National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for formations depleted fields

  1. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoback, Mark; Kovscek, Anthony; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  2. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  3. Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Peak production in an oil depletion model with triangular field profiles Dudley Stark School.S.A. would occur between 1965 and 1970. Oil production in the U.S.A. actually peaked in 1970 and has been declining since then. Hubbert used a logistic curve to approximate the rate of oil production. Deffeyes [2

  4. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  5. U.S. Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubic Feet) Depleted Fields Capacity (Million Cubic

  6. Nitrogen enrichment, boron depletion and magnetic fields in slowly-rotating B-type dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Morel; S. Hubrig; M. Briquet

    2008-01-29

    Evolutionary models for massive stars, accounting for rotational mixing effects, do not predict any core-processed material at the surface of B dwarfs with low rotational velocities. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we present a detailed and fully-homogeneous, NLTE abundance analysis of 20 early B-type dwarfs and (sub)giants that reveals the existence of a population of nitrogen-rich and boron-depleted, yet intrinsically slowly-rotating objects. The low-rotation rate of several of these stars is firmly established, either from the occurrence of phase-locked UV wind line-profile variations, which can be ascribed to rotational modulation, or from theoretical modelling in the pulsating variables. The observational data presently available suggest a higher incidence of chemical peculiarities in stars with a (weak) detected magnetic field. This opens the possibility that magnetic phenomena are important in altering the photospheric abundances of early B dwarfs, even for surface field strengths at the one hundred Gauss level. However, further spectropolarimetric observations are needed to assess the validity of this hypothesis.

  7. Nitrogen enrichment, boron depletion and magnetic fields in slowly-rotating B-type dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, T; Briquet, M

    2008-01-01

    Evolutionary models for massive stars, accounting for rotational mixing effects, do not predict any core-processed material at the surface of B dwarfs with low rotational velocities. Contrary to theoretical expectations, we present a detailed and fully-homogeneous, NLTE abundance analysis of 20 early B-type dwarfs and (sub)giants that reveals the existence of a population of nitrogen-rich and boron-depleted, yet intrinsically slowly-rotating objects. The low-rotation rate of several of these stars is firmly established, either from the occurrence of phase-locked UV wind line-profile variations, which can be ascribed to rotational modulation, or from theoretical modelling in the pulsating variables. The observational data presently available suggest a higher incidence of chemical peculiarities in stars with a (weak) detected magnetic field. This opens the possibility that magnetic phenomena are important in altering the photospheric abundances of early B dwarfs, even for surface field strengths at the one hund...

  8. Ozone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3 to a wide span of NOx and VOC emission changes. Properly constrained and well-evaluated modelsOzone production efficiency and NOx depletion in an urban plume: Interpretation of field observations and implications for evaluating O3-NOx-VOC sensitivity Rahul A. Zaveri,1 Carl M. Berkowitz,1

  9. Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column heights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, Mark

    Calculation of CO2 column heights in depleted gas fields from known pre-production gas column that the CO2 is in a dense phase (either liquid or supercritical). Accurate assessment of the storage capacity also requires an estimation of the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored beneath the reservoir seal

  10. Naked Singularity formation in scalar field collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rituparno Goswami; Pankaj S Joshi

    2004-10-28

    We construct here a class of collapsing scalar field models with a non-zero potential, which result in a naked singularity as collapse end state. The weak energy condition is satisfied by the collapsing configuration. It is shown that physically it is the rate of collapse that governs either the black hole or naked singularity formation as the final state for the dynamical evolution. It is seen that the cosmic censorship is violated in dynamical scalar field collapse.

  11. Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01

    The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

  12. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a function of time and proximity of the bubble boundary to the well. For all simulations reported here, with a formation radius above 50 m the maximum methane composition in the produced gas phase was less than 0.5%. This report provides an initial investigation of CAES in a depleted natural gas reservoir, and the results will provide useful guidance in CAES system investigation and design in the future.

  13. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  14. Formation of nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device. The process enables the formation of high aspect ratio, electroplated nanofilament structure devices for field emission displays wherein a via is formed in a dielectric layer and is self-aligned to a via in the gate metal structure on top of the dielectric layer. The desired diameter of the via in the dielectric layer is on the order of 50-200 nm, with an aspect ratio of 5-10. In one embodiment, after forming the via in the dielectric layer, the gate metal is passivated, after which a plating enhancement layer is deposited in the bottom of the via, where necessary. The nanofilament is then electroplated in the via, followed by removal of the gate passification layer, etch back of the dielectric, and sharpening of the nanofilament. A hard mask layer may be deposited on top of the gate metal and removed following electroplating of the nanofilament.

  15. Quasi Light Fields: A Model of Coherent Image Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi, Anthony J.

    We develop a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the simplicity of the light field and the comprehensive predictive power of Maxwell's equations, by extending the light field to coherent radiation.

  16. PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY WEAK, MISALIGNED MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krumholz, Mark R.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Hull, Charles L. H.

    2013-04-10

    The gas from which stars form is magnetized, and strong magnetic fields can efficiently transport angular momentum. Most theoretical models of this phenomenon find that it should prevent formation of large (>100 AU), rotationally supported disks around most protostars, even when non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects that allow the field and gas to decouple are taken into account. Using recent observations of magnetic field strengths and orientations in protostellar cores, we show that this conclusion is incorrect. The distribution of magnetic field strengths is very broad, and alignments between fields and angular momentum vectors within protostellar cores are essentially random. By combining the field strength and misalignment data with MHD simulations showing that disk formation is expected for both weak and misaligned fields, we show that these observations imply that we should expect disk fractions of {approx}10%-50% even when protostars are still deeply embedded in their parent cores, and even if the gas is governed by ideal MHD.

  17. Tail-ion transport and Knudsen layer formation in the presence of magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmit, P. F. [Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1186, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, MS 1186, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States); Molvig, Kim; Nakhleh, C. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B259, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B259, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Knudsen layer losses of tail fuel ions could reduce significantly the fusion reactivity of highly compressed cylindrical and spherical targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the class of magnetized ICF targets in mind, the effect of embedded magnetic fields on Knudsen layer formation is investigated for the first time. The modified energy scaling of ion diffusivity in magnetized hot spots is found to suppress the preferential losses of tail-ions perpendicular to the magnetic field lines to a degree that the tail distribution can be at least partially, if not fully, restored. Two simple threshold conditions are identified leading to the restoration of fusion reactivity in magnetized hot spots. A kinetic equation for tail-ion transport in the presence of a magnetic field is derived, and solutions to the equation are obtained numerically in simulations. Numerical results confirm the validity of the threshold conditions for restored reactivity and identify two different asymptotic regimes of the fusion fuel. While Knudsen layer formation is shown to be suppressed entirely in strongly magnetized cylindrical hot spot cavities, uniformly magnetized spherical cavities demonstrate remnant, albeit reduced, levels of tail-ion depletion.

  18. Primordial magnetic fields and formation of molecular hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiv K Sethi; Biman B. Nath; Kandaswamy Subramanian

    2008-04-22

    We study the implications of primordial magnetic fields for the thermal and ionization history of the post-recombination era. In particular we compute the effects of dissipation of primordial magnetic fields owing to ambipolar diffusion and decaying turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the collapsing halos and compute the effects of the altered thermal and ionization history on the formation of molecular hydrogen. We show that, for magnetic field strengths in the range $2 \\times 10^{-10} {\\rm G} \\la B_0 \\la 2 \\times 10^{-9} {\\rm G}$, the molecular hydrogen fraction in IGM and collapsing halo can increase by a factor 5 to 1000 over the case with no magnetic fields. We discuss the implication of the increased molecular hydrogen fraction on the radiative transfer of UV photons and the formation of first structures in the universe.

  19. On spontaneous formation of current sheets: Untwisted magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States); Low, B. C.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    This is a study of the spontaneous formation of electric current sheets in an incompressible viscous fluid with perfect electrical conductivity, governed by the magnetohydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical solutions to two initial value problems are presented for a three-dimensional, periodic, untwisted magnetic field evolving, with no change in magnetic topology under the frozen-in condition and at characteristic fluid Reynolds numbers of the order of 500, from a nonequilibrium initial state with the fluid at rest. The evolution converts magnetic free energy into kinetic energy to be all dissipated away by viscosity so that the field settles into a minimum-energy, static equilibrium. The solutions demonstrate that, as a consequence of the frozen-in condition, current sheets must form during the evolution despite the geometric simplicity of the prescribed initial fields. In addition to the current sheets associated with magnetic neutral points and field reversal layers, other sheets not associated with such magnetic features are also in evidence. These current sheets form on magnetic flux surfaces. This property is used to achieve a high degree of the frozen-in condition in the simulations, by describing the magnetic field entirely in terms of the advection of its flux surfaces and integrating the resulting governing equations with a customized version of a general-purpose high-resolution (viz., nonoscillatory) hydrodynamical simulation code EULAG [J. M. Prusa et al., Comput. Fluids 37, 1193 (2008)]. Incompressibility imposes the additional global constraint that the flux surfaces must evolve with no change in the spatial volumes they enclose. In this approach, current sheet formation is demonstrated graphically by the progressive pressing together of suitably selected flux surfaces until their separation has diminished below the minimal resolved distance on a fixed grid. The frozen-in condition then fails in the simulation as the field reconnects through an effecting numerical resistivity. The principal results are related to the Parker theory of current-sheet formation and dissipation in the solar corona.

  20. Study of the electric field formation in a multi-cusped magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui, E-mail: hlying@gmail.com; Yu, Daren, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [Lab of Plasma Propulsion, Mail Box 458, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Huan; Zhao, Yinjian; Ma, Chengyu; Wang, Di; Wei, Haoyu [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology (HIT), Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-15

    The multi-cusped field thruster is a kind of electric thruster adopting a cusped magnetic field to achieve a potentially longer lifetime. It is observed in some experiments that the main electric potential drop forms near the exhaust plane, but the formation mechanism of the electric field in this kind of thrusters is not fully clear yet. Based on the analysis of the electron movement, a 2D Particle-in-Cell plus Monte Carlo model is built to reveal the difference of the constraint to electrons between the central leak path and the lateral region of the thruster. Electron trajectories from cathode are analyzed furthermore. It is found that the central leak path inside the discharge channel may play a significant role in the formation of the main electric potential drop near the exhaust plane.

  1. Approaches to identifying reservoir heterogeneity and reserve growth opportunities from subsurface data: The Oficina Formation, Budare field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, D.S.; Raeuchle, S.K.; Holtz, M.H.

    1997-08-01

    We applied an integrated geologic, geophysical, and engineering approach devised to identify heterogeneities in the subsurface that might lead to reserve growth opportunities in our analysis of the Oficina Formation at Budare field, Venezuela. The approach involves 4 key steps: (1) Determine geologic reservoir architecture; (2) Investigate trends in reservoir fluid flow; (3) Integrate fluid flow trends with reservoir architecture; and (4) Estimate original oil-in-place, residual oil saturation, and remaining mobile oil, to identify opportunities for reserve growth. There are three main oil-producing reservoirs in the Oficina Formation that were deposited in a bed-load fluvial system, an incised valley-fill, and a barrier-strandplain system. Reservoir continuity is complex because, in addition to lateral facies variability, the major Oficina depositional systems were internally subdivided by high-frequency stratigraphic surfaces. These surfaces define times of intermittent lacustrine and marine flooding events that punctuated the fluvial and marginal marine sedimentation, respectively. Syn and post depositional faulting further disrupted reservoir continuity. Trends in fluid flow established from initial fluid levels, response to recompletion workovers, and pressure depletion data demonstrated barriers to lateral and vertical fluid flow caused by a combination of reservoir facies pinchout, flooding shale markers, and the faults. Considerable reserve growth potential exists at Budare field because the reservoir units are highly compartment by the depositional heterogeneity and structural complexity. Numerous reserve growth opportunities were identified in attics updip of existing production, in untapped or incompletely drained compartments, and in field extensions.

  2. Depleted Uranium Technical Brief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depleted Uranium Technical Brief United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Air and Radiation Washington, DC 20460 EPA-402-R-06-011 December 2006 #12;#12;Depleted Uranium Technical Brief EPA of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division ii #12;iii #12;FOREWARD The Depleted Uranium

  3. Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north polar region of Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourke, Mary C.

    Dune field pattern formation and recent transporting winds in the Olympia Undae Dune Field, north dune crestlines, with apparent slipfaces on the primary crests, ubiquitous wind ripples, areas of coarsegrained wind ripples, and deflated interdune areas. Geomorphic evidence and dune field pattern analysis

  4. Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    LETTERS Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields Stuart M, dissolu- tion in formation water at a pH of 5­5.8 is the sole major sink for CO2. In two fields dissolved in water. Noble gas and CO2 carbon isotopes are powerful tracers of crustal fluid processes

  5. On formation of equation of state of evolving quantum field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Leonidov; A. A. Radovskaya

    2014-12-13

    Stylized model of evolution of matter created in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered. Systematic procedure of computing quantum corrections in the framework of Keldysh formalism is formulated. Analytical expressions for formation of equations of state taking into account leading quantum corrections is worked out, complete description of subleasing corrections and analytical expressions for some of them is presented.

  6. Diagenesis within the deep Tuscaloosa formation, Profit Island field, Louisiana 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudder, Karen Ann Gilchrist

    1982-01-01

    The lower Tuscaloosa Formation of south-central Louisiana is a prolific and highly potential deep gas reservoir. Of particular interest are the unusually high porosity and permeability values for the age, depth, and temperature of the rocks. In the Profit... hydrocarbon accumulation and production in reservoirs, particularly from such unusually porous and permeable rocks. THE TUSCALOOSA TREND Regional Setting The deep Tuscaloosa trend encompasses an area of south-central Louisiana measuring approximately 200...

  7. Identification and characterization of Hydraulic Flow Units in the San Juan Formation, Orocual Field, Venezuela 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deghirmandjian, Odilia

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the integration of core and well log data in order to provide a petrophysical characterization of the Hydraulic Flow Units (HFU) in the San Juan Formation, Orocual Field, Venezuela. We used three separate approaches...

  8. Simulation of an atomistic dynamic field theory for monatomic liquids: Freezing and glass formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Martin

    Simulation of an atomistic dynamic field theory for monatomic liquids: Freezing and glass formation regime. The thermodynamics and dynamics of freezing and glass formation in this model system are studied.70.P , 64.70.D , 61.43. j, 81.05.Kf When a simple liquid is supercooled below its freezing temperature

  9. Eubank Field, Kansas: a formation evaluation and secondary recovery project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dexheimer, Dominique

    1999-01-01

    of the wells in this field have well logs, five wells were cored, and a 26 square-mile, 3-D seismic survey was performed in 1995. I have summarized all of the data available to date-well logs, production data, core data, PVT data, pressure transient tests...

  10. Spatial mapping of ices in the Oph-F core: A direct measurement of CO depletion and the formation of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. M. Pontoppidan

    2006-05-22

    Aims: Ices in dense star-forming cores contain the bulk of volatile molecules apart from H2 and thus represent a large fraction of dark cloud chemistry budget.To directly constrain the freeze-out profile of CO, the formation route of CO2 and the carrier of the 6.8 micron band, the spatial distribution of the CO/CO2 ice system and the 6.8 micron band carrier are measured in a nearby dense core. Methods: VLT-ISAAC, ISOCAM-CVF and Spitzer-IRS archival mid-infrared (3-20 micron) spectroscopy of young stellar objects is used to construct a map of the abundances of CO and CO2 ices in the Oph-F star-forming core, probing core radii from 2 10^3 to 14 10^3 AU or densities from 5 10^4 to 5 10^5 cm^-3 with a resolution of ~ 3000 AU. Results: The line-of-sight averaged abundances relative to water ice of both CO and CO2 ices increase monotonously with decreasing distance to the core center. The map traces the shape of the CO abundance profile between freeze-out ratios of 5-60% and shows that the CO2 ice abundance increases by a factor of 2 as the CO freezes out. It is suggested that this indicates a formation route of CO2 on a CO ice surface to produce a CO2 component dilute in CO ice, in addition to a fraction of the CO2 formed at lower densities along with the water ice mantle. It is predicted that the CO2 bending mode band profile should reflect a high CO:CO2 number ratio in the densest parts of dark clouds. In contrast to CO and CO2, the abundance of the carrier of the 6.8 micron band remains relatively constant throughout the core. A simple freeze-out model of the CO abundance profile is used to estimate the binding energy of CO on a CO ice surface to 814+/-30 K.

  11. Plasma-gun-assisted field-reversed configuration formation in a conical ?-pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, T. E. Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.

    2015-04-15

    Injection of plasma via an annular array of coaxial plasma guns during the pre-ionization phase of field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation is shown to catalyze the bulk ionization of a neutral gas prefill in the presence of a strong axial magnetic field and change the character of outward flux flow during field-reversal from a convective process to a much slower resistive diffusion process. This approach has been found to significantly improve FRC formation in a conical ?-pinch, resulting in a ?350% increase in trapped flux at typical operating conditions, an expansion of accessible formation parameter space to lower densities and higher temperatures, and a reduction or elimination of several deleterious effects associated with the pre-ionization phase.

  12. DOES MAGNETIC-FIELD-ROTATION MISALIGNMENT SOLVE THE MAGNETIC BRAKING CATASTROPHE IN PROTOSTELLAR DISK FORMATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhiyun [Astronomy Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien [Academia Sinica, Theoretical Institute for Advanced Research in Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Stars form in dense cores of molecular clouds that are observed to be significantly magnetized. In the simplest case of a laminar (non-turbulent) core with the magnetic field aligned with the rotation axis, both analytic considerations and numerical simulations have shown that the formation of a large, 10{sup 2} AU scale, rotationally supported protostellar disk is suppressed by magnetic braking in the ideal MHD limit for a realistic level of core magnetization. This theoretical difficulty in forming protostellar disks is termed the ''magnetic braking catastrophe''. A possible resolution to this problem, proposed by Hennebelle and Ciardi and Joos et al., is that misalignment between the magnetic field and rotation axis may weaken the magnetic braking enough to enable disk formation. We evaluate this possibility quantitatively through numerical simulations. We confirm the basic result of Joos et al. that the misalignment is indeed conducive to disk formation. In relatively weakly magnetized cores with dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio {approx}> 4, it enabled the formation of rotationally supported disks that would otherwise be suppressed if the magnetic field and rotation axis are aligned. For more strongly magnetized cores, disk formation remains suppressed, however, even for the maximum tilt angle of 90 Degree-Sign . If dense cores are as strongly magnetized as indicated by OH Zeeman observations (with a mean dimensionless mass-to-flux ratio {approx}2), it would be difficult for the misalignment alone to enable disk formation in the majority of them. We conclude that, while beneficial to disk formation, especially for the relatively weak field case, misalignment does not completely solve the problem of catastrophic magnetic braking in general.

  13. UAV Formation Flight using 3D Potential Field Tobias Paul Thomas R. Krogstad Jan Tommy Gravdahl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    UAV Formation Flight using 3D Potential Field Tobias Paul Thomas R. Krogstad Jan Tommy Gravdahl ESG aerial vehicles (UAVs). Based on a virtual leader approach, combined with an extended local potential a group of UAVs based on a simplified small-scale helicopter, which is simulated in MATLABTM /Simulink

  14. Spheromak merging and field reversed configuration formation at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experimenta...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael R.

    configuration FRC 2 is a high com- pact toroidal CT plasma. In its idealized form, it has closed, purely. Plasmas 6, 1717 1999 are reported. In its new configuration, SSX is optimized to study field reversed configuration FRC formation and stability by counter-helicity spheromak merging. A pair of midplane coils

  15. Formation of temperature fields in doped anisotropic crystals under spatially inhomogeneous light beams passing through them

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, E. V.; Markelov, A. S.; Trushin, V. N., E-mail: trushin@phys.unn.ru; Chuprunov, E. V. [Nizhni Novgorod State University (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The features of formation of thermal fields in potassium dihydrophosphate crystal doped with potassium permanganate under a 532-nm laser beam passing through it have been investigated. Data on the influence of birefringence on the temperature distribution in an anisotropic crystal whose surface is illuminated by a spatially modulated light beam are presented.

  16. Filament formation in wind-cloud interactions. I. Spherical clouds in uniform magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banda-Barragán, Wladimir; Federrath, Christoph; Crocker, Roland; Bicknell, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, yet their formation, internal structure, and longevity have not been studied in detail. We report the results from a comprehensive numerical study that investigates the characteristics, formation, and evolution of filaments arising from magnetohydrodynamic interactions between supersonic winds and dense clouds. Here we improve on previous simulations by utilising sharper density contrasts and higher numerical resolutions. By following multiple density tracers, we find that material in the envelopes of the clouds is removed and deposited downstream to form filamentary tails, while the cores of the clouds serve as footpoints and late-stage outer layers of these tails. Aspect ratios >12, subsonic velocity dispersions ~0.1-0.3 of the wind sound speed, and magnetic field amplifications ~100 are found to be characteristic of these filaments. We also report the effects of different magnetic field strengths and orientations. The magnetic field strength...

  17. Formation and steady-state maintenance of field reversed configuration using rotating magnetic field current drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    , the FRC simply expanded until it contacted the plasma tube wall.1­3 This resulted in relatively cold,a) and G. R. Votroubek Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington to both form and maintain field reversed configurations FRC in quasisteady state. These experiments differ

  18. The impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse: filament formation and magnetic field amplification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Peters; Dominik R. G. Schleicher; Ralf S. Klessen; Robi Banerjee; Christoph Federrath; Rowan J. Smith; Sharanya Sur

    2012-09-26

    Stars form by the gravitational collapse of interstellar gas. The thermodynamic response of the gas can be characterized by an effective equation of state. It determines how gas heats up or cools as it gets compressed, and hence plays a key role in regulating the process of stellar birth on virtually all scales, ranging from individual star clusters up to the galaxy as a whole. We present a systematic study of the impact of thermodynamics on gravitational collapse in the context of high-redshift star formation, but argue that our findings are also relevant for present-day star formation in molecular clouds. We consider a polytropic equation of state, P = k rho^Gamma, with both sub-isothermal exponents Gamma 1. We find significant differences between these two cases. For Gamma > 1, pressure gradients slow down the contraction and lead to the formation of a virialized, turbulent core. Weak magnetic fields are strongly tangled and efficiently amplified via the small-scale turbulent dynamo on timescales corresponding to the eddy-turnover time at the viscous scale. For Gamma < 1, on the other hand, pressure support is not sufficient for the formation of such a core. Gravitational contraction proceeds much more rapidly and the flow develops very strong shocks, creating a network of intersecting sheets and extended filaments. The resulting magnetic field lines are very coherent and exhibit a considerable degree of order. Nevertheless, even under these conditions we still find exponential growth of the magnetic energy density in the kinematic regime.

  19. Carrier field shock formation of long wavelength femtosecond pulses in dispersive media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panagiotopoulos, Paris; Kolesik, Miroslav; Moloney, Jerome V

    2015-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate the formation of carrier field shocks in various dispersive media for a wide variety of input conditions using two different electric field propagation models. In addition, an investigation of the impact of numerous physical effects on carrier wave shock is performed. It is shown that in many cases a field shock is essentially unavoidable and therefore extremely important in the propagation of intense long wavelength pulses in weakly dispersive nonlinear media such as noble gases, air, and single-crystal diamond. The results presented here are expected to have a significant impact in the field of ultrashort nonlinear optics, attosecond pulse generation, and wavepacket synthesis where the use of mid-IR wavelengths is becoming increasingly more important.

  20. Depositional environment of the Yates Formation in Kermit Field, Winkler County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gormican, Sheila Catherine

    1988-01-01

    VITA 95 98 101 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page Location of Winkler County relative to the tectonic provinces of the Permian Basin, and enlargement of the county to show the location of Kermit Field. St. ratigraphic column of the Delaware Basin... are tapped. The citations on the following pages follow the style and format of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists )iuiiBtin Geologic Framework Winkler County is located on the boundary between the Central Basin Platform and the Delaware...

  1. Ozone Depletion 2. O 3 generation and depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    Ozone Depletion Outline: 1. O 3 , O 2 evolution 2. O 3 generation and depletion 3. Antarctic ozone 2 converted to ozone via: O 2 h#23; ! 2O #3; O #3; +O 2 ! O 3 + heat #15; O 3 absorbs near #21;#1;l #15; Decreasing l increases transmittance Imagine all ozone in atmosphere forming a thin layer

  2. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through superposition of force-free magnetic fields: Periodic boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India)] [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)] [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    In ideal magnetohydrodynamics characterized by an infinite electrical conductivity, the magnetic flux across an arbitrary fluid surface is conserved in time. The magnetofluid then can be partitioned into contiguous subvolumes of fluid, each of which entraps its own subsystem of magnetic flux. During dynamical evolution of the magnetofluid, these subvolumes press into each other; and in the process, two such subvolumes may come into direct contact while ejecting a third interstitial subvolume. Depending on the orientations of magnetic fields of the two interacting subvolumes, the magnetic field at the common surface of interaction may become discontinuous and a current sheet is formed there. This process of current sheet formation and their subsequent decay is believed to be a plausible mechanism for coronal heating and may also be responsible for various eruptive phenomena at the solar corona. In this work, we explore this theoretical concept through numerical simulations of a viscous, incompressible magnetofluid characterized by infinite electrical conductivity. In particular, we show that if the initial magnetic field is prescribed by superposition of two linear force-free fields with different torsion coefficients, then formation of current sheets are numerically realizable in the neighborhood of magnetic nulls.

  3. Low virial parameters in molecular clouds: Implications for high-mass star formation and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffmann, Jens; Pillai, Thushara [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goldsmith, Paul F., E-mail: jens.kauffmann@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: tpillai@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    Whether or not molecular clouds and embedded cloud fragments are stable against collapse is of utmost importance for the study of the star formation process. Only 'supercritical' cloud fragments are able to collapse and form stars. The virial parameter ? = M {sub vir}/M, which compares the virial mass to the actual mass, provides one way to gauge stability against collapse. Supercritical cloud fragments are characterized by ? ? 2, as indicated by a comprehensive stability analysis considering perturbations in pressure and density gradients. Past research has suggested that virial parameters ? ? 2 prevail in clouds. This would suggest that collapse toward star formation is a gradual and relatively slow process and that magnetic fields are not needed to explain the observed cloud structure. Here, we review a range of very recent observational studies that derive virial parameters <<2 and compile a catalog of 1325 virial parameter estimates. Low values of ? are in particular observed for regions of high-mass star formation (HMSF). These observations may argue for a more rapid and violent evolution during collapse. This would enable 'competitive accretion' in HMSF, constrain some models of 'monolithic collapse', and might explain the absence of high-mass starless cores. Alternatively, the data could point at the presence of significant magnetic fields ?1 mG at high gas densities. We examine to what extent the derived observational properties might be biased by observational or theoretical uncertainties. For a wide range of reasonable parameters, our conclusions appear to be robust with respect to such biases.

  4. Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune fields: Influence of dune formation and collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasner, Karl B.

    Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune fields: Influence of dune formation December 2008 Accepted 6 February 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Sand dune Dune field Dune field model Dune collision Coarsening Coalescence Theoretical models which approximate individual sand dunes

  5. Formation, spin-up, and stability of field-reversed configurations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Omelchenko, Yuri A.

    2015-08-24

    Formation, spontaneous spin-up and stability of theta-pinch formed field-reversed configurations are studied self-consistently in three dimensions with a multiscale hybrid model that treats all plasma ions as full-orbit collisional macro-particles and the electrons as a massless quasineutral fluid. The end-to-end hybrid simulations for the first time reveal poloidal profiles of implosion-driven fast toroidal plasma rotation and demonstrate three well-known discharge regimes as a function of experimental parameters: the decaying stable configuration, the tilt unstable configuration and the nonlinear evolution of a fast growing tearing mode.

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of the upper San Andres and Grayburg formations, Waddell Field, Crane County, Texas: implications for hydrocarbon reservoir distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinsonnault, Scott Michael

    1996-01-01

    and migrates towards the eastern margin of the field, higher in the stratigraphy. The Grayburg sequence model divides the formation into two highfrequency cycles which correspond to Guadalupian 14 and 15 high-frequency cycles on the Northwest Shelf based...

  7. Authigenic clay minerals in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group: Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, Waha Field, West Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walling, Suzette Denise

    1992-01-01

    AUTHIGENIC CLAY MINERALS IN SANDSTONES OF THE DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP: BELL CANYON AND CHERRY CANYON FORMATIONS, WAHA FIELD, WEST TEXAS A Thesis by SUZETTE DENISE WALLING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Geology AUTHIGENIC CLAY MINERALS IN SANDSTONES OF THE DELAWARE MOUNTAIN GROUP: BELL CANYON AND CHERRY CANYON FORMATIONS, WAHA FIELD, WEST TEXAS...

  8. Three-dimensional fluvial-deltaic sequence stratigraphy Pliocene-Recent Muda Formation, Belida Field, West Natuna Basin, Indonesia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darmadi, Yan

    2007-04-25

    -1 THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUVIAL-DELTAIC SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY PLIOCENE-RECENT MUDA FORMATION, BELIDA FIELD, WEST NATUNA BASIN, INDONESIA A Thesis by YAN DARMADI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Geophysics THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUVIAL-DELTAIC SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY PLIOCENE-RECENT MUDA FORMATION, BELIDA FIELD...

  9. Working Gas Capacity of Depleted Fields

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan3Additions (Million2.8 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 1993-201496,092

  10. Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage Capacity

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Marthrough 1996) in Nevada (Millionthroughthrough

  11. Z .Physica C 320 1999 101114 Formation of the low-field peak in magnetization loops of high-Tc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    Z .Physica C 320 1999 101­114 Formation of the low-field peak in magnetization loops of high form 19 April 1999; accepted 24 May 1999 Abstract Z . Z .The positions of the central low-field peak of the central peak with other ``peak effects'' observed in MHLs. q 1999 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All

  12. Feedback Regulated Turbulence, Magnetic Fields, and Star Formation Rates in Galactic Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chang-Goo

    2015-01-01

    We use three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to investigate the quasi-equilibrium states of galactic disks regulated by star formation feedback. We incorporate effects from massive-star feedback via time-varying heating rates and supernova (SN) explosions. We find that the disks in our simulations rapidly approach a quasi-steady state that satisfies vertical dynamical equilibrium. The star formation rate (SFR) surface density self-adjusts to provide the total momentum flux (pressure) in the vertical direction that matches the weight of the gas. We quantify feedback efficiency by measuring feedback yields, \\eta_c\\equiv P_c/\\Sigma_SFR (in suitable units), for each pressure component. The turbulent and thermal feedback yields are the same for HD and MHD simulations, \\eta_th~1 and \\eta_ turb~4, consistent with the theoretical expectations. In MHD simulations, turbulent magnetic fields are rapidly generated by turbulence, and saturate at a level corresponding to \\eta_mag,t~1. The presence of magn...

  13. A continental clastic depositional model for the Permian Unayzah formation, Hawtah field, central Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heine, C.J. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01

    The Permian Unayzah Formation lies unconformably on the Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation. The pre-Unayzah unconformity (PUU) represents a Hercynian tectonic event responsible for uplift and erosion representing 100-150 m.y. worth of missing section along the Hawtah Trend. Overlying the PUU, the Unayzah clastic sequence is comprised of locally sourced sediments from the adjacent paleotopography. Above the thin veneer of locally sourced sediments is a more regionally sourced, confined braided stream sequence, which completely backfills the existing paleotopography. Once the paleotopographic surface had been leveled, the depositional environment changed from a confined braided stream to a broad braided plain. Within this sequence of vertically stacked and laterally migrating braided plain sediments, the bulk of the reservoirs within the Hawtah field are contained. As the transgressive Khuff seas continue to encroach on the Unayzah depositional system, the upper-most sediments of the broad braided plan environment are reworked by transgressive coastal processes. The resulting reworked shoreface and shallow-marine facies are genetically related to the Khuff transgression and lie unconformably on the Unayzah continental clastics.

  14. THE FORMATION OF A MAGNETIC CHANNEL BY THE EMERGENCE OF CURRENT-CARRYING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, Jongchul; Jing Ju; Wang Haimin; Wiegelmann, Thomas E-mail: jcchae@snu.ac.k

    2010-08-10

    A magnetic channel-a series of polarity reversals separating elongated flux threads with opposite polarities-may be a manifestation of a highly non-potential magnetic configuration in active regions. To understand its formation, we have carried out a detailed analysis of the magnetic channel in AR 10930 using data taken by the Solar Optical Telescope/Hinode. As a result, we found upflows (-0.5 to -1.0 km s{sup -1}) and downflows (+1.5 to +2.0 km s{sup -1}) inside and at both tips of the thread, respectively, and a pair of strong vertical currents of opposite polarity along the channel. Moreover, our analysis of the nonlinear force-free fields constructed from the photospheric magnetic field indicates that the current density in the lower corona may have gradually increased as a result of the continuous emergence of the highly sheared flux along the channel. With these results, we suggest that the magnetic channel originates from the emergence of the twisted flux tube that has formed below the surface before the emergence.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT z {approx} 0.9 IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Nagao, T.; Matsubayashi, K.; Riguccini, L.; Aida, Y.; Ideue, Y.; Murayama, T.

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the fraction of [O II] emitters in galaxies at z {approx} 0.9 as a function of the local galaxy density in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) COSMOS 2 deg{sup 2} field. [O II] emitters are selected by the narrowband excess technique with the NB711-band imaging data taken with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru telescope. We carefully selected 614 photo-z-selected galaxies with M{sub U3500} < -19.31 at z = 0.901 - 0.920, which includes 195 [O II] emitters, to directly compare the results with our previous study at z {approx} 1.2. We found that the fraction is almost constant at 0.3 Mpc{sup -2} < {Sigma}{sub 10th} < 10 Mpc{sup -2}. We also checked the fraction of galaxies with blue rest-frame colors of NUV - R < 2 in our photo-z-selected sample, and found that the fraction of blue galaxies does not significantly depend on the local density. On the other hand, the semi-analytic model of galaxy formation predicted that the fraction of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 0.9 decreases with increasing projected galaxy density even if the effects of the projection and the photo-z error in our analysis were taken into account. The fraction of [O II] emitters decreases from {approx}60% at z {approx} 1.2 to {approx}30% at z {approx} 0.9 independent of galaxy environment. The decrease of the [O II] emitter fraction could be explained mainly by the rapid decrease of star formation activity in the universe from z {approx} 1.2 to z {approx} 0.9.

  16. A wide angle tail radio galaxy in the COSMOS field: evidence for cluster formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Smolcic; E. Schinnerer; A. Finoguenov; I. Sakelliou; C. L. Carilli; C. S. Botzler; M. Brusa; N. Scoville; M. Ajiki; P. Capak; L. Guzzo; G. Hasinger; C. Impey; K. Jahnke; J. S. Kartaltepe; H. J. McCracken; B. Mobasher; T. Murayama; S. S. Sasaki; Y. Shioya; Y. Taniguchi; J. R. Trump

    2006-11-17

    We have identified a complex galaxy cluster system in the COSMOS field via a wide angle tail (WAT) radio galaxy consistent with the idea that WAT galaxies can be used as tracers of clusters. The WAT galaxy, CWAT-01, is coincident with an elliptical galaxy resolved in the HST-ACS image. Using the COSMOS multiwavelength data set, we derive the radio properties of CWAT-01 and use the optical and X-ray data to investigate its host environment. The cluster hosting CWAT-01 is part of a larger assembly consisting of a minimum of four X-ray luminous clusters within ~2 Mpc distance. We apply hydrodynamical models that combine ram pressure and buoyancy forces on CWAT-01. These models explain the shape of the radio jets only if the galaxy's velocity relative to the intra-cluster medium (ICM) is in the range of about 300-550 km/s which is higher than expected for brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in relaxed systems. This indicates that the CWAT-01 host cluster is not relaxed, but is possibly dynamically young. We argue that such a velocity could have been induced through subcluster merger within the CWAT-01 parent cluster and/or cluster-cluster interactions. Our results strongly indicate that we are witnessing the formation of a large cluster from an assembly of multiple clusters, consistent with the hierarchical scenario of structure formation. We estimate the total mass of the final cluster to be approximately 20% of the mass of the Coma cluster.

