National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for formation producing wells

  1. Number of Producing Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Producing Gas Wells Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 493,100 487,627 514,637 482,822 484,994 514,786 1989-2014 Alabama 6,913 7,026 7,063 6,327 6,165 6,118 1989-2014 Alaska 261 269 277 185 159 170 1989-2014 Arizona 6 5 5 5 5 5 1989-2014 Arkansas 6,314 7,397 8,388 8,538 9,843 10,150 1989-2014 California 1,643 1,580 1,308 1,423 1,335 1,118 1989-2014

  2. SW New Mexico Oil Well Formation Tops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    Rock formation top picks from oil wells from southwestern New Mexico from scout cards and other sources. There are differing formation tops interpretations for some wells, so for those wells duplicate formation top data are presented in this file.

  3. Adaptive control system for gas producing wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedor, Pashchenko; Sergey, Gulyaev; Alexander, Pashchenko

    2015-03-10

    Optimal adaptive automatic control system for gas producing wells cluster is proposed intended for solving the problem of stabilization of the output gas pressure in the cluster at conditions of changing gas flow rate and changing parameters of the wells themselves, providing the maximum high resource of hardware elements of automation.

  4. Produce through coiled tubing to keep marginal wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The use of coiled tubing as an alternate production tubing string has been attempted or considered by numerous operators in the past. However, its use has been tempered due to several problems known to be inherent with coiled tubing recompletions. Some of the problems encountered are: Killing the well to allow for tubing installation always carries the risk of formation damage; Candidate wells normally are marginal producers and may not produce sufficient revenue to justify the cost of a major workover; Procedures followed to install surface equipment may be hazardous; Previous installation designs required running the coiled tubing to the top of the tree, affecting the functional loss of all existing wellhead equipment; Often substandard modifications were required to reconnect into existing production facilities. However, a prototype spool and tubing hanger that incorporated modifications designed to solve these problems has been developed jointly by Reeled Tubing, Inc., and Well-head Control Systems. The solution is a new concept in the coiled tubing hanger. The design incorporates a floating element, which is a combination slip bowl, seal element and retaining sub. The entire assembly is installed and activated in the bore of a specially designed spool installed between the primary and secondary master valves of the existing wellhead.

  5. Controlling formation fines at their sources to maintain well productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Rickman, R.D.; Dusterhoft, R.G.; Parker, M.A.

    2007-05-15

    Migration of formation fines has been shown to cause production decline in many wells. Despite the availability of new downhole tools for use in well stimulation and completion, the ability to sustain desired production levels is often plagued with fines migration problems. The solution to this problem is appropriate treatment to mitigate fines migration at its source. This paper describes the use of an ultra-thin tackifying agent (UTTA) for stabilizing fines in high-rate producing or injection wells. This UTTA is applied as part of an initial prepad in fracturing or gravel-packing operations, as a remedial treatment, or as a post-treatment following acid fracturing or matrix acidizing treatments. The primary purpose of UTTA application is to immobilize formation fines so that they will not detach, migrate with flowing fluids, plug the pore channels, and reduce the flow path permeability. Results of laboratory testing indicate that the UTTA system is applicable to most types of formation fines, including coals, sandstones, and carbonates. Once injected into the formation matrix or proppant pack, the UTTA forms a thin film on formation surfaces, encapsulating the fines. Capillary action helps pull the tackifier into the contact points, fixing the particulate in place without plugging the pore throat. The UTTA does not require a shut-in time after its application. The thin film tackifier does not harden, but remains flexible, enhancing the ability of a formation to withstand stress cycling and allowing the formation to handle high shear stress during high flow rates.

  6. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  7. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  8. Optimum position for wells producing at constant wellbore pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.; Rodriguez de la Garza, F.; Galindo-Nava, A.; Prats, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with the determination of the optimum position of several wells, producing at constant different wellbore pressures from a two-dimensional closed-boundary reservoirs, to maximize the cumulative production or the total flow rate. To achieve this objective they authors use an improved version of the analytical solution recently proposed by Rodriguez and Cinco-Ley and an optimization algorithm based on a quasi-Newton procedure with line search. At each iteration the algorithm approximates the negative of the objective function by a cuadratic relation derived from a Taylor series. The improvement of rodriguez and Cinco`s solution is attained in four ways. First, an approximation is obtained, which works better at earlier times (before the boundary dominated period starts) than the previous solution. Second, the infinite sums that are present in the solution are expressed in a condensed form, which is relevant for reducing the computer time when the optimization algorithm is used. Third, the solution is modified to take into account the possibility of having wells starting to produce at different times. This point allows them to deal with the problem of getting the optimum position for an infill drilling program. Last, the solution is extended to include the possibility of changing the value of wellbore pressure or being able to stimulate any of the wells at any time. When the wells are producing at different wellbore pressures it is found that the optimum position is a function of time, otherwise the optimum position is fixed.

  9. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Method for determining formation quality factor ...

  10. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard

    2011-01-11

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  11. Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, David K.; Mondragon, III, Julius J.; Hara, Philip Scott

    2003-04-29

    A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

  12. Mechanisms of formation damage in matrix-permeability geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergosh, J.L.; Wiggins, R.B.; Enniss, D.O.

    1982-04-01

    Tests were conducted to determine mechanisms of formation damage that can occur in matrix permeability geothermal wells. Two types of cores were used in the testing, actual cores from the East Mesa Well 78-30RD and cores from a fairly uniform generic sandstone formation. Three different types of tests were run. The East Mesa cores were used in the testing of the sensitivity of core to filtrate chemistry. The tests began with the cores exposed to simulated East Mesa brine and then different filtrates were introduced and the effects of the fluid contrast on core permeability were measured. The East Mesa cores were also used in the second series of tests which tested formation sandstone cores were used in the third test series which investigated the effects of different sizes of entrained particles in the fluid. Tests were run with both single-particle sizes and distributions of particle mixes. In addition to the testing, core preparation techniques for simulating fracture permeability were evaluated. Three different fracture formation mechanisms were identified and compared. Measurement techniques for measuring fracture size and permeability were also developed.

  13. Photogeneration of active formate decomposition catalysts to produce hydrogen from formate and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Jr., Allen D.; King, Robert B.; Sailers, III, Earl L.

    1983-02-08

    A process for producing hydrogen from formate and water by photogenerating an active formate decomposition catalyst from transition metal carbonyl precursor catalysts at relatively low temperatures and otherwise mild conditions is disclosed. Additionally, this process may be expanded to include the generation of formate from carbon monoxide and hydroxide such that the result is the water gas shift reaction.

  14. Well treatment method using sodium silicate to seal formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashford, J.D.; Eastlack, J.K.; Herring, G.D.; Wilson, W.N.

    1987-05-05

    A method is described for sealing selected perforations in the casing of a well to prevent flow through the perforations. The method comprises: isolating the interval of the casing which lies adjacent the selected perforations to be sealed; squeezing a sodium silicate mixture having a major portion of sodium silicate and a minor portion of a diverter material through the selected perforations and into the formation behind the perforations, the diverter material being a material capable of building a filter cake in the formation as the sodium silicate mixture flows to prevent further flow of sodium silicate mixture through the selected perforations once the filter cake is formed; and removing the excess sodium silicate mixture remaining in the casing.

  15. Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Humeros geothermal field, Mexico, using the Horner and the spherical radial flow (SRF) methods. The results showed that the Horner method underestimates formation temperatures,...

  16. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  17. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  18. Production optimization of sucker rod pumping wells producing viscous oil in Boscan field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guirados, C.; Sandoval, J.; Rivas, O.; Troconis, H.

    1995-12-31

    Boscan field is located in the western coast of Maracaibo lake and is operated by Maraven S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. It has 315 active wells, 252 of which are produced with sucker rod pumping. Other artificial lift methods currently applied in this field are hydraulic (piston) pumping (39 wells) and ESP (24 wells). This paper presents the results of the production optimization of two sucker rod pumping wells of Boscan field producing viscous oil. This optimization has been possible due to the development of a new production scheme and the application of system analysis in completion design. The new production scheme involves the utilization of a subsurface stuffing box assembly and a slotted housing, both designed and patented by Intevep S.A., affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. The completion design method and software used in the optimization study were also developed by Intevep S.A. The new production scheme and design method proved to be effective in preventing the causes of the above mentioned problems, allowing the increase of oil production under better operating conditions.

  19. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-23

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  20. Stopping a water crossflow in a sour-gas producing well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hello, Y. Le; Woodruff, J.

    1998-09-01

    Lacq is a sour-gas field in southwest France. After maximum production of 774 MMcf/D in the 1970`s, production is now 290 MMcf/D, with a reservoir pressure of 712 psi. Despite the loss of pressure, production is maintained by adapting the surface equipment and well architecture to reservoir conditions. The original 5-in. production tubing is being replaced with 7-in. tubing to sustain production rates. During openhole cleaning, the casing collapsed in Well LA141. The primary objective was to plug all possible hydraulic communication paths into the lower zones. The following options were available: (1) re-entering the well from the top and pulling the fish before setting cement plugs; (2) sidetracking the well; and (3) drilling a relief well to intercept Well LA141 above the reservoirs. The decision was made to start with the first option and switch to a sidetrack if this option failed.

  1. Increasing Gas Hydrate Formation Temperature for Desalination of High Salinity Produced Water with Secondary Guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho; Seol, Yongkoo

    2013-10-07

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from -2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  2. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III

    1997-05-27

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie`s Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. 7 figs.

  3. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1997-01-01

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation.

  4. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1993-01-01

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  5. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1993-02-16

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  6. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  7. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning

    2000-01-01

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. Resistivity measurements are obtained from within the cased well by conducting A.C. current from within the cased well to a remote electrode at a frequency that is within the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz.

  8. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  9. Recognition of hydrocarbon expulsion using well logs: Bakken Formation, Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, R.; Zelt, F.B.; Morgan, S.R.; Passey, Q.R. ); Snavely, P.D. III; Webster, R.L. )

    1990-05-01

    The Upper Mississippian-Lower Devonian Bakken Formation forms a source/carrier/reservoir system in the Williston basin. Hydrocarbon expulsion within the Bakken has been identified by overlaying sonic and resistivity logs. Typically, these curves track in organically lean, water-saturated mudrocks because both respond mainly to porosity; however, in thermally mature organic-rich rocks and hydrocarbon reservoirs or carrier beds, the curves separate due to the anomalously high resistivity associated with replacement of pore water by hydrocarbons. Sonic/resistivity-log overlays for wells throughout the Montana and North Dakota parts of the Williston basin reveal significant increases and maximum in-curve separation within the middle siltstone member of the Bakken at subsurface temperatures of about 170 and 200{degree}F, respectively. Sequence-stratigraphic characteristics of the Bakken define the framework within which the expulsion process operates. The organic-rich upper and lower shale members represent the transgressive and early highstand systems tracts of two adjacent depositional sequences. A sequence boundary within the intervening middle siltstone member separates nearshore siltstone and sandstone of the late highstand systems tract in the lower sequence from cross-bedded subtidal to intertidal sandstones of the lowstand systems tract in the upper sequence. Reservoir properties vary across this sequence boundary. The authors attribute the log separation in the siltstone member to hydrocarbons expelled from the adjacent shales. Abrupt shifts in several geochemical properties of the shale members, indicative of hydrocarbon generation occur over the same subsurface temperature range as the rapid increase in log separation in the middle siltstone, thus indicating the contemporaneity of generation and expulsion.

