy (DOE) facilities collectively known as the Nuclear Weapon Complex (NWC). Recognizing that the failure of an essential process might stop weapon production for a substantial period of time, the DOE Albuquerque Operations office initiated the Production Risk Evaluation Program (PREP) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess quantitatively the potential for serious disruptions in the NWC weapon production process. PREP was conducted from 1984-89. This document is an unclassified summary of the effort.

  13. Method and system for ethanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Chen, M.J.

    1980-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition metal carbonyl and a tertiary amine are employed as a homogeneous catalytic system in methanol or a less volatile solvent to react methanol with carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas producing ethanol and carbon dioxide. The gas contains a high carbon monoxide to hydrogen ratio as is present in a typical gasifier product. The reaction has potential for anhydrous ethanol production as carbon dioxide rather than water is produced. The only other significant by-product is methane. Selected transition metal carbonyls include those of iron, ruthenium and possibly manganese and osmium. Selected amines include trimethylamine, N-Methylpyrrolidine, 24-diazabicyclooctane, dimethyneopentylamine and 2-pryidinol.

  14. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Vanden Berg; Paul Anderson; Janae Wallace; Craig Morgan; Stephanie Carney

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Saline water disposal is one of the most pressing issues with regard to increasing petroleum and natural gas production in the Uinta Basin of northeastern Utah. Conventional oil fields in the basin provide 69 percent of Utah?s total crude oil production and 71 percent of Utah?s total natural gas, the latter of which has increased 208% in the past 10 years. Along with hydrocarbons, wells in the Uinta Basin produce significant quantities of saline water ? nearly 4 million barrels of saline water per month in Uintah County and nearly 2 million barrels per month in Duchesne County. As hydrocarbon production increases, so does saline water production, creating an increased need for economic and environmentally responsible disposal plans. Current water disposal wells are near capacity, and permitting for new wells is being delayed because of a lack of technical data regarding potential disposal aquifers and questions concerning contamination of freshwater sources. Many companies are reluctantly resorting to evaporation ponds as a short-term solution, but these ponds have limited capacity, are prone to leakage, and pose potential risks to birds and other wildlife. Many Uinta Basin operators claim that oil and natural gas production cannot reach its full potential until a suitable, long-term saline water disposal solution is determined. The enclosed project was divided into three parts: 1) re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer in the Uinta Basin, 2) creating a detailed geologic characterization of the Birds Nest aquifer, a potential reservoir for large-scale saline water disposal, and 3) collecting and analyzing water samples from the eastern Uinta Basin to establish baseline water quality. Part 1: Regulators currently stipulate that produced saline water must be disposed of into aquifers that already contain moderately saline water (water that averages at least 10,000 mg/L total dissolved solids). The UGS has re-mapped the moderately saline water boundary in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  15. Format requirements of thermal neutron scattering data in a nuclear data format to succeed the ENDF format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 2012, the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup 38 (WPEC-SG38) began with the task of developing a nuclear data format and supporting infrastructure to replace the now nearly 50 year old ENDF format. The first step in this process is to develop requirements for the new format and infrastructure. In this talk, I will review the status of ENDF's Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) formats as well as support for this data in the GND format (from which the new format is expected to evolve). Finally, I hope to begin a dialog with members of the thermal neutron scattering community so that their data needs can be accurately and easily accommodated by the new format and tools, as captured by the requirements document. During this discussion, we must keep in mind that the new tools and format must; Support what is in existing data files; Support new things we want to put in data files; and Be flexible enough for us to adapt it to future unanticipated challenges.

  16. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT, MOCANE-LAVERNE FIELD, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Reeves; Buckley Walsh

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1996, Advanced Resources International (ARI) began performing R&D targeted at enhancing production and reserves from natural gas fields. The impetus for the effort was a series of field R&D projects in the early-to-mid 1990's, in eastern coalbed methane and gas shales plays, where well remediation and production enhancement had been successfully demonstrated. As a first step in the R&D effort, an assessment was made of the potential for restimulation to provide meaningful reserve additions to the U.S. gas resource base, and what technologies were needed to do so. That work concluded that: (1) A significant resource base did exist via restimulation (multiples of Tcf). (2) The greatest opportunities existed in non-conventional plays where completion practices were (relatively) complex and technology advancement was rapid. (3) Accurate candidate selection is the greatest single factor that contributes to a successful restimulation program. With these findings, a field-oriented program targeted at tight sand formations was initiated to develop and demonstrate successful candidate recognition technology. In that program, which concluded in 2001, nine wells were restimulated in the Green River, Piceance and East Texas basins, which in total added 2.9 Bcf of reserves at an average cost of $0.26/Mcf. In addition, it was found that in complex and heterogeneous reservoirs (such as tight sand formations), candidate selection procedures should involve a combination of fundamental engineering and advanced pattern recognition approaches, and that simple statistical methods for identifying candidate wells are not effective. In mid-2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded ARI an R&D contract to determine if the methods employed in that project could also be applied to stripper gas wells. In addition, the ability of those approaches to identify more general production enhancement opportunities (beyond only restimulation), such as via artificial lift and compression, was also sought. A key challenge in this effort was that, whereas the earlier work suggested that better (producing) wells tended to make better restimulation candidates, stripper wells are by definition low-volume producers (either due to low pressure, low permeability, or both). Nevertheless, the potential application of this technology was believed to hold promise for enhancing production for the thousands of stripper gas wells that exist in the U.S. today. The overall procedure for the project was to select a field test site, apply the candidate recognition methodology to select wells for remediation, remediate them, and gauge project success based on the field results. This report summarizes the activities and results of that project.