  17. Field-reversed configuration formation scheme utilizing a spheromak and solenoid induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji, Hantao

    -organized plasmas.12­15 A key area of research in CT plasmas is the formation of the configuration. The formation expand the use- fulness of the configuration for basic and applied plasma science research. In this paper

  18. The facies, depositional environment, and cyclicity of the Queen Formation (Guadalupian, Permian), North Ward-Estes Field, Ward County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eide, Michael Gary

    1993-01-01

    , and stratigraphic relationships within the Queen Formation in the North Ward-Estes Field. The Queen consists of interbedded carbonates, clastics, and rare evaporites that werc deposited on the inner shelf and adjacent coastal plain of the Delaware Basin. Seven... of the Permian Basin region. Cross-sectional representation of Late Permian stratigraphic relationships in the Delaware Basin (modified al'ter Ward, et al. , 1986). 3 Map showing the location of the study area in the North Ward- Estes Field, Ward County...

  19. Naked singularity and black hole formation in self-similar Einstein-scalar fields with exponential potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xuefeng Zhang; Xinliang An

    2015-10-22

    Motivated by cosmic censorship in general relativity and string theory, we extend Christodoulou's celebrated examples of naked singularity formation in the Einstein-massless scalar field system to include a positive or negative scalar potential of exponential forms, i.e., $V(\\phi)=\\pm\\exp(2\\phi/\\kappa)$ with a parameter $\\kappa$. Under spherical symmetry and a self-similar ansatz depending on $\\kappa$, we derive a 3-dimensional autonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations, which incorporates the equations for massless scalar fields as a special case. Local behavior of the phase space is studied analytically with global solutions constructed numerically. Within the 3-dimensional solution manifold, we observe, for the negative potentials, naked singularity formation from nonsingular initial data for $\\kappa^2naked singularities and black holes are also identified. However, when the potential is taken positive, numerical evolutions result in formation of black holes, but not naked singularities.

  20. The effect of wind speedup in the formation of transverse dune fields Hiroshi Momiji *, **, Ricardo CarreteroGonz'alez***,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The effect of wind speedup in the formation of transverse dune fields Hiroshi Momiji *, **, Ricardo to a uni­directional wind regime, is developed. In a previous formulation, two distinct problems were found is overcome by introducing a wind speedup factor, which can be accounted for by adding a term to the original

  1. Constitutive models for the Etchegoin Sands, Belridge Diatomite, and overburden formations at the Lost Hills oil field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOSSUM,ARLO F.; FREDRICH,JOANNE T.

    2000-04-01

    This report documents the development of constitutive material models for the overburden formations, reservoir formations, and underlying strata at the Lost Hills oil field located about 45 miles northwest of Bakersfield in Kern County, California. Triaxial rock mechanics tests were performed on specimens prepared from cores recovered from the Lost Hills field, and included measurements of axial and radial stresses and strains under different load paths. The tested intervals comprise diatomaceous sands of the Etchegoin Formation and several diatomite types of the Belridge Diatomite Member of the Monterey Formation, including cycles both above and below the diagenetic phase boundary between opal-A and opal-CT. The laboratory data are used to drive constitutive parameters for the Extended Sandler-Rubin (ESR) cap model that is implemented in Sandia's structural mechanics finite element code JAS3D. Available data in the literature are also used to derive ESR shear failure parameters for overburden formations. The material models are being used in large-scale three-dimensional geomechanical simulations of the reservoir behavior during primary and secondary recovery.

  2. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  3. Role of the H$_2^+$ channel in the primordial star formation under strong radiation field and the critical intensity for the supermassive star formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugimura, Kazuyuki; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Galli, Daniele; Palla, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the role of the H_2^+ channel on H_2 molecule formation during the collapse of primordial gas clouds immersed in strong radiation fields which are assumed to have the shape of a diluted black-body spectra with temperature T_rad. Since the photodissociation rate of H_2^+ depends on its level population, we take full account of the vibrationally-resolved H_2^+ kinetics. We find that in clouds under soft but intense radiation fields with spectral temperature T_rad 7000 K, the H^- channel takes over H_2^+ in the production of molecular hydrogen. We calculate the critical radiation intensity needed for supermassive star formation by direct collapse and examine its dependence on the H_2^+ level population. Under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) level population, the critical intensity is underestimated by a factor of a few for soft spectra with T_rad < 7000 K. For harder spectra, the value of the critical intensity is not affected by the level population of H_2^+. This resu...

  4. Naked singularity and black hole formation in self-similar Einstein-scalar fields with exponential potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xuefeng

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by cosmic censorship in general relativity and string theory, we extend Christodoulou's celebrated examples of naked singularity formation in the Einstein-massless scalar field system to include a positive or negative scalar potential of exponential forms, i.e., $V(\\phi)=\\pm\\exp(2\\phi/\\kappa)$ with a parameter $\\kappa$. Under spherical symmetry and a self-similar ansatz depending on $\\kappa$, we derive a 3-dimensional autonomous system of first-order ordinary differential equations, which incorporates the equations for massless scalar fields as a special case. Local behavior of the phase space is studied analytically with global solutions constructed numerically. Within the 3-dimensional solution manifold, we observe, for the negative potentials, naked singularity formation from nonsingular initial data for $\\kappa^2naked singularities and black holes are also identified. However, when the potential is taken positive, numerical evolutions r...

  5. Shock formation processes due to interactions of two plasmas in a magnetic field and modified two-stream instabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toida, Mieko; Uragami, Tatsunori [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)] [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    The study of interactions of exploding and surrounding plasmas in an external magnetic field [K. Yamauchi and Y. Ohsawa, Phys. Plasmas 14, 053110 (2007)] is verified with two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic particle simulations, for a case in which the initial velocity of the exploding plasma is perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The 2D simulations show essentially the same shock-formation processes as those in the previous one-dimensional simulation, including penetration of exploding ions into surrounding plasma, formation of a strong magnetic-field pulse due to deceleration of the exploding ions, ion reflection by the pulse, and subsequent splitting of the pulse into two magnetosonic pulses which then develop into forward and reverse shock waves. Furthermore, the 2D structure of electromagnetic fields in the region, where the exploding and surrounding ions overlap, is investigated with particular attention to the linear and nonlinear evolution of modified two-stream instabilities in the magnetic field that is being gradually compressed. The effects of these instabilities on ion reflection and on 2D magnetic fluctuations in the two generated pulses are also discussed.

  6. Formation of seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leifer, Ira; Culling, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California. Marof seep bubble plumes in the Coal Oil Point seep field Irameasurement system in the Coal Oil Point seep field in the

  7. Reservoir Characterization and Modeling of the Glorieta and the Clearfork Formations, Monahans Field, Permian Basin, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeatman, Ryan Yeatman

    2012-10-19

    facies model, porosity model, and a siltstone model were generated in Petrel to better characterize the Monahans Field reservoir. Interbedded impermeable siltstone beds in Monahans Field partition the reservoir making oil production and water injection...

  8. Lithium depletion and the rotational history of exoplanet host stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jerome Bouvier

    2008-09-03

    Israelian et al. (2004) reported that exoplanet host stars are lithium depleted compared to solar-type stars without detected massive planets, a result recently confirmed by Gonzalez (2008). We investigate whether enhanced lithium depletion in exoplanet host stars may result from their rotational history. We have developed rotational evolution models for slow and fast solar-type rotators from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the age of the Sun and compare them to the distribution of rotational periods observed for solar-type stars between 1 Myr and 5 Gyr. We show that slow rotators develop a high degree of differential rotation between the radiative core and the convective envelope, while fast rotators evolve with little core-envelope decoupling. We suggest that strong differential rotation at the base of the convective envelope is responsible for enhanced lithium depletion in slow rotators. We conclude that lithium-depleted exoplanet host stars were slow rotators on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) and argue that slow rotation results from a long lasting star-disk interaction during the PMS. Altogether, this suggests that long-lived disks (> 5 Myr) may be a necessary condition for massive planet formation/migration.

  9. Evaluation of water production in tight gas sands in the Cotton Valley formation in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozobeme, Charles Chinedu

    2007-04-25

    in the Elm Grove and Caspiana fields. 3 Fig. 1.2: Distribution of Cotton Valley Reservoirs across East Texas and North Louisiana. (Source - Collins 2 ) CV Lime Producing Trend. CV Blanket Sands . Good porosity and permeability..., no fracturing required. CV Massive Sands . Low permeability and porosity, require fracturing. CV Sand Fields. CV Lime Fields. 4 1.2 The Cotton Valley Formation in Northwest Louisiana The Cotton Valley formation is a tight gas sand play...

  10. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ``waste,`` but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity.

  11. Formation and eruption of an active region sigmoid. I. A study by nonlinear force-free field modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Feng, Xueshang [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, S. T.; Hu, Qiang, E-mail: cwjiang@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: wus@uah.edu, E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the formation and eruption of an active region (AR) sigmoid in AR 11283. To follow the quasi-static evolution of the coronal magnetic field, we reconstruct a time sequence of static fields using a recently developed nonlinear force-free field model constrained by vector magnetograms. A detailed analysis of the fields compared with observations suggests the following scenario for the evolution of the region. Initially, a new bipole emerges into the negative polarity of a preexisting bipolar AR, forming a null-point topology between the two flux systems. A weakly twisted flux rope (FR) is then built up slowly in the embedded core region, largely through flux cancellation, forming a bald patch separatrix surface (BPSS). The FR grows gradually until its axis runs into a torus instability (TI) domain, and the BPSS also develops a full S-shape. The combined effects of the TI-driven expansion of the FR and the line tying at the BP tear the FR into two parts with the upper portion freely expelled and the lower portion remaining behind the postflare arcades. This process dynamically perturbs the BPSS and results in the enhanced heating of the sigmoid and the rope. The accelerated expansion of the upper-portion rope strongly pushes its envelope flux near the null point and triggers breakout reconnection at the null, which further drives the eruption. We discuss the important implications of these results for the formation and disruption of the sigmoid region with an FR.

  12. Formation of current filaments and magnetic field generation in a quantum current-carrying plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R.; Taghadosi, M. R.; Majedi, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.

    2013-09-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of filamentation instability and magnetic field in a current-carrying plasma is investigated in the presence of quantum effects using the quantum hydrodynamic model. A new nonlinear partial differential equation is obtained for the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic field in the diffusion regime. This equation is solved by applying the Adomian decomposition method, and then the profiles of magnetic field and electron density are plotted. It is shown that the saturation time of filamentation instability increases and, consequently, the instability growth rate and the magnetic field amplitude decrease in the presence of quantum effects.

  13. The dependence of potential well formation on the magnetic field strength and electron injection current in a polywell device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, S., E-mail: cornish@physics.usyd.edu.au; Gummersall, D.; Carr, M.; Khachan, J. [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    A capacitive probe has been used to measure the plasma potential in a polywell device in order to observe the dependence of potential well formation on magnetic field strength, electron injection current, and polywell voltage bias. The effectiveness of the capacitive probe in a high energy electron plasma was determined by measuring the plasma potential of a planar diode with an axial magnetic field. The capacitive probe was translated along the axis of one of the field coils of the polywell, and the spatial profile of the potential well was measured. The confinement time of electrons in the polywell was estimated with a simple analytical model which used the experimentally observed potential well depths, as well as a simulation of the electron trajectories using particle orbit theory.

  14. Depositional facies and hydrocarbon reservoir compartmentalization of the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation at King Field, Jefferson County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leetaru, H.E. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

    1991-08-01

    King field has produced over 4 million bbl of oil from the Mississippian Aux Vases Formation along a north-south-trending anticlinal structure 3 mi long and 1.5 mi wide. The porous and permeable quartz sandstone, which comprises the principal hydrocarbon reservoir, can grade laterally into nonporous calcareous sandstone, siltstone, shale, or limestone within one well location (660 ft). The Aux Vases Formation at King field was deposited in an intertidal to subtidal, mixed siliciclastic-carbonate environment, and the resulting mosaic of depositional facies significantly affects reservoirs continuity. Impermeable to only slightly permeable siltstones, shales, and limestones of the various offshore facies, and shales and siltstones of the tidal-flat facies separate the producing sandstones of a tidal channel-offshore bar facies into distinct reservoir compartments. This reservoir heterogeneity results in an oil-water contact at various depths across the field. Lateral compartmentalization of the reservoir has allowed large sections of the Aux Vases reservoir to remain unswept by waterflooding. Volumetric analyses suggest that untapped reservoir compartments may contain an additional 1-2 million bbl of oil recoverable by primary and waterflood methods.

  15. Depositional environment of the "stringer sand" member, Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous), Mallalieu field, Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Billy Charles

    1968-01-01

    with the lower Unit being subdivided into an upper "sand and shale section" a middle "marine section", and a lower "massive sand section". The Mississippi Geological Society (1957) subdivided the subsurface Tuscaloosa Group into the Upper, Marine, and Lower...) described the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of southern Mississippi as a unit of "rapidly alternating sands and shales of shallow marine origin, overlying a nearly unbroken sand sec- tion of still shallower marine or continental origin". Braunstein ai. so...

  16. Formation of Moving Magnetic Features and Penumbral Magnetic Fields with Hinode/SOT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahito Kubo; Kiyoshi Ichimoto; Toshifumi Shimizu; Saku Tsuneta; Yoshinori Suematsu; Yukio Katsukawa; Shin'ichi Nagata; Theodore D Tarbell; Richard A Shine; Alan M Title; Zoe A Frank; Bruce W Lites; David Elmore

    2007-09-12

    Vector magnetic fields of moving magnetic features (MMFs) are well observed with the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard the Hinode satellite. We focus on the evolution of three MMFs with the SOT in this study. We found that an MMF having relatively vertical fields with polarity same as the sunspot is detached from the penumbra around the granules appeared in the outer penumbra. This suggests that granular motions in the outer penumbra are responsible for the disintegration of the sunspot. Two MMFs with polarity opposite to the sunspot are located around the outer edge of horizontal fields extending from the penumbra. This is an evidence that the MMFs with polarity opposite to the sunspot are prolongation of penumbral horizontal fields. Radshifts larger than sonic velocity in the photosphere are detected for some of the MMFs with polarity opposite to the sunspot.

  17. Depleted argon from underground sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  18. Beneficial Uses of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States); Croff, A.G.; Haire, M. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring uranium contains 0.71 wt% {sup 235}U. In order for the uranium to be useful in most fission reactors, it must be enriched the concentration of the fissile isotope {sup 235}U must be increased. Depleted uranium (DU) is a co-product of the processing of natural uranium to produce enriched uranium, and DU has a {sup 235}U concentration of less than 0.71 wt%. In the United States, essentially all of the DU inventory is in the chemical form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and is stored in large cylinders above ground. If this co-product material were to be declared surplus, converted to a stable oxide form, and disposed, the costs are estimated to be several billion dollars. Only small amounts of DU have at this time been beneficially reused. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the Beneficial Uses of DU Project to identify large-scale uses of DU and encourage its reuse for the primary purpose of potentially reducing the cost and expediting the disposition of the DU inventory. This paper discusses the inventory of DU and its rate of increase; DU disposition options; beneficial use options; a preliminary cost analysis; and major technical, institutional, and regulatory issues to be resolved.

  19. SIMULATION OF THE EFFECT OF WIND SPEEDUP IN THE FORMA-TION OF TRANSVERSE DUNE FIELDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carretero, Ricardo

    SIMULATION OF THE EFFECT OF WIND SPEEDUP IN THE FORMA- TION OF TRANSVERSE DUNE FIELDS HIROSHI 21 February 2000; Accepted 25 February 2000 ABSTRACT A computer simulation model for transverse-dune distinct problems were found regarding the cross-sectional dune shape, namely

  20. PETROPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE SECONDARY RECOVERY POTENTIAL IN THE CHERRY CANYON FORMATION NE LEA FIELD LEA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Scott Hickman

    2002-06-01

    Read and Stevens has proposed the evaluation of the waterflood potential from the Cherry Canyon formation in the NE Lea Field in lea County, New Mexico. Much of the development in this area is approaching primary recovery limitations; additional recovery of remaining oil reserves by waterflood needs to be evaluated. The Cherry Canyon formation is composed of fine grained sandstone, containing clay material which results in high water saturation, and also has the tendency to swell and reduce reservoir permeability--the ability of fluid to flow through the rock pores and fractures. There are also abundant organic materials that interfere with obtaining reliable well logs. These complications have limited oil in place calculations and identification of net pay zones, presenting a challenge to the planned waterflood. Core analysis of the Cherry Canyon should improve the understanding of existing well logs and possibly indicate secondary recovery measures, such as waterflood, to enhance field recovery. Lacking truly representative core to provide accurate analyses, Read and Stevens will obtain and preserve fresh core. The consulting firm of T. Scott Hickman and Associates will then collaborate on special core analyses and obtain additional well logs for a more detailed analysis of reservoir properties. The log interpretation will be compared to the core analysis results, and the entire collected data set will be used to assess the potential and economic viability of successfully waterflooding the identified oil zones. Successful results from the project will improve accuracy of log interpretation and establish a methodology for evaluating secondary recovery by waterflood.

  1. Method for formation of high quality back contact with screen-printed local back surface field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Meemongkolkiat, Vichai (Atlanta, GA)

    2010-11-30

    A thin silicon solar cell having a back dielectric passivation and rear contact with local back surface field is described. Specifically, the solar cell may be fabricated from a crystalline silicon wafer having a thickness from 50 to 500 micrometers. A barrier layer and a dielectric layer are applied at least to the back surface of the silicon wafer to protect the silicon wafer from deformation when the rear contact is formed. At least one opening is made to the dielectric layer. An aluminum contact that provides a back surface field is formed in the opening and on the dielectric layer. The aluminum contact may be applied by screen printing an aluminum paste having from one to 12 atomic percent silicon and then applying a heat treatment at 750 degrees Celsius.

  2. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-12-16

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  3. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2007-02-20

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  4. Formation of a field reversed configuration for magnetic and electrostatic confinement of plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rostoker, Norman; Binderbauer, Michl; Qerushi, Artan; Tahsiri, Hooshang

    2006-02-07

    A system and method for containing plasma and forming a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) magnetic topology are described in which plasma ions are contained magnetically in stable, non-adiabatic orbits in the FRC. Further, the electrons are contained electrostatically in a deep energy well, created by tuning an externally applied magnetic field. The simultaneous electrostatic confinement of electrons and magnetic confinement of ions avoids anomalous transport and facilitates classical containment of both electrons and ions. In this configuration, ions and electrons may have adequate density and temperature so that upon collisions they are fused together by nuclear force, thus releasing fusion energy. Moreover, the fusion fuel plasmas that can be used with the present confinement system and method are not limited to neutronic fuels only, but also advantageously include advanced fuels.

  5. Utilizing weak pump depletion to stabilize squeezed vacuum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timo Denker; Dirk Schütte; Maximilian H. Wimmer; Trevor A. Wheatley; Elanor H. Huntington; Michèle Heurs

    2015-03-10

    We propose and demonstrate a pump-phase locking technique that makes use of weak pump depletion (WPD) - an unavoidable effect that is usually neglected - in a sub-threshold optical parametric oscillator (OPO). We show that the phase difference between seed and pump beam is imprinted on both light fields by the non-linear interaction in the crystal and can be read out without disturbing the squeezed output. Our new locking technique allows for the first experimental realization of a pump-phase lock by reading out the pre-existing phase information in the pump field. There is no degradation of the detected squeezed states required to implement this scheme.

  6. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of the Queen Formation, Millard Field, Pecos County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Matt Brian

    1984-01-01

    Major tectonic features of the Permian Basin and location of the study area (from McKee, 1967). Cross section of depositional facies of the Delaware Basin in Guadalupian time (from Messiner, 1972) Composite well log from Millard Field, Pecos County... has been the site of deposition since the Paleozo1c. During Pennsylvan1an t1me the region was separated 1nto two basins, the Delaware and Midland basins, by the uplift of the Central Basin Platform (McKee, 1967). Tectonic activity around...

  7. Depleted uranium: A DOE management guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. The annual storage and maintenance cost is approximately $10 million. This report summarizes several studies undertaken by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) to evaluate options for long-term depleted uranium management. Based on studies conducted to date, the most likely use of the depleted uranium is for shielding of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or vitrified high-level waste (HLW) containers. The alternative to finding a use for the depleted uranium is disposal as a radioactive waste. Estimated disposal costs, utilizing existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion, depending on factors such as applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the location of the disposal site. The cost of recycling the depleted uranium in a concrete based shielding in SNF/HLW containers, although substantial, is comparable to or less than the cost of disposal. Consequently, the case can be made that if DOE invests in developing depleted uranium shielded containers instead of disposal, a long-term solution to the UF{sub 6} problem is attained at comparable or lower cost than disposal as a waste. Two concepts for depleted uranium storage casks were considered in these studies. The first is based on standard fabrication concepts previously developed for depleted uranium metal. The second converts the UF{sub 6} to an oxide aggregate that is used in concrete to make dry storage casks.

  8. Reservoir characterization of multiple-bar sandstones in the Mississippian Cypress Formation, Tamaroa Field, Perry County, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grube, J.P. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Tamaroa field produces principally from lenticular sandstones in the upper part of the Chesterian Cypress Formation. These sandstone bodies, interpreted to be marine bars, are typically less than 10 ft thick, 0.25 to 0.5 mi wide,and less than 2 mi long. The bars are vertically stacked and trend northeast-southwest in an en echelon pattern. Spontaneous potential and gamma ray log character, as well as core data, show that shales ranging in thickness from 10 ft to less than 1 ft separate the sandstones. Hydrocarbons are produced from the clean parts of the bars that drape across three structural folds. Multiple structural closures and the stacking of shale-separated bars create discrete reservoir compartments in Tamaroa field. Understanding reservoir compartmentalization is a key factor in designing and infill drilling or waterflood program in a multiple-bar complex such as the one at Tamaroa field. Optimum recovery efficiency therefore can be achieved by using a detailed reservoir model.

  9. Depositional environment of the Yates Formation in Kermit Field, Winkler County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, S.G. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Yates Formation (Permian Guadalupian) is a series of alternating clastic and carbonate units deposited on a shallow marine shelf in repetitive cycles: (1) a mottled, anhydritic dolomite at the base, (2) an overlying oxidized wind-blown very fine-grained sand and silt, (3) a bioturbated, but otherwise massive, sandstone, and (4) an uppermost massive dolomite containing oolites or skeletal material. A typical cycle is 10-20 ft thick. Deposition of the Yates was controlled by fluctuations in sea level governed by glacial activity and local tectonics. During sea level low stands, carbonates were dolomitized and displaced by anhydrite. This was followed by deposition of wind-blown sediments creating planar horizontal laminae and exposure features (desiccation cracks, tepee structures, and adhesion ripples). During sea level high stands, dunes an the platform were deposited as sheet sands. Lastly, a carbonate layer was deposited before sea level dropped and another cycle began. Sands were transported to the Central Basin platform as eolian dunes from the Pedernal highlands of central New Mexico. Wind direction for the Permian is documented as south-southeast based on mapping of sand dunes in the southwestern US. Quartz size in the clastics ranges from 0.03-0.11 mm, averaging 0.07 mm. The sandstones are homogeneous, well sorted, and most quartz grains are frosted. Except for planar wind laminae, these units contain only indistinct primary sedimentary structures, constrained by small grain size and grain size uniformity within beds. The clastics are 52% monocrystalline quartz, 17% feldspar, 4% rock fragments, 5% other minerals, and 22% matrix (dolomite in the carbonates and authigenic clays in the clastics).

  10. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Depleted Reservoir Storage...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Depleted Reservoir Storage Configuration About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Depleted Production...

  11. Fundamental differences between Arctic and Antarctic ozone depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solomon, Susan

    Antarctic ozone depletion is associated with enhanced chlorine from anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons and heterogeneous chemistry under cold conditions. The deep Antarctic “hole” contrasts with the generally weaker depletions ...

  12. DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at Ohio and Kentucky Facilities DOE Seeks Contractor for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Operations at...

  13. Use of a hard mask for formation of gate and dielectric via nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR)

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device in which a via in a dielectric layer is self-aligned to gate metal via structure located on top of the dielectric layer. By the use of a hard mask layer located on top of the gate metal layer, inert to the etch chemistry for the gate metal layer, and in which a via is formed by the pattern from etched nuclear tracks in a trackable material, a via is formed by the hard mask will eliminate any erosion of the gate metal layer during the dielectric via etch. Also, the hard mask layer will protect the gate metal layer while the gate structure is etched back from the edge of the dielectric via, if such is desired. This method provides more tolerance for the electroplating of a nanofilament in the dielectric via and sharpening of the nanofilament.

  14. Final Report on Development of Optimized Field-Reversed Configuration Plasma Formation Techniques for Magnetized Target Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, Alan

    2013-11-01

    The University of New Mexico (UNM) proposed a collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to develop and test methods for improved formation of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas relevant to magnetized target fusion (MTF) energy research. MTF is an innovative approach for a relatively fast and cheap path to the production of fusion energy that utilizes magnetic confinement to assist in the compression of a hot plasma to thermonuclear conditions by an external driver. LANL is currently pursing demonstration of the MTF concept via compression of an FRC plasma by a metal liner z-pinch in conjunction with the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM. A key physics issue for the FRC's ultimate success as an MTF target lies in the initial pre-ionization (PI) stage. The PI plasma sets the initial conditions from which the FRC is created. In particular, the PI formation process determines the amount of magnetic flux that can be trapped to form the FRC. A ringing theta pinch ionization (RTPI) technique, such as currently used by the FRX-L device at LANL, has the advantages of high ionization fraction, simplicity (since no additional coils are required), and does not require internal electrodes which can introduce impurities into the plasma. However RTPI has been shown to only trap #24;50% of the initial bias flux at best and imposes additional engineering constraints on the capacitor banks. The amount of trapped flux plays an important role in the FRC's final equilibrium, transport, and stability properties, and provides increased ohmic heating of the FRC through induced currents as the magnetic field decays. Increasing the trapped flux also provides the route to greatest potential gains in FRC lifetime, which is essential to provide enough time to translate and compress the FRC effectively. In conjunction with LANL we initially planned to develop and test a microwave break- down system to improve the initial PI plasma formation. The UNM team would design the microwave optics and oversee the fabrication and assembly of all components and assist with integration into the FRX-L machine control system. LANL would provide a preexisting 65 kW X-band microwave source and some associated waveguide hardware. Once constructed and installed, UNM would take the lead in operating the microwave breakdown system and conducting studies to optimize its use in FRC PI formation in close cooperation with the needs of the LANL MTF team. In conjunction with our LANL collaborators, we decided after starting the project to switch from a microwave plasma breakdown approach to a plasma gun technology to use for enhanced plasma formation in the FRX-L field-reversed configuration experiment at LANL. Plasma guns would be able to provide significantly higher density plasma with greater control over its distribution in time and space within the experiment. This would allow greater control and #12;ne-tuning of the PI plasma formed in the experiment. Multiple plasma guns would be employed to fill a Pyrex glass test chamber (built at UNM) with plasma which would then be characterized and optimized for the MTF effort.

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Rajesh Kunjithaya; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Niall Avison; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2002-03-31

    Progress is reported for the period from January 1, 2002 to March 31, 2002. Technical design and budget for a larger (60-acre, 24.3 ha) CO2 demonstration project are being reviewed by the US DOE for approval. While this review process is being conducted, work is proceeding on well testing to obtain reservoir properties and on the VIP reservoir simulation model to improve model prediction and better understand the controls that certain parameters exert on predicted performance. In addition, evaluation of the economics of commercial application in the surrounding area was performed. In a meeting on January 14, 2002 the possibility of staging the demonstration, starting with a 10-acre sub-pattern flood was raised and the decision made to investigate this plan in detail. The influence of carbon dioxide on oil properties and the influence of binary interaction parameters (BIP) used in the VIP simulator were investigated. VIP calculated swelling factors are in good agreement with published values up to 65% mole-fraction CO2. Swelling factor and saturated liquid density are relatively independent of the BIP over the range of BIPs used (0.08-0.15) up to 65% mole-fraction CO2. Assuming a CO2 EOR recovery rate projected as being most likely by current modeling, commercial scale CO2 flooding at $20/BO is possible in the leases in Hall-Gurney field. Relatively small floods (240-320 acres, 4-6 patterns) are economically viable at $20/BO in areas of very high primary and secondary productivity (>14 MBO/net acre recovery). Leases with moderately high primary and secondary productivity (> 10 MBO/net acre recovery) can be economic when combined with high productivity leases to form larger floods (>640 acres, 9 or more patterns).

  16. The New MCNP6 Depletion Capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, Michael Lorne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; James, Michael R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hendricks, John S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goorley, John T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-19

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. Both the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes have historically provided a successful combinatorial geometry based, continuous energy, Monte Carlo radiation transport solution for advanced reactor modeling and simulation. However, due to separate development pathways, useful simulation capabilities were dispersed between both codes and not unified in a single technology. MCNP6, the next evolution in the MCNP suite of codes, now combines the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. We describe here the new capabilities of the MCNP6 depletion code dating from the official RSICC release MCNPX 2.6.0, reported previously, to the now current state of MCNP6. NEA/OECD benchmark results are also reported. The MCNP6 depletion capability enhancements beyond MCNPX 2.6.0 reported here include: (1) new performance enhancing parallel architecture that implements both shared and distributed memory constructs; (2) enhanced memory management that maximizes calculation fidelity; and (3) improved burnup physics for better nuclide prediction. MCNP6 depletion enables complete, relatively easy-to-use depletion calculations in a single Monte Carlo code. The enhancements described here help provide a powerful capability as well as dictate a path forward for future development to improve the usefulness of the technology.

  17. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  18. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup ?3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 ?s. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  19. Formation of gas-phase peroxides in a rural atmosphere: An interpretation of the recent SOS/SERON field results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.H.; Tang, I.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Weinstein-Lloyd, J.B. [State Univ. of New York, Old Westbury, NY (United States). Chemistry/Physics Dept.

    1993-09-01

    Hydrogen perioxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and certain organic peroxides such as hydroxymethyl-hydroperoxide (HMHP), are gas-phase oxidants present in the atmosphere at ppbv concentration levels. These oxidants play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In addition, precipitation containing H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is toxic to trees, and it has also been suggested that organic peroxides formed presumably by ozone reactions with biogenic alkenes are responsible for leaf disorders. Recently, we have developed a nonenzymatic method or aqueous-phase H{sub 2}O{sub 2} measurement, using Fenton reagent and fluorescent hydroxy- benzoic acid. The new method, in conjunction with the well-known method of p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and horseradish peroxidase for total peroxides, and together with an improved gas scrubber to mitigate sampling line problems, has been successfully deployed in recent SOS/SERON field measurements in rural Georgia. For the first time, continuously measured and speciated gas-phase peroxide data have become available, making it possible to examine some aspects of the ozone chemistry leading to the formation of these oxidants. It is observed that daily H{sub 2}O{sub 2} maximum frequently occurs at a different time than does HMHP, and that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, but not HMHP, tends to correlate with solar fluxes measured at the same location. These findings seem to indicate that the formation mechanisms for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and organic peroxides are basically different. It is likely that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is formed from radical-radical recombination, while HMHP is formed by ozone-alkene reactions. Since the gas-phase ozone-alkene reactions are usually too slow to account for the diurnal concentration variations observed for HMHP, heterogeneous processes involving ozone and alkenes are also a possibility.

  20. field

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    09%2A en Ten-Year Site Plans (TYSP) http:www.nnsa.energy.govaboutusouroperationsinfopsinfopstysp

    field field-type-text field-field-page-name">
  1. Inhibition of lytic infection of pseudorabies virus by arginine depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Kao, Y.-C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chang, T-J. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wong, M.-L. [Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlwong@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2005-08-26

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a member of Alphahepesviruses; it is an enveloped virus with a double-stranded DNA genome. Polyamines (such as spermine and spermidine) are ubiquitous in animal cells and participate in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Previous results of our laboratory showed that the PRV can accomplish lytic infection either in the presence of exogenous spermine (or spermidine) or depletion of cellular polyamines. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. In this work, we investigated the role of arginine in PRV infection. It was found that the plaque formation of PRV was inhibited by arginase (enzyme catalyzing the conversion of arginine into ornithine and urea) treatment whereas this inhibition can be reversed by exogenous arginine, suggesting that arginine is essential for PRV proliferation. Western blotting was conducted to study the effect of arginine depletion on the levels of structural proteins of PRV in virus-infected cells. Four PRV structural proteins (gB, gE, UL47, and UL48) were chosen for examination, and results revealed that the levels of viral proteins were obviously reduced in long time arginase treatment. However, the overall protein synthesis machinery was apparently not influenced by arginase treatment either in mock or PRV-infected cells. Analyzing with native gel, we found that arginase treatment affected the mobility of PRV structural proteins, suggesting the conformational change of viral proteins by arginine depletion. Heat shock proteins, acting as molecular chaperons, participate in protein folding and translocation. Our results demonstrated that long time arginase treatment could reduce the expression of cellular heat shock proteins 70 (hsc70 and hsp70), and transcriptional suppression of heat shock protein 70 gene promoter was one of the mechanisms involved in this reduced expression.

  2. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil

  3. Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Nuclear conflict and ozone depletion Quick summary o Regional nuclear war could cause global which traps pollutants o Nuclear weapons cause explosions, which then causes things around the vicinity to start burning, which in turn releases black carbon; it is not the nuclear material or fallout causing

  4. Integrated Core-based Sequence Stratigraphy, Chemostratigraphy and Diagenesis of the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian), Biyadh and Shu'aiba Formations, a Giant Oil Field, Saudi Arabia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alghamdi, Nasser Mohammad S.

    2013-07-29

    -1 INTEGRATED CORE-BASED SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY, CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY AND DIAGENESIS OF THE LOWER CRETACEOUS (BARREMIAN?APTIAN), BIYADH AND SHU'AIBA FORMATIONS, A GIANT OIL FIELD, SAUDI ARABIA A Dissertation by NASSER MOHAMMAD S. AL-GHAMDI Submitted... .......................................................................... 13 Methodology and Data Sets ........................................................... 16 Facies Description .......................................................................... 19 Sequence Stratigraphy...

  5. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  6. Megacity impacts on regional ozone formation: observations and WRF-Chem modeling for the MIRAGE-Shanghai field campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    Tie, X. : Analysis of ozone and VOCs measured in Shanghai: AMegacity impacts on regional ozone formation terminations inand Tie, X. : Study of ozone “weekend effect” in Shanghai,

  7. Assessment of Preferred Depleted Uranium Disposal Forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.; Hightower, J.R.; Lee, D.W.; Michaels, G.E.; Ranek, N.L.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of converting about 700,000 metric tons (MT) of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) containing 475,000 MT of depleted uranium (DU) to a stable form more suitable for long-term storage or disposal. Potential conversion forms include the tetrafluoride (DUF4), oxide (DUO2 or DU3O8), or metal. If worthwhile beneficial uses cannot be found for the DU product form, it will be sent to an appropriate site for disposal. The DU products are considered to be low-level waste (LLW) under both DOE orders and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of the potential DU conversion products at potential LLW disposal sites to provide a basis for DOE decisions on the preferred DU product form and a path forward that will ensure reliable and efficient disposal.

  8. Modeling Multiple Time Scales during Glass Formation with Phase-Field Crystals Joel Berry and Martin Grant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grant, Martin

    describe several aspects of glass formation over multiple time scales. Agreement with mode coupling theory is related to the liquid bulk modulus, qi sets the equilibrium distance between particles of the same species) The dynamics of glass formation in monatomic and binary liquids are studied numerically using a microscopic

  9. A new probe of magnetic fields during high-mass star formation: Zeeman splitting of 6.7 GHz methanol masers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. H. T. Vlemmings

    2008-04-07

    Context: The role of magnetic fields during high-mass star formation is a matter of fierce debate, yet only a few direct probes of magnetic field strengths are available. Aims: The magnetic field is detected in a number of massive star-forming regions through polarization observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. Although these masers are the most abundant of the maser species occurring during high-mass star formation, most magnetic field measurements in the high-density gas currently come from OH and H2 O maser observations. Methods: The 100-m Effelsberg telescope was used to measure the Zeeman splitting of 6.7 GHz methanol masers for the first time. The observations were performed on a sample of 24 bright northern maser sources. Results: Significant Zeeman splitting is detected in 17 of the sources with an average magnitude of 0.56 m/s . Using the current best estimate of the 6.7 GHz methanol maser Zeeman splitting coefficient and a geometrical correction, this corresponds to an absolute magnetic field strength of 23 mG in the methanol maser region. Conclusions: The magnetic field is dynamically important in the dense maser regions. No clear relation is found with the available OH maser magnetic field measurements. The general sense of direction of the magnetic field is consistent with other Galactic magnetic field measurements, although a few of the masers display a change of direction between different maser features. Due to the abundance of methanol masers, measuring their Zeeman splitting provides the opportunity to construct a comprehensive sample of magnetic fields in high-mass star-forming regions.