  10. Inhibitive formation of nanocavities by introduction of Si atoms in Ge nanocrystals produced by ion implantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, R. S.; Shang, L.; Liu, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, Y. Q. E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca; Ross, G. G.; Barba, D. E-mail: barba@emt.inrs.ca

    2014-05-28

    Germanium nanocrystals (Ge-nc) were successfully synthesized by co-implantation of Si and Ge ions into a SiO{sub 2} film thermally grown on (100) Si substrate and fused silica (pure SiO{sub 2}), respectively, followed by subsequent annealing at 1150 °C for 1 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examinations show that nanocavities only exist in the fused silica sample but not in the SiO{sub 2} film on a Si substrate. From the analysis of the high-resolution TEM images and electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra, it is revealed that the absence of nanocavities in the SiO{sub 2} film/Si substrate is attributed to the presence of Si atoms inside the formed Ge-nc. Because the energy of Si-Ge bonds (301 kJ·mol{sup −1}) are greater than that of Ge-Ge bonds (264 kJ·mol{sup −1}), the introduction of the Si-Ge bonds inside the Ge-nc can inhibit the diffusion of Ge from the Ge-nc during the annealing process. However, for the fused silica sample, no crystalline Si-Ge bonds are detected within the Ge-nc, where strong Ge outdiffusion effects produce a great number of nanocavities. Our results can shed light on the formation mechanism of nanocavities and provide a good way to avoid nanocavities during the process of ion implantation.

  11. Technical Demonstration and Economic Validation of Geothermal-Produced Electricity from Coproduced Water at Existing Oil/Gas Wells in Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Technical Demonstration and Economic Validation of Geothermal-Produced Electricity from Coproduced Water at Existing Oil/Gas Wells in Texas.

  12. Methods of operation of apparatus measuring formation resistivity from within a cased well having one measurement and two compensation steps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Methods of operation of an apparatus having at least two pairs of voltage measurement electrodes vertically disposed in a cased well to measure the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. During stationary measurements with the apparatus at a fixed vertical depth within the cased well, the invention herein discloses methods of operation which include a measurement step and subsequent first and second compensation steps respectively resulting in improved accuracy of measurement. First and second order errors of measurement are identified, and the measurement step and two compensation steps provide methods to substantially eliminate their influence on the results. A multiple frequency apparatus adapted to movement within the well is described which simultaneously provide the measurement and two compensation steps.

  13. The dependence of potential well formation on the magnetic field strength and electron injection current in a polywell device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cornish, S. Gummersall, D.; Carr, M.; Khachan, J.

    2014-09-15

    A capacitive probe has been used to measure the plasma potential in a polywell device in order to observe the dependence of potential well formation on magnetic field strength, electron injection current, and polywell voltage bias. The effectiveness of the capacitive probe in a high energy electron plasma was determined by measuring the plasma potential of a planar diode with an axial magnetic field. The capacitive probe was translated along the axis of one of the field coils of the polywell, and the spatial profile of the potential well was measured. The confinement time of electrons in the polywell was estimated with a simple analytical model which used the experimentally observed potential well depths, as well as a simulation of the electron trajectories using particle orbit theory.

  14. Well-to-wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Hydrogen Produced with Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael Q.; Vyas, Anant D.; Wade, David C.; Taiwo, Temitope A.

    2004-07-01

    A fuel-cycle model-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate well-to-wheels (WTW) energy and emission impacts of motor vehicle technologies fueled with various transportation fuels. The GREET model contains various hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production pathways for fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs) applications. In this effort, the GREET model was expanded to include four nuclear H{sub 2} production pathways: (1) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using Light Water Reactor (LWR)-generated electricity; (2) H{sub 2} production in central plants via thermo-chemical water cracking using steam from High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR); (3) H{sub 2} production in central plants via high-temperature electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity and steam; and (4) H{sub 2} production at refueling stations via electrolysis using HTGR-generated electricity The WTW analysis of these four options include these stages: uranium ore mining and milling; uranium ore transportation; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; uranium fuel fabrication; uranium fuel transportation; electricity or H{sub 2} production in nuclear power plants; H{sub 2} transportation; H{sub 2} compression; and H{sub 2} FCVs operation. Due to large differences in electricity requirements for uranium fuel enrichment between gas diffusion and centrifuge technologies, two scenarios were designed for uranium enrichment: (1) 55% of fuel enriched through gaseous diffusion technology and 45% through centrifuge technology (the current technology split for U.S. civilian nuclear power plants); and (2) 100% fuel enrichment using the centrifuge technology (a future trend). Our well-to-pump (WTP) results show that significant reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are achieved by nuclear-based H{sub 2} compared to natural gas-based H{sub 2} production via steam

  15. Statistical model for source rock maturity and organic richness using well-log data, Bakken Formation, Williston basin, United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krystinik, K.B.; Charpentier, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the Bakken Formation, the proposed source rock for much of the hydrocarbons generated in the Williston basin, was done using bulk density, neutron porosity, and resistivity logs, and formation temperatures. Principal components, cluster, and discriminant analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of organic matter controls much of the variability in the log values. Present-day total organic carbon values are high in the central part of the basin near northeastern Montana and along the east edge of the basin, and low in the area of the Nesson anticline and along the southwest edge of the basin. Using a regression of density on temperature and the analysis of residuals from this regression, hydrocarbon maturity effects were partially separated from depositional effects. These analyses suggest that original concentrations of organic matter were low near the limits of the Bakken and increased to a high in northeastern Montana. The pre-maturation distribution of total organic carbon and the present-day total organic carbon distribution, as determined by statistical analyses of well-log data, agree with the results of geochemical analyses. The distributions can be explained by a relatively simple depositional pattern and thermal history for the Bakken. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing with an apparatus having all current conducting electrodes within the cased well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning

    2001-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information useful to determine the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from within the cased well are described. The multiple electrode apparatus has a plurality of spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage a portion of the interior of the cased well. During measurements of information useful to determine formation resistivity, current is conducted between a first current conducting electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the cased well to a second current conducting electrode that is also in electrical contact with the interior of the cased well. The first and second current conducting electrodes are separated by a distance sufficient so that at least a portion of the current conducted between the first and second current conducting electrodes is conducted through the geological formation of interest.

  17. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walls, Joel; Taner, M. Turhan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2006-08-08

    A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of compressional velocity and shear velocity, and determining reservoir parameters of subsurface Earth formations, at least including density, from data obtained from a wellbore penetrating the formations. A quality factor for the subsurface formations is calculated from the velocity, the density and the water saturation. A synthetic seismogram is calculated from the calculated quality factor and from the velocity and density. The synthetic seismogram is compared to a seismic survey made in the vicinity of the wellbore. At least one parameter is adjusted. The synthetic seismogram is recalculated using the adjusted parameter, and the adjusting, recalculating and comparing are repeated until a difference between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic survey falls below a selected threshold.

  18. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  19. Complex facies relationships and regional stratigraphy of the Mississippian Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases Formations, Illinois basin: A major hydrocarbon-producing interval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, R.D.; Nelson, W.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The Mississippian Ste. Genevieve and Paoli Limestones and sandstones of the Aux Vases Formation are lateral facies of one another. This interpretation is based on comprehensive investigations of outcrops, and selected cores, samples of well cuttings, and geophysical logs conducted over a period of four years. Both units exhibit similar sedimentological characteristics and represent open marine, shallow subtidal, and intertidal environments. The presence of low-angle cross-laminae, ripple- and plane-laminae, climbing ripples, and ooid shoals suggest most deposition occurred under low energy conditions. Lenticular, channel-like scour and fill structures that contain both fine-grained quartz sand and abraded, disarticulated fossil fragments indicate localized higher energy deposition. The authors studies indicate that siliciclastic vs. carbonate deposition was controlled strictly by available sediment, and not by regressive (siliciclastic) and transgressive (carbonate) events, as inferred by previous workers. This conclusion is based on lateral facies relationships, and the supplanting of carbonates by clastics occurring in the upper part of the Ste. Genevieve through the middle part of the Paoli. The Aux Vases is thickest, coarsest, and least mature in the northwestern part of the Illinois Basin, and pinches out to the southeast. This implies a northwesterly source for clastics, perhaps the Transcontinental Arch. After early Chesterian time, the Transcontinental Arch apparently supplied little or no sediment to any flanking basin. The Ste. Genevieve, Paoli, and Aux Vases are major oil-producing units in the Illinois Basin. New understanding of regional relationships should enhance exploratory success and improve recovery from established fields.

  20. Geothermal well stimulation program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The stimulation of geothermal production wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 275 to 550/sup 0/F range can be expected and the behavior of fracturing fluids and fracture proppants at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated in laboratory tests. To avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, the high-temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the fracturing fluids, fluid loss additives, and proppants must be verified. In geothermal wells, the necessary stimulation techniques are required to be capable of initiating and maintaining the flow of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional oil field stimulation. The objective of well stimulation is to initiate and maintain additional fluid production from existing wells at a lower cost than either drilling new replacement wells or multiply redrilling existing wells. The economics of well stimulation will be vastly enhanced when proven stimulation techniques can be implemented as part of the well completion (while the drilling rig is still over the hole) on all new wells exhibiting some form of flow impairment. Results from 7 stimulation tests are presented and planned tests are described.

  1. Apparatus including an equipotential housing and plurality of focused current electrodes for electrically logging a well formation at more than one lateral distance from a borehole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Womack, T.D.

    1987-04-21

    A well logging apparatus is described for obtaining information for measuring electrical properties of a formation intersected by a well bore, comprising: cable means for moving a housing through the well bore; an elongated housing having a continuous substantially equal potential along its length, the housing including: a first electrically conductive cylindrical member having a first threaded end portion; a first electrically conductive hub member having a second threaded end portion connected to the first threaded end portion. A second electrically conductive cylindrical member having a fourth threaded end portion connected to the third threaded end portion. A second electrically conductive hub member having a sixth threaded end portion connected to the fifth threaded end portion. A third electrically conductive cylindrical member having an eighth threaded end portion adapted to be connected to the seventh threaded end portion.

  2. The structure of C2b, a fragment of complement component C2 produced during C3 convertase formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Macon, Kevin; Volanakis, John E.; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2009-03-01

    The crystal structure of C2b has been determined at 1.8 Å resolution, which reveals the arrangement of its three complement control protein (CCP) modules. A model for complement component C2 is presented and its conformational changes during the C3-convertase formation are also discussed. The second component of complement (C2) is a multi-domain serine protease that provides catalytic activity for the C3 and C5 convertases of the classical and lectin pathways of human complement. The formation of these convertases requires the Mg{sup 2+}-dependent binding of C2 to C4b and the subsequent cleavage of C2 by C1s or MASP2, respectively. The crystal structure of full-length C2 is not yet available, although the structure of its C-terminal catalytic segment C2a has been determined. The crystal structure of the N-terminal segment C2b of C2 determined to 1.8 Å resolution presented here reveals the arrangement of its three CCP domains. The domains are arranged differently compared with most other CCP-domain assemblies, but their arrangement is similar to that found in the Ba part of the full-length factor B structure. The crystal structures of C2a, C2b and full-length factor B are used to generate a model for C2 and a discussion of the domain association and possible interactions with C4b during formation of the C4b–C2 complex is presented. The results of this study also suggest that upon cleavage by C1s, C2a domains undergo conformational rotation while bound to C4b and the released C2b domains may remain folded together similar to as observed in the intact protein.