  17. Indirect conversion of coal to methanol and gasoline: product price vs product slate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wham, R.M.; McCracken, D.J.; Forrester, R.C. III

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducts process analysis and engineering evaluation studies for the Department of Energy to provide, on a consistent basis, technical and economic assessments of processes and systems for coal conversion and utilization. Such assessments permit better understanding of the relative technical and economic potential of these processes. The objective of the work described here was to provide an assessment of the technical feasibility, economic competitiveness, and environmental acceptability of selected indirect coal liquefaction processes on a uniform, consistent, and impartial basis. Particular emphasis is placed on production of methanol as a principal product or methanol production for conversion to gasoline. Potential uses for the methanol are combustion in peaking-type turbines or blending with gasoline to yield motor fuel. Conversion of methanol to gasoline is accomplished through the use of the Mobil methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process. Under the guidance of ORNL, Fluor Engineers and Constructors, Houston Division, prepared four conceptual process designs for indirect conversion of a Western subbituminous coal to either methanol or gasoline. The conceptual designs are based on the use of consistent technology for the core of the plant (gasification through methanol synthesis) with additional processing as necessary for production of different liquid products of interest. The bases for the conceptual designs are given. The case designations are: methanol production for turbine-grade fuel; methanol production for gasoline blending; gasoline production with coproduction of SNG; and gasoline production maximized.

  18. Experimental constraints on the $?$-nucleus real potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Friedrich; K. Makonyi; V. Metag; D. Bayadilov; B. Bantes; R. Beck; Y. A. Beloglazov; S. Böse; K. -T. Brinkmann; Th. Challand; V. Crede; T. Dahlke; F. Dietz; P. Drexler; H. Eberhardt; D. Elsner; R. Ewald; K. Fornet-Ponse; F. Frommberger; Ch. Funke; M. Gottschall; A. Gridnev; M. Grüner; E. Gutz; Ch. Hammann; D. Hammann; J. Hannappel; J. Hartmann; W. Hillert; S. Hirenzaki; P. Hoffmeister; Ch. Honisch; I. Jaegle; D. Kaiser; H. Kalinowsky; S. Kammer; I. Keshelashvili; V. Kleber; F. Klein; B. Krusche; M. Lang; I. V. Lopatin; Y. Maghrbi; M. Nanova; H. Nagahiro; J. Müller; T. Odenthal; D. Piontek; T. Rostomyan; S. Schaepe; Ch. Schmidt; H. Schmieden; R. Schmitz; T. Seifen; A. Thiel; U. Thoma; H. van Pee; D. Walther; J. Weil; Ch. Wendel; U. Wiedner; A. Wilson; A. Winnebeck; F. Zenke

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In a search for $\\omega$ mesic states, the production of $\\omega$-mesons in coincidence with forward going protons has been studied in photon induced reactions on $^{12}$C for incident photon energies of 1250 - 3100 MeV. The $\\pi^0 \\gamma$ pairs from decays of bound or quasi-free $\\omega$-mesons have been measured with the CBELSA/TAPS detector system in coincidence with protons registered in the MiniTAPS forward array. Structures in the total energy distribution of the $\\pi^0 \\gamma$ pairs, which would indicate the population and decay of bound $\\omega~^{11}$B states, are not observed. The $\\pi^0 \\gamma$ cross section of 0.3 nb/MeV/sr observed in the bound state energy regime between -100 and 0 MeV may be accounted for by yield leaking into the bound state regime because of the large in-medium width of the $\\omega$-meson. A comparison of the measured total energy distribution with calculations suggests the real part $V_0$ of the $\\omega~^{11}$B potential to be small and only weakly attractive with $V_0(\\rho=\\rho_0) = -15\\pm$ 35(stat) $\\pm$20(syst) MeV in contrast to some theoretical predictions of attractive potentials with a depth of 100 - 150 MeV.

  19. Energy conservation in Kenya: progress, potentials, problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Hollander, J.M.; Milukas, M.; Alcamo, J.; Meyers, S.; Noll, S.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was carried out of the flows of commercial energy in the economy of Kenya. Indications were sought of the extent to which energy conservation, (i.e., increase in efficiency of energy use) has reduced the ratio of energy inputs to economic outputs, in the post-1973 years. An assessment was made of the potential for energy conservation to reduce the growth of Kenyan energy use in the future and of significant barriers to increasing energy efficiency. Consideration was given to the role of government policy and of international assistance in fostering energy conservation in Kenya and other developing countries. The study was performed by analyzing available energy data and statistics from the largest oil companies, the Kenyan electric utility, and the government. These sources were supplemented by conducting personal interviews with personnel of nearly 50 commercial firms in Kenya. Direct consumption of fuel accounts for 94% of the commercial energy use in Kenya, while electricity accounts for 6%. The sectoral division of fuel use is: transportation 53%, industry 21%, energy production 11%, agriculture 9%, buildings and residences 5%, and construction 1%. For electricity the division is: buildings and residences 48%, industry 45%, energy production 4%, agriculture 2%, and construction 1%. Recent progress in conservation is reported.

  20. anagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    -have the potential 10 increase biomass supply. Unlike metals, concrete, and plastic, forest products store carbon sources. Expanding forest biomass use for biofuels and energy generation will competeanagin Forests because Carbon Matters: In grating Energy, Products, and Land Management Policy