  10. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  11. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  12. Number of Existing Natural Gas Depleted Fields Storage

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb MarthroughFeet)Feet) YearThousand81Nuclear >

  13. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 000, 116 (2007) Printed 15 January 2008 (MN LATEX style file v2.2) The effect of magnetic fields on star cluster formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    into stars over the course of the calculations and a more quiescent mode of star formation. There is also or are the subject of vigourous debate. One of the key areas of uncertainty is whether or not star formation.2) The effect of magnetic fields on star cluster formation Daniel J. Price and Matthew R. Bate School of Physics

  14. Brightening of 630.0 nm equatorial spread-F airglow depletions Carlos Martinis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendillo, Michael

    , above the bright feature recorded by the all-sky imager, indicating a possible connection between both occurs. One possible interpretation of this change in the brightness of the depleted structure involves electric fields and winds are medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) [Hunsucker, 1982

  15. Sequence stratigraphic controls of hydrocarbon reservoir architecture - case study of Late Permian (Guadalupian) Queen Formation, Means Field, Andrews County, Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Changsu

    2004-09-30

    The late Permian Queen Formation (115 m thick) is a succession of mixed clastics, carbonates and evaporites deposited in the northeastern margin of Central Basin Platform of the Permian Basin, west Texas, USA. Depositional facies, stacking patterns...

  16. The facies, environments of deposition and cyclicity of the Yates Formation, North Ward-Estes field, Ward County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Ronnie Delane

    1997-01-01

    The Yates Formation is part of the Artesia Group, a sequence of interbedded carbonates, clastics and evaporates that was deposited across the back-reef shelves of the Permian basin in Late Permian (Upper Guadalupian) time. The Artesia Group...

  17. Depositional environment of the Monserrate Formation: Palogrande, Cebu, and Dina-K fields, Upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia, South America 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard, Curtis Fred

    1989-01-01

    deposited during a world wide regression and are conformable with the marine shales of the Villeta Formation below and the nonmarine shales of the San Francisco Formation above. The lowest member, C, is composed of normal-marine shelf deposits... and consists of interbedded sandstone and shale. Sediments were derived from quartz arenites of the Guayana shield and from the emerging Central Cordillera. The middle member, B, consists of sandstones, siltstones, and shales deposited in a transitional...

  18. Diagenesis of sandstones from the Douglas Creek member of the Green River Formation (Eocene) at Red Wash field, Uintay County, Utah 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Earl Scott

    1985-01-01

    . These wells, units 271 and 278 (Figure 2) are located near the edge of Red Wash field. Samples from Chevron uni t 278 were used in this study. Petrography Petrographic sections were prepared from core samples at intervals varying from . 25 to 1O m. A... OF SANDSTONES FROM THE DOUGLAS CREEK MEMBER OF THE GREEN RIVER FORMATION(EOCENE) AT RED WASH FIELDS UINTAH COUNTY@ UTAH A Thesis by EARL SCOTT RAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  19. Lane formation in colloidal mixtures driven by an external field J. Dzubiella,* G. P. Hoffmann, and H. Lowen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dzubiella, Joachim

    transport parallel to the field direction but suppresses massively transport perpendicular to the field. We the equilibrium freezing transi- tion that occurs by lowering the temperature. In this paper, we focus on another we use suitable order parameters. We also find an increase of the particle transport in the field

  20. Using Depletion to Tune Colloid Shape for Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew S. Karas; Jens Glaser; Sharon C. Glotzer

    2015-10-14

    Depletion interactions arise from entropic forces and their ability to induce aggregation and even ordering of colloidal particles through self-assembly is well established, especially for spherical colloids. We vary the size and concentration of penetrable hard sphere depletants in a system of nonspherical colloids, and show how depletion effectively changes the shape of the colloids and thereby selects different crystal structures. We provide a simple explanation of this effective shape change using cuboctahedra, and explain the stability of the distinct crystals formed via depletion using free energy calculations that consider separately the contribution of the cuboctahedra and depletant entropy. We show that, counterintuitively, the colloid contribution to the free energy stabilizes the simple cubic phase. We corroborate our results by analyzing how the depletant concentration and size affect the emergent directional entropic forces and hence effective particle shape. We propose the use of depletants as a means of easily changing the effective shape of self-assembling anisotropic colloids.

  1. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields induce poly(ADP-ribose) formation and non-apoptotic cell death in HeLa S3 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Akiyama, Hidenori; Yano, Ken-ichi

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a new and unique means for life sciences. •Apoptosis was induced by nsPEF exposure in Jurkat cells. •No signs of apoptosis were detected in HeLa S3 cells exposed to nsPEFs. •Formation of poly(ADP-ribose) was induced in nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells. •Two distinct modes of cell death were activated by nsPEF in a cell-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have recently gained attention as effective cancer therapy owing to their potency for cell death induction. Previous studies have shown that apoptosis is a predominant mode of nsPEF-induced cell death in several cell lines, such as Jurkat cells. In this study, we analyzed molecular mechanisms for cell death induced by nsPEFs. When nsPEFs were applied to Jurkat cells, apoptosis was readily induced. Next, we used HeLa S3 cells and analyzed apoptotic events. Contrary to our expectation, nsPEF-exposed HeLa S3 cells exhibited no molecular signs of apoptosis execution. Instead, nsPEFs induced the formation of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), a hallmark of necrosis. PAR formation occurred concurrently with a decrease in cell viability, supporting implications of nsPEF-induced PAR formation for cell death. Necrotic PAR formation is known to be catalyzed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), and PARP-1 in apoptotic cells is inactivated by caspase-mediated proteolysis. Consistently, we observed intact and cleaved forms of PARP-1 in nsPEF-exposed and UV-irradiated cells, respectively. Taken together, nsPEFs induce two distinct modes of cell death in a cell type-specific manner, and HeLa S3 cells show PAR-associated non-apoptotic cell death in response to nsPEFs.

  2. The composition and diagenesis of the Queen Formation (Guadalupian, Permian) at Virey and Moose Queen fields, Midland County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voncannon, Jennifer Catherine

    1999-01-01

    such as halite and anhydrite. Reservoirs were formed in the sandflat facies by the dissolution of cements and labile grains, creating enhanced secondary porosity. This project is just one part of a regional study of the Queen Formation in the Permian Basil which...

  3. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2002-09-30

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (3) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (4) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (5) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions.

  4. Evolution of Star Formation in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey Field - II. Star Formation as a Function of Stellar Mass Between z=1.46 and z=0.63

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, Alyssa B; Baldry, Ivan K; James, Phil A; Collins, Chris A; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Dunlop, James S; Smith, Daniel J B

    2015-01-01

    We present new results on the evolution of the cosmic star formation rate as a function of stellar mass in the SXDS-UDS field. We make use of narrow-band selected emission line galaxies in four redshift slices between z = 1.46 and z = 0.63, and compute stellar masses by fitting a series of templates to recreate each galaxy's star formation history. We determine mass-binned luminosity functions in each redshift slice, and derive the star formation rate density (rhoSFR) as a function of mass using the [OIII] or [OII] emission lines. We calculate dust extinction and metallicity as a function of stellar mass, and investigate the effect of these corrections on the shape of the overall rhoSFR(M). We find that both these corrections are crucial for determining the shape of the rhoSFR(M), and its evolution with redshift. The fully corrected rhoSFR(M) is a relatively flat distribution, with the normalisation moving towards lower values of rhoSFR with increasing cosmic time/decreasing redshift, and requiring star forma...

  5. Directional depletion interactions in shaped particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Scala; P. G. De Sanctis Lucentini

    2014-10-16

    Entropic forces in colloidal suspensions and in polymer-colloid systems are of long-standing and continuing interest. Experiments show how entropic forces can be used to control the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Significant advances in colloidal synthesis made in the past two decades have enabled the preparation of high quality nano-particles with well-controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions, indicating that such particles can be utilized as "artificial atoms" to build new materials. To elucidate the effects of the shape of particles upon the magnitude of entropic interaction, we analyse the entropic interactions of two cut-spheres. We show that the solvent induces a strong directional depletion attraction among flat faces of the cut-spheres. Such an effect highlights the possibility of using the shape of particles to control directionality and strength of interaction.

  6. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  7. Reservoir characterization of the upper Merecure and lower Oficina Formations sands in the Leona Este Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Millan, Maria Carolina

    2001-01-01

    Field, which is located in the southern portion of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. Two or more of these reservoir sands, which are interbedded with shales, have been simultaneously produced pursuing an increase in the oil production rate, but an unexpected...

  8. Lithium Depletion of Nearby Young Stellar Associations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erin Mentuch; Alexis Brandeker; Marten H. van Kerkwijk; Ray Jayawardhana; Peter H. Hauschildt

    2008-08-26

    We estimate cluster ages from lithium depletion in five pre-main-sequence groups found within 100 pc of the Sun: TW Hydrae Association, Eta Chamaeleontis Cluster, Beta Pictoris Moving Group, Tucanae-Horologium Association and AB Doradus Moving Group. We determine surface gravities, effective temperatures and lithium abundances for over 900 spectra through least squares fitting to model-atmosphere spectra. For each group, we compare the dependence of lithium abundance on temperature with isochrones from pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks to obtain model dependent ages. We find that the Eta Chamaelontis Cluster and the TW Hydrae Association are the youngest, with ages of 12+/-6 Myr and 12+/-8 Myr, respectively, followed by the Beta Pictoris Moving Group at 21+/-9 Myr, the Tucanae-Horologium Association at 27+/-11 Myr, and the AB Doradus Moving Group at an age of at least 45 Myr (where we can only set a lower limit since the models -- unlike real stars -- do not show much lithium depletion beyond this age). Here, the ordering is robust, but the precise ages depend on our choice of both atmospheric and evolutionary models. As a result, while our ages are consistent with estimates based on Hertzsprung-Russell isochrone fitting and dynamical expansion, they are not yet more precise. Our observations do show that with improved models, much stronger constraints should be feasible: the intrinsic uncertainties, as measured from the scatter between measurements from different spectra of the same star, are very low: around 10 K in effective temperature, 0.05 dex in surface gravity, and 0.03 dex in lithium abundance.

  9. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site;...

  10. Enterprise Assessments Targeted Review of the Paducah Depleted...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Targeted Review of the Fire Protection Program at the Paducah Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Enterprise Assessments...

  11. Gas generation matrix depletion quality assurance project plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to provide the necessary expertise, experience, equipment and instrumentation, and management structure to: Conduct the matrix depletion experiments using simulated waste for quantifying matrix depletion effects; and Conduct experiments on 60 cylinders containing simulated TRU waste to determine the effects of matrix depletion on gas generation for transportation. All work for the Gas Generation Matrix Depletion (GGMD) experiment is performed according to the quality objectives established in the test plan and under this Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP).

  12. Geologic and climatic controls on the formation of the Permian coal measures in the Sohagpur coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milici, R.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Mukhopadhyah, A.; Adhikari, S.; Roy, S.P.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of India (GSI) are concluding a cooperative study of the coking coal deposits in the Sohagpur coal field in central India. Because of the importance of coal in India's economy, the Coal Wing of the Geological Survey of India has studied the area intensely since the early 1980's. This report summarizes the overall stratigraphic, tectonic, and sedimentologic framework of the Sohagpur coal field area, and the interpretations of the geologic and climatic environments required for the accumulation of the thick Gondwana coal deposits, both coking and non-coking.

  13. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 19 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 19 3.1.1 CFCs 19 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  14. Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    Learning about ozone depletion Paul J. Crutzen & Michael Oppenheimer Received: 12 January 2007 ozone depletion has been much studied as a case history in the interaction between environmental science the photochemistry of ozone in order to illustrate how scientific learning has the potential to mislead policy makers

  15. Planck intermediate results. XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Arnaud, M; Arzoumanian, D; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bock, J J; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Bracco, A; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Colombo, L P L; Combet, C; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Ferrière, K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerløw, E; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Guillet, V; Harrison, D L; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hornstrup, A; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Netterfield, C B; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oppermann, N; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Renzi, A; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Savelainen, M; Savini, G; Scott, D; Soler, J D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zonca, A

    2015-01-01

    Within ten nearby (d projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures, quantified by the gradient of the column density, $N_H$. The relative orientation is evaluated pixel by pixel and analyzed in bins of column density using the novel statistical tool Histogram of Relative Orientations. Within most clouds we find that the relative orientation changes progressively with increasing $N_H$ from preferentially parallel or no preferred orientation to preferentially perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfv\\'enic or sub-Alfv\\'enic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength w...

  16. Actualistic and Geochemical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Fluid Interaction, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weislogel, Amy

    2014-01-31

    This report includes description of the Citronelle field study area and the work carried out in the project to characterize the geology and composition of reservoir rock material and to collect an analyze the geochemical composition of produced fluid waters from the Citronelle field. Reservoir rock samples collected from well bore core were made into thin-sections and assessed for textural properties, including pore types and porosity distribution. Compositional framework grain modal data were collected via point-counting, and grain and cement mineralogy was assessed using SEM-EDS. Geochemistry of fluid samples is described and modeled using PHREEQC. Composition of rock and produced fluids were used as inputs for TOUGHREACT reactive transport modeling, which determined the rock-fluid system was in disequilibrium.

  17. Recovery of Depleted Uranium Fragments from Soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, C.P.; Alecksen, T.J.; Heronimus, R.S.; Simonds, M.H.; Farrar, D.R.; Baker, K.R. [Environmental Restoration Group, Inc., Washington St. NE, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, M.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A cost-effective method was demonstrated for recovering depleted uranium (DU) fragments from soil. A compacted clean soil pad was prepared adjacent to a pile of soil containing DU fragments. Soil from the contaminated pile was placed on the pad in three-inch lifts using conventional construction equipment. Each lift was scanned with an automatic scanning system consisting of an array of radiation detectors coupled to a detector positioning system. The data were downloaded into ArcGIS for data presentation. Areas of the pad exhibiting scaler counts above the decision level were identified as likely locations of DU fragments. The coordinates of these locations were downloaded into a PDA that was wirelessly connected to the positioning system. The PDA guided technicians to the locations where hand-held trowels and shovels were used to remove the fragments. After DU removal, the affected areas were re-scanned and the new data patched into the data base to replace the original data. This new data set along with soil sample results served as final status survey data. (authors)

  18. Characteristics of the C Shale and D Shale reservoirs, Monterey Formation, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; McIntyre, J.L. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States); McJannet, G.S. [Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The upper Miocene C Shale and D Shale reservoirs of the Elk Hills Shale Member of the Monterey Formation have cumulative oil and gas production much higher than the originally estimated recovery. These San Joaquin basin reservoirs are the lowest of the Stevens producing zones at Elk Hills and currently produce from a 2800-acre area on the 31 S anticline. The C Shale contains lower slope and basin plain deposits of very fine grained, thinly bedded, graded turbidites, pelagic and hemipelagic claystone, and slump deposits. Although all units are oil-bearing, only the lower parts of the graded turbidity intervals have sufficient horizontal permeability to produce oil. The D Shale consists of chart, claystone, carbonates and slump deposits, also originating in a lower slope to basin plain setting. All D Shale rock types contain oil, but the upper chart interval is the most productive. The chart has high matrix porosity, and due to a complex horizontal and vertical microfracture system, produces at a highly effective rate. Core samples indicate more oil-in-place is present in the thin, graded C Shale beds and in the porous D Shale chart than is identifiable from conventional electric logs. High gas recovery rates are attributed mostly to this larger volume of associated oil. Gas also enters the reservoirs from the adjacent 26R reservoir through a leaky normal fault. Significant gas volumes also may desorb from immature organic material common in the rock matrix.

  19. Characteristics of the C Shale and D Shale reservoirs, Monterey Formation, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, S.A.; McIntyre, J.L. (Bechtel Petroleum Operations, Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)); McJannet, G.S. (Dept. of Energy, Tupman, CA (United States))

    1996-01-01

    The upper Miocene C Shale and D Shale reservoirs of the Elk Hills Shale Member of the Monterey Formation have cumulative oil and gas production much higher than the originally estimated recovery. These San Joaquin basin reservoirs are the lowest of the Stevens producing zones at Elk Hills and currently produce from a 2800-acre area on the 31 S anticline. The C Shale contains lower slope and basin plain deposits of very fine grained, thinly bedded, graded turbidites, pelagic and hemipelagic claystone, and slump deposits. Although all units are oil-bearing, only the lower parts of the graded turbidity intervals have sufficient horizontal permeability to produce oil. The D Shale consists of chart, claystone, carbonates and slump deposits, also originating in a lower slope to basin plain setting. All D Shale rock types contain oil, but the upper chart interval is the most productive. The chart has high matrix porosity, and due to a complex horizontal and vertical microfracture system, produces at a highly effective rate. Core samples indicate more oil-in-place is present in the thin, graded C Shale beds and in the porous D Shale chart than is identifiable from conventional electric logs. High gas recovery rates are attributed mostly to this larger volume of associated oil. Gas also enters the reservoirs from the adjacent 26R reservoir through a leaky normal fault. Significant gas volumes also may desorb from immature organic material common in the rock matrix.

  20. A biased probe analysis of potential well formation in an electron only, low beta Polywell magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Matthew; Khachan, Joe [Department of Plasma Physics, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)] [Department of Plasma Physics, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-05-15

    Orbital limited motion theory has been applied to two biased probes in a low beta Polywell. The cases studied include electron injection, magnetic field scaling, Polywell bias scaling, and radial position profiles. Langmuir's original orbital limited motion results for a monoenergetic electron beam are shown to be in excellent agreement for electron injection into the Polywell. A distribution function is proposed for the electron plasma characteristics in the centre of the magnetic null and confirmed with experimental results. A translational stage was used to measure the radial plasma potential profile. In other experiments, two probes were used to simultaneously measure the profiles in both the null and a position halfway along a corner cusp. The results confirm a radial potential well created by electron trapping in the device. In addition, we present preliminary results of the potential well scaling with the magnetic field, Polywell bias voltage, and the injected beam current. The electron population was found to maintain non-equilibrium in all cases studied.

  1. Evolution of Infrared Luminosity functions of Galaxies in the AKARI NEP-Deep field: Revealing the cosmic star formation history hidden by dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goto, Tomotsugu; Matsuhara, H; Takeuchi, T T; Pearson, C; Wada, T; Nakagawa, T; Ilbert, O; Le Floc'h, E; Oyabu, S; Ohyama, Y; Malkan, M; Lee, H M; Lee, M G; Inami, H; Hwang, N; Hanami, H; Im, M; Imai, K; Ishigaki, T; Serjeant, S; Shim, H

    2010-01-01

    Dust-obscured star-formation becomes much more important with increasing intensity, and increasing redshift. We aim to reveal cosmic star-formation history obscured by dust using deep infrared observation with the AKARI. We construct restframe 8um, 12um, and total infrared (TIR) luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.15NEP-Deep field. A continuous filter coverage in the mid-IR wavelength (2.4, 3.2, 4.1, 7, 9, 11, 15, 18, and 24um) by the AKARI satellite allows us to estimate restframe 8um and 12um luminosities without using a large extrapolation based on a SED fit, which was the largest uncertainty in previous work. We have found that all 8um (0.38

  2. Formation, characterization and dynamics of onion like carbon structures from nanodiamonds using reactive force-fields for electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kent, Paul R; Mochalin, Vadym N

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbon nanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbon nanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about {approx}3.4 {angstrom} for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large ({approx}29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  3. Formation, characterization, and dynamics of onion-like carbon structures for electrical energy storage from nanodiamonds using reactive force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, P.; Kent, P. R. C.; Mochalin, V.

    2011-10-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbonnanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbonnanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about ~3.4 Å for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large (~29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  4. The economics of fuel depletion in fast breeder reactor blankets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Shelby Templeton

    1972-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor fuel depletion-economics model was developed and applied to a number of 1000 MWe UMBR case studies, involving radial blanket-radial reflector design, radial blanket fuel management, and sensitivity ...

  5. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  6. ProteoSpinTM Abundant Serum Protein Depletion Kit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    abundance proteins. Depleted serum profile on 2D is clean and smearless with enrich- ment of some minor CORPORATION 3 General Introduction 2The use of body fluids, including serum and plasma, has become widespread

  7. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Fully Operational at the...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Jack Zimmerman, DUF6 at the PortsmouthPaducah Project Office. DUF6 is depleted uranium hexafluoride, a byproduct of uranium enrichment that has taken place at U.S. gaseous...

  8. Lymphocyte depletion in peripheral blood of gamma irradiated rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldin, Eric Michael

    1972-01-01

    LYMPHOCYTE DEPLETION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF GAMMA IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis by ERIC MICHAEL GOLDIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1972 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering (Health Physics) LYMPHOCYTE DEPLETION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD OF GAMMA IRRADIATED RATS A Thesis by ERIC MICHAEL GOLDIN Approved as to sty1e and con ent by: ( hairman of Co it ee) (H of Depar ment...

  9. Retrieval of buried depleted uranium from the T-1 trench

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmeister, M.; Castaneda, N.; Greengard, T. |; Hull, C.; Barbour, D.; Quapp, W.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Trench 1 remediation project will be conducted this year to retrieve depleted uranium and other associated materials from a trench at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. The excavated materials will be segregated and stabilized for shipment. The depleted uranium will be treated at an offsite facility which utilizes a novel approach for waste minimization and disposal through utilization of a combination of uranium recycling and volume efficient uranium stabilization.

  10. DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transfer of Depleted Uranium to Advance the U.S. National Security Interests, Extend Operations at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant DOE Announces Transfer of Depleted Uranium to...

  11. Engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride : storage of depleted uranium metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Kier, P.H.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

    2001-01-24

    This report contains an engineering analysis of long-term storage of uranium metal in boxes as an option for long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). Three storage facilities are considered: buildings, vaults, and mined cavities. Three cases are considered: either all, half, or a quarter of the depleted uranium metal that would be produced from the conversion of depleted UF{sub 6} is stored at the facility. The analysis of these alternatives is based on a box design used in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride, report DOE/EIS-0269, published in 1999 by the US Department of Energy. This box design does not appear to effectively use space within the box. Hence, an alternative box design that allows for a reduced storage area is addressed in the appendices for long-term storage in buildings.

  12. Radiochemical Analysis Methodology for uranium Depletion Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scatena-Wachel DE

    2007-01-09

    This report provides sufficient material for a test sponsor with little or no radiochemistry background to understand and follow physics irradiation test program execution. Most irradiation test programs employ similar techniques and the general details provided here can be applied to the analysis of other irradiated sample types. Aspects of program management directly affecting analysis quality are also provided. This report is not an in-depth treatise on the vast field of radiochemical analysis techniques and related topics such as quality control. Instrumental technology is a very fast growing field and dramatic improvements are made each year, thus the instrumentation described in this report is no longer cutting edge technology. Much of the background material is still applicable and useful for the analysis of older experiments and also for subcontractors who still retain the older instrumentation.

  13. Effect of Shim Arm Depletion in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson A. H.; Brown N.; Diamond, D.J.

    2013-02-22

    The cadmium shim arms in the NBSR undergo burnup during reactor operation and hence, require periodic replacement. Presently, the shim arms are replaced after every 25 cycles to guarantee they can maintain sufficient shutdown margin. Two prior reports document the expected change in the 113Cd distribution because of the shim arm depletion. One set of calculations was for the present high-enriched uranium fuel and the other for the low-enriched uranium fuel when it was in the COMP7 configuration (7 inch fuel length vs. the present 11 inch length). The depleted 113Cd distributions calculated for these cores were applied to the current design for an equilibrium low-enriched uranium core. This report details the predicted effects, if any, of shim arm depletion on the shim arm worth, the shutdown margin, power distributions and kinetics parameters.

  14. Tuning of depletion interaction in nanoparticle-surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, D., E-mail: debes@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K., E-mail: debes@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The interaction of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactants decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10) without and with anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous electrolyte solution has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations of nanoparticle (1 wt%), surfactants (1 wt%) and electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl). Each of these nanoparticlesurfactant systems has been examined for different contrast conditions where individual components (nanoparticle or surfactant) are made visible. It is observed that the nanoparticle-C12E10 system leads to the depletion-induced aggregation of nanoparticles. The system however behaves very differently on addition of SDS where depletion interaction gets suppressed and aggregation of nanoparticles can be prevented. We show that C12E10 and SDS form mixed micelles and the charge on these micelles plays important role in tuning the depletion interaction.

  15. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1998-11-03

    A method is described for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package. 6 figs.

  16. Depleted uranium as a backfill for nuclear fuel waste package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method for packaging spent nuclear fuel for long-term disposal in a geological repository. At least one spent nuclear fuel assembly is first placed in an unsealed waste package and a depleted uranium fill material is added to the waste package. The depleted uranium fill material comprises flowable particles having a size sufficient to substantially fill any voids in and around the assembly and contains isotopically-depleted uranium in the +4 valence state in an amount sufficient to inhibit dissolution of the spent nuclear fuel from the assembly into a surrounding medium and to lessen the potential for nuclear criticality inside the repository in the event of failure of the waste package. Last, the waste package is sealed, thereby substantially reducing the release of radionuclides into the surrounding medium, while simultaneously providing radiation shielding and increased structural integrity of the waste package.

  17. Characterization of Thermal Properties of Depleted Uranium Metal Microspheres 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humrickhouse, Carissa Joy

    2012-07-16

    llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Sean M. McDeavitt Committee Members, Kenneth L. Peddicord Lin Shao Head of Department, Yassin A. Hassan May 2012 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering iii.../m-K) Density (units: g/cm3) CHTA Crucible Heater Test Assembly DU Depleted uranium EU Enriched uranium LFA Laser (or light) ash analysis LFA 447 Light ash analyzer, model 447, by Netzsch Instruments LWR Light water reactor ODU Oxidized depleted uranium...

  18. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, J M; Zhang, H F; Zuo, W

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  19. Role of nucleonic Fermi surface depletion in neutron star cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; U. Lombardo; H. F. Zhang; W. Zuo

    2015-12-09

    The Fermi surface depletion of beta-stable nuclear matter is calculated to study its effects on several physical properties which determine the neutron star thermal evolution. The neutron and proton Z factors measuring the corresponding Fermi surface depletions, are calculated within the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach employing the AV18 two-body force supplemented by a microscopic three body force. Neutrino emissivity, heat capacity and, in particular, neutron 3PF2 superfluidity turn out to be reduced, especially at high baryonic density, to such an extent that the cooling rates of young neutron stars are significantly slowed

  20. Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Revised UV absorption spectra, ozone depletion potentials, and global warming potentials for the ozone-depleting substances CF2Br2, CF2ClBr, and CF2BrCF2Br Dimitrios K. Papanastasiou,1,2,5 Nabilah. [1] The contribution of Halons, bromine-containing haloalkanes, to stratospheric ozone depletion

  1. Dynamic leakage of faults during differential depletion: Theory, models, and examples from the Niger delta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, N.L.; Kaars Sijpestein, C.H.; Osai, L.N.; Okoli, O.C. (Shell Petroleum Development Co. of Nigeria, Lagos (Nigeria))

    1991-08-01

    Previous studies of fault sealing have addressed possible fault leakage during secondary migration due to the effects of increased hydrocarbon-water capillary pressure, fracturing, or small-scale incremental fault movements. Of equal importance to production geologists is the failure and leakage of faults during field development due to differential depletion of adjacent fault blocks. This paper examines the unique problems associated with this dynamic leakage of faults. It is theoretically shown that the fault sealing mechanism, and the extent of the seal, directly influences the failure process which in turn results in a variety of favorable and unfavorable effects on field development. The qualitative models give considerable insight into such aspects as oil-column expansion and resaturation losses, interfault block aquifer support (with important implications to material balance calculations), possible leakage or spillage of oil across faults, and potential fault failure during (re)injection projects. Examples of dynamic fault leakage are presented from selected fields of the Niger delta.

  2. EIS-0269: Long-Term Management of Depleted Uranium Hexaflouride

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this programmatic environmental impact statement to assess the potential impacts of alternative management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride currently stored at three DOE sites: Paducah site near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth site near Portsmouth, Ohio; and K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  3. Population and Climate Change: How Depletion of Nature and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    , Deforestation, Desertification, etc Inputs: 1. Energy Oil, Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Biomass, Renewables, etc 2Population and Climate Change: How Depletion of Nature and Human Inequality Impact Sustainability best farmland This is not sustainable: "We are drawing down the stock of natural capital

  4. I. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    such as solar panels, wind turbines or diesel generators. Typically, and more so recently dueI. PROBLEM ADDRESSED In recent years, global warming, depleting conventional sources of energy physical and operational state, including environmental sensor data (e.g. temperature), operational state

  5. Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures. Size-effect tuning also en- ables the useDepleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Andras G. Pattantyus-Abraham,, Illan J requires thick, high-purity solar cells with correspondingly long carrier transport lengths;3 organic

  6. Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Widespread foliage d15 N depletion under elevated CO2: inferences for the nitrogen cycle H O R M O an integrated assessment of the nitrogen (N) cycle and whether it is influenced by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. We tested the hypothesis that elevated CO2 significantly changes foliage d15 N in a wide range

  7. A continuum from clear to cloudy hot-Jupiter exoplanets without primordial water depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sing, David K; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R; Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M; Aigrain, Suzanne; Ballester, Gilda E; Burrows, Adam S; Deming, Drake; Désert, Jean-Michel; Gibson, Neale P; Henry, Gregory W; Huitson, Catherine M; Knutson, Heather A; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Pont, Frederic; Showman, Adam P; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Williamson, Michael H; Wilson, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets have been discovered, but spectral analysis of their atmospheres has so far been dominated by a small number of exoplanets and data spanning relatively narrow wavelength ranges (such as 1.1 to 1.7 {\\mu}m). Recent studies show that some hot-Jupiter exoplanets have much weaker water absorption features in their near-infrared spectra than predicted. The low amplitude of water signatures could be explained by very low water abundances, which may be a sign that water was depleted in the protoplanetary disk at the planet's formation location, but it is unclear whether this level of depletion can actually occur. Alternatively, these weak signals could be the result of obscuration by clouds or hazes, as found in some optical spectra. Here we report results from a comparative study of ten hot Jupiters covering the wavelength range 0.3-5 micrometres, which allows us to resolve both the optical scattering and infrared molecular absorption spectroscopically. Our results reveal a diverse...

  8. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its depletion, unlike ORIGEN, which only depletes the isotopes specified by the user. This means that depletions done by MRTAU more accurately reflect reality. MRTAU also allows the user to build new isotope data sets, which means any isotope with nuclear data could be depleted, something that would help predict the outcomes of nuclear reaction testing in materials other than fuel, like beryllium or gold.

  9. Lithologic characteristics, depositional environments and geometries of reservoir and nonreservoir facies in the Queen Formation (Guadalupian, Permian) of Moose and Virey Fields, Midland County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aller, Gregory Shane

    1999-01-01

    The Queen Formation is a member of the Artesia Group, which is a sequence of intermingling carbonates, classics and evaporates that were deposited during Guadalupian (Permian) time across the Northwest Shelf, Central Basin Platform, and Midland...

  10. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus entry mechanism requires late endosome formation and resists cell membrane cholesterol depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Fleming, Elisa H.; Davey, Robert A. . E-mail: radavey@utmb.edu

    2006-04-10

    Virus envelope proteins determine receptor utilization and host range. The choice of receptor not only permits specific targeting of cells that express it, but also directs the virus into specific endosomal trafficking pathways. Disrupting trafficking can result in loss of virus infectivity due to redirection of virions to non-productive pathways. Identification of the pathway or pathways used by a virus is, thus, important in understanding virus pathogenesis mechanisms and for developing new treatment strategies. Most of our understanding of alphavirus entry has focused on the Old World alphaviruses, such as Sindbis and Semliki Forest virus. In comparison, very little is known about the entry route taken by more pathogenic New World alphaviruses. Here, we use a novel contents mixing assay to identify the cellular requirements for entry of a New World alphavirus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Expression of dominant negative forms of key endosomal trafficking genes shows that VEEV must access clathrin-dependent endocytic vesicles for membrane fusion to occur. Unexpectedly, the exit point is different from Old World alphaviruses that leave from early endosomes. Instead, VEEV also requires functional late endosomes. Furthermore, unlike the Old World viruses, VEEV entry is insensitive to cholesterol sequestration from cell membranes and may reflect a need to access an endocytic compartment that lacks cholesterol. This indicates fundamental differences in the entry route taken by VEEV compared to Old World alphaviruses.

  11. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Othman, Jamal Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  12. Observation of a strong correlation between electromagnetic soliton formation and relativistic self-focusing for ultra-short laser pulses propagating through an under-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Bin; Wu Yuchi; Dong Kegong; Hong Wei; Teng Jian; Zhou Weimin; Cao Leifeng; Gu Yuqiu [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Laser Fusion Research Center, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China)

    2012-10-15

    A strong correlation is observed between the formation of electromagnetic solitons, generated during the interaction of a short intense laser pulse (30 fs, {approx}10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with a rarefied (<0.1n{sub c}) plasma, and pulse self-focusing. Pulse defocusing, which occurs after soliton generation, results in laser-pulse energy depletion. The role of stimulated Raman scattering in soliton generation is analyzed from 2D particle-in-cell simulations. An observed relationship between initial plasma density and soliton generation is presented that might have relevance to wake-field accelerators.

  13. Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

  14. Design and Implementation of a C02 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The objective is to utilize reservoir characteristics and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO2) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. Also the project seeks to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field.

  15. Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation, and Extreme Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Son, Seok-Woo

    Impact of Antarctic Ozone Depletion and Recovery on Southern Hemisphere Precipitation, Evaporation) ABSTRACT The possible impact of Antarctic ozone depletion and recovery on Southern Hemisphere (SH) mean- tercomparison Project 3 (CMIP3). By grouping models into four sets, those with and without ozone depletion

  16. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AS A TRACER OF STAR FORMATION? NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035; epeeters@mail.arc.nasa.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spoon, Henrik

    POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AS A TRACER OF STAR FORMATION? E. Peeters NASA Ames Research) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing '50 carbon atoms (Le´ger & Puget 1984; Allamandola et al

  17. Conference Proceedings (Refereed Invited Reviews). 1. "Role of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields and Material Flows in the Formation of Solar Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackay, Duncan

    Conference Proceedings (Refereed Invited Reviews). 1. "Role of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields Scale Structures and their Role in Solar Activity, ASP Conference Proceedings Series, 346, 177. 2. "The-297. Conference Proceedings (Others). 1. "Basic Magnetic Field Configurations for Filament Channels and Filaments

  18. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  19. Deep radio imaging of the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field : the nature of the faint radio population, and the star-formation history of the Universe 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Vinodiran

    2013-07-01

    The centrepiece of this thesis is a deep, new, high-resolution 1.4-GHz image covering the United Kingdom Infrared (IR) Telescope IR Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) legacy field. Deep pseudo-continuum ...

  20. Depletion GPT-free sensitivity analysis for reactor eigenvalue problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.; Abdel-Khalik, H. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This manuscript introduces a novel approach to solving depletion perturbation theory problems without the need to set up or solve the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) equations. The approach, hereinafter denoted generalized perturbation theory free (GPT-Free), constructs a reduced order model (ROM) using methods based in perturbation theory and computes response sensitivity profiles in a manner that is independent of the number or type of responses, allowing for an efficient computation of sensitivities when many responses are required. Moreover, the reduction error from using the ROM is quantified in the GPT-Free approach by means of a Wilks' order statistics error metric denoted the K-metric. Traditional GPT has been recognized as the most computationally efficient approach for performing sensitivity analyses of models with many input parameters, e.g. when forward sensitivity analyses are computationally intractable. However, most neutronics codes that can solve the fundamental (homogenous) adjoint eigenvalue problem do not have GPT capabilities unless envisioned during code development. The GPT-Free approach addresses this limitation by requiring only the ability to compute the fundamental adjoint. This manuscript demonstrates the GPT-Free approach for depletion reactor calculations performed in SCALE6 using the 7x7 UAM assembly model. A ROM is developed for the assembly over a time horizon of 990 days. The approach both calculates the reduction error over the lifetime of the simulation using the K-metric and benchmarks the obtained sensitivities using sample calculations. (authors)

  1. Including environmental concerns in management strategies for depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Avci, H.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bradley, C.E. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    One of the major programs within the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science, and Technology of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) management program. The program is intended to find a long-term management strategy for the DUF{sub 6} that is currently stored in approximately 46,400 cylinders at Paducah, KY; Portsmouth, OH; and Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The program has four major components: technology assessment, engineering analysis, cost analysis, and the environmental impact statement (EIS). From the beginning of the program, the DOE has incorporated the environmental considerations into the process of strategy selection. Currently, the DOE has no preferred alternative. The results of the environmental impacts assessment from the EIS, as well as the results from the other components of the program, will be factored into the strategy selection process. In addition to the DOE`s current management plan, other alternatives continued storage, reuse, or disposal of depleted uranium, will be considered in the EIS. The EIS is expected to be completed and issued in its final form in the fall of 1997.