  3. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  4. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  5. Detection of miniband formation in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP quantum well solar cells by using a piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihara, Taketo; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kojima, Michiya; Ikari, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2014-07-28

    To investigate the effect of the miniband formation on the optical absorption spectrum, we adopted two non-destructive methodologies of piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) and photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopies for strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum-well (MQW) and superlattice (SL) structures inserted GaAs p-i-n solar cells. Because the barrier widths of the SL sample were very thin, miniband formations caused by coupling the wave functions between adjacent wells were expected. From PR measurements, a critical energy corresponding to the inter-subband transition between first-order electron and hole subbands was estimated for MQW sample, whereas two critical energies corresponding to the mini-Brillouin-zone center (Γ) and edge (π) were obtained for SL sample. The miniband width was calculated to be 19 meV on the basis of the energy difference between Γ and π. This coincided with the value of 16 meV calculated using the simple Kronig–Penney potential models. The obtained PPT spectrum for the SL sample was decomposed into the excitonic absorption and inter-miniband transition components. The latter component was expressed using the arcsine-like signal rise corresponding to the Γ point in the mini-Brillouin zone that was enhanced by the Sommerfeld factor. The usefulness of the PPT methodology for investigating the inserted MQW and/or SL structure inserted solar cells is clearly demonstrated.

  6. Final report on Technical Demonstration and Economic Validation of Geothermally-Produced Electricity from Coproduced Water at Existing Oil/Gas Wells in Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luchini, Chris B.

    2015-06-01

    The initial geothermal brine flow rate and temperature from the re-worked well were insufficient, after 2.5 days of flow testing, to justify advancing past Phase I of this project. The flow test was terminated less than 4 hours from the Phase I deadline for activity, and as such, additional flow tests of 2+ months may be undertaken in the future, without government support.

  7. Quantum dot immunoassays in renewable surface column and 96-well plate formats for the fluorescence detection of Botulinum neurotoxin using high-affinity antibodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Marvin G.; Grate, Jay W.; Tyler, Abby J.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Miller, Keith D.; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2009-09-01

    A fluorescence sandwich immunoassay using high affinity antibodies and quantum dot (QD) reporters has been developed for detection of botulinum toxin serotype A (BoNT/A). For the development of the assay, a nontoxic recombinant fragment of the holotoxin (BoNT/A-HC-fragment) has been used as a structurally valid simulant for the full toxin molecule. The antibodies used, AR4 and RAZ1, bind to nonoverlapping epitopes present on both the full toxin and on the recombinant fragment. In one format, the immunoassay is carried out in a 96-well plate with detection in a standard plate reader. Detection down to 31 pM of the BoNT/Hc-fragment was demonstrated with a total incubation time of 3 hours, using AR4 as the capture antibody and QD-coupled RAZ1 as the reporter. In a second format, the AR4 capture antibody was coupled to Sepharose beads, and the immunochemical reactions were carried out in microcentrifuge tubes with an incubation time of 1 hour. These beads were subsequently captured and concentrated in a rotating rod renewable surface flow cell as part of a sequential injection fluidic system. This flow cell was equipped with a fiber optic system for fluorescence measurements. In PBS buffer solution matrix, the BoNT/A-HC-fragment was detected to concentrations as low as 5 pM using the fluidic measurement approach.

  8. Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Count) Data Series: Wellhead Price Imports Price Price of Imports by Pipeline Price of LNG Imports Exports Price Price of Exports by Pipeline Price of LNG Exports Pipeline and Distribution Use Price Citygate Price Residential Price Commercial Price Industrial Price Vehicle Fuel Price Electric Power Price Proved Reserves as of 12/31 Reserves Adjustments Reserves Revision Increases Reserves Revision Decreases Reserves Sales Reserves Acquisitions Reserves Extensions Reserves New Field Discoveries

  9. Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G.

    1984-01-15

    The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

  10. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. ); Joshi, S.D. )

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  11. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation.

  12. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  13. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. ...

  14. Well Placement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well Placement Well Placement LANL maintains an extensive groundwater monitoring and surveillance program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Finished groundwater well head with solar...

  15. Well Log ETL tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  16. Well Placement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well Placement Well Placement LANL maintains an extensive groundwater monitoring and surveillance program through sampling. August 1, 2013 Finished groundwater well head with solar power Finished groundwater well head with solar power How does LANL determine where to put a monitoring well? Project teams routinely review groundwater monitoring data to verify adequate placement of wells and to plan the siting of additional wells as needed. RELATED IMAGES

  17. H. R. 1476: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to clarify the application of the credit for producing fuel from a nonconventional source with respect to gas produced from a tight formation and to make such credit permanent with respect to such gas and gas produced from Devonian shale. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundredth First Congress, First Session, March 16, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The determination of whether gas is produced from geopressured brines, Devonian shales, coal seams, or a tight formation is made from section 503 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Permanent credit is for gas produced from a tight formation or Devonian shale only and applies to gas sold after July 1, 1987. The credit allowed for any taxable year shall not exceed the sum of the regular tax reduced by the sum of other credits allowable under other subsections of the Internal Revenue Code.

  18. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  19. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee; Mo, Weijian; Li, Busheng; Shen, Chonghui

    2011-01-11

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  20. Monitoring well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  1. Monitoring well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A monitoring well including a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto.

  2. Monitoring well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  3. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre; Schoeling, Lanny Gene

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  4. Well pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  5. Well drilling apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvis, Robert L.; Newsom, Melvin M.

    1977-01-01

    Well drilling rates may be increased by impelling projectiles to fracture rock formations and drilling with rock drill bits through the projectile fractured rock.

  6. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  7. System for treating produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Enid J.; Katz, Lynn; Kinney, Kerry; Bowman, Robert S.; Kwon, Soondong

    2010-08-03

    A system and method were used to treat produced water. Field-testing demonstrated the removal of contaminants from produced water from oil and gas wells.

  8. Pulse Wave Well Development Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, S.

    2001-02-23

    Conventional methods of well development at the Savannah River Site generate significant volumes of investigative derived waste (IDW) which must be treated and disposed of at a regulated Treatment, Storage, or Disposal (TSD) facility. Pulse Wave technology is a commercial method of well development utilizing bursts of high pressure gas to create strong pressure waves through the well screen zone, extending out into the formation surrounding the well. The patented process is intended to reduce well development time and the amount of IDW generated as well as to micro-fracture the formation to improve well capacity.

  9. Method to improve well performance in gravel packed wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R.

    1990-12-25

    This patent describes a method for improving the effectiveness of a gravel pack within an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated hydrocarbonaceous fluid containing formation or reservoir. It comprises perforating a wellbore in a manner sufficient to create a hydraulic fracture of a size and length sufficient to produce hydrocarbonaceous fluids from the formations; fracturing hydraulically the formation with a viscous fracturing fluid having a proppant therein sufficient to prop the fracture while also preventing the entry of most formation fines into the wellbore because a filter screen is formed around the fracture face and within the fracture which retards fines movement from the formation; and thereafter gravel packing the wellbore so as to form a smaller screen with gravel therein of a size sufficient to exclude formation fines that have escaped from the propped fracture which gravel is smaller than that used to prop the created fracture thereby minimizing pack plugging and removing substantially all fines from fluids entering the wellbore.

  10. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  11. Microsoft Word - RUL_3Q2010_Rpt_Gas_Samp_Results_18Wells.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Monitoring Results Natural Gas Wells near the Project Rulison Horizon U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Grand Junction, Colorado Date Sampled: 13 July 2010 Purpose: The purpose of this sample collection is to monitor for radionuclides from Project Rulison. The bottom hole locations (BHLs) of the 18 gas wells sampled are within 1.1 miles of the Project Rulison detonation horizon. All wells sampled have produced or are producing gas from the Williams Fork Formation. Background:

  12. Formation testers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a method for use in obtaining multiple pressure tests of an earth formation traversed by a well bore by use of a sidewall fluid sampler well tool which has a fluid pressure sampling chamber in the well tool in open fluid communication with a pad sealing means, comprising the steps of: for one selected level in a well bore, moving a pad sealing means on the well tool into engagement with the wall of a well bore and isolating a wall segment of the earth formation; after the pad sealing means engges the wall segment of the earth formation, generating a hydraulic pressure in the well tool and applying said hydraulic pressure to said fluid pressure sampling chamber for increasing the volume of said fluid pressure sampling chamber thereby to dray a fluid sample from the earth formation engaged by the pad sealing means into the fluid pressure sampling chamber, sensing the pressure of said fluid sample as it is drawn into the fluid pressure sampling chamber while the volume of the sampling chamber is being increased, relieving the hydraulic pressure in the well tool with respect to said fluid pressur sampling chamber for decreasing the volume of said fluid pressure sampling chamber thereby to contact the sampling chamber to dischrge the fluid sample through the pad sealing means; retracting the sealing pad means and, after retrction of sealing pad means from engagement from the wall of the well bore, moving the well tool to a second location at another level in the well bore and, at the second location, repeating the steps of the method performed at the one selected level for obtaining another fluid sample and pressure sensing at said second location.

  13. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  14. H. R. 4670: a bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to increase the depletion allowance for oil and natural gas, and to allow percentage depletion for stripper well production of integrated producers. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, April 23, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    An amendment to the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 increases the depletion allowance for oil and natural gas and allows percentage depletion for stripper well production of integrated producers. The bill was referred to the House Committee on Ways and Means after its introduction.

  15. Microsoft Word - RUL_1Q2011_Gas_Samp_Results_7Wells

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    31 March 2011 Purpose: The purpose of this sample collection is to monitor for radionuclides from Project Rulison. The bottom-hole locations (BHLs) of the seven gas wells sampled are between 0.75 and 0.90 mile from the Project Rulison detonation point. All wells sampled are producing gas from the Williams Fork Formation. Background: Project Rulison was the second test under the Plowshare Program to stimulate natural-gas recovery from tight sandstone formations. On 10 September 1969, a

  16. Treating-pressure analysis in the Bakken formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, D.D. )

    1992-01-01

    The Bakken formation is an oil-producing interval in the Williston basin. Usually, commercial Bakken wells are linked to an anisotropic natural fracture network. Hydraulic fracturing treatments have been used extensively in vertical wells and to a limited extent in horizontal wells. In this paper, bottom hole treating pressure (BHTP's) are analyzed to improve understanding of hydraulic fracture propagation in the Bakken.

  17. Completion practices in deep sour Tuscaloosa wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntoon, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Successful development of the Tuscaloosa trend in Louisiana has required unique completion practices to produce the trend's deep sour formations. Amoco's operations in the Tuscaloosa formation are between 16,000 and 21,000 ft (4877 and 6400 m), and a range of pressure environments, high temperatures, and corrosive elements is encountered. Application of proved completion practices and equipment has resulted in several techniques that enhance the safety, longevity, and production capacity of these wells. The design of deep Tuscaloosa completions is assisted by a series of correlations developed to project bottomhole and surface shut-in tubing pressures, temperature gradients, and flow capacities for deep sour wells. This paper discusses material selection, completion practices, completion fluids, wellhead equipment, packer designs, corrosion-inhibition systems, and safety and monitoring equipment used in the Tuscaloosa trend. The design of a wellhead surface installation used to detect equipment failure, to pump kill fluids, and to circulate corrosion inhibitors is reviewed. A case study illustrates the methods used in completing a Tuscaloosa well with surface pressures exceeding 16,000 psi (110.3 MPa). Deep high-pressure sour-gas wells can be completed safely if all the elements of the environment that will affect the mechanical integrity of the wellbore are considered in the completion designs. The development of higher-strength material capable of withstanding SSC is needed if wells are completed in formations deeper than 22,000 ft (6700 m). Further research is necessary on the use of alloy steels and nonferrous metals for sour service. Effective high-temperature corrosion inhibitors for heavy zinc bromide completion fluids must be developed before these brines can be used in the Tuscaloosa. The testing of new inhibitors for use in highpressure sour-gas completions should be continued.

  18. Formation testers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E.F.

    1981-09-08

    A formation tester apparatus is disclosed for use in a well bore for multiple testing of pressures of earth formation fluids and the taking of a fluid sample. Pad and shoe means are selectively operable for sealingly engaging a well bore. Upon sealing engagement of the pad with the wall of a well bore, a fluid sample is ingested into an expanding chamber while its pressure is sensed. Upon completion of the pressure test, the pad is retracted from the wall of a well bore, and the expanding chamber contracts to expel the fluid sample. The pressure test may be repeated any number of times. The expanding chamber includes a piston operated with fluid pressure used to actuate the pad. A choke delays the application of pressure to the piston until after the pad seals on the wall of the well bore. When a fluid sample is desired, the fluid pressure used to actuate the pad is increased to operate a first valve which connects the pad of a water cushion sampling chamber. After a fluid sample is collected, the fluid pressure is further increased to operate a second valve which closes off the sampling chamber. When the formations are unconsolidated a slidable probe in the pad extends outwardly into the wall and forms a mechanical filter. When the probe retracts the filter is self-cleaning.

  19. 9000 wells planned for heavy oil field. [Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Beginning in 1983, Esso Resources Canada Ltd. will begin drilling the first of an estimated 9000 directional crude bitumen wells in the tar sands at Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada, the final wells being drilled in the year 2008. The area, covering 50 sq miles of extreme E. Alberta along the Saskatchewan border, contains one of the richest deposits of heavy oil sands in Canada. The company and future partners will drill the bitumen wells directionally into the shallow clearwater formation, which can be reached at approx. 100 m (330 ft). The formation contains an estimated 80 billion bbl of crude bitumen at a rate of 60,000 bpd for 25 yr. This volume of crude will be refined in an upgrading plant to 140,000 bpd of synthetic crude oil. When completed, the Cold Lake project will be one of the largest facilities for producing crude bitumen from wells in the world.

  20. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  1. Geothermal reservoir well stimulation program. Final program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Eight field experiments and the associated theoretical and laboratory work performed to develop the stimulation technology are described. A discussion of the pre-stimulation and post-stimulation data and their evaluation is provided for each experiment. Overall results have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formation zones. Seven of the eight stimulation experiments were at least technically successful in stimulating the wells. The two fracture treatments in East Mesa 58-30 more than doubled the producing rate of the previously marginal producer. The two fracture treatments at Raft River and the two at Baca were all successful in obtaining significant production from previously nonproductive intervals. However, these treatments failed to establish commercial production due to deficiencies in either fluid temperature or reservoir transmissivity. The Beowawe chemical stimulation treatment appears to have significantly improved the well's injectivity, but production data were not obtained because of well mechanical problems. The acid etching treatment in the well at the Geysers did not have any material effect on producing rate. Evaluations of the field experiments to date have suggested improvements in treatment design and treatment interval selection which offer substantial encouragement for future stimulation work.

  2. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  3. Well Log Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formation properties versus depth in a borehole. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Well logging, also known as wireline logging, is a method of data collection in the...

  4. The La Pica Formation-new ideas and more questions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linares, Luz M.

    1996-08-01

    The La Pica Formation has been producing from the beginning of the century in the fields of the Santa Barbara-Jusepin trend and Pedernales field. These fields are located in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, one of the most prolific oil basins in Venezuela. The accumulative oil produced until now in Lagoven, S.A., area is 225,556 million barrels. The type of crude produced is ranging from light to heavy. The interval producing in the fields mentioned before measures in between 1000 and 3000 in. The La Pica formation is present in all of the Eastern Venezuela Basin and continues to be an important target for oil producing. In recent years, this formation has been drilled by several wells located in different areas apart from the traditional fields. These wells had provided new information which in some cases clarified some of the questions about the environment of deposition, geochemical composition age, reservoir quality and trap style. However, these wells also have raised new questions and La Pica Formation still has a number of problems. The La Pica Formation was deposited during the Late Miocene-Pliocene time, in continental to outer neritic environments. The sediments range from silts to fine sands with some shaly intervals. The first accumulations were discovered in pinchouts against highs. However, in recent seismic lines, La Pica Formation shows possible different style of traps for hydrocarbon that could contain commercial accumulations.

  5. Step-out Well | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    step-out well should be drilled where there is some evidence of a permeable formation linked with the main reservoir. The well should be drilled in a location to where if it is an...

  6. Geological aspects of drilling horizontal wells in steam flood reservoirs, west side, southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crough, D.D.; Holman, M.L.; Sande, J.J. )

    1994-04-01

    Shell Western E P Inc. has drilled 11 horizontal wells in four mature steam floods in the Coalinga, South Belridge, and Midway-Sunset fields. Two medium radius wells are producing from the Pliocene Etchegoin Formation in Coalinga. One medium radius well is producing from the Pleistocene Tulare Formation in South Belridge field. Three short radius and five medium radius wells are producing from the upper Miocene, Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands in Midway-Sunset field. Horizontal wells at the base of these reservoirs and/or structurally downdip near the oil-water contact are ideally suited to take advantage of the gravity drainage production mechanism. Reservoir studies and production experience have shown these horizontal wells should increase reserves, improve recovery efficiency, improve the oil-steam ratio, and improve project profitability. Geological considerations of targeting the wells vary between fields because of the different depositional environments and resulting reservoir characteristics. The thin sands and semicontinuous shales in the Tulare Formation and the Etchegoin Formation require strict structural control on the top and base of the target sand. In the Sub-Hoyt and Potter sands, irregularities of the oil-water contact and sand and shale discontinuities must be understood. Logging and measurement while drilling provide geosteering capability in medium radius wells. Teamwork between all engineering disciplines and drilling and producing operations has been critical to horizontal well success.

  7. Monitoring Well Placement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Well Placement Monitoring Well Placement Monitoring wells are designed and placed to define groundwater flow and water quality below the surface. August 1, 2013 Topographic map showing placement of monitoring wells Topographic map showing placement of monitoring wells

  8. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Henh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2009-10-20

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  9. Monitoring Well Placement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Monitoring Well Placement Monitoring Well Placement Monitoring wells are designed and placed to define groundwater flow and water quality below the surface. August 1, 2013...

  10. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  11. Well Placement Decision Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well Placement Decision Process Well Placement Decision Process Determining where to place a well is a multi-step process. August 1, 2013 Investigation process for determining where to place a sentinel well Investigation process for determining where

  12. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A.

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  13. REDUCING PRODUCED WATER WITH DENSITY AND CONDUCTIVITY METERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason T. Smith

    2004-08-01

    The work performed was an attempt to reduce the amount of produced water by using the well bore as an oil-water separator. The use of a flow meter, density meter and/or conductivity meter controlling a pumping unit would be used to achieve this goal. The natural physical differences between oil and water are easily detected inside the production stream with proper equipment. A coriolis mass meter, conductivity meter, data recorder, timer and relays were purchased and housed in a purpose-built field cabinet. The metering unit was hooked to four wells over the course of the project, Spencer No.8, Applegate Gray Unit No.1 (AGU No.1), Vollmer No.4 and Mohr No.1. All are located in the Illinois Basin, three with artificial lift pumps and one flowing well. Depth of producing formations ranges from a maximum of 846.13 m (2776 ft) to minimum of 316.69 m (1039 ft). All wells were completed in one formation of Mississippian or Pennsylvanian age. The data recorded were analyzed to determine what events could be detected. Events included pure oil or higher oil-cut fluid reaching the pump or reaching the metering equipment, the pump operating under capacity, and the well ''pumped down''. Based on how much oil and water is present in a fluid column, the pressure the fluid column imparts on a formation can be calculated. By knowing the amount of oil and water in a well bore and the maximum height water can reach, production equipment can be configured to only produce oil. However, the configuration may not be profitable. It became apparent during the course of this research the wells tested do not have an oil-water contact deep enough so traditional pumping equipment can be configured to recover oil by the proposed method. This method may work more successfully in deeper basins. Other interesting anomalies were also detected in the data.

  14. Well completion and servicing fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimsley, R.L.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a well completion servicing fluid for controlling formation pressure during completion or servicing of a well. It comprises: an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, a solid weighing agent suspended in the solution and being selected from the group consisting of zinc, zinc oxide, and mixtures thereof; and a viscosifier dissolved in the solution in an amount effective to suspend the weighing agent. The fluid has a density of greater than 15 pounds per gallon and being substantially free of bromide ions and being substantially free of solid material which is not soluble in hydrochloric acid.

  15. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving

  16. Flow tests of the Gladys McCall well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A. )

    1992-04-01

    This report pulls together the data from all of the geopressured-geothermal field research conducted at the Gladys McCall well. The well produced geopressured brine containing dissolved natural gas from the Lower Miocene sands at a depth of 15,150 to 16,650 feet. More than 25 million barrels of brine and 727 million standard cubic feet of natural gas were produced in a series of flow tests between December 1982 and October 1987 at various brine flow rates up to 28,000 barrels per day. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 9 Sand found the permeability to be 67 to 85 md (millidarcies) for a brine volume of 85 to 170 million barrels. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 8 Sand found a permeability of 113 to 132 md for a reservoir volume of 430 to 550 million barrels of brine. The long-term flow and buildup test of the Number 8 Sand found that the high-permeability reservoir connected to the wellbore (measured by the short-term flow test) was connected to a much larger, low-permeability reservoir. Numerical simulation of the flow and buildup tests required this large connected reservoir to have a volume of about 8 billion barrels (two cubic miles of reservoir rock) with effective permeabilities in the range of 0.2 to 20 md. Calcium carbonate scale formation in the well tubing and separator equipment was a problem. During the first 2 years of production, scale formation was prevented in the surface equipment by injection of an inhibitor upstream of the choke. Starting in 1985, scale formation in the production tubing was successfully prevented by injecting inhibitor pills'' directly into the reservoir. Corrosion and/or erosion of surface piping and equipment, as well as disposal well tubing, was also significant.

  17. New and existing gas wells promise bountiful LPG output in Michigan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Michigan remains the leading LP-gas producer in the Northeast quadrant of the U.S. This paper reports that boosted by a number of new natural gas wells and a couple of new gas processing plants, the state is firmly anchored in the butane/propane production business. Since 1981, more than 100 deep gas wells, most in excess of 8000 feet in depth, have been completed as indicated producers in the state. Many of these are yielding LPG-grade stock. So, combined with LPG-grade production from shallower geologic formations, the supply picture in this area looks promising for the rest of the country.

  18. Microsoft Word - RUL_4Q2010_Rpt_Gas_Samp_Results_8Wells

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    the Project Rulison Horizon U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Grand Junction, Colorado Date Sampled: 21 October 2010 Purpose: The purpose of this sample collection is to monitor for radionuclides from Project Rulison. The bottom hole locations (BHLs) of the 8 gas wells sampled are within 0.75 and 1.0 mile of the Project Rulison detonation horizon. All wells sampled have produced or are producing gas from the Williams Fork Formation. Background: Project Rulison was the second

  19. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  20. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  1. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field

  2. BUFFERED WELL FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    OIL & GAS FIELD OUTLINES FROM BUFFERED WELLS The VBA Code below builds oil & gas field boundary outlines (polygons) from buffered wells (points). Input well points layer must be a feature class (FC) with the following attributes: Field_name Buffer distance (can be unique for each well to represent reservoirs with different drainage radii) ...see figure below. Copy the code into a new module. Inputs: In ArcMap, data frame named "Task 1" Well FC as first layer (layer 0). Output:

  3. Dipole Well Location

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-08-03

    The problem here is to model the three-dimensional response of an electromagnetic logging tool to a practical situation which is often encountered in oil and gas exploration. The DWELL code provide the electromagnetic fields on the axis of a borehole due to either an electric or a magnetic dipole located on the same axis. The borehole is cylindrical, and is located within a stratified formation in which the bedding planes are not horizontal. The anglemore » between the normal to the bedding planes and the axis of the borehole may assume any value, or in other words, the borehole axis may be tilted with respect to the bedding planes. Additionally, all of the formation layers may have invasive zones of drilling mud. The operating frequency of the source dipole(s) extends from a few Hertz to hundreds of Megahertz.« less

  4. Oil well standing valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, R. A.; Brennan, J. R.; Christ, F. C.; Petrie, H. L.