  2. Sampling Plan for Assaying Plates Containing Depleted or Normal Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan R. Thomas

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the rationale behind the proposed method for selecting a 'representative' sample of uranium metal plates, portions of which will be destructively assayed at the Y-12 Security Complex. The total inventory of plates is segregated into two populations, one for Material Type 10 (depleted uranium (DU)) and one for Material Type 81 (normal [or natural] uranium (NU)). The plates within each population are further stratified by common dimensions. A spreadsheet gives the collective mass of uranium element (and isotope for DU) and the piece count of all plates within each stratum. These data are summarized in Table 1. All plates are 100% uranium metal, and all but approximately 60% of the NU plates have Kel-F{reg_sign} coating. The book inventory gives an overall U-235 isotopic percentage of 0.22% for the DU plates, ranging from 0.19% to 0.22%. The U-235 ratio of the NU plates is assumed to be 0.71%. As shown in Table 1, the vast majority of the plates are comprised of depleted uranium, so most of the plates will be sampled from the DU population.

  3. Ozone-depleting-substance control and phase-out plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brown, M.J.

    1994-07-01

    Title VI of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires regulation of the use and disposal of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) (e.g., Halon, Freon). Several important federal regulations have been promulgated that affect the use of such substances at the Hanford Site. On April 23, 1993, Executive Order (EO) 12843, Procurement Requirements and Policies for Federal Agencies for Ozone-Depleting Substances (EPA 1993) was issued for Federal facilities to conform to the new US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations implementing the Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA), Section 613, as amended. To implement the requirements of Title VI the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), issued a directive to the Hanford Site contractors on May 25, 1994 (Wisness 1994). The directive assigns Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) the lead in coordinating the development of a sitewide comprehensive implementation plan to be drafted by July 29, 1994 and completed by September 30, 1994. The implementation plan will address several areas where immediate compliance action is required. It will identify all current uses of ODSs and inventories, document the remaining useful life of equipment that contains ODS chemicals, provide a phase-out schedule, and provide a strategy that will be implemented consistently by all the Hanford Site contractors. This plan also addresses the critical and required elements of Federal regulations, the EO, and US Department of Energy (DOE) guidance. This plan is intended to establish a sitewide management system to address the clean air requirements.

  4. Sequestration of CO2 in the Altmark natural gas field, Germany: Mobility control to extend enhanced gas recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebscher, D.; May, F.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    OF CO 2 IN THE ALTMARK NATURAL GAS FIELD, GERMANY: MOBILITYin the depleted Altmark natural gas reservoir, Germany. Ourdioxide or nitrogen in natural gas (methane) reservoirs,

  5. Parametric down conversion with a depleted pump as a model for classical information transmission capacity of quantum black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Alsing

    2015-02-04

    In this paper we extend the investigation of Adami and Ver Steeg [Class. Quantum Grav. \\textbf{31}, 075015 (2014)] to treat the process of black hole particle emission effectively as the analogous quantum optical process of parametric down conversion (PDC) with a dynamical (depleted vs. non-depleted) `pump' source mode which models the evaporating black hole (BH) energy degree of freedom. We investigate both the short time (non-depleted pump) and long time (depleted pump) regimes of the quantum state and its impact on the Holevo channel capacity for communicating information from the far past to the far future in the presence of Hawking radiation. The new feature introduced in this work is the coupling of the emitted Hawking radiation modes through the common black hole `source pump' mode which phenomenologically represents a quantized energy degree of freedom of the gravitational field. This (zero-dimensional) model serves as a simplified arena to explore BH particle production/evaporation and back-action effects under an explicitly unitary evolution which enforces quantized energy/particle conservation. Within our analogous quantum optical model we examine the entanglement between two emitted particle/anti-particle and anti-particle/particle pairs coupled via the black hole (BH) evaporating `pump' source. We also analytically and dynamically verify the `Page information time' for our model which refers to the conventionally held belief that the information in the BH radiation becomes significant after the black hole has evaporated half its initial energy into the outgoing radiation. Lastly, we investigate the effect of BH particle production/evaporation on two modes in the exterior region of the BH event horizon that are initially maximally entangled, when one mode falls inward and interacts with the black hole, and the other remains forever outside and non-interacting.

  6. The interstellar medium and star formation in local galaxies: Variations of the star formation law in simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becerra, Fernando; Escala, Andrés, E-mail: fbecerra@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-05-01

    We use the adaptive mesh refinement code Enzo to model the interstellar medium (ISM) in isolated local disk galaxies. The simulation includes a treatment for star formation and stellar feedback. We get a highly supersonic turbulent disk, which is fragmented at multiple scales and characterized by a multi-phase ISM. We show that a Kennicutt-Schmidt relation only holds when averaging over large scales. However, values of star formation rates and gas surface densities lie close in the plot for any averaging size. This suggests an intrinsic relation between stars and gas at cell-size scales, which dominates over the global dynamical evolution. To investigate this effect, we develop a method to simulate the creation of stars based on the density field from the snapshots, without running the code again. We also investigate how the star formation law is affected by the characteristic star formation timescale, the density threshold, and the efficiency considered in the recipe. We find that the slope of the law varies from ?1.4 for a free-fall timescale, to ?1.0 for a constant depletion timescale. We further demonstrate that a power law is recovered just by assuming that the mass of the new stars is a fraction of the mass of the cell m {sub *} = ??{sub gas}?x {sup 3}, with no other physical criteria required. We show that both efficiency and density threshold do not affect the slope, but the right combination of them can adjust the normalization of the relation, which in turn could explain a possible bi-modality in the law.

  7. Notes on Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumholz, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the field of star formation at a level suitable for graduate students or advanced undergraduates in astronomy or physics. The structure of the book is as follows. The first two chapters begin with a discussion of observational techniques, and the basic phenomenology they reveal. The goal is to familiarize students with the basic techniques that will be used throughout, and to provide a common vocabulary for the rest of the book. The next five chapters provide a similar review of the basic physical processes that are important for star formation. Again, the goal is to provide a basis for what follows. The remaining chapters discuss star formation over a variety of scales, starting with the galactic scale and working down to the scales of individual stars and their disks. The book concludes with a brief discussion of the clearing of disks and the transition to planet formation. The book includes five problem sets, complete with solutions.

  8. Final Report for Project DE-SC0006958: "An Investigation of the Effects of magnetic Fields and Collisionality on Shock Formation in Radiatively Cooled Plasma Flows"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bott-Suzuki, Simon

    2014-11-05

    We have developed a new experimental platform to study bow-shock formation in plasma flows generated using an inverse wire array z-pinch. We have made significant progress on the analysis of both hydrodynamic and magnetized shocks using this system. The hydrodynamic experiments show formation of a well-defined Mach cone, and highly localized shock strong associated with radiative losses and rapidly cooling over the shock. Magnetized shocks show that the balance of magnetic and ram pressures dominate the evolution of the shock region, generating a low plasma beta void around the target. Manuscripts are in preparation for publication on both these topics. We have also published the development of a novel diagnostic method which allow recovery of interferometry and self-emission data along the same line of sight. Finally, we have carried out work to integrate a kinetic routine with the 3D MHD code Gorgon, however it remains to complete this process. Both undergraduate and graduate students have been involved in both the experimental work and publications.

  9. Cumulative theoretical uncertainties in lithium depletion boundary age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tognelli, Emanuele; Degl'Innocenti, Scilla

    2015-01-01

    We performed a detailed analysis of the main theoretical uncertainties affecting the age at the lithium depletion boundary (LDB). To do that we computed almost 12000 pre-main sequence models with mass in the range [0.06, 0.4] M_sun by varying input physics (nuclear reaction cross-sections, plasma electron screening, outer boundary conditions, equation of state, and radiative opacity), initial chemical elements abundances (total metallicity, helium and deuterium abundances, and heavy elements mixture), and convection efficiency (mixing length parameter, alpha_ML). As a first step, we studied the effect of varying these quantities individually within their extreme values. Then, we analysed the impact of simultaneously perturbing the main input/parameters without an a priori assumption of independence. Such an approach allowed us to build for the first time the cumulative error stripe, which defines the edges of the maximum uncertainty region in the theoretical LDB age. We found that the cumulative error stripe ...

  10. Brown dwarf formation Gilles Chabrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joergens, Viki

    : not observed ! Constraints on BD formation/ejection by disk instability: magnetic field No B (pure hydro accretion - Collapse of a cloud -> starts forming small N-body clusters of small (~10-3 Msol

  11. EIS-0329: Proposed Construction, Operation, Decontamination/Decommissioning of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF 6) conversion facilities, at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky.

  12. Dynamic Formation of a Hot Field Reversed Configuration with Improved Confinement by Supersonic Merging of Two Colliding High-{beta} Compact Toroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binderbauer, M. W.; Guo, H. Y.; Tuszewski, M.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Barnes, D.; Rostoker, N.; Anderson, M. G.; Andow, R.; Bonelli, L.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Bystritskii, V.; Clary, R.; Cheung, A. H.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Feng, P. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Post Office Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-07-23

    A hot stable field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been produced in the C-2 experiment by colliding and merging two high-{beta} plasmoids preformed by the dynamic version of field-reversed {theta}-pinch technology. The merging process exhibits the highest poloidal flux amplification obtained in a magnetic confinement system (over tenfold increase). Most of the kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy with total temperature (T{sub i}+T{sub e}) exceeding 0.5 keV. The final FRC state exhibits a record FRC lifetime with flux confinement approaching classical values. These findings should have significant implications for fusion research and the physics of magnetic reconnection.

  13. Mapping and ranking flow units in reef and shoal reservoirs associated with paleohighs: upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation, Appleton and Vocation Fields, Escambia and Monroe Counties, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Dylan

    2003-01-01

    Engineering at Texas A&M. I also thank George Bolger at Petro Tech Associates for his work on the capillary pressure tests. Very special appreciation goes to my parents, John and Grace Morgan. We did it! I only hope that one day I can give my children... in Field Well logs Full Diameter Slabbed Core Thin Sections Core Reports (Porosity, Permeability, and Fluid Saturation Data Plugs (NMR and MICP tests 9 wells 9 wells 3 wells 3 wells, 57 individual slides 9 wells 3 wells, 6 individual plugs 17...

  14. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2001-10-01

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To develop better, produced water, disposal techniques so as to minimize lifting costs, surface separation costs and water disposal costs. (3) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (4) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (5) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (6) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions. The overall project goal would be to validate our hypothesis and to determine the best method to exploit reservoirs exhibiting ROC behavior. To that end, we will collect and analyze core samples, and run a single well tracer test during the Budget Period I. We will continue to drill vertical wells during this period. Once we understand the mechanism and are able to quantify the geological model, in Budget Period II we will drill several, additional wells. Depending on the feasibility, we will equip some of the vertical wells with downhole separator, as well as surface compact separator. This will allow us to compare the new technology with the existing one. In the Budget Period III, we will monitor the field performance and revise and refine our models to further optimize the performance.

  15. A ground state depleted laser in neodymium doped yttrium orthosilicate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Solarz, R.; Krupke, W.; Comaskey, B.; Mitchell, S.; Brandle, C.; Berkstresser, G.

    1990-01-16

    A ground state depleted (GSD){sup 1,2} laser has been demonstrated in the form of a Q-switched oscillator operating at 912 nm. Using Nd{sup 3+} as the active ion and Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} as the host material, the laser transition is from the lowest lying stark level of the Nd{sup 3t}F{sub 3/2} level to a stark level 355 cm{sup {minus}1} above the lowest lying one in the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold. The necessity of depleting the ground {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} manifold is evident for this level scheme as transparency requires a 10% inversion. To achieve the high excitation levels required for the efficient operation of this laser, bleach wave pumping using an alexandrite laser at 745 nm has been employed. The existence of a large absorption feature at 810 nm also allows for the possibility of AlGaAs laser diode pumping. Using KNbO{sub 3}, noncritical phase matching is possible at 140{degree}C using d{sub 32} and has been demonstrated. The results of Q-switched laser performance and harmonic generation in KNbO{sub 3} will be presented. Orthosilicate can be grown in large boules of excellent optical quality using a Czochralski technique. Because of the relatively small 912 nm emission cross section of 2-3 {times} 10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2} (orientation dependent) fluences of 10-20 J/cm{sup 2} must be circulated in the laser cavity for the efficient extraction of stored energy. This necessitates very aggressive laser damage thresholds. Results from the Reptile laser damage facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be presented showing Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} bulk and AR sol-gel coated surface damage thresholds of greater than 40 J/cm{sup 2} for 10 nsec, 10 Hz, 1.06 {mu} pulses. 16 refs., 18 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. The combined use of sequence stratigraphy and stochastic modelling to reservoir management of the Ness Formation, Statfjord Field, Norwegian North Sea. Part 2: Stochastic modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svanes, T.; Sundt, O.; Skarnes, P.I. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    In recent years probabilistic modelling of reservoir heterogeneities has become an integrated part of reservoir description, and various methods and software programs have been introduced. In general, the process of generating a stochastic 3D model consists of four stages: (1) simulate isochore maps of each time-zone, (2) distribute facies heterogeneities within the isochores, (3) simulate petrophysical properties and (4) translate the fine-scale model to a coarser flow simulation grid. Based on interpreted sequence stratigraphic zonation and facies distribution the Ness Formation was subdivided into 13 modelling zones. In most cases a modelling zone consists of lowstand deposits or combined transgressive and highstand deposits. Each zone was modelled independently because they represent individual sedimentary characteristics. The time-zone thicknesses were simulated using moving average method conditioning to wells, including anisotropy, trend and variogram. An integrated stochastic reservoir modelling package called STORM was applied perforating steps 2, 3, and 4. Different facies algorithms are available and a marked point process designed for fluvial systems was used to model the lowstand time-zones. For the combined transgressive and highstand zones a semi-Markov method, suitable for shallow marine systems, was applied. The aim of the stochastic modelling work was threefold: (1) to make realistic fine-scale geological models that are consistent with observed data and geological understanding, (2) to calculate uncertainties in oil in place volume and (3) to match production history to be able to predict future reservoir behaviour and detect unswept oil. Latest simulation data will be presented and discussed at the conference.

  17. Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy Stephen R. Humphrey of sustainable resource use A model of resource depletion The resource substitution puzzle Peak and decline of oil Quest for energy substitution What about other natural resources? #12;How Do We Add 2 billion

  18. Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozone-depleting substances and the greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption contribution to the debate on environmental policy in Denmark. #12;3 Contents 1 SUMMARY 5 1.1 OZONE OZONE-DEPLETING SUBSTANCES 18 3.1 IMPORTS AND EXPORTS 18 3.1.1 CFCs 18 3.1.2 Tetrachloromethane 19 3

  19. Depletion-induced surface alignment of asymmetric diblock copolymer in selective solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Depletion-induced surface alignment of asymmetric diblock copolymer in selective solvents Rong Wang online 31 July 2008 Phase separation of asymmetric diblock copolymer near surfaces in selective solvents. The walls strongly affect the phase separation of block copolymer in selective solvent, and the depletion

  20. Reservoir depletion at The Geysers geothermal area, California, shown by four-dimensional seismic tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    Reservoir depletion at The Geysers geothermal area, California, shown by four-dimensional seismic geothermal exploitation at The Geysers geothermal area, California, induces myriads of small of Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs is an effective geothermal reservoir depletion monitoring tool and can potentially

  1. Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Groundwater depletion and sustainability of irrigation in the US High Plains and Central Valley impact crop produc- tion in the United States because 60% of irrigation relies on groundwater. Groundwater depletion in the irrigated High Plains and California Central Valley accounts for 50

  2. A melting model for variably depleted and enriched lherzolite in the plagioclase and spinel stability fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Till, Christy B.

    Here we develop a lherzolite melting model and explore the effects of variations in mantle composition, pressure, temperature, and H[subscript 2]O content on melt composition. New experiments and a compilation of experimental ...

  3. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of the NationalSalesof(MillionIndustrial Consumers

  4. U.S. Working Natural Gas Underground Storage Depleted Fields Capacity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubic Feet)49,797.6Increases

  5. Design and Implementation of a CO(2) Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells in Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpole, K.J.; Dollens, K.B.; Durrett, E.G.; Bles, J.S

    1997-10-31

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide (CO) project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. All work this quarter falls within the demonstration project.

  6. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  7. Kr Ion Irradiation Study of the Depleted-Uranium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Gan; D. Keiser; B. Miller; M. Kirk; J. Rest; T. Allen; D. Wachs

    2010-12-01

    Fuel development for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor program is tasked with the development of new low-enriched uranium nuclear fuels that can be employed to replace existing highly enriched uranium fuels currently used in some research reactors throughout the world. For dispersion-type fuels, radiation stability of the fuel/cladding interaction product has a strong impact on fuel performance. Three depleted uranium alloys are cast for the radiation stability studies of the fuel/cladding interaction product using Kr ion irradiation to investigate radiation damage from fission products. SEM analysis indicates the presence of the phases of interest: U(Si, Al)3, (U, Mo)(Si, Al)3, UMo2Al20, U6Mo4Al43, and UAl4. Irradiations of TEM disc samples were conducted with 500 keV Kr ions at 200ºC to ion doses up to 2.5 × 1015 ions/cm2 (~ 10 dpa) with an Kr ion flux of 1012 ions/cm2-sec (~ 4.0 × 10-3 dpa/sec). Microstructural evolution of the phases relevant to fuel-cladding interaction products was investigated using transmission electron microscopy.

  8. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elizabeth J. Barton; Jacob A. Arnold; Andrew R. Zentner; James S. Bullock; Risa H. Wechsler

    2007-08-21

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to ``field'' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than ``field'' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N=2 halos) and a control sample of isolated galaxies (N=1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M_Bj ~ 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context. (Abridged.)

  9. A comparison of delayed radiobiological effects of depleted-uranium munitions versus fourth-generation nuclear weapons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gsponer, A; Vitale, B; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre; Vitale, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the radiological burden due to the battle-field use of circa 400 tons of depleted-uranium munitions in Iraq (and of about 40 tons in Yugoslavia) is comparable to that arising from the hypothetical battle-field use of more than 600 kt (respectively 60 kt) of high-explosive equivalent pure-fusion fourth-generation nuclear weapons. Despite the limited knowledge openly available on existing and future nuclear weapons, there is sufficient published information on their physical principles and radiological effects to make such a comparison. In fact, it is shown that this comparison can be made with very simple and convincing arguments so that the main technical conclusions of the paper are undisputable -- although it would be worthwhile to supplement the hand calculations presented in the paper by more detailed computer simulations in order to consolidate the conclusions and refute any possible objections.

  10. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  11. Heavy oil reservoirs in the Tulare Fold Belt, Cymric-McKittrick fields, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farley, T. (Chevron U.S.A., Bakersfield, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Tulare fold belt is a series of asymmetric, generally northeast-verging anticlines and synclines in the Pliocene-Pleistocene Tulare Formation that trend northwestward through the Cymric-McKittrick fields. Anticlines within the deformed belt generally originated as fault propagation folds above decollements, the most important of which is the regional decollement on top of the Amnicola sand, the basal Tulare unit. The Amnicola decollement is the northeast subsurface extension of the McKittrick thrust, a low-angle fault that has displaced the Miocene Antelope shale over the Pliocene San Joaquin Formation and locally over the Tulare Formation. The Amnicola decollement is itself deformed by folding related to a younger, deeper decollement near the base of the San Joaquin Formation that merges westward with the Amnicola decollement and defines a zone of faulting associated with the McKittrick thrust Heavy oil reservoirs in the Tulare Formation are currently undergoing active development by thermal recovery techniques. In general, the geometry of heavy oil reservoirs is determined by location within the Tulare fold belt combined with the position of a subhorizontal fluid level trap that forms the updip limit of fluid-saturated rock Reservoir geometry is complicated by complex local structure, discontinuous stratigraphy, and partial depletion of heavy oil reservoirs by fluid withdrawal due to gravity drainage. Proper resolution of fold geometry, fault geometry, and position of the fluid level trap is crucial to the design and monitoring of thermal recovery projects within the Tulare fold belt.

  12. Development of DU-AGG (Depleted Uranium Aggregate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessing, P.A.

    1995-09-01

    Depleted uranium oxide (UO{sub 2} or U0{sub 3}) powder was mixed with fine mineral additives, pressed, and heated to about 1,250{degree}C. The additives were chemically constituted to result in an iron-enriched basalt (IEB). Melting and wetting of the IEB phase caused the urania powder compact to densify (sinter) via a liquid phase sintering mechanism. An inorganic lubricant was found to aid in green-forming of the body. Sintering was successful in oxidizing (air), inert (argon), or reducing (dry hydrogen containing) atmospheres. The use of ground U0{sub 3} powders (93 vol %) followed by sintering in a dry hydrogen-containing atmosphere significantly increased the density of samples (bulk density of 8.40 g/cm{sup 3} and apparent density of 9.48 g/cm{sup 3}, open porosity of 11.43%). An improvement in the microstructure (reduction in open porosity) was achieved when the vol % of U0{sub 3} was decreased to 80%. The bulk density increased to 8.59 g/cm{sup 3}, the apparent density decreased slightly to 8.82 g/cm{sup 3} (due to increase of low density IEB content), while the open porosity decreased to an excellent number of 2.78%. A representative sample derived from 80 vol % U0{sub 3} showed that most pores were closed pores and that, overall, the sample achieved the excellent relative density value of 94.1% of the estimated theoretical density (composite of U0{sub 2} and IEB). It is expected that ground powders of U0{sub 3} could be successfully used to mass produce lowcost aggregate using the green-forming technique of briquetting.

  13. FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waddington, Ian

    FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY Deborah B. Haarsma 1 , R. Bruce Partridge 1 , Ian 85287­1504 USA Abstract. Faint extragalactic radio sources provide important information about the global history of star formation. Sensitive radio observations of the Hubble Deep Field and other fields

  14. STELLAR ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS: IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, J. E.

    2010-11-20

    The solar photosphere is depleted in refractory elements compared to most solar twins, with the degree of depletion increasing with an element's condensation temperature. Here, I show that adding 4 Earth masses of Earth-like and carbonaceous-chondrite-like material to the solar convection zone brings the Sun's composition into line with the mean value for the solar twins. The observed solar composition could have arisen if the Sun's convection zone accreted material from the solar nebula that was depleted in refractory elements due to the formation of the terrestrial planets and ejection of rocky protoplanets from the asteroid belt. Most solar analogs are missing 0-10 Earth masses of rocky material compared to the most refractory-rich stars, providing an upper limit to the mass of rocky terrestrial planets that they possess. The missing mass is correlated with stellar metallicity. This suggests that the efficiency of planetesimal formation increases with stellar metallicity. Stars with and without known giant planets show a similar distribution of abundance trends. If refractory depletion is a signature of the presence of terrestrial planets, this suggests that there is not a strong correlation between the presence of terrestrial and giant planets in the same system.

  15. Dupoly process for treatment of depleted uranium and production of beneficial end products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Adams, Jay W. (Stony Brook, NY); Lageraaen, Paul R. (Seaford, NY); Cooley, Carl R. (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2000-02-29

    The present invention provides a process of encapsulating depleted uranium by forming a homogenous mixture of depleted uranium and molten virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer into desired shapes. Separate streams of depleted uranium and virgin or recycled thermoplastic polymer are simultaneously subjected to heating and mixing conditions. The heating and mixing conditions are provided by a thermokinetic mixer, continuous mixer or an extruder and preferably by a thermokinetic mixer or continuous mixer followed by an extruder. The resulting DUPoly shapes can be molded into radiation shielding material or can be used as counter weights for use in airplanes, helicopters, ships, missiles, armor or projectiles.

  16. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-04-29

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  17. Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wornell, Gregory W.

    Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation Anthony Accardi1,2 and Gregory light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the utility of the light field

  18. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  19. Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis for Reactor Depletion Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stripling, Hayes Franklin

    2013-08-02

    Depletion calculations for nuclear reactors model the dynamic coupling between the material composition and neutron flux and help predict reactor performance and safety characteristics. In order to be trusted as reliable predictive tools and inputs...

  20. Delayed neutron measurements for Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Joseph C.

    2001-01-01

    The neutron emission rates from five very pure actinide samples (Th-232, Np-237, Pu-239, Pu-241 and depleted uranium) were measured following equilibrium irradiation in fast and thermal neutron fluxes. The relative abundances (alphas) for the first...

  1. Accelerated cellular senescence phenotype of GAPDH-depleted human lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phadke, Manali; Krynetskaia, Natalia; Mishra, Anurag; Krynetskiy, Evgeny; Jayne Haines Center for Pharmacogenomics, Temple University School of Pharmacy, Philadelphia, PA 19140

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We examined the effect of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAPDH) depletion on proliferation of human carcinoma A549 cells. {yields} GAPDH depletion induces accelerated senescence in tumor cells via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. {yields} Metabolic and genetic rescue experiments indicate that GAPDH has regulatory functions linking energy metabolism and cell cycle. {yields} Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a pivotal glycolytic enzyme, and a signaling molecule which acts at the interface between stress factors and the cellular apoptotic machinery. Earlier, we found that knockdown of GAPDH in human carcinoma cell lines resulted in cell proliferation arrest and chemoresistance to S phase-specific cytotoxic agents. To elucidate the mechanism by which GAPDH depletion arrests cell proliferation, we examined the effect of GAPDH knockdown on human carcinoma cells A549. Our results show that GAPDH-depleted cells establish senescence phenotype, as revealed by proliferation arrest, changes in morphology, SA-{beta}-galactosidase staining, and more than 2-fold up-regulation of senescence-associated genes DEC1 and GLB1. Accelerated senescence following GAPDH depletion results from compromised glycolysis and energy crisis leading to the sustained AMPK activation via phosphorylation of {alpha} subunit at Thr172. Our findings demonstrate that GAPDH depletion switches human tumor cells to senescent phenotype via AMPK network, in the absence of DNA damage. Rescue experiments using metabolic and genetic models confirmed that GAPDH has important regulatory functions linking the energy metabolism and the cell cycle networks. Induction of senescence in LKB1-deficient non-small cell lung cancer cells via GAPDH depletion suggests a novel strategy to control tumor cell proliferation.

  2. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.; Caselli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Pineda, J. E.; Wong, M.

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ? 0.02 M {sub ?} (?20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ?150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ? 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  3. Optimization of Depletion Modeling and Simulation for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, Benjamin R; Ade, Brian J; Chandler, David; Ilas, Germina; Sunny, Eva E

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo based depletion tools used for the high-fidelity modeling and simulation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) come at a great computational cost; finding sufficient approximations is necessary to make the use of these tools feasible. The optimization of the neutronics and depletion model for the HFIR is based on two factors: (i) the explicit representation of the involute fuel plates with sets of polyhedra and (ii) the treatment of depletion mixtures and control element position during depletion calculations. A very fine representation (i.e., more polyhedra in the involute plate approximation) does not significantly improve simulation accuracy. The recommended representation closely represents the physical plates and ensures sufficient fidelity in regions with high flux gradients. Including the fissile targets in the central flux trap of the reactor as depletion mixtures has the greatest effect on the calculated cycle length, while localized effects (e.g., the burnup of specific isotopes or the power distribution evolution over the cycle) are more noticeable consequences of including a critical control element search or depleting burnable absorbers outside the fuel region.

  4. Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    OOIP= A.h.Ø.(1-Sw) RF= Recoverable Oil / OOIP #12;July 2010 · Introduction · Static reservoir Modeling

  5. Depletion of cellular poly (A) binding protein prevents protein synthesis and leads to apoptosis in HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thangima Zannat, Mst.; Bhattacharjee, Rumpa B.; Bag, Jnanankur

    2011-05-13

    Highlights: {yields} Depletion of cellular PABP level arrests mRNA translation in HeLa cells. {yields} PABP knock down leads to apoptotic cell death. {yields} PABP depletion does not affect transcription. {yields} PABP depletion does not lead to nuclear accumulation of mRNA. -- Abstract: The cytoplasmic poly (A) binding protein (PABP) is important in mRNA translation and stability. In yeast, depletion of PABP leads to translation arrest. Similarly, the PABP gene in Drosophila is important for proper development. It is however uncertain, whether mammalian PABP is essential for mRNA translation. Here we showed the effect of PABP depletion on mRNA metabolism in HeLa cells by using a small interfering RNA. Our results suggest that depletion of PABP prevents protein synthesis and consequently leads to cell death through apoptosis. Interestingly, no detectable effect of PABP depletion on transcription, transport and stability of mRNA was observed.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF AN {sup 84}Sr-DEPLETED CARRIER IN PRIMITIVE METEORITES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL PROCESSING IN THE SOLAR PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paton, Chad; Schiller, Martin; Bizzarro, Martin E-mail: schiller@snm.ku.dk

    2013-02-01

    The existence of correlated nucleosynthetic heterogeneities in solar system reservoirs is now well demonstrated for numerous nuclides. However, it has proven difficult to discriminate between the two disparate processes that can explain such correlated variability: incomplete mixing of presolar material or secondary processing of a well-mixed disk. Using stepwise acid-leaching of the Ivuna CI-chondrite, we show that unlike other nuclides such as {sup 54}Cr and {sup 50}Ti, Sr-isotope variability is the result of a carrier depleted in {sup 84}Sr. The carrier is most likely presolar SiC, which is known to have both high Sr-concentrations relative to solar abundances and extremely depleted {sup 84}Sr compositions. Thus, variability in {sup 84}Sr in meteorites and their components can be attributed to varying contributions from presolar SiC. The observed {sup 84}Sr excesses in calcium-aluminum refractory inclusions (CAIs) suggest their formation from an SiC-free gaseous reservoir, whereas the {sup 84}Sr depletions present in differentiated meteorites require their formation from material with an increased concentration of SiC relative to CI chondrites. The presence of a positive correlation between {sup 84}Sr and {sup 54}Cr, despite being hosted in carriers of negative and positive anomalies, respectively, is not compatible with incomplete mixing of presolar material but instead suggests that the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity reflects selective thermal processing of dust. Based on vaporization experiments of SiC under nebular conditions, the lack of SiC material in the CAI-forming gas inferred from our data requires that the duration of thermal processing of dust resulting in the vaporization of CAI precursors was extremely short-lived, possibly lasting only hours to days.

  7. University of Michigan adds Depletion Capability to MPACT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpected AngularFeet)ScientificMichigan adds

  8. Utility Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light|UndergroundThousand

  9. Stochastic interactions of two Brownian hard spheres in the presence of depletants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Tuinier, Remco; Taniguchi, Takashi

    2014-06-07

    A quantitative analysis is presented for the stochastic interactions of a pair of Brownian hard spheres in non-adsorbing polymer solutions. The hard spheres are hypothetically trapped by optical tweezers and allowed for random motion near the trapped positions. The investigation focuses on the long-time correlated Brownian motion. The mobility tensor altered by the polymer depletion effect is computed by the boundary integral method, and the corresponding random displacement is determined by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. From our computations it follows that the presence of depletion layers around the hard spheres has a significant effect on the hydrodynamic interactions and particle dynamics as compared to pure solvent and uniform polymer solution cases. The probability distribution functions of random walks of the two interacting hard spheres that are trapped clearly shift due to the polymer depletion effect. The results show that the reduction of the viscosity in the depletion layers around the spheres and the entropic force due to the overlapping of depletion zones have a significant influence on the correlated Brownian interactions.

  10. Interplanetary Field Enhancements: The Interaction between Solar Wind and Interplanetary Dusty Plasma Released by Interplanetary Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    R.A. , 1976. Depletion of solar wind plasma near a planetaryLayers………………………. ………. ………………1 1.1.2. Solar MagneticField and Solar Wind……………………………. …………. …2 1.2. Small

  11. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others] [and others

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation. These Appendices contain the Federal Register Notice, comments on evaluation factors, independent technical reviewers resumes, independent technical reviewers manual, and technology information packages.

  12. Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The technology assessment report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoller, J.N.; Rosen, R.S.; Holliday, M.A. [and others] [and others

    1995-06-30

    With the publication of a Request for Recommendations and Advance Notice of Intent in the November 10, 1994 Federal Register, the Department of Energy initiated a program to assess alternative strategies for the long-term management or use of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This Request was made to help ensure that, by seeking as many recommendations as possible, Department management considers reasonable options in the long-range management strategy. The Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program consists of three major program elements: Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and an Environmental Impact Statement. This Technology Assessment Report is the first part of the Engineering Analysis Project, and assesses recommendations from interested persons, industry, and Government agencies for potential uses for the depleted uranium hexafluoride stored at the gaseous diffusion plants in Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Technologies that could facilitate the long-term management of this material are also assessed. The purpose of the Technology Assessment Report is to present the results of the evaluation of these recommendations. Department management will decide which recommendations will receive further study and evaluation.

  13. San Onofre PWR Data for Code Validation of MOX Fuel Depletion Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, O.W.

    1999-09-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide fuel (fabricated with both uranium and plutonium isotope) discharged from reactors is of interest to the Fissile Material Disposition Program. The validation of depletion codes used to predict isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to studies concerning uranium-only fueled reactors, thus, is very important. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program was conducted to examine the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit I, during cycles 2 and 3. The data usually required as input to depletion codes, either one-dimensional or lattice codes, were taken from various sources and compiled into this report. Where data were either lacking or determined inadequate, the appropriate data were supplied from other references. The scope of the reactor operations and design data, in addition to the isotopic analyses, were considered to be of sufficient quality for depletion code validation.

  14. Summary of the engineering analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W., Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is reviewing ideas for the long-term management and use of its depleted uranium hexafluoride. DOE owns about 560,000 metric tons (over a billion pounds) of depleted uranium hexafluoride. This material is contained in steel cylinders located in storage yards near Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the K-25 Site) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. On November 10, 1994, DOE announced its new Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program by issuing a Request for Recommendations and an Advance Notice of Intent in the Federal Register (59 FR 56324 and 56325). The first part of this program consists of engineering, costs and environmental impact studies. Part one will conclude with the selection of a long-term management plan or strategy. Part two will carry out the selected strategy.

  15. Transient effects and pump depletion in stimulated Raman scattering. [Para-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsten, J.L.; Wenzel, R.G.; Druehl, K.

    1983-01-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H/sub 2/ with a single-mode CO/sub 2/-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the S/sub 0/(O) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  16. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Portsmouth site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Portsmouth site, near Portsmouth, Ohio. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Portsmouth site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) management activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  17. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the Paducah site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H.

    2001-06-07

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the Paducah site, near Paducah, Kentucky. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the Paducah site and summarizes potential environmental impacts that could result from conducting the following depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) activities at the site: continued cylinder storage, preparation of cylinders for shipment, conversion, and long-term storage. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted UF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  18. Structure and Depletion at Fluoro- and Hydro-carbon/Water Liquid/Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaoru Kashimoto; Jaesung Yoon; Binyang Hou; Chiu-hao Chen; Binhua Lin; Makoto Aratono; Takanori Takiue; Mark L. Schlossman

    2008-07-18

    The results of x-ray reflectivity studies of two oil/water (liquid/liquid) interfaces are inconsistent with recent predictions of the presence of a vapor-like depletion region at hydrophobic/aqueous interfaces. One of the oils, perfluorohexane, is a fluorocarbon whose super-hydrophobic interface with water provides a stringent test for the presence of a depletion layer. The other oil, heptane, is a hydrocarbon and, therefore, is more relevant to the study of biomolecular hydrophobicity. These results are consistent with the sub-angstrom proximity of water to soft hydrophobic materials.