    1985-05-28

    A standing valve which may be retrievably mounted in a well production tubing and will allow the maximum possible fluid flow and also allow the valve to be easily drained and retrieved through the well production tubing. The seal between the standing valve and the bottom hole assembly is located at or below the level of the seat and fluid from the top of the valve into the well is drained through the seat.

  5. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  6. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, Roger J.; Osbourn, Gordon C.

    1987-01-01

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  7. Penrose Well Temperatures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  8. Well cleanup and completion apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E.F.

    1984-03-13

    A well cleanup and completion apparatus and technique. A packer is located downhole in a borehole, and a tool string comprising a one-way vent assembly and a one-way circulating valve assembly is connected above a perforating gun. The tool string is used to run the gun downhole through the packer until the gun arrives at a location adjacent to the formation to be perforated. During this time, the packer assembly must be in a configuration which admits flow from the lower to the upper annulus. Cleaning fluid is circulated down the entire tool string to the one-way circulating valve assembly located immediately above the firing head of the gun, thereby displacing fluid from the lower annulus, and cleaning any debris from the gun firing head. The packer is next closed, the gun detonated, whereupon the formation is perforated and production fluid flows through the perforations, up the lower annulus, into the one-way vent assembly located below the packer, into the tubing, and to the surface of the ground. Accordingly, the apparatus enables the gun and the borehole annulus adjacent the gun to be cleaned, thereby assuring that the well is properly completed in a single trip into the wellbore.

  9. Horizontal underbalanced drilling of gas wells with coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, R.J.; Li, J.; Lupick, G.S.

    1999-03-01

    Coiled tubing drilling technology is gaining popularity and momentum as a significant and reliable method of drilling horizontal underbalanced wells. It is quickly moving into new frontiers. To this point, most efforts in the Western Canadian Basin have been focused towards sweet oil reservoirs in the 900--1300 m true vertical depth (TVD) range, however there is an ever-increasing interest in deeper and gas-producing formations. Significant design challenges on both conventional and coiled tubing drilling operations are imposed when attempting to drill these formations underbalanced. Coiled tubing is an ideal technology for underbalanced drilling due to its absence of drillstring connections resulting in continuous underbalanced capabilities. This also makes it suitable for sour well drilling and live well intervention without the risk of surface releases of reservoir gas. Through the use of pressure deployment procedures it is possible to complete the drilling operation without need to kill the well, thereby maintaining underbalanced conditions right through to the production phase. The use of coiled tubing also provides a means for continuous wireline communication with downhole steering, logging and pressure recording devices.

  10. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  11. Acoustic well cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    1997-01-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  12. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  13. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  14. A hybrid ED/RO process for TDS reduction of produced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S.P.; Datta, R.; Frank, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Large volumes of produced waters are generated from natural gas production. In the United States the prevailing management practice for produced waters is deep well injection, but this practice is costly. Therefore minimizing the need for deep well injection is desirable. A major treatment issue for produced waters is the reduction of total dissolved solids (TDS), which consist mostly of inorganic salts. A hybrid electrodialysis/reverse-osmosis (ED/RO) treatment process is being developed to concentrate the salts in produced waters and thereby reduce the volume of brine that needs to be managed for disposal. The desalted water can be used beneficially or discharged. In this study, laboratory feasibility experiments were conducted by using produced waters from multiple sites. A novel-membrane configuration approach to prevent fouling and scale formation was developed and demonstrated. Results of laboratory experiments and plans for field demonstration are discussed.

  15. Isobaric groundwater well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A method of measuring a parameter in a well, under isobaric conditions, including such parameters as hydraulic gradient, pressure, water level, soil moisture content and/or aquifer properties the method as presented comprising providing a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends, the casing supporting a transducer having a reference port; placing the casing lengthwise into the well, second end first, with the reference port vented above the water table in the well; and sealing the first end. A system is presented for measuring a parameter in a well, the system comprising a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends and being configured to be placed lengthwise into a well second end first; a transducer, the transducer having a reference port, the reference port being vented in the well above the water table, the casing being screened across and above the water table; and a sealing member sealing the first end. In one embodiment, the transducer is a tensiometer transducer and in other described embodiments, another type transducer is used in addition to a tensiometer.

  16. Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River geothermal area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book:...

  17. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  18. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  19. Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Graphene Produces More Efficient Charge Transport Inside an Organic Semiconductor Friday, ... devices, enabling the formation of efficient thin film and flexible devices. ...

  20. Method of well completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brieger, E. F.; Colle Jr., E. A.; George, F. R.

    1985-02-12

    A perforating gun is suspended downhole in a cased borehole, in underlying relationship relative to a packer device, and adjacent to a hydrocarbon-bearing formation to be completed. A connecting tubing interconnects the gun with the packer device, and includes a rupture barrier therebetween which prevents debris from accumulating within a gun firing head. An upper tubing string is removably connected to the packer device and forms a passageway which extends from the surface of the earth, down through the packer, and to the gun firing head. The upper tubing string includes a seal means and an extension tube which sealingly engages the packer device and penetrates the rupture barrier to provide a passageway through which the gun can be fired from the surface of the earth. This combination of elements prevents malfunction of the gun when the tool is left downhole for an appreciable length of time.

  1. Horizontal well planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, F.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Interest in horizontal drilling has exploded at a rate well above even the most optimistic projections. Certainly, this technique will not end with the Bakken and Austin Chalk plays. However, future reservoirs will undoubtedly require much more complicated well designs and multi-disciplined technical interaction than has been used so far. The horizontal drilling costs are too high to permit resolving of all the technical issues by trial and error. A multi-disciplinary team approach will be required in order for horizontal drilling to achieve its economic potential.

  2. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V.; Bak, Chan S.

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  3. Device for temporarily closing duct-formers in well completion apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandmer, H.M.; Zandmer, S.M.

    1981-08-25

    A duct-forming device is disclosed for use in a well completion apparatus of the kind, wherein a bore hole casing is positioned in a bore hole and duct-forming devices of alkali- and acid resistant metal-such as steel-are secured at spaced levels to the casing in alignment with holes machined in the casing wall. In accordance with the invention, a closure device is arranged within the duct-forming device which permits flow of predetermined amounts of liquid, such as acid, from the interior of the casing through the duct-forming device and into the producing formation, while gradually being moved by the liquid into a position in which such fluid flow is prevented. After the fluid flow has been stopped by the closure device and when the formation pressure exceeds the pressure within the duct-forming device and the casing, fluid from the formation then forces the closure device toward and into the casing space to permit thereafter free flow of formation fluid into the duct-forming device and the casing or of pressurized treatment liquid from the casing into the formation. The inventive arrangement permits inter alia the establishment of a sufficient and substantially uniform feeding rate of treatment liquid, such as acid, from the casing into the producing formation through all the duct-formers in preparation for subsequent acidification or other treatments, such as sand fracking.

  4. Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Comprehensive catalogue of drill‐hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross‐sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

  5. Models for geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaelides, E.E.

    1980-06-01

    The problem of two-phase flow pressure loss is examined in order to give an answer to the problem of determination of the wellhead conditions. For this purpose two models have been developed, the first based on the pattern structure of the flow and the second on the mixing length theory. The void fraction correlations and the transition conditions are presented in the first model as a means of estimating the pressure loss. Heat losses, and the effect of impurities are examined in detail. An expression for the critical flow conditions is also derived. The model is used to predict the available power at the wellhead under various conditions and an answer to the problem of well pumping is given. For the second model an outline of the mixing length theory and the boundary layer coordinates is given; a density distribution in the geothermal well is assumed and the equations for the pressure loss are derived by means of the entropy production function. Finally a comparison of the two models is made and their predictive power is tested against known well data. A brief comparison with the Denver Research Institute is also made.

  6. T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Geopressured-geothermal well report, Volume II. Well workover and production testing, February 1982-October 1985. Final report. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well was the fourth in a series of wells in the DOE Design Wells Program that were drilled into deep, large geopressured-geothermal brine aquifers in order to provide basic data with which to determine the technological and economic viability of producing energy from these unconventional resources. This brine production well was spudded on May 27, 1981 and drilling operations were completed on November 2, 1981 after using 160 days of rig time. The well was drilled to a total depth of 16,510 feet. The target sands lie at a depth of 14,412 to 15,860 feet in the Fleming Formation of the lower Miocene. This report covers well production testing operations and necessary well workover operations during the February 1982 to October 1985 period. The primary goals of the well testing program were: (1) to determine reservoir size, shape, volume, drive mechanisms, and other reservoir parameters, (2) to determine and demonstrate the technological and economic viability of producing energy from a geopressured-geothermal brine aquifer through long-term production testing, and (3) to determine problem areas associated with such long-term production, and to develop solutions therefor.

  7. Offshore multiple well drilling and production apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkland, K.G.; Masciopinto, A.J.

    1980-03-11

    A modular multiple well drilling and production template structure is combined with a production riser base module to provide an underwater apparatus which allows a plurality of wells to be drilled, completed and produced by operations carried out from a single vessel or platform without remote installation of flowlines.

  8. Level Diagram Format Choice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Which format should I use? There is no clear-cut answer to this question -- different solutions work better in different situations. In an effort to help you decide which will work best for you, we provide a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the three available formats. GIF: GIF stands for Graphic Interchange Format. It was developed by CompuServe as a device-independent way to store pictures. The files are well-compressed, so download time is relatively short. Most web browsers

  9. Jet pump for oil wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Binks, R. H.; Christ, F. C.

    1985-03-12

    A fluid operated pump system which includes power fluid supply means comprising either the annulus between well casing and production tubing, or a secondary tubing, and a production tubing, set in a well, the production tubing having a housing at the lower end with which the power fluid supply means communicates. A pump unit, including a fluid operated jet pump, is movable downwardly through the production tubing into the housing to a fixed location and maintained at the fixed location by the forces of gravity and friction. The pump is operable in the housing by operating fluid under pressure supplied through the power fluid supply means to pump fluid from the well into the production tubing. A cavity is provided at the lower end of the pump unit between two balanced seals. The cavity communicates with the power fluid supply means and with the fluid operated jet pump. Power fluid introduced into the cavity causes no net force to be exerted on the pump unit. When pumping action takes place, produced fluids are taken from a lower pressure area below the pump unit and boosted to a higher pressure area above the pump unit by the fluid operated jet pump, resulting in a net downward force on the pump unit to cause the pump unit to be restrained against its fixed location without the need of latch means.

  10. Method of producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Zollinger, William T.

    2006-12-26

    A method of producing hydrogen is disclosed and which includes providing a first composition; providing a second composition; reacting the first and second compositions together to produce a chemical hydride; providing a liquid and reacting the chemical hydride with the liquid in a manner to produce a high pressure hydrogen gas and a byproduct which includes the first composition; and reusing the first composition formed as a byproduct in a subsequent chemical reaction to form additional chemical hydride.