  19. Electron depletion via cathode spot dispersion of dielectric powder into an overhead plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillman, Eric D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States); Foster, John E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS), University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The effectiveness of cathode spot delivered dielectric particles for the purpose of plasma depletion is investigated. Here, cathode spot flows kinetically entrain and accelerate dielectric particles originally at rest into a background plasma. The time variation of the background plasma density is tracked using a cylindrical Langmuir probe biased approximately at electron saturation. As inferred from changes in the electron saturation current, depletion fractions of up to 95% are observed. This method could be exploited as a means of communications blackout mitigation for manned and unmanned reentering spacecraft as well as any high speed vehicle enveloped by a dense plasma layer.

  20. Development of a Reliable Fuel Depletion Methodology for the HTR-10 Spent Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Kiwhan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beddingfield, David H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Sang-Yoon [unaffiliated

    2012-07-03

    A technical working group formed in 2007 between NNSA and CAEA to develop a reliable fuel depletion method for HTR-10 based on MCNPX and to analyze the isotopic inventory and radiation source terms of the HTR-10 spent fuel. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Established a fuel depletion methodology and demonstrated its safeguards application; (2) Proliferation resistant at high discharge burnup ({approx}80 GWD/MtHM) - Unfavorable isotopics, high number of pebbles needed, harder to reprocess pebbles; (3) SF should remain under safeguards comparable to that of LWR; and (4) Diversion scenarios not considered, but can be performed.

  1. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M.; Vanta, E.B.

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  2. Running Out Of and Into Oil. Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li, Jia

    2003-10-01

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value.

  3. Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Sustainable Use and Depletion of Natural Resources: The Quest for Energy Stephen R. Humphrey of oil Quest for energy substitution What about other natural resources? #12;How Do We Add 2 billion people by 2050? · Using 70% more of earth's resources · Must provide more energy, food, fiber · Avoid

  4. Excitation energy trapping in photosystem I complexes depleted in Lhca1 and Lhca4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Excitation energy trapping in photosystem I complexes depleted in Lhca1 and Lhca4 Janne A equally effective energy transfer routes to the PSI core complex, and that Lhca5 provides a less effective energy transfer route. We suggest that the specific location of each Lhca protein within the PSI

  5. Quantum dots and etch-induced depletion of a silicon two-dimensional electron gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppersmith, Susan N.

    Quantum dots and etch-induced depletion of a silicon two-dimensional electron gas L. J. Klein, K. L coupled quantum dots containing individual electrons whose spins act as qubits.4 We have made recent in a silicon quantum dot can be held constant for up to 11 hours. This fulfills an important milestone towards

  6. Depletion interactions in colloid-polymer mixtures X. Ye, T. Narayanan, and P. Tong*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Penger

    to the depletion effect or London­ van der Waals force and the colloidal suspension is stabilized 5,6 . In addition colloidal particles in polymer solutions control the phase stability of many colloid-polymer mixtures, which in which phase stability is desired. The interaction between the colloidal particles can be ex- pressed

  7. The Fight and Flight Responses of Crickets Depleted of Biogenic Amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    The Fight and Flight Responses of Crickets Depleted of Biogenic Amines Paul A. Stevenson, Hans A or submissive behaviors. AMT-treated crickets could normally only be brought to fight by coaxing. Though capable metabolic body functions for the prospective fight, whereas the central nervous noradrenergic sys- tem

  8. Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Ozone depletion during the solar proton events of October//November 2003 as seen by SCIAMACHY G; revised 4 May 2005; accepted 13 May 2005; published 20 August 2005. [1] We use atmospheric ozone density profiles between 35 and 65 km altitude derived from SCIAMACHY limb measurements to quantify the ozone

  9. D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, Charles H.

    O(1 D) Kinetic Study of Key Ozone Depleting Substances and Greenhouse Gases Munkhbayar Baasandorj) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) is reaction with the O(1 D) atom. In this study, rate coefficients, k, for the O(1 D) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Quantifying the atmospheric loss processes of ODSs and GHGs is essential

  10. DOE Issues Request for Quotations for Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Technical Services

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cincinnati – The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today issued a Request for Quotation (RFQ) for engineering and operations technical services to support the Portsmouth Paducah Project Office and the oversight of operations of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project located in Paducah KY, and Portsmouth OH.

  11. Terrestrial Ozone Depletion Due to a Milky Way Gamma-Ray Burst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian C. Thomas; Charles H. Jackman; Adrian L. Melott; Claude M. Laird; Richard S. Stolarski; Neil Gehrels; John K. Cannizzo; Daniel P. Hogan

    2005-02-10

    Based on cosmological rates, it is probable that at least once in the last Gy the Earth has been irradiated by a gamma-ray burst in our Galaxy from within 2 kpc. Using a two-dimensional atmospheric model we have performed the first computation of the effects upon the Earth's atmosphere of one such impulsive event. A ten second burst delivering 100 kJ/m^2 to the Earth penetrates to the stratosphere and results in globally averaged ozone depletion of 35%, with depletion reaching 55% at some latitudes. Significant global depletion persists for over 5 years after the burst. This depletion would have dramatic implications for life since a 50% decrease in ozone column density results in approximately three times the normal UVB flux. Widespread extinctions are likely, based on extrapolation from UVB sensitivity of modern organisms. Additional effects include a shot of nitrate fertilizer and NO2 opacity in the visible providing a cooling perturbation to the climate over a similar timescale. These results lend support to the hypothesis that a GRB may have initiated the late Ordovician mass extinction (Melott et al. 2004).

  12. Depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics employing low-cost electrical contacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    solution-processed single-junction cells and also multijunction architectures.1 Size-effect tuning also of depleted-heterojunction colloidal quantum dot solar cells, we describe herein a strategy that replaces energy conver- sion. Recently, colloidal quantum dot CQD solar cells were reported that reached above 5

  13. SPALLING FAILURE OF A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM DEPLETION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    SPALLING FAILURE OF A THERMAL BARRIER COATING ASSOCIATED WITH ALUMINUM DEPLETION IN THE BOND-COAT EÐA plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating is observed to spall after oxidation at 11218C from a CoNiCrAlY bond-coated superalloy at the interface between the thermally grown oxide (TGO) and the zir- conia

  14. A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mende, Stephen B.

    . The brightness of these emissions at night corresponds to the line-of-sight integrated product of the O+ and e the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this automation allows the drift velocities of each bubble

  15. FORIG: a modification of the ORIGEN2 isotope-generation and depletion code for fusion problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    This report describes how to use the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG is an adaptation of ORIGEN2 to run on a Cray-1 computer, and to accept more extensive activation cross sections.

  16. Reservoir Characterization, Formation Evaluation, and 3D Geologic Modeling of the Upper Jurassic Smackover Microbial Carbonate Reservoir and Associated Reservoir Facies at Little Cedar Creek Field, Northeastern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Haddad, Sharbel

    2012-10-19

    -carbonaceous facies of the Haynesville Formation. These carbonate reservoirs are composed of vuggy boundstone and moldic grainstone, and the petroleum trap is stratigraphic being controlled primarily by changes in depositional facies. To maximize recovery...

  17. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-04-19

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. This report includes work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and the demonstration project objective.

  18. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chimahusky, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a carbon dioxide project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second object is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The report include work on the reservoir characterization and project design objective and demonstration project objective.

  19. Field Guide Field Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    and demand in the U.S., with only part of the demand being met by U.S. production. Canola oil has achieved1 1 June 2011 A-1280 Canola Production Field Guide Canola Production Field Guide 2 2 Edited.....................................101 · Contributors to Canola Production Field Guide........102 · Resource Contact Information

  20. HD 80606: Searching the chemical signature of planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffe, C; Buccino, A

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Binary systems with similar components are ideal laboratories which allow several physical processes to be tested, such as the possible chemical pattern imprinted by the planet formation process. Aims. We explore the probable chemical signature of planet formation in the remarkable binary system HD 80606 - HD 80607. The star HD 80606 hosts a giant planet with 4 MJup detected by both transit and radial velocity techniques, being one of the most eccentric planets detected to date. We study condensation temperature Tc trends of volatile and refractory element abundances to determine whether there is a depletion of refractories that could be related to the terrestrial planet formation. Methods. We carried out a high-precision abundance determination in both components of the binary system, using a line-by-line strictly differential approach, using the Sun as a reference and then using HD 80606 as reference. We used an updated version of the program FUNDPAR, together with ATLAS9 model atmospheres and th...

  1. EIS-0360: Depleted Uranium Oxide Conversion Product at the Portsmouth, Ohio Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This site-specific EIS analyzes the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning of the proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Paducah site; transportation of all cylinders (DUF6, enriched, and empty) currently stored at the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to Portsmouth; construction of a new cylinder storage yard at Portsmouth (if required) for ETTP cylinders; transportation of depleted uranium conversion products and waste materials to a disposal facility; transportation and sale of the hydrogen fluoride (HF) produced as a conversion coproduct; and neutralization of HF to calcium fluoride and its sale or disposal in the event that the HF product is not sold.

  2. Ca depletion and the presence of dust in large scale nebulosities in radiogalaxies (I)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Villar-Martin; L. Binette

    1995-11-24

    We show that the study of the Calcium depletion is a valid an highly sensitive method for investigating the chemical and physical history of the very extended ionized nebulae seen around radio galaxies (EELR), massive ellipticals and `cooling flow' galaxies. By observing the near IR spectrum of nebular regions characterized by low excitation emission lines (LINER-like), we can use the intensity of the [CaII]$\\lambda\\lambda 7291,7324$\\AA\\ doublet --relative to other lines, like H$\\alpha$-- to infer the amount of Calcium depletion onto dust grains. The presence of dust in these objects --which does not necessarily result in a measurable level of extinction-- would favour a `galactic debris' rather than a `cooling flow' origin for the emitting gas. Before aplying such test to our data, we study four possible alternative mechanisms to dust depletion and which could have explained the absence of the [CaII] lines: a) ionization of Ca$^+$ from its metastable level, b) thermal ionization of Ca$^+$, c) a high ionization parameter and/or a harder ionizing contiuum than usually asummed and d) matter bounded models associated to a hard ionizing continuum. We show that none of these alternative mechanisms explain the absence of the [CaII] lines, except possibly for the highly ionized EELR where a high ionization parameter is required combined with a soft power law. We thus conclude that for the other low excitation emission regions (cooling flows, liners, low excitation EELR), the abscence of the CaII lines {\\it must} be due to the depletion of Calcium onto dust grains.

  3. An assessment of alternatives and technologies for replacing ozone- depleting substances at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, C.W.; Miller, K.B.; Friedman, J.R.; Rapoport, R.D.; Conover, D.R.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Koss, T.C.

    1992-10-01

    Title VI of the Clean Air Act, as amended, mandates a production phase-out for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). These requirements will have a significant impact on US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Currently, DOE uses ODSs in three major activities: fire suppression (halon), refrigeration and cooling (chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs]), and cleaning that requires solvents (CFCs, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride). This report provides basic information on methods and strategies to phase out use of ODSs at DOE facilities.

  4. Loan Loss Reserves: Lessons from the Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Sept. 20, 2010, provides in formation on loan loss reserve funds and lessons from the field on their use.

  5. Water Formatics Engineered formation of nanobubbles networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    Water Formatics Engineered formation of nanobubbles networks in water and aqueous solutions We present the idea that the anomalous effects of rf-treatments of water and aqueous solution resulted from-bubble exchange interactions. These exchange interactions are mediated by the ordering of the water molecules

  6. Micelle-induced depletion interaction and resultant structure in charged colloidal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-04-28

    The evolution of the interaction and the resultant structure in the mixed system of anionic silica nanoparticles (Ludox LS30) and non-ionic surfactant decaethylene glycol monododecylether (C12E10), undergoing phase separation, have been studied using small-angle neutron scattering and dynamic light scattering. The measurements have been carried out for a fixed concentration of nanoparticle (1?wt.?%) with varying concentration of surfactant (0 to 1?wt.?%), in the absence and presence of an electrolyte. It is found that the micelles of non-ionic surfactant adsorb on the nanoparticle in the absence of electrolyte (form stable system), whereas these micelles become non-adsorbing in the presence of electrolyte (show phase separation). The phase separation arises because of C12E10 micelles, causing depletion interaction between nanoparticles and leading to their aggregation. The interaction is modeled by double Yukawa potential accounting for attractive depletion as well as repulsive electrostatic forces. Both the interactions (attraction and repulsion) are found to be of long-range. The nanoparticle aggregation (phase separation) is governed by the increase in the magnitude and the range of the depletion attraction with the increase in the surfactant concentration. The nanoparticle aggregates formed are quite large in size (order of micron) and are characterized by the surface fractal having simple cubic packing of nanoparticles within the aggregates.

  7. Power distributions in fresh and depleted LEU and HEU cores of the MITR reactor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.H.; Horelik, N.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Newton, T.H., Jr.; Hu, L.; Stevens, J.G. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (2MIT Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and Nuclear Science and Engineering Department)

    2012-04-04

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like the MITR-II reactor. Toward this goal, core geometry and power distributions are presented. Distributions of power are calculated for LEU cores depleted with MCODE using an MCNP5 Monte Carlo model. The MCNP5 HEU and LEU MITR models were previously compared to experimental benchmark data for the MITR-II. This same model was used with a finer spatial depletion in order to generate power distributions for the LEU cores. The objective of this work is to generate and characterize a series of fresh and depleted core peak power distributions, and provide a thermal hydraulic evaluation of the geometry which should be considered for subsequent thermal hydraulic safety analyses.

  8. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  9. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and new predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named “tebow,” was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.

  10. Performance upgrades to the MCNP6 burnup capability for large scale depletion calculations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fensin, M. L.; Galloway, J. D.; James, M. R.

    2015-04-11

    The first MCNP based inline Monte Carlo depletion capability was officially released from the Radiation Safety Information and Computational Center as MCNPX 2.6.0. With the merger of MCNPX and MCNP5, MCNP6 combined the capability of both simulation tools, as well as providing new advanced technology, in a single radiation transport code. The new MCNP6 depletion capability was first showcased at the International Congress for Advancements in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP) meeting in 2012. At that conference the new capabilities addressed included the combined distributive and shared memory parallel architecture for the burnup capability, improved memory management, physics enhancements, and newmore »predictability as compared to the H.B Robinson Benchmark. At Los Alamos National Laboratory, a special purpose cluster named “tebow,” was constructed such to maximize available RAM per CPU, as well as leveraging swap space with solid state hard drives, to allow larger scale depletion calculations (allowing for significantly more burnable regions than previously examined). As the MCNP6 burnup capability was scaled to larger numbers of burnable regions, a noticeable slowdown was realized.This paper details two specific computational performance strategies for improving calculation speedup: (1) retrieving cross sections during transport; and (2) tallying mechanisms specific to burnup in MCNP. To combat this slowdown new performance upgrades were developed and integrated into MCNP6 1.2.« less

  11. A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE AT TWO NASA CLPX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles W.

    THESIS A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE RECHARGE IN A SEMI-ARID CLIMATE ________________________________________ Department Head #12;iii ABSTRACT A MODELING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING SNOW COVER DEPLETION AND SOIL MOISTURE

  12. Quantum-trajectory description of laser noise with pump depletion J. Visser, G. Nienhuis, S. M. Dutra, M. P. van Exter, and J. P. Woerdman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exter, Martin van

    Quantum-trajectory description of laser noise with pump depletion J. Visser, G. Nienhuis, S. M, the value of , and thereby the ground-state depletion, can be appreciable even for modest pumping properties change when the pumping is strong enough to cause depletion of the number of atoms participat- ing

  13. 224 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 23, NO. 4, APRIL 2002 Gate Length Dependent Polysilicon Depletion Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutton, Robert W.

    - tribution effect, MOSFET, polydepletion, polysilicon depletion ef- fect. I. INTRODUCTION IN THE dual n -p impurity penetration through the gate oxide, while maintaining the required source/drain junction depths [2

  14. The Relationship Between Molecular Gas, HI, and Star Formation in the Low-Mass, Low-Metallicity Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jameson, Katherine E; Leroy, Adam K; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl; Hughes, Annie; Israel, Frank P; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Madden, Suzanne C; Bot, Caroline; Hony, Sacha; Cormier, Diane; Pellegrini, Eric W; Galametz, Maud; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    The Magellanic Clouds provide the only laboratory to study the effect of metallicity and galaxy mass on molecular gas and star formation at high (~20 pc) resolution. We use the dust emission from HERITAGE Herschel data to map the molecular gas in the Magellanic Clouds, avoiding the known biases of CO emission as a tracer of H2. Using our dust-based molecular gas estimates, we find molecular gas depletion times of ~0.4 Gyr in the LMC and ~0.6 SMC at 1 kpc scales. These depletion times fall within the range found for normal disk galaxies, but are shorter than the average value, which could be due to recent bursts in star formation. We find no evidence for a strong intrinsic dependence of the molecular gas depletion time on metallicity. We study the relationship between gas and star formation rate across a range in size scales from 20 pc to ~1 kpc, including how the scatter in molecular gas depletion time changes with size scale, and discuss the physical mechanisms driving the relationships. We compare the metal...

  15. Cosmology of Bifundamental Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanmay Vachaspati

    2008-12-17

    If a field theory contains gauged, non-Abelian, bi-fundamental fields i.e. fields that are charged under two separate non-Abelian gauge groups, the transition from a deconfined phase to a hadronic phase may be frustrated. Similar frustration may occur in non-Abelian gauge models containing matter only in higher dimensional representations e.g. models with pure glue, or if ordinary quarks are confined by two flux tubes, as implied in the triangular configuration of baryons within QCD. In a cosmological setting, such models can lead to the formation of a web of confining electric flux tubes that can potentially have observational signatures.

  16. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; McAllaster, M.E. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion.

  17. Semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical water splitting at the limit of very wide depletion region

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Mingzhao; Lyons, John L.; Yan, Danhua H.; Hybertsen, Mark S.

    2015-11-23

    In semiconductor-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, carrier separation and delivery largely relies on the depletion region formed at the semiconductor/water interface. As a Schottky junction device, the trade-off between photon collection and minority carrier delivery remains a persistent obstacle for maximizing the performance of a water splitting photoelectrode. Here, it is demonstrated that the PEC water splitting efficiency for an n-SrTiO3 (n-STO) photoanode is improved very significantly despite its weak indirect band gap optical absorption (? 3 photoanodes are fabricated with their bulkmore »heavily doped with oxygen vacancies but their surface lightly doped over a tunable depth of a few hundred nanometers, through a simple low temperature re-oxidation technique. The graded doping profile widens the depletion region to over 500 nm, thus leading to very efficient charge carrier separation and high quantum efficiency (>70%) for the weak indirect transition. As a result, this simultaneous optimization of the light absorption, minority carrier (hole) delivery, and majority carrier (electron) transport by means of a graded doping architecture may be useful for other indirect band gap photocatalysts that suffer from a similar problem of weak optical absorption.« less

  18. Summary of the cost analysis report for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rahm-Crites, L.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a summary of the Cost Analysis Report which provides comparative cost data for the management strategy alternatives. The PEIS and the Cost Analysis Report will help DOE select a management strategy. The Record of Decision, expected in 1998, will complete the first part of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. The second part of the Program will look at specific sites and technologies for carrying out the selected strategy. The Cost Analysis Report estimates the primary capital and operating costs for the different alternatives. It reflects the costs of technology development construction of facilities, operation, and decontamination and decommissioning. It also includes potential revenues from the sale of by-products such as anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (ABF). These estimates are based on early designs. They are intended to help in comparing alternatives, rather than to indicate absolute costs for project budgets or bidding purposes. More detailed estimates and specific funding sources will be considered in part two of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program.

  19. Depleted uranium hexafluoride management program : data compilation for the K-25 site.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartmann, H. M.

    2001-06-05

    This report is a compilation of data and analyses for the K-25 site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The data were collected and the analyses were done in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 1999 Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DOE/EIS-0269). The report describes the affected environment at the K-25 site and summarizes the potential environmental impacts that could result from continued cylinder storage and preparation of cylinders for shipment at the site. It is probable that the cylinders at the K-25 site will be shipped to another site for conversion. Because conversion and long-term storage of the entire inventory at the K-25 site are highly unlikely, these data are not presented in this report. DOE's preferred alternative is to begin converting the depleted uranium hexafluoride inventory as soon as possible to either uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for use of as much of this inventory as possible.

  20. Irrigation Depletions 1928-1989 : 1990 Level of Irrigation, Snake Yakima and Deschutes River Basins.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administation; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-07-01

    The vast amount of irrigation in relation to the available water and extensive system of reservoirs located in the Snake River Basin above Brownlee reservoir precludes this area from using methods such as Blaney-Criddle for estimating irrigation depletions. Also the hydrology, irrigation growth patterns, and water supply problems are unique and complex. Therefore regulation studies were utilized to reflect the net effect on streamflow of the changes in irrigated acreage in terms of corresponding changes in storage regulation and in the amount of water depleted and diverted from and returned to the river system. The regulation study for 1990 conditions was conducted by the Idaho Department of Water Resources. The end product of the basin simulation is 61 years of regulated flows at various points in the river system that are based on 1990 conditions. Data used by the Idaho Department of Water Resources is presented in this section and includes natural gains to the river system and diversions from the river system based on a 1990 level of development and operation criteria. Additional information can be obtained for an Idaho Department of Water Resources Open-File Report ``Stream Flows in the Snake River Basin 1989 Conditions of Use and Management`` dated June 1991. Similar considerations apply to the Yakima and Deschutes river basins.

  1. Soft repulsive mixtures under gravity: brazil-nut effect, depletion bubbles, boundary layering, nonequilibrium shaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobias Kruppa; Tim Neuhaus; René Messina; Hartmut Löwen

    2011-12-28

    A binary mixture of particles interacting via long-ranged repulsive forces is studied in gravity by computer simulation and theory. The more repulsive A-particles create a depletion zone of less repulsive B-particles around them reminiscent to a bubble. Applying Archimedes' principle effectively to this bubble, an A-particle can be lifted in a fluid background of B-particles. This "depletion bubble" mechanism explains and predicts a brazil-nut effect where the heavier A-particles float on top of the lighter B-particles. It also implies an effective attraction of an A-particle towards a hard container bottom wall which leads to boundary layering of A-particles. Additionally, we have studied a periodic inversion of gravity causing perpetual mutual penetration of the mixture in a slit geometry. In this nonequilibrium case of time-dependent gravity, the boundary layering persists. Our results are based on computer simulations and density functional theory of a two-dimensional binary mixture of colloidal repulsive dipoles. The predicted effects also occur for other long-ranged repulsive interactions and in three spatial dimensions. They are therefore verifiable in settling experiments on dipolar or charged colloidal mixtures as well as in charged granulates and dusty plasmas.

  2. Effects of Bismuth on Wide-Depletion-Width GaInNAs Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ptak, A. J.; France, R.; Jiang, C.-S.; Reedy, R. C.

    2008-05-01

    GaInNAs solar cells could be useful in next-generation multijunction solar cells if issues surrounding low photocurrents and photovoltages are surmounted. Wide-depletion-width devices generate significant photocurrent using a p-i-n structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy, but these depletion widths are only realized in a region of parameter space that leads to rough surface morphologies. Here, bismuth is explored as a surfactant for the growth of GaInNAs solar cells. Very low fluxes of Bi are effective at maintaining smooth surfaces, even at high growth temperatures and In contents. However, Bi also increases the net donor concentration in these materials, manifested in our n-on-p device structures as a pn-junction that moves deeper into the base layer with increasing Bi fluxes. Quantum efficiency modeling and scanning kelvin probe microscopy measurements confirm the type conversion of the base layer from p type to n type. Bi incorporation in GaAsBi samples shows signs of surface segregation, leading to a finite buildup time, and this effect may lead to slow changes in the electrical properties of the GaInNAs(Bi) devices. Bi also appears to create a defect level, although this defect level is not deleterious enough to increase the dark current in the devices.

  3. Formation of a compact toroid for enhanced efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozgovoy, A. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)] [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    We report here our results on the formation of a plasma configuration with the generic name of compact toroid (CT). A method of compact toroid formation to confine, heat and compress a plasma is investigated. Formation of a compact torus using an additional toroidal magnetic field helps to increase the plasma current to a maintainable level of the original magnetic field. We design the Compact Toroid Challenge (CTC) experiment in order to improve the magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a compact toroid. The level of the magnetic field immersed in the plasma about 70% of the primary field is achieved. The CTC device and scheme of high level capturing of magnetic flux are presented.

  4. Planet formation and migration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John C B Papaloizou; Caroline Terquem

    2005-11-28

    We review the observations of extrasolar planets, ongoing developments in theories of planet formation, orbital migration, and the evolution of multiplanet systems.

  5. Production of Depleted UO2Kernels for the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Program for Use in TRISO Coating Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.L.

    2004-12-02

    The main objective of the Depleted UO{sub 2} Kernels Production Task at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was to conduct two small-scale production campaigns to produce 2 kg of UO{sub 2} kernels with diameters of 500 {+-} 20 {micro}m and 3.5 kg of UO{sub 2} kernels with diameters of 350 {+-} 10 {micro}m for the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative Program. The final acceptance requirements for the UO{sub 2} kernels are provided in the first section of this report. The kernels were prepared for use by the ORNL Metals and Ceramics Division in a development study to perfect the triisotropic (TRISO) coating process. It was important that the kernels be strong and near theoretical density, with excellent sphericity, minimal surface roughness, and no cracking. This report gives a detailed description of the production efforts and results as well as an in-depth description of the internal gelation process and its chemistry. It describes the laboratory-scale gel-forming apparatus, optimum broth formulation and operating conditions, preparation of the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate stock solution, the system used to provide uniform broth droplet formation and control, and the process of calcining and sintering UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O microspheres to form dense UO{sub 2} kernels. The report also describes improvements and best past practices for uranium kernel formation via the internal gelation process, which utilizes hexamethylenetetramine and urea. Improvements were made in broth formulation and broth droplet formation and control that made it possible in many of the runs in the campaign to produce the desired 350 {+-} 10-{micro}m-diameter kernels, and to obtain very high yields.

  6. The depletion of Interleukin-8 causes cell cycle arrest and increases the efficacy of docetaxel in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Nan; Chen, Liu-Hua; Ye, Run-Yi; Lin, Ying; Wang, Shen-Ming

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ? IL-8 depletion affects cell cycle distribution. ? Intrinsic IL-8 mediates breast cancer cell migration and invasion. ? IL-8 siRNA down regulates key factors that control survival and metastatic pathway. ? IL-8 depletion reduces integrin ?3 expression. ? IL-8 depletion increases the chemosensitivity to docetaxel. -- Abstract: IL-8 is a multi-functional pro-inflammatory chemokine, which is highly expressed in cancers, such as ER-negative breast cancer. The present study demonstrates the pervasive role of IL-8 in the malignant progression of ER-negative breast cancer. IL-8 siRNA inhibited proliferation and delayed the G1 to S cell cycle progression in MDA-MB-231 and BT549 cells. IL-8 silencing resulted in the upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p27, the downregulation of cyclin D1, and the reduction of phosphorylated-Akt and NF-?B activities. IL-8 depletion also increased the chemosensitivity to docetaxel. These results indicate a role for IL-8 in promoting tumor cell survival and resistance to docetaxel and highlight the potential therapeutic significance of IL-8 depletion in ER-negative breast cancer patients.

  7. The NeXus data format

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Könnecke, Mark; Akeroyd, Frederick A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Brewster, Aaron S.; Campbell, Stuart I.; Clausen, Björn; Cottrell, Stephen; Hoffmann, Jens Uwe; Jemian, Pete R.; Männicke, David; et al

    2015-01-30

    NeXus is an effort by an international group of scientists to define a common data exchange and archival format for neutron, X-ray and muon experiments. NeXus is built on top of the scientific data format HDF5 and adds domain-specific rules for organizing data within HDF5 files, in addition to a dictionary of well defined domain-specific field names. The NeXus data format has two purposes. First, it defines a format that can serve as a container for all relevant data associated with a beamline. This is a very important use case. Second, it defines standards in the form of application definitionsmore »for the exchange of data between applications. NeXus provides structures for raw experimental data as well as for processed data.« less

  8. Targeted quantification of low ng/mL level proteins in human serum without immunoaffinity depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Tujin; Sun, Xuefei; Gao, Yuqian; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhao, Rui; He, Jintang; Moore, Ronald J.; Kagan, Jacob; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Liu, Alvin Y.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi; Camp, David G.; Qian, Weijun

    2013-07-05

    We recently reported an antibody-free targeted protein quantification strategy, termed high-pressure, high-resolution separations with intelligent selection and multiplexing (PRISM) for achieving significantly enhanced sensitivity using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry. Integrating PRISM with front-end IgY14 immunoaffinity depletion, sensitive detection of targeted proteins at 50-100 pg/mL levels in human blood plasma/serum was demonstrated. However, immunoaffinity depletion is often associated with undesired losses of target proteins of interest. Herein we report further evaluation of PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance serum proteins without immunoaffinity depletion and the multiplexing potential of this technique. Limits of quantification (LOQs) at low ng/mL levels with a median CV of ~12% were achieved for proteins spiked into human female serum using as little as 2 µL serum. PRISM-SRM provided up to ~1000-fold improvement in the LOQ when compared to conventional SRM measurements. Multiplexing capability of PRISM-SRM was also evaluated by two sets of serum samples with 6 and 21 target peptides spiked at the low attomole/µL levels. The results from SRM measurements for pooled or post-concatenated samples were comparable to those obtained from individual peptide fractions in terms of signal-to-noise ratios and SRM peak area ratios of light to heavy peptides. PRISM-SRM was applied to measure several ng/mL-level endogenous plasma proteins, including prostate-specific antigen, in clinical patient sera where correlation coefficients > 0.99 were observed between the results from PRISM-SRM and ELISA assays. Our results demonstrate that PRISM-SRM can be successfully used for quantification of low-abundance endogenous proteins in highly complex samples. Moderate throughput (50 samples/week) can be achieved by applying the post-concatenation or fraction multiplexing strategies. We anticipate broad applications for targeted PRISM-SRM quantification of low-abundance cellular proteins in systems biology studies as well as candidate biomarkers in biofluids.

  9. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, AND 3 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-29

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, and 3 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  10. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 1, 2, 3, AND 1X OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-09-03

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain rodded fuel assemblies from batches 1, 2, 3, and 1X of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for Commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A rodded assembly is one that contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) for some period of time during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H calculated isotopic compositions of depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison for each fuel assembly to be used in subsequent CRC reactivity calculations containing the fuel assemblies.

  11. CRC DEPLETION CALCULATIONS FOR THE NON-RODDED ASSEMBLIES IN BATCHES 4 AND 5 OF CRYSTAL RIVER UNIT 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth D. Wright

    1997-07-30

    The purpose of this design analysis is to document the SAS2H depletion calculations of certain non-rodded fuel assemblies from batches 4 and 5 of the Crystal River Unit 3 pressurized water reactor (PWR) that are required for commercial Reactor Critical (CRC) evaluations to support the development of the disposal criticality methodology. A non-rodded assembly is one which never contains a control rod assembly (CRA) or an axial power shaping rod assembly (APSRA) during its irradiation history. The objective of this analysis is to provide SAS2H generated isotopic compositions for each fuel assembly's depleted fuel and depleted burnable poison materials. These SAS2H generated isotopic compositions are acceptable for use in CRC benchmark reactivity calculations containing the various fuel assemblies.

  12. Multi-images deconvolution improves signal-to-noise ratio on gated stimulated emission depletion microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2014-12-08

    Time-gated detection, namely, only collecting the fluorescence photons after a time-delay from the excitation events, reduces complexity, cost, and illumination intensity of a stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope. In the gated continuous-wave- (CW-) STED implementation, the spatial resolution improves with increased time-delay, but the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduces. Thus, in sub-optimal conditions, such as a low photon-budget regime, the SNR reduction can cancel-out the expected gain in resolution. Here, we propose a method which does not discard photons, but instead collects all the photons in different time-gates and recombines them through a multi-image deconvolution. Our results, obtained on simulated and experimental data, show that the SNR of the restored image improves relative to the gated image, thereby improving the effective resolution.

  13. Theophylline prevents NAD{sup +} depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moonen, Harald J.J. . E-mail: h.moonen@grat.unimaas.nl; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-12-30

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD{sup +}, resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD{sup +} pool, and of NAD{sup +}-dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD{sup +} levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies.

  14. Cadmium Depletion Impacts on Hardening Neutron6 Spectrum for Advanced Fuel Testing in ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray S. Chang

    2011-05-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim Effect in the test region.

  15. Preconceptual design studies and cost data of depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, E

    1999-07-26

    One of the more important legacies left with the Department of Energy (DOE) after the privatization of the United States Enrichment Corporation is the large inventory of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) is responsible for the long-term management of some 700,000 metric tons of DUF6 stored at the sites of the two gaseous diffusion plants located at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio, and at the East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The DUF6 management program resides in NE's Office of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management. The current DUF6 program has largely focused on the ongoing maintenance of the cylinders containing DUF6. However, the long-term management and eventual disposition of DUF6 is the subject of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) and Public Law 105-204. The first step for future use or disposition is to convert the material, which requires construction and long-term operation of one or more conversion plants. To help inform the DUF6 program's planning activities, it was necessary to perform design and cost studies of likely DUF6 conversion plants at the preconceptual level, beyond the PEIS considerations but not as detailed as required for conceptual designs of actual plants. This report contains the final results from such a preconceptual design study project. In this fast track, three month effort, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Bechtel National Incorporated developed and evaluated seven different preconceptual design cases for a single plant. The preconceptual design, schedules, costs, and issues associated with specific DUF6 conversion approaches, operating periods, and ownership options were evaluated based on criteria established by DOE. The single-plant conversion options studied were similar to the dry-conversion process alternatives from the PEIS. For each of the seven cases considered, this report contains information on the conversion process, preconceptual plant description, rough capital and operating costs, and preliminary project schedule.

  16. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  17. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voss, Katalyn A; Famiglietti, James S; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C

    2013-01-01

    Wilson (2007), Estimating groundwater storage changes in theGlobal depletion of groundwater resources, Geophys. Res.table decline on the groundwater quality in Marand Plain,

  18. Formation of molecules in an expanding Bose-Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Yurovsky; A. Ben-Reuven

    2004-02-12

    A mean field theory of expanding hybrid atom-molecule Bose-Einstein condensates is applied to the recent MPI experiments on ${}^{87}$Rb that demonstrated the formation of ultracold molecules due to Feshbach resonance. The subsequent dissociation of the molecules is treated using a non-mean-field parametric approximation. The latter method is also used in determining optimal conditions for the formation of molecular BEC

  19. Word formation in Thadou

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haokip, Pauthang

    2014-01-01

    As stated above, compound words of Thadou are mostlyNote that the resulting new words are always nouns. a. b. c.bad’ (negative) Haokip: Word formation in Thadou a. â-sâa ?

  20. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahniashvili, Tina [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C (Canada); Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Tevzadze, Alexander G. [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory, Ilia State University, 2A Kazbegi Ave, Tbilisi, GE-0160 (Georgia); Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Tbilisi State University, 1 Chavchavadze Avenue, Tbilisi, GE-0128 (Georgia); Sethi, Shiv K. [McWilliams Center for Cosmology and Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Pandey, Kanhaiya [Raman Research Institute, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560080 (India); Ratra, Bharat [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  1. Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content spatial statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katul, Gabriel

    Soil water depletion by oak trees and the influence of root water uptake on the moisture content was used to assess the role of root water uptake on the spatial variability of moisture content the spa- tial variability in moisture content due to root water uptake from variability in soil hydraulic

  2. Is beryllium ultra-depletion in solar-type stars linked to the presence of a white dwarf companion?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desidera, S; Lugaro, M

    2015-01-01

    Abundance studies of solar-type stars revealed a small fraction of objects with extreme depletion of beryllium. We investigate the possible link between the beryllium depletion and the presence of companions. The classical methods (radial velocity, astrometry, imaging) used to search for binary companions were exploited. We also performed a chemical analysis to identify binaries by the alteration in abundances that is produced by the accretion of material lost by a former evolved companion. We found that all the four previously investigated stars that were found to be ultra--depleted in Be are binaries. In two cases the companion is a white dwarf, and in the other two cases the companion might be a white dwarf or a main-sequence star. One new barium star was identified. We speculate that the interaction with the white dwarf progenitor caused an alteration in the abundance pattern of the star, which resulted in severe beryllium depletion. Possible mechanisms such as thermohaline mixing, episodic accretion, and...

  3. CO2-Driven Enhanced Gas Recovery and Storage in Depleted Shale Reservoir-A Numerical Simulation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    1 CO2-Driven Enhanced Gas Recovery and Storage in Depleted Shale Reservoir- A Numerical Simulation for storage and enhanced gas recovery may be organic-rich shales, which CO2 is preferentially adsorbed comprehensive simulation studies to better understand CO2 injection process in shale gas reservoir. This paper

  4. The modelling of feedback in star formation simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, James E

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of numerical simulations of stellar feedback in the context of star formation at scales ranging from the formation of individual stars to models of galaxy formation including cosmic reionisation. I survey the wealth of algorithms developed recently to solve the radiative transfer problem and to simulate stellar winds, supernovae and protostellar jets. I discuss the results of these simulations with regard to star formation in molecular clouds, the interaction of different feedback mechanisms with each other and with magnetic fields, and in the wider context of galactic-- and cosmological--scale simulations.

  5. Asymptotic and uncertainty analyses of a phase field model for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Asymptotic and uncertainty analyses of a phase field model for void formation under irradiation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Asymptotic and uncertainty analyses of a...

  6. General relativity and cosmic structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adamek, Julian; Durrer, Ruth; Kunz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations are a versatile tool providing insight into the complicated process of structure formation in cosmology. This process is mainly governed by gravity, which is the dominant force on large scales. To date, a century after the formulation of general relativity, numerical codes for structure formation still employ Newton's law of gravitation. This approximation relies on the two assumptions that gravitational fields are weak and that they are only sourced by non-relativistic matter. While the former appears well justified on cosmological scales, the latter imposes restrictions on the nature of the "dark" components of the Universe (dark matter and dark energy) which are, however, poorly understood. Here we present the first simulations of cosmic structure formation using equations consistently derived from general relativity. We study in detail the small relativistic effects for a standard {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology which cannot be obtained within a purely Newtonian framework. Our particle-mesh N...

  7. DEPLETION OF MOLECULAR GAS BY AN ACCRETION OUTBURST IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Muzerolle, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bruderer, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Meyer, M. R., E-mail: banzatti@stsci.edu [ETH Zürich, Institut für Astronomie, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-01

    We investigate new and archival 3-5 ?m high-resolution (?3 km s{sup –1}) spectroscopy of molecular gas in the inner disk of the young solar-mass star EX Lupi, taken during and after the strong accretion outburst of 2008. The data were obtained using the CRIRES spectrometer at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope in 2008 and 2014. In 2008, emission lines from CO, H{sub 2}O, and OH were detected with broad profiles tracing gas near and within the corotation radius (0.02-0.3 AU). In 2014, the spectra display marked differences. The CO lines, while still detected, are much weaker, and the H{sub 2}O and OH lines have disappeared altogether. At 3 ?m a veiled stellar photospheric spectrum is observed. Our analysis finds that the molecular gas mass in the inner disk has decreased by an order of magnitude since the outburst, matching a similar decrease in the accretion rate onto the star. We discuss these findings in the context of a rapid depletion of material accumulated beyond the disk corotation radius during quiescent periods, as proposed by models of episodic accretion in EXor-type young stars.

  8. Depletion of Nonlinearity in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence: Insights from Analysis and Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. D. Gibbon; A. Gupta; G. Krstulovic; R. Pandit; H. Politano; Y. Ponty; A. Pouquet; G. Sahoo; J. Stawarz

    2015-08-22

    We build on recent developments in the study of fluid turbulence [Gibbon \\textit{et al.} Nonlinearity 27, 2605 (2014)] to define suitably scaled, order-$m$ moments, $D_m^{\\pm}$, of $\\omega^\\pm= \\omega \\pm j$, where $\\omega$ and $j$ are, respectively, the vorticity and current density in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). We show by mathematical analysis, for unit magnetic Prandtl number $P_M$, how these moments can be used to identify three possible regimes for solutions of the MHD equations; these regimes are specified by inequalities for $D_m^{\\pm}$ and $D_1^{\\pm}$. We then compare our mathematical results with those from our direct numerical simulations (DNSs) and thus demonstrate that 3D MHD turbulence is like its fluid-turbulence counterpart insofar as all solutions, which we have investigated, remain in \\textit{only one of these regimes}; this regime has depleted nonlinearity. We examine the implications of our results for the exponents $q^{\\pm}$ that characterize the power-law dependences of the energy spectra $\\mathcal{E}^{\\pm}(k)$ on the wave number $k$, in the inertial range of scales. We also comment on (a) the generalization of our results to the case $P_M \

  9. Modulated Tool-Path Chip Breaking For Depleted Uranium Machining Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkman, W. E.; Babelay Jr., E. F.; Smith, K. S.; Assaid T. S.; McFarland, J. T.; Tursky, D. A.

    2010-04-15

    Turning operations involving depleted uranium frequently generate long, stringy chips that present a hazard to both the machinist and the machine tool. While a variety of chip-breaking techniques are available, they generally depend on a mechanism that increases the bending of the chip or the introduction of a one dimensional vibration that produces an interrupted cutting pattern. Unfortunately, neither of these approaches is particularly effective when making a 'light depth-of-cut' on a contoured workpiece. The historical solution to this problem has been for the machinist to use long-handled tweezers to 'pull the chip' and try to keep it submerged in the chip pan; however, this approach is not practical for all machining operations. This paper discusses a research project involving the Y-12 National Security Complex and the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in which unique, oscillatory part programs are used to continuously create an interrupted cut that generates pre-defined, user-selectable chip lengths.

  10. Proceedings of a workshop on uses of depleted uranium in storage, transportation and repository facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A workshop on the potential uses of depleted uranium (DU) in the repository was organized to coordinate the planning of future activities. The attendees, the original workshop objective and the agenda are provided in Appendices A, B and C. After some opening remarks and discussions, the objectives of the workshop were revised to: (1) exchange information and views on the status of the Department of Energy (DOE) activities related to repository design and planning; (2) exchange information on DU management and planning; (3) identify potential uses of DU in the storage, transportation, and disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel; and (4) define the future activities that would be needed if potential uses were to be further evaluated and developed. This summary of the workshop is intended to be an integrated resource for planning of any future work related to DU use in the repository. The synopsis of the first day`s presentations is provided in Appendix D. Copies of slides from each presenter are presented in Appendix E.

  11. Beryllium anomalies in solar-type field stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. C. Santos; G. Israelian; S. Randich; R. J. Garcia Lopez; R. Rebolo

    2004-08-05

    We present a study of beryllium (Be) abundances in a large sample of field solar-type dwarfs and sub-giants spanning a large range of effective temperatures. The analysis shows that Be is severely depleted for F stars, as expected by the light-element depletion models. However, we also show that Beryllium abundances decrease with decreasing temperature for stars cooler than $\\sim$6000 K, a result that cannot be explained by current theoretical models including rotational mixing, but that is, at least in part, expected from the models that take into account internal wave physics. In particular, the light element abundances of the coolest and youngest stars in our sample suggest that Be, as well as lithium (Li), has already been burned early during their evolution. Furthermore, we find strong evidence for the existence of a Be-gap for solar-temperature stars. The analysis of Li and Be abundances in the sub-giants of our sample also shows the presence of one case that has still detectable amounts of Li, while Be is severely depleted. Finally, we compare the derived Be abundances with Li abundances derived using the same set of stellar parameters. This gives us the possibility to explore the temperatures for which the onset of Li and Be depletion occurs.

  12. Reconstructing the Star Formation Histories of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uta Fritze; Thomas Lilly

    2007-01-15

    We present a methodological study to find out how far back and to what precision star formation histories of galaxies can be reconstructed from CMDs, from integrated spectra and Lick indices, and from integrated multi-band photometry. Our evolutionary synthesis models GALEV allow to describe the evolution of galaxies in terms of all three approaches and we have assumed typical observational uncertainties for each of them and then investigated to what extent and accuracy different star formation histories can be discriminated. For a field in the LMC bar region with both a deep CMD from HST observations and a trailing slit spectrum across exactly the same field of view we could test our modelling results against real data.

  13. Star Formation Histories in the Local Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Brown

    2004-07-09

    Deep color magnitude diagrams extending to the main sequence provide the most direct measure of the detailed star formation history in a stellar population. With large investments of observing time, HST can obtain such data for populations out to 1 Mpc, but its field of view is extremely small in comparison to the size of Local Group galaxies. This limitation severely constrains our understanding of galaxy formation. For example, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, Andromeda, offers an ideal laboratory for studying the formation of large spiral galaxies, but the galaxy shows substructure on a variety of scales, presumably due to its violent merger history. Within its remaining lifetime, HST can only sample a few sight-lines through this complex galaxy. In contrast, a wide field imager could provide a map of Andromeda's halo, outer disk, and tidal streams, revealing the spatially-dependent star formation history in each structure. The same data would enable many secondary studies, such as the age variation in Andromeda's globular cluster system, gigantic samples of variable stars, and microlensing tracers of the galaxy's dark matter distribution.

  14. NEWS & VIEWS PATTERN FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    no apologies for investing energy into problems of specific application to a particular process in nature, and having the curiosity to want to find out how they work. The general public, and especially children flow/surface growth system in a rarely explored region of parameter space for such pattern formation

  15. Electric Field Alignment of Cellulose Based-Polymer Nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalidindi, Sanjay Varma

    2012-07-16

    of approximately 30. The behavior of CWs (alignment and chain formation) under an applied electric field was found to be a function of applied electric field magnitude, frequency and duration. Following alignment, the CW/PVAc nanocomposites are thermally dried...

  16. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  17. Barriers and Issues Related to Achieving Final Disposition of Depleted Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillas, D. L.; Chambers, B. K.

    2002-02-26

    Approximately 750,000 metric tons (MT) of surplus depleted uranium (DU) in various chemical forms are stored at several Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. Most of the DU is in the form of DU hexafluoride (DUF6) that resulted from uranium enrichment operations over the last several decades. DOE plans to convert the DUF6 to ''a more stable form'' that could be any one or combination of DU tetrafluoride (DUF4 or green salt), DU oxide (DUO3, DUO2, or DU3O8), or metal depending on the final disposition chosen for any given quantity. Barriers to final disposition of this material have existed historically and some continue today. Currently, the barriers are more related to finding uses for this material versus disposing as waste. Even though actions are beginning to convert the DUF6, ''final'' disposition of the converted material has yet to be decided. Unless beneficial uses can be implemented, DOE plans to dispose of this material as waste. This expresses the main barrier to DU disposition; DOE's strategy is to dispose unless uses can be found while the strategy should be only dispose as a last resort and make every effort to find uses. To date, only minimal research programs are underway to attempt to develop non-fuel uses for this material. Other issues requiring resolution before these inventories can reach final disposition (uses or disposal) include characterization, disposal of large quantities, storage (current and future), and treatment options. Until final disposition is accomplished, these inventories must be managed in a safe and environmentally sound manner; however, this is becoming more difficult as materials and facilities age. The most noteworthy final disposition technical issues include the development of reuse and treatment options.

  18. FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mercure, J -F

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a model of Future Technology Transformations for the power sector (FTT:Power), a representation of global power systems based on market competition, induced technological change (ITC) and natural resource use and depletion. It is the first component of a family of sectoral bottom-up models of technology, designed for integration into the global macroeconometric model E3MG. ITC occurs as a result of technological learning produced by cumulative investment and leads to highly nonlinear, irreversible and path dependent technological transitions. The model uses a dynamic coupled set of logistic differential equations. As opposed to traditional bottom-up energy models based on systems optimisation, such differential equations offer an appropriate treatment of the times and structure of change involved in sectoral technology transformations, as well as a much reduced computational load. Resource use and depletion are represented by local cost-supply curves, which give rise to different regional...

  19. Sub-arcsec mid-IR observations of NGC 1614: Nuclear star-formation or an intrinsically X-ray weak AGN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereira-Santaella, M; Alonso-Herrero, A; Usero, A; Díaz-Santos, T; García-Burillo, S; Alberdi, A; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Herrero-Illana, R; Imanishi, M; Levenson, N A; Pérez-Torres, M A; Almeida, C Ramos

    2015-01-01

    We present new mid-infrared N-band spectroscopy and Q-band photometry of the local luminous infrared galaxy NGC1614, one of the most extreme nearby starbursts. We analyze the mid-IR properties of the nucleus (central 150 pc) and four regions of the bright circumnuclear (diameter~600 pc) star-forming (SF) ring of this object. The nucleus differs from the circumnuclear SF ring by having a strong 8-12 micron continuum (low 11.3 micron PAH equivalent width). These characteristics, together with the nuclear X-ray and sub-mm properties, can be explained by an X-ray weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), or by peculiar SF with a short molecular gas depletion time and producing an enhanced radiation field density. In either case, the nuclear luminosity (L(IR) energy output in this object. We also compare three star-formation rate (SFR) tracers (Pa$\\alpha$, 11.3 micron PAH, and 24 micron emissions) at...

  20. Ozone depletion, developing countries, and human rights: Seeking better ground on which to fight for protection of the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, V.

    1995-12-31

    I urge you not to take a complacent view of the situation. The state of depletion of the ozone layer continues to be alarming... In February, 1993, the ozone levels over North America and most of Europe were 20 percent below normal... Even now, millions of tons of CFC [chlorofluorocarbon] products are en route to their fatal stratospheric rendezvous... This exponential increase calls for increased reflection on the state of the ozone layer and calls for bold decisions.

  1. FORIG: a computer code for calculating radionuclide generation and depletion in fusion and fission reactors. User's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    In this manual we describe the use of the FORIG computer code to solve isotope-generation and depletion problems in fusion and fission reactors. FORIG runs on a Cray-1 computer and accepts more extensive activation cross sections than ORIGEN2 from which it was adapted. This report is an updated and a combined version of the previous ORIGEN2 and FORIG manuals. 7 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Diffraction barrier breakthrough in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy by additional probe-beam-induced phonon depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Wei; Niu Hanben

    2011-02-15

    We provide an approach to significantly break the diffraction limit in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy via an additional probe-beam-induced photon depletion (APIPD). The additional probe beam, whose profile is doughnut shaped and whose wavelength is different from the Gaussian probe beam, depletes the phonons to yield an unwanted anti-Stokes signal within a certain bandwidth at the rim of the diffraction-limited spot. When the Gaussian probe beam that follows immediately arrives, no anti-Stokes signal is generated in this region, resembling stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, and the spot-generating useful anti-Stokes signals by this beam are substantially suppressed to a much smaller dimension. Scanning the spot renders three-dimensional, label-free, and chemically selective CARS images with subdiffraction resolution. Also, resolution-enhanced images of the molecule, specified by its broadband even-total CARS spectral signals not only by one anti-Stokes signal for its special chemical bond, can be obtained by employing a supercontinuum source.

  3. Methane depletion in both polar regions of Uranus inferred from HST/STIS and Keck/NIRC2 observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sromovsky, Lawrence; Fry, Patrick; Hammel, Heidi; de Pater, Imke; Rages, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    From STIS observations of Uranus in 2012, we found that the methane volume mixing ratio declined from about 4% at low latitudes to about 2% at 60 deg N and beyond. This is similar to that found in the south polar regions in 2002, in spite of what appears to be strikingly different convective activity in the two regions. Keck and HST imaging observations close to equinox imply that the depletions were simultaneously present in 2007, suggesting they are persistent features. The depletions appear to be mainly restricted to the upper troposphere, with depth increasing poleward from about 30 deg N, reaching ~4 bars at 45 deg N and perhaps much deeper at 70 deg N. The latitudinal variations in degree and depth of the depletions are important constraints on models of meridional circulation. Our observations are qualitatively consistent with previously suggested circulation cells in which rising methane-rich gas at low latitudes is dried out by condensation and sedimentation of methane ice particles as the gas ascend...

  4. Optimal gas storage valuation and futures trading under a high ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-19

    In contrast to storage space for consumer goods, natural gas storage is a ... resource as it requires natural geological formations like depleted gas fields, salt

  5. SPE-139032-PP Field Development Strategies for Bakken Shale Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    rial doe s n ot n ece ssa ri ly refle ct a n y po sitio n of th e So ciet y o f Pet role um E ngine ers was generated, history matched and economical analysis for some proposed new wells is performed. Introduction

  6. Hydrate Formation and Dissociation in Simulated and Field Samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -Resolved 3-D temperature monitoring #12;Distributed Sensing System (DSS) The Luna® Distributed Sensing System-Situ Diffraction ­ XRD ­ Neutron · Hydrate synthesis capabilities · Seafloor Processing Simulator ­ housed and temperatures where hydrates are stable ­ Luna Distributed Sensing System (DSS) for observation of hydrate

  7. PPPL physicists find clue to formation of magnetic fields around...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phenomena, including the disks of material that form around black holes and the 11-year solar cycle of our own sun. Computer programs cannot yet simulate these vast astronomical...

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - New Particle Formation Study 2013 (NPFS2013)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design togovCampaignsMASRAD: Pt. ReyesgovCampaignsNSA Snow IOP ARMgovCampaignsNew

  9. Methane hydrate distribution from prolonged and repeated formation in natural and compacted sand samples: X-ray CT observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rees, E.V.L.

    2012-01-01

    Deep Ocean Field Test of Methane Hydrate Formation from aW.J. , and Mason, D.H. , Methane Hydrate Formation inNatural and Laboratory--Formed Methane Gas Hydrate. American

  10. Emptiness Formation Probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Crawford; Stephen Ng; Shannon Starr

    2014-12-30

    We present rigorous upper and lower bounds on the emptiness formation probability for the ground state of a spin-$1/2$ Heisenberg XXZ quantum spin system. For a $d$-dimensional system we find a rate of decay of the order $\\exp(-c L^{d+1})$ where $L$ is the sidelength of the box in which we ask for the emptiness formation event to occur. In the $d=1$ case this confirms previous predictions made in the integrable systems community, though our bounds do not achieve the precision predicted by Bethe ansatz calculations. On the other hand, our bounds in the case $d \\geq 2$ are new. The main tools we use are reflection positivity and a rigorous path integral expansion which is a variation on those previously introduced by Toth, Aizenman-Nachtergaele and Ueltschi.

  11. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  12. NETL Report format template

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ursa Field: A Process-Response Model to Explain a Classic Wireline Log Signature. Deep-Water Reservoirs of the World. GCSSEPM Foundation 20 th Annual Research Conference, 2000; p...

  13. Minor actinides transmutation in SFR depleted uranium radial blanket, neutronic AND THERMAL HYDRAULIC EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buiron, L.; Varaine, F. [CEA/DER/SPRC/LEDC Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache Centre, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Lorenzo, D.; Palancher, H.; Valentin, B. [CEA/DEC/SESC/LC2I Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache Centre, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of next generation fast reactor design, the management of minor actinides (MA) is one of the fundamental issues. This can be made by either homogeneous or heterogeneous multi-recycling model. In the homogeneous process the minor actinides are diluted in the fuel assembly. In the so-called heterogeneous model, minor actinides are concentrated apart from the core fuel (in special pins within dedicated core fuel assemblies or in axial or radial blankets). Here, we proposed to see the transmutation performances of radial blankets loaded with a mixture of depleted uranium and minor actinides oxide. This particular heterogeneous multi-recycling model allows the loading a significantly higher mass of minor actinides in the core than the homogeneous multi-recycling model. The oxide matrix also allows to reprocess such S/A in the spent fuel standard flow. Starting from a preliminary design of a 3600 MW Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) in progress at CEA, we investigated the transmutation performances of (U+MA)O{sub 2} fuel in radial blankets assemblies. Among all possibilities, we focused on two scenarios: a realistic case with MA enrichment close to 10% and a more optimistic one, near term technologically achievable, close to 40%. For an equilibrium core, the MA transmutation rate reaches 40% for total fuel life time around 11 years for both enrichments. For this particular heterogeneous model, the minor actinides equilibrium (production=destruction) can be achieved with only 23% of the SFR fleet using such 40% MA radial blankets. It represents a total fabrication of 50 of such S/A per year. Concerning non-proliferation issue, the discharged plutonium of these assemblies is highly degraded (contribution of {sup 238}Pu and {sup 240}Pu around 60%). From this starting point, a coupled neutronic-thermal hydraulic optimization based on a simple iterative process has been carried out to deal with minor actinides specific features: high specific decay heat, swelling and helium production. In this paper, we review the main characteristics of the optimized system complying with GEN IV-like images of sodium fast reactors. (authors)

  14. Effects of magnetic fields on lithium evolution in F and G stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. D.; Bi, S. L.; Yang, W. M.; Liu, K.; Tian, Z. J.; Ge, Z. S., E-mail: litanda@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: bisl@bnu.edu.cn [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-02-01

    To study the effects of magnetic fields on lithium depletion and to explain the characteristics of lithium evolution in F- and G-type stars in open clusters, we construct a stellar model that includes a Tayler-Spruit dynamo-type field. Through examining the features of extra-mixing caused by magnetic fields in stellar interiors and the relationship between lithium depletion and the input parameters (i.e., mass, metallicity, and the initial rotational condition), we find that the magnetic model produces extra-mixing processes different from other models. During pre-main sequence, the model exhibits very efficient extra-mixing, resulting in strong lithium depletion. As a star evolves, the efficiency of extra-mixing rapidly decreases and lithium depletion slows down at old ages. By setting up different initial rotating conditions, the model predicts dispersions of lithium abundance in both main sequence and pre-main sequence stages. The dispersion begins when a radiative core forms in the interior. The number sees a rapid growth afterward, reaching 0.1-0.5 dex at zero age main sequence in G and late-F stars. The increase of dispersion continues in the main sequence, which is slight in G and late-F stars while significant in mid-F stars. Finally, a comparison is carried out between the theoretical results and the observed data in four open clusters. Good agreements are obtained.

  15. Petroleum Engineering 321 Formation Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measurements to estimate hydrocarbon reserves and petrophysical properties of the formation such as porosity Description: Introduction to well-log interpretation for formation evaluation of hydrocarbon, net pay thickness, water/hydrocarbon saturation, permeability, and saturation-dependent capillary

  16. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2005-02-01

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has displayed some unique production characteristics. These include high initial water-oil and gas-oil ratios, decline in those ratios over time and temporary increase in gas-oil ratio during pressure build up. The formation also displays highly complex geology, but surprising hydrodynamic continuity. This report addresses three key issues related specifically to West Carney Hunton field and, in general, to any other Hunton formation exhibiting similar behavior: (1) What is the primary mechanism by which oil and gas is produced from the field? (2) How can the knowledge gained from studying the existing fields can be extended to other fields which have the potential to produce? (3) What can be done to improve the performance of this reservoir? We have developed a comprehensive model to explain the behavior of the reservoir. By using available production, geological, core and log data, we are able to develop a reservoir model which explains the production behavior in the reservoir. Using easily available information, such as log data, we have established the parameters needed for a field to be economically successful. We provide guidelines in terms of what to look for in a new field and how to develop it. Finally, through laboratory experiments, we show that surfactants can be used to improve the hydrocarbons recovery from the field. In addition, injection of CO{sub 2} or natural gas also will help us recover additional oil from the field.

  17. The signature of ozone depletion on tropical temperature trends, as revealed by their seasonal cycle in model integrations with single forcings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polvani, Lorenzo M.

    [1] The effect of ozone depletion on temperature trends in the tropical lower stratosphere is explored with an atmospheric general circulation model, and directly contrasted to the effect of increased greenhouse gases and ...

  18. Distinguishing the impacts of ozone-depleting substances and well-mixed greenhouse gases on Arctic stratospheric ozone and temperature trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rieder, Harald E.

    Whether stratospheric cooling due to increases in well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHG) could increase the depletion of Arctic stratospheric ozone has been the subject of scientific and public attention for decades. Here we ...

  19. Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adetoba, L.A.

    1984-04-01

    The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

  20. Tachyonic field interacting with Scalar (Phantom) Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

    2009-01-29

    In this letter, we have considered the universe is filled with the mixture of tachyonic field and scalar or phantom field. If the tachyonic field interacts with scalar or phantom field, the interaction term decays with time and the energy for scalar field is transferred to tachyonic field or the energy for phantom field is transferred to tachyonic field. The tachyonic field and scalar field potentials always decrease, but phantom field potential always increases.

  1. Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baustian, Kelly J.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Wise, M. A.; Pratt, Kerri; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Hallar, Anna G.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-03-30

    In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling took place at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation of 3210 m). A cascade impactor was used to collect coarse-mode aerosol particles for laboratory analysis by Raman spectroscopy; the composition, mixing state, and heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of individual particles were examined. For in situ analysis of fine-mode aerosol, ice nucleation on ambient particles was observed using a compact ice nucleation chamber. Ice crystals were separated from unactivated aerosol using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor, and ice nuclei were analyzed using particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry. For both fine and coarse modes, the ice nucleating particle fractions were enriched in minerals and depleted in sulfates and nitrates, compared to the background aerosol sampled. The vast majority of particles in both the ambient and ice active aerosol fractions contained a detectable amount of organic material. Raman spectroscopy showed that organic material is sometimes present in the form of a coating on the surface of inorganic particles. We find that some organic-containing particles serve as efficient ice nuclei while others do not. For coarse-mode aerosol, organic particles were only observed to initiate ice formation when oxygen signatures were also present in their spectra.

  2. The water ice rich surface of (145453) 2005 RR43: a case for a carbon-depleted population of TNOs?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Pinilla-Alonso; J. Licandro; R. Gil-Hutton; R. Brunetto

    2007-05-26

    Recent results suggest that there is a group of TNOs (2003 EL61 being the biggest member), with surfaces composed of almost pure water ice and with very similar orbital elements. We study the surface composition of another TNO that moves in a similar orbit, 2005 RR43, and compare it with the surface composition of the other members of this group. We report visible and near-infrared spectra, obtained with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope and the 3.58m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo at the "Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (La Palma, Spain). The spectrum of 2005 RR43 is neutral in color in the visible and dominated by very deep water ice absorption bands in the near infrared (D= 70.3 +/- 2.1 % and 82.8 +/- 4.9 % at 1.5 \\mu and 2.0 \\mu respectively). It is very similar to the spectrum of the group of TNOs already mentioned. All of them present much deeper water ice absorption bands (D>40 %) than any other TNO except Charon. Scattering models show that its surface is covered by water ice, a significant fraction in crytalline state with no trace (5 % upper limit) of complex organics. Possible scenarios to explain the existence of this population of TNOs are discussed: a giant collision, an originally carbon depleted composition, or a common process of continuous resurfacing. We conclude that TNO 2005 RR43 is member of a group, may be a population, of TNOs clustered in the space of orbital parameters that show abundant water ice and no signs of complex organics. The lack of complex organics in their surfaces suggests a significant smaller fraction of carbonaceous volatiles like CH4 in this population than in "normal" TNOs. A carbon depleted population of TNOs could be the origin of the population of carbon depleted Jupiter family comets already noticed by A'Hearn et al. (1995).

  3. Review of corrosion in 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lykins, M.L.

    1995-08-01

    A literature review was conducted to determine the type, extent and severity of corrosion found in the 10- and 14-ton mild steel depleted UF{sub 6} storage cylinders. Also discussed in this review is corrosion found in the valves and plugs used in the cylinders. Corrosion of the cylinders is a gradual process which occurs slowly over time. Understanding corrosion of the cylinders is an important concern for long term storage of the UF{sub 6} in the cylinder yards, as well as the final disposition of the depleted UF{sub 6} tails inventory in the future. The following conclusions are made from the literature review: (1) The general external corrosion rate of the cylinders is about 1 to 2 mils per year (1 mil = 0.001{double_prime}). The highest general external corrosion rate was over 5 mpy on the 48G type cylinders. (2) General internal corrosion from the depleted UF{sub 6} is negligible under normal storage conditions. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/saddle interface from the retention of water in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur at the cylinder/skirt interface on the older skirted cylinders due to the lack of water drainage in this area. Crevice corrosion can occur on cylinders that have been in ground contact. Crevice corrosion and galvanic corrosion can occur where the stainless steel I.D. nameplates are attached to the cylinder. The packing nuts on the bronze one-inch valves used in the cylinders are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Mechanical damage from routine handling can lead to a breach in a cylinder with subsequent accelerated corrosion of the mild steel due to attack from HF and other UF{sub 6} hydrolysis by-products.

  4. Spontaneous parametric down conversion with a depleted pump as an analogue for black hole evaporation/particle production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Alsing; Michael L. Fanto

    2015-07-02

    We present an analytical formulation of the recent one-shot decoupling model of Br\\`adler and Adami [arXiv:1505.0284] and compute the resulting "Page Information" curves, for the reduced density matrices for the evaporating black hole internal degrees of freedom, and emitted Hawking radiation pairs entangled across the horizon. We argue that black hole evaporation/particle production has a very close analogy to the laboratory process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, when the pump is allowed to deplete.

  5. Pore Characterization and Classification in Carbonate Reservoirs and the Influence of Diagenesis on the Pore System. Case Study: Thrombolite and Grainstone Units of the Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tonietto, Sandra

    2014-07-10

    The grainstone and the thrombolite units of the Smackover Formation at Little Cedar Creek Field, in Alabama, USA, were analyzed to determine their reservoir characteristics. The Smackover Formation reservoirs in this field ...

  6. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takami, Hajime; Ioka, Kunihito [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, 1-1, Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Takaya, E-mail: takami@post.kek.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@kek.jp, E-mail: takaya.nozawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission.

  7. Using RSI format

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With

  8. Ranging methods for developing wellbores in subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Duncan (Houston, TX)

    2011-09-06

    A method for forming two or more wellbores in a subsurface formation includes forming a first wellbore in the formation. A second wellbore is directionally drilled in a selected relationship relative to the first wellbore. At least one magnetic field is provided in the second wellbore using one or more magnets in the second wellbore located on a drilling string used to drill the second wellbore. At least one magnetic field is sensed in the first wellbore using at least two sensors in the first wellbore as the magnetic field passes by the at least two sensors while the second wellbore is being drilled. A position of the second wellbore is continuously assessed relative to the first wellbore using the sensed magnetic field. The direction of drilling of the second wellbore is adjusted so that the second wellbore remains in the selected relationship relative to the first wellbore.

  9. Characterization of options and their analysis requirements for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubrin, J.W.; Rosen, R.S.; Zoller, J.N.; Harri, J.W.; Schwertz, N.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is examining alternative strategies for the long-term management of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) currently stored at the gaseous diffusion plants at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, and on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This paper describes the methodology for the comprehensive and ongoing technical analysis of the options being considered. An overview of these options, along with several of the suboptions being considered, is presented. The long-term management strategy alternatives fall into three broad categories: use, storage, or disposal. Conversion of the depleted UF6 to another form such as oxide or metal is needed to implement most of these alternatives. Likewise, transportation of materials is an integral part of constructing the complete pathway between the current storage condition and ultimate disposition. The analysis of options includes development of pre-conceptual designs; estimates of effluents, wastes, and emissions; specification of resource requirements; and preliminary hazards assessments. The results of this analysis will assist DOE in selecting a strategy by providing the engineering information necessary to evaluate the environmental impacts and costs of implementing the management strategy alternatives.

  10. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Over a period of 30 years, more than a hundred Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) critical assemblies were constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. The ZPR facilities, ZPR-3, ZPR-6, ZPR-9 and ZPPR, were all fast critical assembly facilities. The ZPR critical assemblies were constructed to support fast reactor development, but data from some of these assemblies are also well suited for nuclear data validation and to form the basis for criticality safety benchmarks. A number of the Argonne ZPR/ZPPR critical assemblies have been evaluated as ICSBEP and IRPhEP benchmarks. Of the three classes of ZPR assemblies, engineering mockups, engineering benchmarks and physics benchmarks, the last group tends to be most useful for criticality safety. Because physics benchmarks were designed to test fast reactor physics data and methods, they were as simple as possible in geometry and composition. The principal fissile species was {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu. Fuel enrichments ranged from 9% to 95%. Often there were only one or two main core diluent materials, such as aluminum, graphite, iron, sodium or stainless steel. The cores were reflected (and insulated from room return effects) by one or two layers of materials such as depleted uranium, lead or stainless steel. Despite their more complex nature, a small number of assemblies from the other two classes would make useful criticality safety benchmarks because they have features related to criticality safety issues, such as reflection by soil-like material. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 (ZPR-3/11) was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 12 at.% and a depleted uranium reflector. Approximately 79.7% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 20.3% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 8 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of the important features of the critical experiment. And it must do this without increasing the total uncertain

  11. Using PHP format

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:Connect

  12. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:ConnectControl of magnetic

  13. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:ConnectControl of magneticEffect

  14. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:ConnectControl of

  15. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:ConnectControl ofion heating

  16. Using PHP format

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:ConnectControl ofion heatingand

  17. Using PHP format

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  18. Using PHP format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  19. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  20. Using RSI format

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  1. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPPfinalUnexpectedofWykoW03:ConnectControlMultichannelcharge

  2. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light collection from a z-pinch

  3. Using RSI format

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light collection from a

  4. Using RSI format

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light collection from aelectron

  5. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light collection from

  6. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light collection fromRutherford

  7. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentric viewing system for light collection

  8. Rotating magnetic field current drive of high-temperature field reversed configurations with high scaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    scaling H. Y. Guo,a A. L. Hoffman, and R. D. Milroy Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, University in the Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment--Upgrade TCSU device has allowed much higher plasma temperatures to be achieved in the field reversed configurations FRC under rotating magnetic field RMF formation

  9. Soot formation in laminar ethane diffusion flames at pressures from 0.2 to 3.3 MPa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gülder, Ömer L.

    Soot formation in laminar ethane diffusion flames at pressures from 0.2 to 3.3 MPa Paul M formation and the structure of the temperature field were studied in co-flow ethane-air laminar diffusion; Laminar ethane diffusion flame; Pressure depen- dence of soot formation; Temperature of high

  10. General relativity and cosmic structure formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julian Adamek; David Daverio; Ruth Durrer; Martin Kunz

    2015-09-05

    Numerical simulations are a versatile tool providing insight into the complicated process of structure formation in cosmology. This process is mainly governed by gravity, which is the dominant force on large scales. To date, a century after the formulation of general relativity, numerical codes for structure formation still employ Newton's law of gravitation. This approximation relies on the two assumptions that gravitational fields are weak and that they are only sourced by non-relativistic matter. While the former appears well justified on cosmological scales, the latter imposes restrictions on the nature of the "dark" components of the Universe (dark matter and dark energy) which are, however, poorly understood. Here we present the first simulations of cosmic structure formation using equations consistently derived from general relativity. We study in detail the small relativistic effects for a standard {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology which cannot be obtained within a purely Newtonian framework. Our particle-mesh N-body code computes all six degrees of freedom of the metric and consistently solves the geodesic equation for particles, taking into account the relativistic potentials and the frame-dragging force. This conceptually clean approach is very general and can be applied to various settings where the Newtonian approximation fails or becomes inaccurate, ranging from simulations of models with dynamical dark energy or warm/hot dark matter to core collapse supernova explosions.

  11. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2004-10-01

    West Carney field--one of the newest fields discovered in Oklahoma--exhibits many unique production characteristics. These characteristics include: (1) decreasing water-oil ratio; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can extend the phenomenon to other fields with similar characteristics. In our experimental investigation section, we present the data on surfactant injection in near well bore region. We demonstrate that by injecting the surfactant, the relative permeability of water could be decreased, and that of gas could be increased. This should result in improved gas recovery from the reservoir. Our geological analysis of the reservoir develops the detailed stratigraphic description of the reservoir. Two new stratigraphic units, previously unrecognized, are identified. Additional lithofacies are recognized in new core descriptions. Our engineering analysis has determined that well density is an important parameter in optimally producing Hunton reservoirs. It appears that 160 acre is an optimal spacing. The reservoir pressure appears to decline over time; however, recovery per well is only weakly influenced by the pressure. This indicates that additional opportunity to drill wells exists in relatively depleted fields. A simple material balance technique is developed to validate the recovery of gas, oil and water. This technique can be used to further extrapolate recoveries from other fields with similar field characteristics.