  11. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  12. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-03-01

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  13. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01

    observed. The spatial and energy distributions of optically active excitons were used as thermodynamic quantities to construct a phase diagram of the exciton system, demonstrating the existence of distinct phases. Optical and electrical properties of the CQW sample were examined thoroughly to provide deeper understanding of the formation mechanisms of these cold exciton systems. These insights offer new strategies for producing cold exciton systems, which may lead to opportunities for the realization of BEC in solid-state systems.

  14. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Pauline Kraft Well No. 1, Nueces County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Pauline Kraft Well No. 1 was originally drilled to a depth of 13,001 feet and abandoned as a dry hole. The well was re-entered in an effort to obtain a source of GEO/sup 2/ energy for a proposed gasohol manufacturing plant. The well was tested through a 5-inch by 2-3/8 inch annulus. The geological section tested was the Frio-Anderson sand of Mid-Oligocene age. The interval tested was from 12,750 to 12,860 feet. A saltwater disposal well was drilled on the site and completed in a Micocene sand section. The disposal interval was perforated from 4710 to 4770 feet and from 4500 to 4542 feet. The test well failed to produce water at substantial rates. Initial production was 34 BWPD. A large acid stimulation treatment increased productivity to 132 BWPD, which was still far from an acceptable rate. During the acid treatment, a failure of the 5-inch production casing occurred. The poor production rates are attributed to a reservoir with very low permeability and possible formation damage. The casing failure is related to increased tensile strain resulting from cooling of the casing by acid and from the high surface injection pressure. The location of the casing failure is now known at this time, but it is not at the surface. Failure as a result of a defect in a crossover joint at 723 feet is suspected.

  15. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  16. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well ER-EC-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 342.6 meters below ground surface. The borehole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 309.9 meters, 40 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 18 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 349.6 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results from detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of rock samples. The well penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Thirsty Canyon Group, caldera moat-filling sedimentary deposits, lava of the Beatty Wash Formation, and landslide breccia and tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group. The well reached total depth in welded ashflow tuff of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff after penetrating 440.1 meters of this unit, which is also the main water-producing unit in the well. The geologic interpretation of data from this well constrains the western margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera to the west of the well location.

  17. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Methods for producing nanoparticles using palladium salt and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chan, Siu-Wai; Liang, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The disclosed subject matter is directed to a method for producing nanoparticles, as well as the nanoparticles produced by this method. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles produced by the disclosed method have a high defect density.

  19. Basic Data Report for Monitor Well AEC-7 Reconfiguration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-20

    The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (OSE) permitted well AEC-7 as C-2742. This well has been part of the far-field monitoring network since 1974. The well was used to obtain water level elevations and hydraulic parameters from both the Bell Canyon Formation and the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation. This basic data report provides a historical account of the well from the original installation to the current configuration.

  20. Reservoir visualization for geosteering of horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, I.D.; Baygun, B.; Frass, M.; Casco, R.

    1996-08-01

    Horizontal infill wells in the Lower Lagunillas reservoir of Bloque IV, Lake Maracaibo are being drilled in thin, oil-bearing zones that have been bypassed by gas. Steering the horizontal sections of these wells requires high resolution reservoir models that can be updated during drilling. An example from well VLD-1152 serves to illustrate how these models are generated and used. Resistivity images collected by wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools in the pilot well formed the basis of prejob, high resolution modeling of the formation properties. 3-D seismic data and data from an offset vertical seismic profile collected in the pilot well provided the structural model. During drilling information from cuttings and LWD tools was used to continuously update these models. After the well had been drilled, analysis of LWD resistivity images provided a detailed model of the relationship between the well trajectory and the dip of the formation. This information is used to improve interpretation of the LWD logs to provide a petrophysical evaluation of the well.

  1. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  2. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  3. Supporting Data-Producing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supporting Data-Producing Facilities and Instruments Co-Chairs: David Skinner & Stuart Campbell 1 Contributors * Kaki Kelly, LANL * David Smith, LLNL * Jeff Cunningham, LBNL * Yao Zhang, ANL * John Harney, ORNL * Stuart Campbell, ORNL * Ilana Stern, NCAR * David Skinner, NERSC * Craig Ulmer, Sandia * Dino Pavlakos, Sandia * Rudy Garcia, Sandia * Jack Deslippe, NERSC 2 Some Questions ? * How does a Data-Producing Facility or Instrument plug in to HPC facilities ? * Do we support facilities

  4. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  5. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  6. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  7. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  8. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would

  9. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  10. Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic...

  11. RAPID DUST FORMATION IN NOVAE: THE SPEED CLASSFORMATION TIMESCALE CORRELATION EXPLAINED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, S. C.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Evans, A.; Zubko, V.; Shafter, A. W.

    2013-11-10

    Observations show that the time of onset of dust formation in classical novae depends strongly on their speed class, with dust typically taking longer to form in slower novae. Using empirical relationships between speed class, luminosity and ejection velocity, it can be shown that dust formation timescale is expected to be essentially independent of speed class. However, following a nova outburst the spectrum of the central hot source evolves, with an increasing proportion of the radiation being emitted short-ward of the Lyman limit. The rate at which the spectrum evolves also depends on the speed class. We have therefore refined the simple model by assuming photons at energies higher than the Lyman limit are absorbed by neutral hydrogen gas internal to the dust formation sites, therefore preventing these photons reaching the nucleation sites. With this refinement the dust formation timescale is theoretically dependent on speed class and the results of our theoretical modification agree well with the observational data. We consider two types of carbon-based dust, graphite and amorphous carbon, with both types producing similar relationships. Our results can be used to predict when dust will form in a nova of a given speed class and hence when observations should optimally be taken to detect the onset of dust formation.

  12. Maximize revenue from gas condensate wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, S.R.

    1988-07-01

    A computerized oil/gas modeling program called C.O.M.P. allows operators to select the economically optimum producing equipment for a given gas-condensate well-stream. This article, the first of two, discusses use of the model to analyze performance of six different production system on the same wellstream and at the same wellhead conditions. All producing equipment options are unattended wellhead facilities designed for high volume gas-condensate wells and are not gas plants. A second article to appear in September will discuss operating experience with one of the producing systems analyzed, integrated multi-stage separation with stabilization and compression (the HERO system), which was developed by U.S. Enertek, Inc. This equipment was chosen for the wellstream analyzed because of the potential revenue increase indicated by the model.

  13. Particulate Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy

  14. Induced fractures: well stimulation through fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Seven fracture stimulation treatments were planned and executed under the Department of Energy-funded Geothermal Well Stimulation Program. The objective of this program is to demonstrate that geothermal well stimulation offers a technical alternative to additional well drilling and redrilling for productivity enhancement which can substantially reduce development costs. Well stimulation treatments have been performed at Raft River, Idaho; East Mesa, California; The Geysers, California; and the Baca Project Area in New Mexico. Six of the seven stimulation experiments were technically successful in stimulating the wells. The two fracture treatments in East Mesa more than doubled the production rate of the previously marginal producer. The two fracture treatments at Raft River and the two at Baca were all successful in obtaining significant production from previously nonproductive intervals. The acid etching treatment in the well at the Geysers did not have any material effect on production rate.

  15. Newly Installed Alaska North Slope Well Will Test Innovative...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A fully instrumented well that will test innovative technologies for producing methane gas ... Energy Technology Laboratory, will test a technology that involves injecting ...

  16. Exploratory Well At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Exploratory Well At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management,...

  17. Machine method and apparatus for determining the presence and location of hydrocarbon deposits within a subsurface earth formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaymard, R.G.; Poupon, A.

    1983-01-18

    In accordance with illustrative embodiments of the present invention, methods for processing well logging data comprise deriving measurements of a plurality of earth formation parameters and combining these measurements in a new manner to enable interpretation of shales and shaly sand type formations. More particularly, measurements of a plurality of the hydrogen index, bulk density, radially deep and shallow resistivity, spontaneous potential, acoustic travel time and natural formation radioactivity content are made and combined in a manner to produce data useful in evaluating shales and shaly sand type formations.

  18. METHOD OF PRODUCING NEUTRONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imhoff, D.H.; Harker, W.H.

    1964-02-01

    A method for producing neutrons is described in which there is employed a confinement zone defined between longitudinally spaced localized gradient regions of an elongated magnetic field. Changed particles and neutralizing electrons, more specifically deuterons and tritons and neutralizng electrons, are injected into the confinement field from ion sources located outside the field. The rotational energy of the parrticles is increased at the gradients by imposing an oscillating transverse electrical field thereacross. The imposition of such oscillating transverse electrical fields improves the reflection capability of such gradient fielda so that the reactive particles are retained more effectively within the zone. With the attainment of appropriate densities of plasma particles and provided that such particles are at a sufficiently high temperature, neutron-producing reactions ensue and large quantities of neutrons emerge from the containment zone. (AEC)

  19. Well-pump alignment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  20. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO); Carleton, Karen L. (Boulder, CO)

    1984-01-01

    A process for producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  1. Method of producing imines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sithambaram, Shanthakumar; Son, Young-Chan; Suib, Steven L.

    2008-04-08

    A method for forming an imine comprises reacting a first reactant comprising a hydroxyl functionality, a carbonyl functionality, or both a hydroxyl functionality and a carbonyl functionality with a second reactant having an amine functionality in the presence of ordered porous manganese-based octahedral molecular sieves and an oxygen containing gas at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the imine to be produced.

  2. Process for producing silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.; Carleton, K.L.

    1982-06-10

    A process of producing silicon includes forming an alloy of copper and silicon and positioning the alloy in a dried, molten salt electrolyte to form a solid anode structure therein. An electrically conductive cathode is placed in the electrolyte for plating silicon thereon. The electrolyte is then purified to remove dissolved oxides. Finally, an electrical potential is applied between the anode and cathode in an amount sufficient to form substantially pure silicon on the cathode in the form of substantially dense, coherent deposits.

  3. Maximize revenue from gas condensate wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, S.R. )

    1988-09-01

    A computerized oil/gas modeling program called C.O.M.P. was used to analyze comparative recovery, losses and revenues from six different producing systems on a given wellstream as tested on initial completion. A multi-stage separation/stabilization/compression system (HERO system) manufactured by U.S. Enertek, Inc., was subsequently installed to produce the well, plus five other wells in the immediate area. This article compares theoretical gains forecast by the modeling program with actual gains recorded during later testing of the same well with a two-stage separation hookup and the multi-stage unit. The test using two-stage separation was run as a basis for comparison. Operating temperatures and pressures for each test are shown.

  4. Articulated plural well deep water production system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, J.

    1980-07-08

    Apparatus for subsea production of fluids through a manifold and central riser from a plurality of individual wells drilled in different parts of a field in deep water, is described that is comprised of: a central manifold base having flow line connectors thereon; an elongated boom for each well to be produced in a field, each boom being rigidly attached to the manifold base; a temporary guide base mounted to the other end of each boom for establishing a well site; and a flow line extending along each boom from a flow line connector on the central manifold base. A method of producing well fluids from a number of individual wells drilled in different parts of a field located in deep water to a production platform via a central riser, which comprises the steps of: submerging to the ocean floor a subsea production apparatus which includes a central manifold base having an elongated boom for each well articulated thereto at one end and mounting a temporary guide base at the other end of the boom for establishing a well site, and a preinstalled flow line extending along each boom from the manifold base; landing a manifold section on the manifold; and landing a subsea tree on each temporary guide base.

  5. Production Wells At Lightning Dock Geothermal Area (McCants,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    well for space heating Notes This was a project to use a low flow (25 GPM) well producing water and steam that had historically been difficult to pump. The project was for a space...