  12. Star formation histories in early-type galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1998-08-24

    I discuss the formation of alpha-enhanced metal-rich stellar populations in the nuclei of luminous ellipticals. Based on hierarchical clustering, different galaxy formation scenarios, which imply different star formation histories, are considered. In contrast to the fast clumpy collapse mode, the late merger of two spiral galaxies fails to reproduce significantly $\\alpha$-enhanced abundance ratios, unless the IMF is flattened. Following the star formation history predicted by semi-analytic models of hierarchical clustering for the average elliptical, solar abundance ratios are obtained with Salpeter IMF. According to the models, bright ellipticals in the field are expected to have significantly lower Mg/Fe ratios than their counterparts in a cluster.

  13. Formation and steady-state maintenance of field reversed configurations using rotating magnetic fields (RMF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    much lower resistivities. Energetic FRC contact with the quartz plasma chamber walls presently results.R. Votroubek Redmond Plasma Physics, University of Washington S.J. Tobin Los Alamos National Laboratory. The RMF not only maintains the FRC flux, but also provides a strong radial inflow that results in a near

  14. Field Guide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article) | SciTechSubmittedEcologist for a Day Field Guide Program

  15. Electrical characteristics and formation mechanism of atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lijuan; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Weijing; Meng, Ying; Ouyang, Jiting

    2014-06-16

    The behavior of atmospheric pressure plasma jet produced by a coplanar dielectric barrier discharge in helium in external electrostatic and magnetic field is investigated. Net negative charges in the plasma jet outside the tube were detected. The deflection of the plume in the external field was observed. The plasma jet is suggested to be formed by the electron beam from the temporal cathode which is accelerated by a longitudinal field induced by the surface charges on the dielectric tube or interface between the helium and ambient air. The helium flow is necessary for the jet formation in the surrounding air.

  16. PHASE-FIELD SIMULATION OF IRRADIATED METALS PART i: VOID KINETICS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    METALS PART i: VOID KINETICS We present a phase-field model of void formation and evolution in irradiated metals by spatially and temporally evolving vacancy and...

  17. Photon exchange and entanglement formation during the transmission through a rectangular quantum barrier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georg Sulyok; Katharina Durstberger-Rennhofer; Johann Summhammer

    2014-10-17

    When a quantum particle traverses a rectangular potential created by a quantum field both photon exchange and entanglement between particle and field take place. We present analytic results for the transition amplitudes of any possible photon exchange processes for an incoming plane wave and initial Fock, thermal and coherent field states. We show that for coherent field states the entanglement correlates the particle's position to the photon number in the field instead of the particle's energy as usual. Besides entanglement formation, remarkable differences to the classical field treatment also appear with respect to the symmetry between photon emission and absorption, resonance effects and if the field initially occupies the vacuum state.

  18. Grain boundary depletion and migration during selective oxidation of Cr in a Ni-5Cr binary alloy exposed to high-temperature hydrogenated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreiber, Daniel K.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2014-10-01

    High-resolution microscopy of a high-purity Ni-5Cr alloy exposed to 360°C hydrogenated water reveals intergranular selective oxidation of Cr accompanied by local Cr depletion and diffusion-induced grain boundary migration (DIGM). The corrosion-product oxide consists of a porous, interconnected network of Cr2O3 platelets with no further O ingress into the metal ahead. Extensive grain boundary depletion of Cr (to <0.05at.%) is observed typically 20–100 nm wide as a result of DIGM and reaching depths of many micrometers beyond the oxidation front.

  19. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2007-06-30

    Hunton formation in Oklahoma has been the subject of attention for the last ten years. The new interest started with the drilling of the West Carney field in 1995 in Lincoln County. Subsequently, many other operators have expanded the search for oil and gas in Hunton formation in other parts of Oklahoma. These fields exhibit many unique production characteristics, including: (1) decreasing water-oil or water-gas ratio over time; (2) decreasing gas-oil ratio followed by an increase; (3) poor prediction capability of the reserves based on the log data; and (4) low geological connectivity but high hydrodynamic connectivity. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the principal mechanisms affecting the production, and propose methods by which we can optimize the production from fields with similar characteristics.

  20. Sonic Logging in Deviated Boreholes in an Anisotropic Formation: Laboratory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    Deepwater field development requires drilling of deviated or horizontal wells. Most formations encountered can be highly anisotropic and P- and S-wave velocities vary with propagation directions. Sonic logs acquired in ...

  1. Evaluating permeability anisotropy in the early Jurassic Tilje formation, offshore mid-Norway 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aliyev, Kanan

    2005-11-01

    The problem of evaluating permeability anisotropy in the Tilje Formation, Heidrum field, offshore mid-Norway, has been investigated by the Statoil Research Centre by a detailed combination of the geological and petrophysical data. The large...

  2. The H alpha Galaxy Survey V. The star formation history of late-type galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. James; M. Prescott; I. K. Baldry

    2008-04-14

    This study of 117 low-redshift Im and Sm galaxies investigates the star formation rates of late-type galaxies, to determine whether they are quasi-continuous or dominated by bursts with quiescent interludes. We analyse the distribution of star formation timescales (stellar masses/star formation rates) for the entire sample, and of gas depletion timescales for those galaxies with gas mass measurements. We find that, on average, the late-type galaxies studied could have produced their total stellar masses by an extrapolation of their current star formation activity over a period of just under a Hubble time. This is not the case for a comparison sample of earlier-type galaxies, even those with disk-dominated morphologies and similar total stellar masses to the late-type galaxies. The earlier-type galaxies are on average forming their stars more slowly at present than the average rate over their past histories. No totally quiescent Im or Sm galaxies are found, and although some evidence of intrinsic variation in the star formation rate with time is found, this is typically less than a factor of 2 increase or decrease relative to the mean level. The Im and Sm galaxies have extensive gas reservoirs and can maintain star formation at the current rate for more than another Hubble time. The average spatial distribution of star formation in the Im galaxies, and to a lesser extent the Sm galaxies, is very similar to that of the older stellar population traced by the red light.

  3. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  4. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  5. Use-driven concept formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a complex task, humans often identify domain-specific concepts that make the task more tractable. In this thesis, I investigate the formation of domain-specific concepts of this sort. I propose a set of ...

  6. Cross Domain Mathematical Concept Formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steel, Graham; Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

    2000-01-01

    Many interesting concepts in mathematics are essentially "cross-domain" in nature, relating objects from more than one area of mathematics, e.g. prime order groups. These concepts are often vital to the formation of a ...

  7. HIGHLY DEPLETED ETHANE AND MILDLY DEPLETED METHANOL IN COMET 21P/GIACOBINI-ZINNER: APPLICATION OF A NEW EMPIRICAL {nu}{sub 2}-BAND MODEL FOR CH{sub 3}OH NEAR 50 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2013-01-20

    We obtained infrared spectra of Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (hereafter 21P/GZ) using NIRSPEC at Keck II on UT 2005 June 3, approximately one month before perihelion, that simultaneously sampled H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, and CH{sub 3}OH. Our production rate for H{sub 2}O (3.885 {+-} 0.074 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 28} molecules s{sup -1}) was consistent with that measured during other apparitions of 21P/GZ as retrieved from optical, infrared, and radio observations. Our analysis also provided values for rotational temperature (T {sub rot} = 51 {+-} 3 K) and the abundance ratio of ortho and para spin populations for water (OPR = 2.99 {+-} 0.23, implying a spin temperature exceeding 50 K). Six Q-branches in the {nu}{sub 7} band of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} provided a production rate (5.27 {+-} 0.90 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} s{sup -1}) that corresponded to an abundance ratio of 0.136 {+-} 0.023 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} relative to H{sub 2}O, confirming the previously reported strong depletion of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} from IR observations during the 1998 apparition, and in qualitative agreement with the depletion of C{sub 2} known from optical studies of 21P/GZ. For CH{sub 3}OH, we applied our recently published quantum model for the {nu}{sub 3} band to obtain a rotational temperature (48{sup +10}/{sub -7} K) consistent with that obtained for H{sub 2}O. In addition, we developed a new empirical model for the CH{sub 3}OH {nu}{sub 2} band, based on observations of Comet 8P/Tuttle with NIRSPEC. The application of our {nu}{sub 2} model to 21P/GZ yielded a production rate in agreement with that obtained from the {nu}{sub 3} band. Combining results from both {nu}{sub 2} and {nu}{sub 3} bands provided a production rate (47.5 {+-} 4.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} s{sup -1}) that corresponded to an abundance ratio of 1.22 {+-} 0.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} relative to H{sub 2}O in 21P/GZ, indicating mild depletion of CH{sub 3}OH. Together with observations of 21P/GZ in 1998, our study provides a measure of primary volatile production rates for this Jupiter family comet over multiple apparitions using high-resolution IR spectroscopy.

  8. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  9. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  10. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in the Cartwheel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higdon, James L; Ruiz, Sergio Martin; Rand, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 12CO(J=1-0) observations are used to study the cold molecular ISM of the Cartwheel ring galaxy and its relation to HI and massive star formation (SF). CO moment maps find $(2.69\\pm0.05)\\times10^{9}$ M$_{\\odot}$ of H$_2$ associated with the inner ring (72%) and nucleus (28%) for a Galactic I(CO)-to-N(H2) conversion factor ($\\alpha_{\\rm CO}$). The spokes and disk are not detected. Analysis of the inner ring's CO kinematics show it to be expanding ($V_{\\rm exp}=68.9\\pm4.9$ km s$^{-1}$) implying an $\\approx70$ Myr age. Stack averaging reveals CO emission in the starburst outer ring for the first time, but only where HI surface density ($\\Sigma_{\\rm HI}$) is high, representing $M_{\\rm H_2}=(7.5\\pm0.8)\\times10^{8}$ M$_{\\odot}$ for a metallicity appropriate $\\alpha_{\\rm CO}$, giving small $\\Sigma_{\\rm H_2}$ ($3.7$ M$_{\\odot}$ pc$^{-2}$), molecular fraction ($f_{\\rm mol}=0.10$), and H$_2$ depletion timescales ($\\tau_{\\rm mol} \\approx50-600$ Myr). Elsewhere in the ou...

  11. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  12. SIMULATION OF THE FORMATION OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Title, A. M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Schuessler, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Katlenburg-Lindau, 37191 (Germany)

    2010-09-01

    We present a radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the formation of an active region (AR) on the solar surface. The simulation models the rise of a buoyant magnetic flux bundle from a depth of 7.5 Mm in the convection zone up into the solar photosphere. The rise of the magnetic plasma in the convection zone is accompanied by predominantly horizontal expansion. Such an expansion leads to a scaling relation between the plasma density and the magnetic field strength such that B {proportional_to} rhov{sup 1/2}. The emergence of magnetic flux into the photosphere appears as a complex magnetic pattern, which results from the interaction of the rising magnetic field with the turbulent convective flows. Small-scale magnetic elements at the surface first appear, followed by their gradual coalescence into larger magnetic concentrations, which eventually results in the formation of a pair of opposite polarity spots. Although the mean flow pattern in the vicinity of the developing spots is directed radially outward, correlations between the magnetic field and velocity field fluctuations allow the spots to accumulate flux. Such correlations result from the Lorentz-force-driven, counterstreaming motion of opposite polarity fragments. The formation of the simulated AR is accompanied by transient light bridges between umbrae and umbral dots. Together with recent sunspot modeling, this work highlights the common magnetoconvective origin of umbral dots, light bridges, and penumbral filaments.

  13. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Angeles Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation AOrganic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation by Chun-multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design,

  14. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents &...

  15. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Construction and Operation of a Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Facility at the Portsmouth, Ohio, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2003-11-28

    This document is a site-specific environmental impact statement (EIS) for construction and operation of a proposed depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) conversion facility at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth site in Ohio (Figure S-1). The proposed facility would convert the DUF{sub 6} stored at Portsmouth to a more stable chemical form suitable for use or disposal. The facility would also convert the DUF{sub 6} from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In a Notice of Intent (NOI) published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2001 (Federal Register, Volume 66, page 48123 [66 FR 48123]), DOE announced its intention to prepare a single EIS for a proposal to construct, operate, maintain, and decontaminate and decommission two DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (United States Code, Title 42, Section 4321 et seq. [42 USC 4321 et seq.]) and DOE's NEPA implementing procedures (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 1021 [10 CFR Part 1021]). Subsequent to award of a contract to Uranium Disposition Services, LLC (hereafter referred to as UDS), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, on August 29, 2002, for design, construction, and operation of DUF{sub 6} conversion facilities at Portsmouth and Paducah, DOE reevaluated its approach to the NEPA process and decided to prepare separate site-specific EISs. This change was announced in a Federal Register Notice of Change in NEPA Compliance Approach published on April 28, 2003 (68 FR 22368); the Notice is included as Attachment B to Appendix C of this EIS. This EIS addresses the potential environmental impacts from the construction, operation, maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the proposed conversion facility at three alternative locations within the Portsmouth site; from the transportation of all ETTP cylinders (DUF{sub 6}, low-enriched UF6 [LEU-UF{sub 6}], and empty) to Portsmouth; from the transportation of depleted uranium conversion products to a disposal facility; and from the transportation, sale, use, or disposal of the fluoride-containing conversion products (hydrogen fluoride [HF] or calcium fluoride [CaF{sub 2}]). An option of shipping the ETTP cylinders to Paducah is also considered. In addition, this EIS evaluates a no action alternative, which assumes continued storage of DUF{sub 6} in cylinders at the Portsmouth and ETTP sites. A separate EIS (DOE/EIS-0359) evaluates potential environmental impacts for the proposed Paducah conversion facility.

  16. On conduction, cooling flows and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian, A C; Morris, R G

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of the universal gas fraction in clusters of galaxies, we estimate that the effective thermal conductivity required to balance radiative cooling in the cores, where the gas temperature is 3-10keV, is about one tenth of the Spitzer rate. This confirms that thermal conduction can be important for the energy balance provided that it is not highly suppressed by magnetic fields in the gas. We determine the global effective conductivity in a sample of 29 clusters using published X-ray data on the inferred cooling rates and show that most lie between one and one tenth of the Spitzer rate. More work on the profiles in cooling flow clusters is required to test the conduction hypothesis further. We examine the possibility that conduction operates during galaxy formation, and show that it provides a simple explanation for the upper-mass cutoff in galaxy masses.

  17. On conduction, cooling flows and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Fabian; L. M. Voigt; R. G. Morris

    2002-06-25

    On the basis of the universal gas fraction in clusters of galaxies, we estimate that the effective thermal conductivity required to balance radiative cooling in the cores, where the gas temperature is 3-10keV, is about one tenth of the Spitzer rate. This confirms that thermal conduction can be important for the energy balance provided that it is not highly suppressed by magnetic fields in the gas. We determine the global effective conductivity in a sample of 29 clusters using published X-ray data on the inferred cooling rates and show that most lie between one and one tenth of the Spitzer rate. More work on the profiles in cooling flow clusters is required to test the conduction hypothesis further. We examine the possibility that conduction operates during galaxy formation, and show that it provides a simple explanation for the upper-mass cutoff in galaxy masses.

  18. Abundance ratios in hierarchical galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1999-01-18

    The chemical enrichment and stellar abundance ratios of galaxies which form in a hierarchical clustering scheme are calculated. For this purpose I adopt the star formation histories (SFH) as they are delivered by semi-analytic models in Kauffmann (1996}. It turns out that the average SFH of cluster ellipticals does not yield globally alpha-enhanced stellar populations. The star burst that occurs when the elliptical forms in the major merger plays therefore a crucial role in producing alpha-enhancement. Only under the assumption that the IMF is significantly flattened with respect to the Salpeter value during the burst, a Mg/Fe overabundant population can be obtained. In particular for the interpretation of radial gradients in metallicity and alpha-enhancement, the mixing of global and burst populations are of great importance. The model predicts bright field galaxies to be less alpha-enhanced than their counterparts in clusters.

  19. Star Formation in Cluster Galaxies at 0.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mike. L. Balogh; Simon L. Morris; H. K. C. Yee; R. G. Carlberg; E. Ellingson

    1997-07-30

    The rest frame equivalent width of the [OII]3727 emission line, W(OII), has been measured for cluster and field galaxies in the CNOC redshift survey of rich clusters at 0.210 A, as expected in a model of cluster formation in which star formation is truncated upon infall. Evidence of supressed star formation relative to the field is present in the whole cluster sample, out to 2 R_{200}, so the mechanism responsible for the differential evolution must be acting at a large distance from the cluster centre, and not just in the core. The mean star formation rate in the cluster galaxies with the strongest emission corresponds to an increase in the total stellar mass of less than about 4% if the star formation is due to a secondary burst lasting 0.1 Gyr.

  20. Star formation and molecular hydrogen in dwarf galaxies: a non-equilibrium view

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Chia-Yu; Walch, Stefanie; Glover, Simon C O; Clark, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    We study the connection of star formation to atomic (HI) and molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) in isolated, low metallicity dwarf galaxies with high-resolution ($m_{\\rm gas}$ = 4 M$_\\odot$, $N_{\\rm ngb}$ = 100) SPH simulations. The model includes self-gravity, non-equilibrium cooling, shielding from an interstellar radiation field, the chemistry of H$_2$ formation, H$_2$-independent star formation, supernova feedback and metal enrichment. We find that the H$_2$ mass fraction is sensitive to the adopted dust-to-gas ratio and the strength of the interstellar radiation field, while the star formation rate is not. Star formation is regulated by stellar feedback, keeping the gas out of thermal equilibrium for densities $n HI, not H$_2...

  1. Microchannel formation in seaice as habitat for microalgae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Morawetz; S. Thoms; B. Kutschan

    2014-07-08

    The formation of saline brine channels in seaice is described by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. Their evolution equations follow from a Ginzburg-Landau-functional in the form of a phase-field theory conserving salinity. The stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two parameters, one describing the velocity of the freezing process and the other one characterizing the velocity of structure formation. In thermodynamics these parameters determine the supercooling or superheating region and the specific heat respectively. In contrast to the Turing model the diffusivity does not enter this phase diagram but determines only the structure size. The numerical solution shows a microstructure formation of brine inclusions in agreement with the measured samples dependent on the salinity and temperature.

  2. Three dimensional dust-acoustic solitary waves in an electron depleted dusty plasma with two-superthermal ion-temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borhanian, J.; Shahmansouri, M.

    2013-01-15

    A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the existence and characteristics of propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an electron-depleted dusty plasma with two-temperature ions, which are modeled by kappa distribution functions. A three-dimensional cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation governing evolution of small but finite amplitude DA waves is derived by means of a reductive perturbation method. The influence of physical parameters on solitary wave structure is examined. Furthermore, the energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. It is found that the present model can be employed to describe the existence of positive as well as negative polarity DA solitary waves by selecting special values for parameters of the system, e.g., superthermal index of cold and/or hot ions, cold to hot ion density ratio, and hot to cold ion temperature ratio. This model may be useful to understand the excitation of nonlinear DA waves in astrophysical objects.

  3. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, O.W.

    2000-02-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  4. Method for measuring prompt gamma-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao; Zhu, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt gamma flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background gamma-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on a 2"*2" BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of {\\gamma}-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agree well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and ...

  5. Formation of porous gas hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamatin, Andrey N

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrates grown at gas-ice interfaces are examined by electron microscopy and found to have a submicron porous texture. Permeability of the intervening hydrate layers provides the connection between the two counterparts (gas and water molecules) of the clathration reaction and makes further hydrate formation possible. The study is focused on phenomenological description of principal stages and rate-limiting processes that control the kinetics of the porous gas hydrate crystal growth from ice powders. Although the detailed physical mechanisms involved in the porous hydrate formation still are not fully understood, the initial stage of hydrate film spreading over the ice surface should be distinguished from the subsequent stage which is presumably limited by the clathration reaction at the ice-hydrate interface and develops after the ice grain coating is finished. The model reveals a time dependence of the reaction degree essentially different from that when the rate-limiting step of the hydrate formation at...

  6. Vortex Formation and Evolution in Planet Harboring Disks under Thermal Relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomes, A Lobo; Uribe, A L; Pinilla, P; Surville, C

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of planet-induced vortices in radially stratified disks, with initial conditions allowing for radial buoyancy. For this purpose we run global two dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, using the PLUTO code. Planet-induced vortices are a product of the Rossby wave instability (RWI) triggered in the edges of a planetary gap. In this work we assess the influence of radial buoyancy for the development of the vortices. We found that radial buoyancy leads to smoother planetary gaps, which generates weaker vortices. This effect is less pronounced for locally isothermal and quasi-isothermal (very small cooling rate) disks. We observed the formation of two generations of vortices. The first generation of vortices is formed in the outer wall of the planetary gap. The merged primary vortex induces accretion, depleting the mass on its orbit. This process creates a surface density enhancement beyond the primary vortex position. The second generation of vortices arise in this surface density enhance...

  7. Method for reducing formation of electrically resistive layer on ferritic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rakowski, James M.

    2013-09-10

    A method of reducing the formation of electrically resistive scale on a an article comprising a silicon-containing ferritic stainless subjected to oxidizing conditions in service includes, prior to placing the article in service, subjecting the article to conditions under which silica, which includes silicon derived from the steel, forms on a surface of the steel. Optionally, at least a portion of the silica is removed from the surface to placing the article in service. A ferritic stainless steel alloy having a reduced tendency to form silica on at least a surface thereof also is provided. The steel includes a near-surface region that has been depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the steel.

  8. Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Kegang; Zeng, Zhengwen; He, Jun; Pei, Peng; Zhou, Xuejun; Liu, Hong; Huang, Luke; Ostadhassan, Mehdi; Jabbari, Hadi; Blanksma, Derrick; Feilen, Harry; Ahmed, Salowah; Benson, Steve; Mann, Michael; LeFever, Richard; Gosnold, Will

    2013-12-31

    On October 1, 2008 US DOE-sponsored research project entitled “Geomechanical Study of Bakken Formation for Improved Oil Recovery” under agreement DE-FC26-08NT0005643 officially started at The University of North Dakota (UND). This is the final report of the project; it covers the work performed during the project period of October 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013. The objectives of this project are to outline the methodology proposed to determine the in-situ stress field and geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in Williston Basin, North Dakota, USA to increase the success rate of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing so as to improve the recovery factor of this unconventional crude oil resource from the current 3% to a higher level. The success of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing depends on knowing local in-situ stress and geomechanical properties of the rocks. We propose a proactive approach to determine the in-situ stress and related geomechanical properties of the Bakken Formation in representative areas through integrated analysis of field and well data, core sample and lab experiments. Geomechanical properties are measured by AutoLab 1500 geomechanics testing system. By integrating lab testing, core observation, numerical simulation, well log and seismic image, drilling, completion, stimulation, and production data, in-situ stresses of Bakken formation are generated. These in-situ stress maps can be used as a guideline for future horizontal drilling and multi-stage fracturing design to improve the recovery of Bakken unconventional oil.

  9. Research Proposal (in pdf format)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-09-25

    quantum mechanical theory of electrons in atoms and molecules. The complex skew–field is an algebra of quaternions with real coordinates which contains the

  10. FED, the Font "EDitor" and Font Formats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Joseph D.

    This memo describes FED, a program used for compiling and inspecting fonts: AST font format, a text format which can be used to create and edit fonts: and KST font format, the binary format used by SCRIMP, TJ6, and PUB.

  11. Partial substitution of Mo{sup 6+} by S{sup 6+} in the fast oxide ion conductor La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9}: Synthesis, structure and sulfur depletion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mhadhbi, Noureddine; Corbel, Gwenaeel; Lacorre, Philippe; Bulou, Alain

    2012-06-15

    Powder-solid state reaction route using La{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} as sulfur source was used to prepare compositions of the solid solution La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9}. Single phases were only obtained in the substitution range extending up to y=0.8 (40 mol% S) at the annealing temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C with regard to the limit of stability of the lanthanum sulphate reactant. Within the synthesis conditions, a stabilization of the high temperature {beta}-form is observed from and above y=0.1 (5 mol% S). Temperature-controlled X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analyses have shown that La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders undergo thermal decompositions in two steps. Heating above 900 Degree-Sign C, a sulfur depletion to the benefit of molybdenum in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders leads to the formation of La{sub 2}SO{sub 6}. At higher temperature, the exsolved La{sub 2}SO{sub 6} phase then decomposes into La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which in turn reacts with the sulfur-depleted La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} phase to form La{sub 2}MoO{sub 6}. The present study also reveals that depending on the substitution rate y, the sulfur depletion can be induced by ball-milling of raw powders. Along the La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} series, the isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur tends to restrict in magnitude, or even to suppress above 400 Degree-Sign C, the distortive thermal expansion of the cubic {beta}-type structure, thus strongly decreasing the conductance at high temperature. - Graphical abstract: La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-MoO{sub 3}-'SO{sub 3}' ternary phase diagram showing the exsolution path at low temperature (white arrows) and the total decomposition path at high temperature (black arrows) of {beta}-La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2-y}S{sub y}O{sub 9} raw powders. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isovalent substitution of molybdenum by sulfur in La{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}O{sub 9} up to 40 mol%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stabilization of the {beta}-form for a sulfur content greater than or equal to 5 mol%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition by sulfur exsolution induced by thermal treatment or ball-milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction or even cancellation of the distortive thermal expansion above 400 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of conductance at high T involved by the low thermal expansion above 400 Degree-Sign C.

  12. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  13. Modeling the formation of in vitro filopodia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. -C. Lee; A. Gopinathan; J. M. Schwarz

    2010-05-13

    Filopodia are bundles of actin filaments that extend out ahead of the leading edge of a crawling cell to probe its upcoming environment. {\\it In vitro} experiments [D. Vignjevic {\\it et al.}, J. Cell Biol. {\\bf 160}, 951 (2003)] have determined the minimal ingredients required for the formation of filopodia from the dendritic-like morphology of the leading edge. We model these experiments using kinetic aggregation equations for the density of growing bundle tips. In mean field, we determine the bundle size distribution to be broad for bundle sizes smaller than a characteristic bundle size above which the distribution decays exponentially. Two-dimensional simulations incorporating both bundling and cross-linking measure a bundle size distribution that agrees qualitatively with mean field. The simulations also demonstrate a nonmonotonicity in the radial extent of the dendritic region as a function of capping protein concentration, as was observed in experiments, due to the interplay between percolation and the ratcheting of growing filaments off a spherical obstacle.

  14. Internal split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat; Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-01-03

    A generator includes a coil of conductive material. A stationary magnetic field source applies a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An internal magnetic field source is disposed within a cavity of the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. The stationary magnetic field interacts with the moving magnetic field to generate an electrical energy in the coil.

  15. The Epoch of Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raul Jimenez

    2001-10-09

    I present a biased review of when the epoch of formation of galaxies (both disks and ellipticals) maybe took place. I base my arguments in simple (mostly) analytic models that have been recently developed to reproduce most of the observed photometric, chemical and dynamical properties of galaxies both at low and high redshift.

  16. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  17. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  18. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Clustering and pattern formation in chemorepulsive active colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benno Liebchen; Davide Marenduzzo; Ignacio Pagonabarraga; Michael E. Cates

    2015-08-19

    We present a model for the collective dynamics of a suspension of active colloidal particles, whose motion is driven by gradients in the concentration of a chemical that they produce. For the chemorepulsive case, where particles migrate away from their chemical product, we predict two new generic mechanisms causing microphase separation and pattern formation. The first such mechanism leads to the formation of stable clusters of a finite size, and relies on an anisotropy in chemical production at the particle surface, as expected for synthetic active colloids (Janus spheres) that move by autophoresis. These clusters, whose size increases with activity, are each stabilized by a chemorepellent shell that keeps the particles in the cluster together while driving other clusters away. Our second route to pattern formation arises even in the absence of such anisotropy, through oscillations caused by a delay in the reorientation response of the active colloids to local gradients in the chemical density field. This leads to formation of dynamical clusters that often, but not always, settle into a travelling wave pattern. Finally we find that a competition of these two mechanism can create a pattern of "blinking clusters" that continuously exchange particles with each other. These new mechanisms for the formation of dynamic, finite-sized clusters in active matter might help explain recent experimental findings. More generally, they point to novel design principles for self-assembly of active colloids into spatiotemporal patterns.

  20. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-04-01

    West Carney Field produces from Hunton Formation. All the wells produce oil, water and gas. The main objective of this study is to understand the unique behavior observed in the field. This behavior includes: (1) Decrease in WOR over time; (2) Decrease in GOR at initial stages; (3) High decline rates of oil and gas; and (4) strong hydrodynamic connectivity between wells. This report specifically addresses two issues relevant to our understanding of the West Carney reservoir. By using core and log data as well as fluorescence information, we demonstrate that our hypothesis of how the reservoir is formed is consistent with these observations. Namely, oil migrated in water wet reservoir, over time, oil changed the wettability of some part of the reservoir, oil eventually leaked to upper formations prompting re-introduction of water into reservoir. Because of change in wettability, different pore size distributions responded differently to water influx. This hypothesis is consistent with fluorescence and porosity data, as we explain it in this quarterly report. The second issue deals with how to best calculate connected oil volume in the reservoir. The log data does not necessarily provide us with relevant information regarding oil in place. However, we have developed a new material balance technique to calculate the connected oil volume based on observed pressure and production data. By using the technique to four different fields producing from Hunton formation, we demonstrate that the technique can be successfully applied to calculate the connected oil in place.

  1. Field emission study of cobalt ion implanted porous silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Hongbiao

    1995-01-01

    as an electrode in field emission applications. In this project, the formation of a CoSi2, conducting layer on porous silicon by high dose ion implantation while preserving the pore structure and field emission properties of the underlying porous silicon...

  2. West Virginia University Geology 404, Geology Field Camp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammer, Thomas

    .geo.wvu.edu/~kammer/geol404.htm Format: Five weeks of geologic field work in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Field areas, Wyoming, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park, and Southwest will include the Black Hills, Big Horn Mountains, Yellowstone National Park, Grand Teton National Park

  3. Chemical, multi-isotopic (Li-B-Sr-U-H-O) and thermal characterization of Triassic formation waters from the Paris Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Chemical, multi-isotopic (Li-B-Sr-U-H-O) and thermal characterization of Triassic formation waters Torche fields in the centre of the Basin. The multi- isotope characterization of Triassic formation to characterize sandstone formation waters. Keywords: lithium isotopes, boron isotopes, strontium isotopes

  4. Methods and results for stress analyses on 14-ton, thin-wall depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Chung, C.K.; Frazier, J.L.; Kelley, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium enrichment operations at the three US gaseous diffusion plants produce depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) as a residential product. At the present time, the inventory of DUF{sub 6} in this country is more than half a million tons. The inventory of DUF{sub 6} is contained in metal storage cylinders, most of which are located at the gaseous diffusion plants. The principal objective of the project is to ensure the integrity of the cylinders to prevent causing an environmental hazard by releasing the contents of the cylinders into the atmosphere. Another objective is to maintain the cylinders in such a manner that the DUF{sub 6} may eventually be converted to a less hazardous material for final disposition. An important task in the DUF{sub 6} cylinders management project is determining how much corrosion of the walls can be tolerated before the cylinders are in danger of being damaged during routine handling and shipping operations. Another task is determining how to handle cylinders that have already been damaged in a manner that will minimize the chance that a breach will occur or that the size of an existing breach will be significantly increased. A number of finite element stress analysis (FESA) calculations have been done to analyze the stresses for three conditions: (1) while the cylinder is being lifted, (2) when a cylinder is resting on two cylinders under it in the customary two-tier stacking array, and (3) when a cylinder is resting on tis chocks on the ground. Various documents describe some of the results and discuss some of the methods whereby they have been obtained. The objective of the present report is to document as many of the FESA cases done at Oak Ridge for 14-ton thin-wall cylinders as possible, giving results and a description of the calculations in some detail.

  5. Chemical Enrichment in Damped Lyman Alpha Systems From Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsuya Okoshi; Masahiro Nagashima; Naoteru Gouda; Satoshi Yoshioka

    2003-11-25

    We investigate chemical enrichment in Damped Lyman alpha (DLA) systems in the hierarchical structure formation scenario using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. The model developed by Nagashima, Totani, Gouda and Yoshii takes into account various selection effects on high-redshift galaxies and can show fundamental observational properties of galaxies, such as luminosity functions and number-magnitude/redshift relations. DLA systems offer the possibilities of measuring metal abundance more accurately than faint galaxies. For example, recent measurements of zinc abundance can provide good evidence for understanding the processes of metal pollution and star formation in DLA systems because zinc is virtually unaffected by dust depletion. Here we focus on this advantage for observation in order to explore the metallicity evolution in DLA systems at high redshifts. We can consistently show the metallicity evolution for reasonable models which also reproduce fundamental properties of local galaxy population. This result suggests that the chemical evolution of DLA systems can be consistently reconciled with the observational features of typical galaxies. We also investigate other properties of DLA systems (column density distribution and mass density of cold gas), and find that star formation in massive galaxies should be more active than that in low-mass ones. This is consistent with the results by Nagashima et al. and Cole et al. in which the star formation timescale is set by reproducing cold gas mass fraction in local spiral galaxies. Finally we discuss host galaxies associated with DLA systems. We conclude that they primarily consist of sub-L* and/or dwarf galaxies from the observations.

  6. Formation of NH{sub 3} during the pyrolysis of a brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.Z.; Pang, Y.; Li, X.G. [Monash Univ., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO, NO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O) from power generation using coal are an important environmental problem, contributing to the formation of photochemical smog and acid rain or to the enhancement of greenhouse effects and to the enhanced depletion of stratospheric ozone. During pyrolysis, the nitrogen in coal, as a part of coal organic matter, is converted into NOx precursors (eg. NH{sub 3}, HCN, HNCO and the nitrogen in tar and char). These NOx precursors may then be converted into either NOx or N{sub 2} during subsequent combustion or gasification/combustion. The conversion efficiency of these NOx precursors into NOx depends strongly upon the type of NOx precursor. Knowledge of the formation of these NOx precursors during pyrolysis is therefore essential for the accurate predictions of NOx emissions from large scale power plants, and therefore for the development of optimum strategies for NOx reduction. Formation of NH{sub 3} during the pyrolysis of a Victorian brown coal (Loy Yang) has been studied in a novel reactor. The experimental results obtained suggest that a considerable amount of the nitrogen in the nascent char could be converted into NH{sub 3} if the char is held at high temperatures for a long period of time. The formation of NH{sub 3} from the thermal cracking of char was seen to last for more than an hour even at temperatures as high as 700--900 C. The experimental results seem to suggest that the differences in reactor geometries would account at least partially for some of the discrepancies in the literature regarding the formation of NH{sub 3} during the pyrolysis of coals. It is thought that NH{sub 3} may be formed from the hydrogenation of the N sites in the char by the active hydrogen generated from the thermal cracking of the char.

  7. On Iron Enrichment, Star Formation, and Type Ia Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Loewenstein

    2006-05-04

    The nature of star formation and Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in galaxies in the field and in rich galaxy clusters are contrasted by juxtaposing the build-up of heavy metals in the universe inferred from observed star formation and supernovae rate histories with data on the evolution of Fe abundances in the intracluster medium (ICM). Models for the chemical evolution of Fe in these environments are constructed, subject to observational constraints, for this purpose. While models with a mean delay for SNIa of 3 Gyr and standard initial mass function (IMF) are consistent with observations in the field, cluster Fe enrichment immediately tracks a rapid, top-heavy phase of star formation -- although transport of Fe into the ICM may be more prolonged and star formation likely continues to redshifts formation mode. Star formation is >3 times more efficient in rich clusters than in the field, mitigating the overcooling problem in numerical cluster simulations. Both the fraction of baryons cycled through stars, and the fraction of the total present-day stellar mass in the form of stellar remnants, are substantially greater in clusters than in the field.