  6. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  7. Methods for obtaining well-to-well flow communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, R.A.; Wahl, H.A.

    1988-07-05

    A process is described for reducing uneven areal sweep of injection fluid in a well pattern having a central injection well surrounded by production wells, all of the wells being communicated by a fracture, comprising: (a) injecting fracturing fluid containing a proppant material into the central injection well and into the fracture to prop the fracture adjacent the injection well; (b) simultaneous with step (a), injecting fluid into one or more of the production wells toward which it is desired to reduce the flow of injection fluid, thereby causing a greater portion of the proppant material to be placed in the fracture adjacent the central injection well in directions away from the one or more of the production wells toward which it is desired to reduce the flow of injection fluid; and (c) thereby subsequently reducing uneven areal sweep of injection fluid injected into the central injection well at rates and pressures below those required to part the fracture.

  8. Coiled tubing velocity strings keep wells unloaded

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesson, H.R.; Shursen, J.L.

    1989-07-01

    Liquid loading is a problem in many older and even some newer gas wells, particularly in pressure depletion type reservoirs. This liquid loading results in decreased production and may even kill the well. The use of coiled tubing as a velocity string (or siphon string) has proved to be an economically viable alternative to allow continued and thus, increased cumulative production for wells experiencing liquid loading problems. Coiled tubing run inside the existing production string reduces the flow area, whether the well is produced up the tubing or up the annulus. This reduction in flow area results in an increase in flow velocity and thus, an increase in the well's ability to unload fluids.

  9. Single well tracer method to evaluate enhanced recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheely, Jr., Clyde Q.; Baldwin, Jr., David E.

    1978-01-01

    Data useful to evaluate the effectiveness of or to design an enhanced recovery process (the recovery process involving mobilizing and moving hydrocarbons through a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation from an injection well to a production well by injecting a mobilizing fluid into the injection well) are obtained by a process which comprises sequentially: determining hydrocarbon saturation in the formation in a volume in the formation near a well bore penetrating the formation, injecting sufficient of the mobilizing fluid to mobilize and move hydrocarbons from a volume in the formation near the well bore penetrating the formation, and determining by the single well tracer method a hydrocarbon saturation profile in a volume from which hydrocarbons are moved. The single well tracer method employed is disclosed by U.S. Pat. No. 3,623,842. The process is useful to evaluate surfactant floods, water floods, polymer floods, CO.sub.2 floods, caustic floods, micellar floods, and the like in the reservoir in much less time at greatly reduced costs, compared to conventional multi-well pilot test.

  10. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    formation water, and host rock during deep well injection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host ...

  11. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  12. Use of potassium hydroxide solutions in a well bore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordiner, F.S.; Sydansk, R.D.

    1981-08-18

    A workover fluid, a kill fluid, or completion fluid having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a well bore penetrating and communicating with a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays, and invades the sandstone formation. Potassium hydroxide contacts and stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct and undesired ionic constituency.

  13. Subsea well template for directional drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, R.G.

    1988-07-05

    A method is described for drilling widely spaced boreholes into a hydrocarbon producing subsea formation comprising the steps of: positioning a subsea drilling template on the bottom of a body of water, the subsea drilling template including laterally disposed, substantially cylindrical drilling guides having a longitudinal axis wherein at least one of the drilling guides has its longitudinal axis disposed at an angle of less than 90/sup 0/ relative to a horizontal plane passing through the subsea drilling template; mooring a drilling vessel floating on the surface of the body of water in a first position relative to the subsea drilling template using a plurality of mooring catenaries; extending a drill string from the floating vessel to the subsea template, the drill string passing into the one of the drilling guides along its longitudinal axis which is disposed at an angle of less than 90/sup 0/; drilling a borehole below the template into the hydrocarbon producing subsea formation; repositioning the drilling vessel to another position relative to the subsea template by adjusting the mooring catenaries; extending the drill string from the vessel into another of the drilling guides; drilling another borehole below the template; and repeating the steps of repositioning the drilling vessel, extending the drill string and drilling the widely spaced boreholes.

  14. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New York Natural Gas ...

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Gas and ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) New Mexico Natural ...

  16. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas ... Number of Producing Gas Wells Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary) North Dakota Natural ...

  17. Well-pump alignment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  18. Well Logging Security Initiatives | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well Logging Security ... Well Logging Security Initiatives The mp4 video format is not supported by this browser. Download video Captions: On Watch as GTRI demonstrates the threat to the security of (oil) well logging systems and outlines the initiatives that are enhancing the security of these sources worldwide

  19. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  20. Novel alkyd-type coating resins produced using cationic polymerization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chisholm, Bret J.; Kalita, Harjyoti; Alam, Samim; Jayasooriyamu, Anurad; Fernando, Shashi; Samanata, Satyabrata; Bahr, James; Selvakumar, Sermadurai; Sibi, Mukund; Vold, Jessica; et al

    2015-05-06

    Novel, partially bio-based poly(vinyl ether) copolymers derived from soybean oil and cyclohexyl vinyl ether (CHVE) were produced by cationic polymerization and investigated for application as alkyd-type surface coatings. Compared to conventional alkyd resins, which are produced by high temperature melt condensation polymerization, the poly(v9nyl ether)s provide several advantages. These advantages include milder, more energy efficient polymer synthesis, elimination of issues associated with gelation during polymer synthesis, production of polymers with well-defined composition and relatively narrow molecular weight distribution, and elimination of film formation and physical property issues associated with entrained monomers, dimers, trimers, etc. The results of the studied showedmore » that the thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of the coatings produced from these novel polymers varied considerably as a function of polymer composition and cure temperature. Overall, the results suggest a good potential for these novel copolymers to be used for coatings cured by autoxidation.« less

  1. Elf well turns 90/degree/- and stays there

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astier, B.; Jourdan, A.; Baron, G.

    1981-01-01

    As part of an intensive research program, the French association IFP (Institut Francais du Petrole) and Elf-Aquitaine have drilled the first European horizontal hole. The well was spudded conventionally and then deviated so that its final path was horizontal, 2,198 ft (670 m) below the surface. More than 330 ft (100 m) were drilled between 89/degree/ and 92/degree/ of inclination. The project started with reservoir engineering studies aimed at demonstrating, on mathematical models, the effectiveness of a horizontal drain hole in areas where hydrocarbon recovery is poor or unsatisfactory, due to gas or water coning, poor flooding patterns, intersection of fractures in tight but fractured producing formations, or other causes. This technique has a number of potential applications both in and out of the oil industry. The well was drilled in 44 days. Horizontal displacement was 2,192 ft (668 m) with a total vertical depth of 2,198 ft (670 m). To accomplish this, it was necessary to drill 3,563 ft (1,086 m) of hole. In the 17/one-half/-in. hole, 73/4-in. drill collars and 5-in. heavy weight drill pipe were run above the bent sub and the monel collar. While reaming the hole, the drill string was rotated conventionally, one near bit and one stabilizer (30 ft above) being included in the string.

  2. APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SHADOWGRAPHS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, R.R.

    1959-08-11

    An apparatus is presented for obtaining shadowgraphs or radiographs of an object exposed to x rays or the like. The device includes the combination of a cloud chamber having the interior illuminated and a portion thereof transparent to light rays and x'rays, a controlled source of x rays spaced therefrom, photographic recording disposed laterally of the linear path intermediate the source and the chamber portion in oblique angularity in aspect to the path. The object to be studied is disposed intermediate the x-ray source and chamber in the linear path to provide an x-ray transmission barrier therebetween. The shadowgraph is produced in the cloud chamber in response to initiation of the x- ray source and recorded photographically.

  3. Coal-Producing Region

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Coal Production by State (thousand short tons) Year to Date Coal-Producing Region and State January - March 2016 October - December 2015 January - March 2015 2016 2015 Percent Change Alabama 2,446 2,298 4,022 2,446 4,022 -39.2 Alaska 310 328 265 310 265 16.7 Arizona 1,335 1,376 1,755 1,335 1,755 -23.9 Arkansas 11 18 21 11 21 -48.0 Colorado 2,482 3,258 5,263 2,482 5,263 -52.8 Illinois 11,312 11,886 16,779 11,312 16,779 -32.6 Indiana 7,224 7,264 9,463 7,224 9,463 -23.7 Kansas 27 55 53 27 53

  4. Produce diesel from gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, A.H.; Regier, S.

    1983-05-01

    The Gulf Badger process converts natural gas directly to hydrocarbon liquids by a catalytic chemical route. Fischer-Tropsch process--which is a carbon monoxide polymerization/ hydrogenation process--is used. Because the process is exothermal, heat removal by either tubular fixed bed, fluidized bed, or slurry are considered. A wax build up of high molecular weight material is removed by hydro-stripping two-bed system. The demonstration plant flow diagram shows the process to be: natural gas is compressed, recycled with CO/sub 2/, sulfur is removed in a zinc oxide drum, CO is removed in amine scrubbers, H/sub 2//CO ratio is adjusted to produce a hydrogen rich stream, and stabilization and distribution follow. A monitoring system using computers is part of the demonstration unit.

  5. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  6. Development of a Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug for Geothermal Well Casing Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STALLER,GEORGE E.; KNUDSEN,STEVEN D.; SATTLER,ALLAN R.

    1999-10-01

    Casing deformation in producing geothermal wells is a common problem in many geothermal fields, mainly due to the active geologic formations where these wells are typically located. Repairs to deformed well casings are necessary to keep the wells in production and to occasionally enter a well for approved plugging and abandonment procedures. The costly alternative to casing remediation is to drill a new well to maintain production and/or drill a well to intersect the old well casing below the deformation for abandonment purposes. The U.S. Department of Energy and the Geothermal Drilling Organization sponsored research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these casing remediation expenditures. Sandia, in cooperation with Halliburton Energy Services, developed a low cost, bridge-plug-type, packer for use in casing remediation work in geothermal well environments. This report documents the development and testing of this commercially available petal-basket packer called the Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug (SACTAP).

  7. Process for thermochemically producing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced by the reaction of water with chromium sesquioxide and strontium oxide. The hydrogen producing reaction is combined with other reactions to produce a closed chemical cycle for the thermal decomposition of water.

  8. Wellness Services | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program Wellness Program Workers spend 200 hours per month at work, and keeping a healthy work-life balance is essential. The Headquarters Wellness Program provides support and assistance to DOE employees through a variety of programs and resources geared toward enhancing their mental and physical well-being. Wellness programs include: Accommodations, the Child Development Centers, the Employee Assistance Program (EAP), the Forrestal (FOHO) and Germantown (GOHO) Fitness Centers, the Occupational

  9. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine A.

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  10. Wellness Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Wellness Program Workers spend 200 hours per month at work, and keeping a healthy work-life balance is essential. The Headquarters Wellness Program provides support and assistance to DOE employees through a variety of programs and resources geared toward enhancing their mental and physical well-being. Wellness programs include: Accommodations, the Child Development Centers, the Employee Assistance Program (EAP), the Forrestal (FOHO) and Germantown (GOHO) Fitness Centers, the Occupational

  11. Summary of the chemical characteristics of the HGP-A well; Puna, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The HGP-A geothermal well is located on the Lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. It was completed in 1976 to a depth of 1966 meters and has a bottomhole temperature of 360/sup 0/C. Evaluation of the chemistry of the fluids produced indicate that recharge to the reservoir discovered by the HGP-A well is largely fresh meteoric water with smaller amounts of seawater recharge. The changes in fluid chemistry during production suggest that at least two separate aquifers are providing fluids to the well and that silica deposition is occurring in the reservoir formation. Isotopic data indicate that the fluid circulation and residence times in the reservoir are relatively short and that the heat source for this part of the rift zone is either very young or relatively large.