  8. A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

    2006-01-01

    the middle Capay Shale (depleted gas) and McCormick Sand (depleted gas reservoir located within the Middle Capay shaleCO 2 gas will occur in the 2-3 m thick Capay Shale interval

  9. A magnetohydrodynamic model of rotating magnetic field current drive in a field-reversed configuration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -reversed configuration Richard D. Milroy University of Washington, Redmond Plasma Physics Laboratory, Seattle, Washington of a field-reversed configuration FRC . Previous models assumed a fixed ion model, but here a full two of problems: 1 For the sustainment problem, a RMF is applied to a preexisting FRC. 2 For the formation problem

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Disk Galaxy Formation: the Magnetization of The Cold and Warm Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng Wang; Tom Abel

    2007-12-06

    Using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) adaptive mesh refinement simulations, we study the formation and early evolution of disk galaxies with a magnetized interstellar medium. For a $10^{10}$ \\msun halo with initial NFW dark matter and gas profiles, we impose a uniform $10^{-9}$ G magnetic field and follow its collapse, disk formation and evolution up to 1 Gyr. Comparing to a purely hydrodynamic simulation with the same initial condition, we find that a protogalactic field of this strength does not significantly influence the global disk properties. At the same time, the initial magnetic fields are quickly amplified by the differentially rotating turbulent disk. After the initial rapid amplification lasting $\\sim500$ Myr, subsequent field amplification appears self-regulated. As a result, highly magnetized material begin to form above and below the disk. Interestingly, the field strengths in the self-regulated regime agrees well with the observed fields in the Milky Way galaxy both in the warm and the cold HI phase and do not change appreciably with time. Most of the cold phase shows a dispersion of order ten in the magnetic field strength. The global azimuthal magnetic fields reverse at different radii and the amplitude declines as a function of radius of the disk. By comparing the estimated star formation rate (SFR) in hydrodynamic and MHD simulations, we find that after the magnetic field strength saturates, magnetic forces provide further support in the cold gas and lead to a decline of the SFR.

  11. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  12. Controlled Irradiative Formation of Penitentes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Bergeron; C. Berger; M. D. Betterton

    2006-01-24

    Spike-shaped structures are produced by light-driven ablation in very different contexts. Penitentes 1-4 m high are common on Andean glaciers, where their formation changes glacier dynamics and hydrology. Laser ablation can produce cones 10-100 microns high with a variety of proposed applications in materials science. We report the first laboratory generation of centimeter-scale snow and ice penitentes. Systematically varying conditions allows identification of the essential parameters controlling the formation of ablation structures. We demonstrate that penitente initiation and coarsening requires cold temperatures, so that ablation leads to sublimation rather than melting. Once penitentes have formed, further growth of height can occur by melting. The penitentes intially appear as small structures (3 mm high) and grow by coarsening to 1-5 cm high. Our results are an important step towards understanding and controlling ablation morphologies.

  13. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  14. Shock Formation in Lovelock Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey S. Reall; Norihiro Tanahashi; Benson Way

    2014-09-12

    We argue that Lovelock theories of gravity suffer from shock formation, unlike General Relativity. We consider the propagation of (i) a discontinuity in curvature, and (ii) weak, high frequency, gravitational waves. Such disturbances propagate along characteristic hypersurfaces of a "background" spacetime and their amplitude is governed by a transport equation. In GR the transport equation is linear. In Lovelock theories, it is nonlinear and its solutions can blow up, corresponding to the formation of a shock. We show that this effect is absent in some simple cases e.g. a flat background spacetime, and demonstrate its presence for a plane wave background. We comment on weak cosmic censorship, the evolution of shocks, and the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime, in Lovelock theories.

  15. Membrane adhesion and domain formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas R. Weikl; Reinhard Lipowsky

    2007-09-23

    We review theoretical results for the adhesion-induced phase behavior of biomembranes. The focus is on models in which the membranes are represented as discretized elastic sheets with embedded adhesion molecules. We present several mechanism that lead to the formation of domains during adhesion, and discuss the time-dependent evolution of domain patterns obtained in Monte-Carlo simulations. The simulated pattern dynamics has striking similarities to the pattern evolution observed during T cell adhesion.

  16. CRC handbook of biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, C.; Postow, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the current knowledge about the effects of electromagnetic fields on living matter. The three-part format covers dielectric permittivity and electrical conductivity of biological materials; effects of direct current and low frequency fields; and effects of radio frequency (including microwave) fields. The parts are designed to be consulted independently or in sequence, depending upon the needs of the reader. Useful appendixes on measurement units and safety standards are also included.

  17. Absorption and elimination of formate following oral administration of calcium formate in female human subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Eells, Janis T.

    2005-02-01

    Published abstract: Calcium formate is a water-soluble salt of an essential mineral nutrient with potential for use as a dietary calcium supplement. Formate ion is a product of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, but sustained high plasma formate...

  18. Structurally Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    propellants that often limit lifetime, the EMFF system uses solar power to energize a magnetic field for a smaller, simpler system. µEMFF investigates the use of conventional conductors, capacitors, and solar

  19. Dynamic processes in field-reversed-configuration compact toroids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rej, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this lecture, the dynamic processes involved in field-reversed configuration (FRC) formation, translation, and compression will be reviewed. Though the FRC is related to the field-reversed mirror concept, the formation method used in most experiments is a variant of the field-reversed THETA-pinch. Formation of the FRC eqilibrium occurs rapidly, usually in less than 20 ..mu..s. The formation sequence consists of several coupled processes: preionization; radial implosion and compression; magnetic field line closure; axial contraction; equilibrium formation. Recent experiments and theory have led to a significantly improved understanding of these processes; however, the experimental method still relies on a somewhat empirical approach which involves the optimization of initial preionization plasma parameters and symmetry. New improvements in FRC formation methods include the use of lower voltages which extrapolate better to larger devices. The axial translation of compact toroid plasmas offers an attractive engineering convenience in a fusion reactor. FRC translation has been demonstrated in several experiments worldwide, and these plasmas are found to be robust, moving at speeds up to the Alfven velocity over distances of up to 16 m, with no degradation in the confinement. Compact toroids are ideal for magnetic compression. Translated FRCs have been compressed and heated by imploding liners. Upcoming experiments will rely on external flux compression to heat a translater FRC at 1-GW power levels. 39 refs.

  20. ON MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION AND THE MAGNETOHYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM OF SUNSPOTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Lin, H. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai'i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Uitenbroek, H. [National Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak, P.O. Box 62, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the problem of sunspot magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with comprehensive IR sunspot magnetic field survey observations of the highly sensitive Fe I lines at 15650 A and nearby OH lines. We have found that some sunspots show isothermal increases in umbral magnetic field strength which cannot be explained by the simplified sunspot model with a single-component ideal gas atmosphere assumed in previous investigations. Large sunspots universally display nonlinear increases in magnetic pressure over temperature, while small sunspots and pores display linear behavior. The formation of molecules provides a mechanism for isothermal concentration of the umbral magnetic field, and we propose that this may explain the observed rapid increase in umbral magnetic field strength relative to temperature. Existing multi-component sunspot atmospheric models predict that a significant amount of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) exists in the sunspot umbra. The formation of H{sub 2} can significantly alter the thermodynamic properties of the sunspot atmosphere and may play a significant role in sunspot evolution. In addition to the survey observations, we have performed detailed chemical equilibrium calculations with full consideration of radiative transfer effects to establish OH as a proxy for H{sub 2}, and demonstrate that a significant population of H{sub 2} exists in the coolest regions of large sunspots.

  1. The Recent Cluster Formation Histories of NGC 5253 and NGC 3077: Environmental Impact on Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Harris; D. Calzetti; J. S. Gallagher III; D. A. Smith; C. J. Conselice

    2003-11-20

    We present multicolor photometry of bright star cluster candidates in the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 3077 and NGC 5253, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in both broadband (F300W, F547M and F814W) and narrowband (F487N and F656N) filters. By comparing the photometry with theoretical population synthesis models, we estimate the age and mass of each star cluster, which provides constraints on the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies. We compare the star cluster populations in these dwarf starburst galaxies to those of the nuclear starburst in the barred spiral M 83, and discuss implications for our understanding of the nature and evolution of starburst events.

  2. Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1995-08-25

    The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

  3. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  4. Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

  5. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  6. La cl informatique Formation Word XP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vellend, Mark

    La clé informatique Formation Word XP Aide-mémoire Hiver 2004 #12;#12;Formation Word XP Hiver 2004 1. PRÉSENTATION DE L'INTERFACE DE MICROSOFT WORD XP................ 1 1.1. L'interface générale

  7. Proportional structural effects of formative indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, George R.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Rigdon, Ed E.

    2009-03-15

    that are proportional to their effects on the formative construct itself. This constraint has important implications for developing and testing formative models. This study demonstrates the existence of the constraint, shows that researchers must consider...

  8. Unayzah Formation: a new Permian-Carboniferous unit in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sandstones, shales, and thin beds of argillaceous limestone previously included as the basal part of the Permian Khuff Formation were described as the Unayzah Formation by al-Laboun in 1982 and 1986. The type locality (stratotype.) of this formation is in the town of Unayzah, and a reference section was established in the Qusayba area, al-Qasim district, Saudi Arabia. Fossil flora collected from outcrops and palynomorphs obtained from boreholes support a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age for these strata. The Unayzah Formation is conformably overlain by the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation, whereas its basal contact is marked by a regional angular unconformity with various older units. The Unayzah Formation is widespread in the Greater Arabian basin. The formation represents cyclic transgressive and regressive deposits preceding the Permian regional marine transgression, during which the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation were deposited. This Permian transgression marked a major change in the Sedimentation and evolution of the Greater Arabian basin. The porous sandstones of the Unayzah Formation are important exploration targets because several fields in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Greater Arabian basin produce hydrocarbons from the Unayzah. 11 figures, 1 table.

  9. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  10. External split field generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-21

    A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

  11. Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays Daniel W. Kwon and David W. Miller February 2005 SSL # 2-05 #12;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays By DANIEL W. KWON S;#12;Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Arrays by DANIEL W. KWON Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics

  12. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  13. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  14. Three-phase heaters with common overburden sections for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-02-14

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes three substantially u-shaped heaters with first end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to a single, three-phase wye transformer and second end portions of the heaters being electrically coupled to each other and/or to ground. The three heaters may enter the formation through a first common wellbore and exit the formation through a second common wellbore so that the magnetic fields of the three heaters at least partially cancel out in the common wellbores.

  15. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  18. Bent-housing turbodrills improve hard-formation directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koot, L.; Koole, K. (Shell U.K. Exploration and Production, Lowestoft (United Kingdom)); Gaynor, T. (Neyrfor-Weir Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1993-02-15

    Improvements in the design of turbine-powered downhole motors allowed steerable drilling in a hard formation at a high rate of penetration (ROP). Drilling in this dolomite formation with the rotary or with positive-displacement motors (PDMs) was slow during steering operations. Shell's solution to the steering penetration rate problems was to change the well plans if suitable directional drilling tools weren't available. Where possible, the wells were designed with the Zechstein interval drilled as a tangent section with non-steerable turbodrills. However, a better solution was the use of a steerable turbodrill-a tool unavailable on the market at that time. The paper describes motor development, a field test, and the design and operation of the motor.

  19. Star formation in 30 Doradus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino; Beccari, Giacomo; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Mutchler, Max; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Whitmore, Bradley C; Bond, Howard; Clazetti, Daniela; Carollo, C Marcella; Disney, Michael J; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick J; O'Connell, Robert W; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joseph I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Windhorst, Rogier A; Young, Erick T

    2011-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterise and quantify this effect using young massive main sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (> 4 sigma) Halpha excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one third of these objects are younger than ~4Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionising cluster R136, whereas the rest have ages up to ~30Myr, with a median age of ~12Myr. Th...

  20. INFORMATION: Management Alert on Environmental Management's Select Strategy for Disposition of Savannah River Site Depleted Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-04-01

    The Administration and the Congress, through policy statements and passage of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), have signaled that they hope that proactive actions by agency Inspectors General will help ensure that Federal Recovery Act activities are transparent, effective and efficient. In that context, the purpose of this management alert is to share with you concerns that have been raised to the Office of Inspector General regarding the planned disposition of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) inventory of Depleted Uranium (DU) oxides. This inventory, generated as a by-product of the nuclear weapons production process and amounting to approximately 15,600 drums of DU oxides, has been stored at SRS for decades. A Department source we deem reliable and credible recently came to the Office of Inspector General expressing concern that imminent actions are planned that may not provide for the most cost effective disposition of these materials. During April 2009, the Department chose to use funds provided under the Recovery Act to accelerate final disposition of the SRS inventory of DU oxides. After coordination with State of Utah regulators, elected officials and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department initiated a campaign to ship the material to a facility operated by EnergySolutions in Clive, Utah. Although one shipment of a portion of the material has already been sent to the EnergySolutions facility, the majority of the product remains at SRS. As had been planned, both for the shipment already made and those planned in the near term, the EnergySolutions facility was to have been the final disposal location for the material. Recently, a member of Congress and various Utah State officials raised questions regarding the radioactive and other constituents present in the DU oxides to be disposed of at the Clive, Utah, facility. These concerns revolved around the characterization of the material and its acceptability under existing licensing criteria. As a consequence, the Governor of Utah met with Department officials to voice concerns regarding further shipments of the material and to seek return of the initial shipment of DU oxides to SRS. Utah's objections and the Department's agreement to accede to the State's demands effectively prohibit the transfer of the remaining material from South Carolina to Utah. In response, the Department evaluated its options and issued a draft decision paper on March 1, 2010, which outlined an alternative for temporary storage until the final disposition issue could be resolved. Under the terms of the proposed option, the remaining shipments from SRS are to be sent on an interim basis to a facility owned by Waste Control Specialists (WCS) in Andrews, Texas. Clearly, this choice carries with it a number of significant logistical burdens, including substantial additional costs for, among several items, repackaging at SRS, transportation to Texas, storage at the interim site, and, repackaging and transportation to the yet-to-be-determined final disposition point. The Department source expressed the concern that the proposal to store the material on an interim basis in Texas was inefficient and unnecessary, asserting: (1) that the materials could remain at SRS until a final disposition path is identified, and that this could be done safely, securely and cost effectively; and, (2) that the nature of the material was not subject to existing compliance agreements with the State of South Carolina, suggesting the viability of keeping the material in storage at SRS until a permanent disposal site is definitively established. We noted that, while the Department's decision paper referred to 'numerous project and programmatic factors that make it impractical to retain the remaining inventory at Savannah River,' it did not outline the specific issues involved nor did it provide any substantive economic or environmental analysis supporting the need for the planned interim storage action. The only apparent driver in this case was a Recovery Act-related goal esta

  1. Anisotropic Formation of Magnetized Cores in Turbulent Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Che-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In giant molecular clouds (GMCs), shocks driven by converging turbulent flows create high-density, strongly-magnetized regions that are locally sheetlike. In previous work, we showed that within these layers, dense filaments and embedded self-gravitating cores form by gathering material along the magnetic field lines. Here, we extend the parameter space of our three-dimensional, turbulent MHD core formation simulations. We confirm the anisotropic core formation model we previously proposed, and quantify the dependence of median core properties on the pre-shock inflow velocity and upstream magnetic field strength. Our results suggest that bound core properties are set by the total dynamic pressure (dominated by large-scale turbulence) and thermal sound speed c_s in GMCs, independent of magnetic field strength. For models with Mach number between 5 and 20, the median core masses and radii are comparable to the critical Bonnor-Ebert mass and radius defined using the dynamic pressure for P_ext. Our results corres...

  2. Terrestrial Planet Formation Constrained by Mars and the Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Izidoro, André; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Winter, Othon C

    2015-01-01

    Reproducing the large Earth/Mars mass ratio requires a strong mass depletion in solids within the protoplanetary disk between 1 and 3 AU. The Grand Tack model invokes a specific migration history of the giant planets to remove most of the mass initially beyond 1 AU and to dynamically excite the asteroid belt. However, one could also invoke a steep density gradient created by inward drift and pile-up of small particles induced by gas-drag, as has been proposed to explain the formation of close-in super Earths. Here we show that the asteroid belt's orbital excitation provides a crucial constraint against this scenario for the Solar System. We performed a series of simulations of terrestrial planet formation and asteroid belt evolution starting from disks of planetesimals and planetary embryos with various radial density gradients and including Jupiter and Saturn on nearly circular and coplanar orbits. Disks with shallow density gradients reproduce the dynamical excitation of the asteroid belt by gravitational s...

  3. The measured compositions of Uranus and Neptune from their formation on the CO ice line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc

    2014-09-20

    The formation mechanisms of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune, and the origin of their elemental and isotopic compositions, have long been debated. The density of solids in the outer protosolar nebula is too low to explain their formation, and spectroscopic observations show that both planets are highly enriched in carbon, very poor in nitrogen, and the ices from which they originally formed might have had deuterium-to-hydrogen ratios lower than the predicted cometary value, unexplained properties that were observed in no other planets. Here, we show that all these properties can be explained naturally if Uranus and Neptune both formed at the carbon monoxide ice line. Due to the diffusive redistribution of vapors, this outer region of the protosolar nebula intrinsically has enough surface density to form both planets from carbon-rich solids but nitrogen-depleted gas, in abundances consistent with their observed values. Water-rich interiors originating mostly from transformed CO ices reconcile the D/H value of Uranus's and Neptune's building blocks with the cometary value. Finally, our scenario generalizes a well known hypothesis that Jupiter formed on an ice line (water snow line) for the two ice giants, and might be a first step toward generalizing this mechanism for other giant planets.

  4. Data from selected Almond Formation outcrops -- Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.R.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-12-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline barrier reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana, that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. A report similar to this one presents the Muddy Formation outcrop data and analyses performed in the course of this study (Rawn-Schatzinger, 1993). Two outcrop localities, RG and RH, previously described by Roehler (1988) provided good exposures of the Upper Almond shoreline barrier facies and were studied during 1990--1991. Core from core well No. 2 drilled approximately 0.3 miles downdip of outcrop RG was obtained for study. The results of the core study will be reported in a separate volume. Outcrops RH and RG, located about 2 miles apart were selected for detailed description and drilling of core plugs. One 257-ft-thick section was measured at outcrop RG, and three sections {approximately}145 ft thick located 490 and 655 feet apart were measured at the outcrop RH. Cross-sections of these described profiles were constructed to determine lateral facies continuity and changes. This report contains the data and analyses from the studied outcrops.

  5. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Gardner, T.L.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Miller, M.E.; Schuessler, B.K.

    1996-11-01

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of five between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  6. Adaptive Optics in Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Brandner

    2003-09-29

    Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

  7. Formation of helical ion chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramil Nigmatullin; Adolfo del Campo; Gabriele De Chiara; Giovanna Morigi; Martin B. Plenio; Alex Retzker

    2015-08-25

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of the linear to zigzag structural phase transition exhibited by an ion chain confined in a trap with periodic boundary conditions. The transition is driven by reducing the transverse confinement at a finite quench rate, which can be accurately controlled. This results in the formation of zigzag domains oriented along different transverse planes. The twists between different domains can be stabilized by the topology of the trap and under laser cooling the system has a chance to relax to a helical chain with nonzero winding number. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to obtain a large sample of possible trajectories for different quench rates. The scaling of the average winding number with different quench rates is compared to the prediction of the Kibble-Zurek theory, and a good quantitative agreement is found.

  8. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  9. Comet tail formation: Giotto observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilken, B.; Jockers, K.; Johnstone, A.; Coates, A.; Heath, J.; Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Winningham, J.D.; Thomsen, M.; Bryant, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The process of mass loading of the solar wind by cometary ions, which forms comet tails, has been observed throughout the coma of comet Halley. Three distinct regimes were found where the nature of the energy and momentum coupling between solar wind and cometary ions is different. Outside the bow shock, where there is little angular scattering of the freshly ionized particles, the coupling is described by the simple pickup trajectory and the energy is controlled by the angle between the flow and the magnetic field. Just inside the bow shock, there is considerable scattering accompanied by another acceleration process which raises some particle energies well above the straightforward pickup value. Finally, closer to the nucleus, the amount of scattering decreases and the coupling is once more controlled by the magnetic field direction. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Strong Room-temperature Negative Transconductance In An Axial Si/Ge Hetero-nanowire Tunneling Field-effect Transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Peng; Le, Son T.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, Samuel T.

    2014-08-11

    We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs). The NTC produces a current peak-to-valley ratio > 45, a high value for a Si-based device. We characterize the NTC characteristics over a range of gate VG and drain VD voltages, finding that NTC persists down to VD = –50 mV. The physical mechanism responsible for the NTC is the VG-induced depletion in the p-Ge section that eventually reduces the maximum electric field that triggers the tunneling ID, as confirmed via three-dimensional TCAD simulations.

  11. Geological input to reservoir simulation, Champion Field, offshore Brunei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, R.; Salahudin, S.; Ho, T.C.

    1994-07-01

    Brunei Shell Petroleum's giant Champion field is in a mature stage of development with about 23 yr of production history to date. The field comprises a complex sequence of Miocene shallow marine and deltaic layered clastic reservoirs cut by numerous growth faults. This study was aimed at providing a quantified estimate of the effect of lateral and vertical discontinuities within the I and J reservoirs on the recovery for both depletion drive and in a waterflood, with a view to identifying the optimal method of completing the development of the oil reserves in this area. Geological input to the ECLIPSE simulator was aimed at quantifying two key parameters: (1) STOIIP connected to the well bore and (2) permeability contrast. Connected STOIIP is a function of the domain size of interconnected sand bodies, and this parameter was quantified by the use of detailed sedimentology resulting in sand-body facies maps for each reservoir sublayer. Permeability contrast was quantified by using a wireline-log based algorithm, calibrated against core data, which improved the existing accuracy of permeability estimates in this part of the field. Results of simulation runs illustrate the importance of quantifying geologic heterogeneity and provide valuable information for future field development planning.

  12. Radio Triggered Star Formation in Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. McNamara

    1999-11-08

    The giant galaxies located at the centers of cluster cooling flows are frequently sites of vigorous star formation. In some instances, star formation appears to have been triggered by the galaxy's radio source. The colors and spectral indices of the young populations are generally consistent with short duration bursts or continuous star formation for durations much less than 1 Gyr, which is less than the presumed ages of cooling flows. The star formation properties are inconsistent with fueling by a continuously accreting cooling flow, although the prevalence of star formation is consistent with repeated bursts and periodic refueling. Star formation may be fueled, in some cases, by cold material stripped from neighboring cluster galaxies.

  13. Dynamics of oscillating scalar field in thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyohei Mukaida; Kazunori Nakayama

    2013-04-24

    There often appear coherently oscillating scalar fields in particle physics motivated cosmological scenarios, which may have rich phenomenological consequences. Scalar fields should somehow interact with background thermal bath in order to decay into radiation at an appropriate epoch, but introducing some couplings to the scalar field makes the dynamics complicated. We investigate in detail the dynamics of a coherently oscillating scalar field, which has renormalizable couplings to another field interacting with thermal background. The scalar field dynamics and its resultant abundance are significantly modified by taking account of following effects : (1) thermal correction to the effective potential, (2) dissipation effect on the scalar field in thermal bath, (3) non-perturbative particle production events and (4) formation of non-topological solitons. There appear many time scales depending on the scalar mass, amplitude, couplings and the background temperature, which make the efficiencies of these effects non-trivial.

  14. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  15. U.S. Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation Reserves New Field Discoveries

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubic Feet) Depleted Fields(Billion Cubic Feet)

  16. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  17. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  18. New Particle Formation Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, JN; McMurry, PH

    2015-01-01

    The scientific foci of the New Particle Formation Study were the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the impacts of newly formed particles on cloud processes. Specifically, we planned to: (1) to identify the species and mechanisms responsible for the initial steps of new particle formation, i.e., the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters; (2) investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; (3) investigate the contribution of other surface area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth; (4) create a comprehensive dataset related to new particle formation and growth that can be used as input for our own thermodynamic models as well as the modeling efforts by our Department of Energy (DOE) Aerosol Life Cycle working group collaborators; (5) characterize the increase of the number and activity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) due to particle formation and growth; (6) determine the regional extent of new particle formation to address the role that atmospheric transport plays in determining the impacts, if any, of new particle formation on cloud number and properties.

  19. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  20. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  2. BUFFERED WELL FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINES FROM BUFFERED WELLS The VBA Code below builds oil & gas field boundary outlines (polygons) from buffered wells (points). Input well points layer must be a...

  3. Subtask 1.8 - Investigation of Improved Conductivity and Proppant Applications in the Bakken Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethany Kurz; Darren Schmidt; Steven Smith Christopher Beddoe; Corey Lindeman; Blaise Mibeck

    2012-07-31

    Given the importance of hydraulic fracturing and proppant performance for development of the Bakken and Three Forks Formations within the Williston Basin, a study was conducted to evaluate the key factors that may result in conductivity loss within the reservoirs. Various proppants and reservoir rock cores were exposed to several different fracturing and formation fluids at reservoir conditions. The hardness of the rock cores and the strength of the proppants were evaluated prior to and following fluid exposure. In addition, the conductivity of various proppants, as well as formation embedment and spalling, was evaluated at reservoir temperatures and pressures using actual reservoir rock cores. The results of this work suggest that certain fluids may affect both rock and proppant strength, and therefore, fluid exposure needs to be considered in the field. In addition, conductivity decreases within the Bakken Formation appear to be a function of a variety of factors, including proppant and rock strength, as well as formation embedment and spalling. The results of this study highlight the need for advanced conductivity testing, coupled with quantification of formation embedment and spalling. Given the importance of proppant performance on conductivity loss and, ultimately, oil recovery, better understanding the effects of these various factors on proppant and rock strength in the field is vital for more efficient production within unconventional oil and gas reservoirs.

  4. igpps-proposal-formatting-guidance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26th AnnualHistory Over 100 Years5/04 |3icf | NationalPowerThe

  5. Format requirements of thermal neutron scattering data in a nuclear data format to succeed the ENDF format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-03-31

    In November 2012, the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup 38 (WPEC-SG38) began with the task of developing a nuclear data format and supporting infrastructure to replace the now nearly 50 year old ENDF format. The first step in this process is to develop requirements for the new format and infrastructure. In this talk, I will review the status of ENDF's Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) formats as well as support for this data in the GND format (from which the new format is expected to evolve). Finally, I hope to begin a dialog with members of the thermal neutron scattering community so that their data needs can be accurately and easily accommodated by the new format and tools, as captured by the requirements document. During this discussion, we must keep in mind that the new tools and format must; Support what is in existing data files; Support new things we want to put in data files; and Be flexible enough for us to adapt it to future unanticipated challenges.

  6. Chaos in Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volker Hoffmann; Simon L. Grimm; Ben Moore; Joachim Stadel

    2015-08-04

    Terrestrial planets are thought to be the result of a vast number of gravitational interactions and collisions between smaller bodies. We use numerical simulations to show that practically identical initial conditions result in a wide array of final planetary configurations. This highly chaotic behaviour questions the predictability of different scenarios for the formation and evolution of our solar system and planetary systems in general. However, multiple realisations of the same initial conditions can be used to predict certain global statistics. We present two sets of numerical experiments that quantify this behaviour. Firstly, we demonstrate that simulations with slightly displaced particles are completely divergent after ~500 years, irrespective of initial displacement, particle number, and code accuracy. If a single planetesimal is moved by less than one millimetre, then a different set of planets results -- this timescale for chaotic divergence decreases with increasing particle number. Secondly, we show final planetary configurations of initially similar simulations with and without giant planets after evolving them for ~148 Myr. We find that the same simulations including giant planets tend to generate higher mass planets at lower semi-major axes than simulations without gas giants. This prediction can be tested with forthcoming observational programs. By extracting outliers in the observations, we cautiously predict that Kepler-10, Kepler-9, 61 Vir, HD 134060, and HD 51608 may host as yet undetected giant planets.

  7. Supercritical fluid behavior at nanoscale interfaces: implications for CO2 sequestration in geologic formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, David R [ORNL; Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Vlcek, L. [Vanderbilt University; Cummings, Peter T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Injection of CO2 into subsurface geologic formations has been identified as a key strategy for mitigating the impact of anthropogenic emissions of CO2. A key aspect of this process is the prevention of leakage from the host formation by an effective cap or seal rock which has low porosity and permeability characteristics. Shales comprise the majority of cap rocks encountered in subsurface injection sites with pore sizes typically less than 100 nm and whose surface chemistries are dominated by quartz (SiO2) and clays. We report the behavior of pure CO2 interacting with simple substrates, i.e. SiO2 and mica, that act as proxies for more complex mineralogical systems. Modeling of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data taken from CO2- silica aerogel (95% porosity; 6 nm pores) interactions indicates the presence of fluid depletion for conditions above the critical density. A theoretical framework, i.e. integral equation approximation (IEA), is presented that describes the fundamental behavior of near-critical adsorption onto a non-confining substrate that is consistent with SANS experimental results. Structural and dynamic behavior for supercritical CO2 interaction in K-mica slit pores was assessed by classical molecular dynamics (CMD). These results indicate the development of distinct layers of CO2 within slit pores, reduced mobility by one to two orders of magnitudes compared to bulk CO2 depending on pore size and formation of bonds between CO2 oxygens and H from mica hydroxyls. Analysis of simple, well-characterized fluid-substrate systems can provide details on the thermodynamic, structural and dynamic properties of CO2 at conditions relevant to sequestration.

  8. Phased Array Ultrasonic Sound Field Mapping in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-05-31

    This study maps the phased array-generated acoustic sound fields through three types of CASS microstructure in four specimens to quantitatively assess the beam formation effectiveness in these materials.

  9. NO[sub x] formation in unsteady combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, T.S.; Richards, G.A. (USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)); Narayanaswami, L.L. (Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    It has been found that fuel-lean operating conditions produce the best results for the current aerovalve pulse combustor. Under these conditions, the levels of unburned hydrocarbon pollutants in the exhaust stream are negligibly low. Initial results on CO indicate that the gas chromatograph method (thermal conductivity detector) is not sensitive enough to measure concentrations below 500 ppM. The modeling work involves the modification of an existing Thermal Pulse Combustor code to include some detailed chemistry. Two methods are used. In the first method, a kinetic mechanism for the formation of thermal NO is superimposed onto the oscillating field of temperature and pressure predicted by the existing pulse combustor model. The concentrations of oxygen atoms and N[sub 2], which control the NO formation step, are estimated from an equilibrium calculation at each temperature and pressure condition. Then the NO formation rate is determined from the rate of the reaction N[sub 2] + 0 --> NO + N. In the second method, more detailed chemistry is incorporated into the base model and the chemical heat release equations are used to drive the pulsations instead of vice versa. The 0-atom concentration is determined from a complex series of chain reactions, rather than by equilibrium.

  10. NO{sub x} formation in unsteady combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norton, T.S.; Richards, G.A. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Narayanaswami, L.L. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States)

    1992-12-01

    It has been found that fuel-lean operating conditions produce the best results for the current aerovalve pulse combustor. Under these conditions, the levels of unburned hydrocarbon pollutants in the exhaust stream are negligibly low. Initial results on CO indicate that the gas chromatograph method (thermal conductivity detector) is not sensitive enough to measure concentrations below 500 ppM. The modeling work involves the modification of an existing Thermal Pulse Combustor code to include some detailed chemistry. Two methods are used. In the first method, a kinetic mechanism for the formation of thermal NO is superimposed onto the oscillating field of temperature and pressure predicted by the existing pulse combustor model. The concentrations of oxygen atoms and N{sub 2}, which control the NO formation step, are estimated from an equilibrium calculation at each temperature and pressure condition. Then the NO formation rate is determined from the rate of the reaction N{sub 2} + 0 --> NO + N. In the second method, more detailed chemistry is incorporated into the base model and the chemical heat release equations are used to drive the pulsations instead of vice versa. The 0-atom concentration is determined from a complex series of chain reactions, rather than by equilibrium.

  11. Solvent-quality dependent contact formation dynamics in proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Prasanta

    2015-01-01

    The mean time of contact formation between two ends of a protein chain shows power law dependence with respect to the number of residues, $\\tau_{CF} \\sim N^{\\alpha}$. Fluorescence quenching measurements based on triplet-triplet energy transfer show variation in the value of scaling exponent $\\alpha$ for different protein-solvent systems. Here, starting from a non-Markovian diffusion equation supplemented with an exponential sink term that accounts for the energy transfer reaction between donor and acceptor groups, we calculate the mean time of contact formation using the Wilemski-Fixman closure approximation. The non-Markovian diffusion-reaction equation includes the effects of solvent quality and hydrodynamic interaction in a mean-field fashion. It shows that the contact formation dynamics is mainly governed by two time scales, the reciprocal of the intrinsic rate of quenching $(k_0^{ET})^{-1}$, and the relaxation time $\\tau_0 = \\eta b^3/k_B T$ of the coarse-grained residue of an effective size $b$ with solv...

  12. Coulomb effects on the formation of proton halo nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Jie Liang; Yan-Song Li; Fu-Guo Deng; Xi-Han Li; Bao-An Bian; Feng-Shou Zhang; Zu-Hua Liu; Hong-Yu Zhou

    2007-08-01

    The exotic structures in the 2s_{1/2} states of five pairs of mirror nuclei ^{17}O-^{17}F, ^{26}Na-^{26}P, ^{27}Mg-^{27}P, ^{28}Al-^{28}P and ^{29}Si-^{29}P are investigated with the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory and the single-particle model (SPM) to explore the role of the Coulomb effects on the proton halo formation. The present RMF calculations show that the exotic structure of the valence proton is more obvious than that of the valence neutron of its mirror nucleus, the difference of exotic size between each mirror nuclei becomes smaller with the increase of mass number A of the mirror nuclei and the ratios of the valence proton and valence neutron root-mean-square (RMS) radius to the matter radius in each pair of mirror nuclei all decrease linearly with the increase of A. In order to interpret these results, we analyze two opposite effects of Coulomb interaction on the exotic structure formation with SPM and find that the contribution of the energy level shift is more important than that of the Coulomb barrier for light nuclei. However, the hindrance of the Coulomb barrier becomes more obvious with the increase of A. When A is larger than 34, Coulomb effects on the exotic structure formation will almost become zero because its two effects counteract with each other.

  13. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Compact Toroid Formation using an Annular Helicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA. 30332 Formation and ejection of compact plasma toroids for high development. In particular, use of field-reversed configuration plasma with an annular helicon pre or grids that limit lifetime and reliability. Results from modeling the pulsed power system, the FRC

  14. Melt-Freeze Crust Formation and Evolution in the Columbia Ryan Buhler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamieson, Bruce

    the metrological conditions during crust formation and the resulting crust properties. In addition, field-12. Measured properties include density, shear strength, and thin-blade resistance. A thermal imager was used, Backcountry Lodges of British Columbia Association, Canadian Ski Guide Association, and Teck Coal. Finally, I

  15. Investigation of Tidal Exchange and the Formation of Tidal Vortices at Aransas Pass, Texas, USA 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whilden, Kerri Ann

    2015-08-11

    Laboratory and field measurements are presented as part of a study of tidal exchange through Aransas Pass, Texas. At the mouth of Aransas Pass, the input of circulation by the ebb tide forces the formation of a starting-jet dipole vortex...

  16. Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    Non-Equilibrium and Current Sheet Formation in Line-Tied Magnetic Fields: Heating of the Solar · A theorem on Parker's model [Ng & Bhattacharjee, 1998] · Future directions Solar corona: heating problem Parker's Model (1972) · Reconnection without magnetic nulls · Conclusion #12;http://science.nasa.gov/ssl/PAD/solar

  17. PANCHROMATIC ESTIMATION OF STAR FORMATION RATES IN BzK GALAXIES AT 1 < z < 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurczynski, Peter

    We determine star formation rates (SFRs) in a sample of color-selected, star-forming (sBzK) galaxies (K [subscript AB] < 21.8) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. To identify and avoid active galactic nuclei, we use ...

  18. Image formation in a multilayer using the Extended Nijboer-Zernike theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction Numerical methods based on rigorous calculation of the electric field around the focal region of a focusing lens system are a powerful tool to understand and interpret image formation and information lithography [9­11], optical recording [12­15], and confocal microscopy [16]. As an alternative to numerical

  19. Convective Cell Formation in a Z-Pinch Plasma Science and Fusion Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Convective Cell Formation in a Z-Pinch J. Kesner Plasma Science and Fusion Center Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139 PSFC Report PSFC/JA-02-27 Abstract Closed field line confinement given by Eq. (1). These equations were then applied to a hard core z pinch which can be considered

  20. Strong Field, Noncommutative QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton Ilderton; Joakim Lundin; Mattias Marklund

    2010-05-26

    We review the effects of strong background fields in noncommutative QED. Beginning with the noncommutative Maxwell and Dirac equations, we describe how combined noncommutative and strong field effects modify the propagation of fermions and photons. We extend these studies beyond the case of constant backgrounds by giving a new and revealing interpretation of the photon dispersion relation. Considering scattering in background fields, we then show that the noncommutative photon is primarily responsible for generating deviations from strong field QED results. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing gauge invariant variables in noncommutative QED, and use it to analyse the physics of our null background fields.