  12. ANTIPROTONS PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present the energy spectrum of an antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNRs). The model includes the reacceleration of antiprotons already existing in the interstellar medium as well as the creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shocks. It is shown that the production of antiprotons in SNRs produces a considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum, making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV energies increases by a factor of 5. The calculated antiproton spectrum is consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check, we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon ratio is consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  13. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  14. Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Development Drilling Activity Date 2005 - 2005...

  15. Well having inhibited microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Brady D.; Dooley, Kirk J.

    2006-08-15

    The invention includes methods of inhibiting microbial growth in a well. A packing material containing a mixture of a first material and an antimicrobial agent is provided to at least partially fill a well bore. One or more access tubes are provided in an annular space around a casing within the well bore. The access tubes have a first terminal opening located at or above a ground surface and have a length that extends from the first terminal opening at least part of the depth of the well bore. The access tubes have a second terminal opening located within the well bore. An antimicrobial material is supplied into the well bore through the first terminal opening of the access tubes. The invention also includes well constructs.

  16. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  18. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  19. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  20. Connecticut Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zip: 6751 Sector: Geothermal energy Product: A Connecticut-based geothermal heat pump installer and well driller. Coordinates: 40.04446, -80.690839 Show Map Loading...

  1. Well Monitoring System for EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EGS well monitoring tools offer a unique set of solutions which will lower costs and increase confidence in future geothermal projects.

  2. Remote multiple string well completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkland, K.G.

    1981-04-21

    Method and apparatus for multiple string well completions by remote operations in underwater installations, by which the tubing strings are installed independently rather than simultaneously.

  3. Well Deepening | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    can be deepened in order to reach a location with higher flow and temperature. Use in Geothermal Exploration Sometimes wells that were initially not planned for utilization...

  4. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  5. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  6. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, Joel

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  7. Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II, Billy John

    2008-10-14

    A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

  8. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make

  9. Fracture optimization on every well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, J.W.; Tiner, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Since hydraulic fracturing was introduced in 1947, significant advances have been made in the area of fracture diagnostics, particularly in the last 20 years. Common diagnostic procedures used today to quantify fracture geometry and fracture fluid efficiency are listed in a table. During the past several years, the most popular procedure was to conduct most or all of the diagnostics on one well in a field, and apply the results to subsequent wells. However, experience has shown that critical factors can change drastically, even in fields with minimal well spacing. Although some variations in relative rock stresses have been seen, rock properties typically remain fairly consistent within a designated area. However, the factor that changes drastically from well to well--even in spacing as small as 10 acres--is fracture fluid efficiency. As much as a 60% change in fluid efficiencies has been noted for offset wells. Because of these variations, a new procedure has been developed in which fracture treatments on individual wells can be optimized on the day of the fracture treatment. The paper describes this fracture optimization procedure.

  10. Entiat 4Mile WELLs Completion Report, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowksi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The Entiat 4-mile Wells (Entiat 4-mile) project is located in the Entiat subbasin and will benefit Upper Columbia steelhead, spring Chinook and bull trout. The goal of this project is to prevent juvenile fish from being diverted into an out-of-stream irrigation system and to eliminate impacts due to the annual maintenance of an instream pushup dam. The objectives include eliminating a surface irrigation diversion and replacing it with two wells, which will provide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) with a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) BiOp metric credit of one. Wells were chosen over a new fish screen based on biological benefits and costs. Long-term biological benefits are provided by completely eliminating the surface diversion and the potential for fish entrainment in a fish screen. Construction costs for a new fish screen were estimated at $150,000, which does not include other costs associated with implementing and maintaining a fish screening project. Construction costs for a well were estimated at $20,000 each. The diversion consisted of a pushup dam that diverted water into an off-channel pond. Water was then pumped into a pressurized system for irrigation. There are 3 different irrigators who used water from this surface diversion, and each has multiple water right claims totaling approximately 5 cfs. Current use was estimated at 300 gallons per minute (approximately 0.641 cfs). Some irrigated acreage was taken out of orchard production less than 5 years ago. Therefore, approximately 6.8 acre-feet will be put into the State of Washington Trust Water Right program. No water will be set aside for conservation savings. The construction of the two irrigation wells for three landowners was completed in September 2006. The Lower Well (Tippen/Wick) will produce up to 175 gpm while the Upper Well (Griffith) will produce up to 275 gpm during the irrigation season. The eight inch diameter wells were

  11. Drawdown behavior of gravity drainage wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aasen, J.A.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    An analytical solution for drawdown in gravity drainage wells is developed. The free-surface flow is viewed as incompressible, and anisotropy effects are included. The well is a line source well, and the reservoir is infinitely large. The model is valid for small drawdowns. The uniform wellbore potential inner boundary condition is modelled using the proper Green`s function. The discontinuity at the wellbore is solved by introducing a finite skin radius, and the formulation produces a seepage face. The calculated wellbore flux distribution and wellbore pressures are in fair agreement with results obtained using a numerical gravity drainage simulator. Three distinct flow periods are observed. The wellbore storage period is caused by the moving liquid level, and the duration is short. During the long intermediate flow period, the wellbore pressure is nearly constant. In this period the free surface moves downwards, and the liquid is produced mainly by vertical drainage. At long times the semilog straight line appears. The confined liquid solutions by Theis (1935) and van Everdingen and Hurst (1949) may be used during the pseudoradial flow period if the flowrate is low. New type curves are presented that yield both vertical and horizontal permeabilities.

  12. Well Monitoring Systems for EGS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Our system can stay in the well and operate unmanned for days or years. This reduces cost ... - Once in place, the system can run unmanned (no logging truck) 3 | US DOE ...

  13. Method for the control of solids accompanying hydrocarbon production from subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strubhar, M.K.; Healy, J.C.

    1992-04-21

    This patent describes a method for controlling solids contained in hydrocarbonaceous fluids produced from a subterranean formation. It comprises perforating a wellbore at a productive interval of a hydrocarbonaceous fluid-containing formation; injecting into the productive interval via perforations a fracturing fluid containing a resin-coated self-consolidating particulate material which is of a size and composition sufficient to prop a created fracture and form a permeable consolidated mass therein; fracturing hydraulically the productive interval and thereafter creating a propped fracture with a self-consolidated permeable mass therein as well as within the perforations and wellbore which mass has filtration properties and composition sufficient to restrain solids entrained in the hydrocarbonaceous fluid; and removing mechanically the consolidated permeable mass from the wellbore which allows hydrocarbonaceous fluids to be produced from the formation substantially solids free which solids are restrained by the permeable consolidated mass within the fracture and perforations.

  14. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  15. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  16. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  17. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  18. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  19. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further

  20. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Xie, Xueying; Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  1. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  2. Remote multiple string well completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkland, K.G.

    1981-09-15

    In a remotely installed underwater well apparatus, a tubular body, typically a multiple string tubing hanger, is landed in a position oriented rotationally with respect to a reference point on the apparatus and a seal device is then energized by the same tool employed to land and orient the tubular body.

  3. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  4. Shallow gas well drilling with coiled tubing in the San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, R.G.; Ovitz, R.W.; Guild, G.J.; Biggs, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being utilized to drill new wells, for re-entry drilling to deepen or laterally extend existing wells, and for underbalanced drilling to prevent formation damage. Less than a decade old, coiled tubing drilling technology is still in its inaugral development stage. Initially, utilizing coiled tubing was viewed as a {open_quotes}science project{close_quotes} to determine the validity of performing drilling operations in-lieu of the conventional rotary rig. Like any new technology, the initial attempts were not always successful, but did show promise as an economical alternative if continued efforts were made in the refinement of equipment and operational procedures. A multiwell project has been completed in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico which provides documentation indicating that coiled tubing can be an alternative to the conventional rotary rig. A 3-well pilot project, a 6-well project was completed uniquely utilizing the combined resources of a coiled tubing service company, a producing company, and a drilling contractor. This combination of resources aided in the refinement of surface equipment, personnel, mud systems, jointed pipe handling, and mobilization. The results of the project indicate that utilization of coiled tubing for the specific wells drilled was an economical alternative to the conventional rotary rig for drilling shallow gas wells.

  5. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael; Zhang, Etuan; Marino, Marian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Ryan, Robert Charles; Beer, Gary Lee; Dombrowski, Robert James; Jaiswal, Namit

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  6. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  7. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Stegemeier, George Leo

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  8. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  9. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic

  10. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2010-06-22

    A method for producing a borohydride is described that includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material that chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of the borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature that substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  11. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.

    2008-09-02

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  12. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  13. Bottom hole oil well pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, J.E.; Hinds, W.E.; Oldershaw, P.V.

    1982-09-21

    A bottom hole well pump is disclosed comprising a pump housing supported by a control cable for raising and lowering the housing within tubing in a well, a linear motor within the housing causing reciprocation of a plunger extending into a pumping chamber formed by the housing with inlet and outlet check valves for controlling flow of oil or other liquid into the pumping chamber and from the pumping chamber into the tubing above the pump housing. In one embodiment, belleville-type springs are employed for storing energy as the plunger approaches its opposite limits of travel in order to initiate movement of the plunger in the opposite direction. In this embodiment, a single pumping chamber is formed above the linear motor with a single-valve block arranged above the pumping chamber and including inlet check valve means for controlling liquid flow into the pumping chamber and outlet check valve means for controlling liquid flow from the pumping chamber into the tubing interior above the pump housing. In another embodiment, pumping chambers are formed above and below the linear motor with a tubular plunger extending into both pumping chambers, in order to achieve pumping during both directions of travel of the plunger.

  14. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  15. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strongin, Myron; Ruckman, Mark; Strongin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  17. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and ... A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor ...

  18. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartsock, J.H.; Rodgers, J.A.

    1980-09-01

    Over the life of the project, 1143 wildcat wells were screened for possible use. Although many did not meet the program's requirement for sand development, a surprisingly large number were abandoned because of downhole mechanical problems. Only 94 of these wells were completed as commercial hydrocarbon producers. Five wells of opportunity were funded for testing. Of these, two were evaluated for their hydraulic energy, thermal energy, and recoverable methane, and three were abandoned because of mechanical problems. (MHR)

  19. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economic success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. A site for a horizontal well was selected in Crystal Field, a nearly-abandoned Dundee oil field in Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well was drilled as a field demonstration pilot, funded through this DOE project, and was successful. It has produced over 37,000 bbls of oil as of December 31, 1996 at sustained rate of {approximately}100 bbls/day. At a nominal wellhead price of $20/bbl, this well has made about $750,000 and is still going strong. Two additional horizontal wells have just been completed and are on test. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The horizontal well was brought on production at a rate of 100 bbls/day and is probably capable of producing at a higher rate. The addition of several horizontal wells, similar to the demonstration well, will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. The presence of untapped oil in this Dundee field was dramatically demonstrated and the favorable economics were made clearly evident. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels. Horizontal drilling will likely revolutionize the development of old carbonate fields such as those in the Dundee of Michigan.

  20. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  1. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  2. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  3. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  4. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  5. Category:Production Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wells Jump to: navigation, search Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Production Wells page? For detailed information on Production Wells, click here. Category:Production Wells...

  6. Star formation and cosmic massive black hole formation, a universal process organized by angular momenta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    It is suggested that star formation is organized following the same principles as we have applied in a recent explanation of galaxy and massive black hole formation. In this scenario angular momentum is randomly distributed by tidal torquing among condensations, Lyman-{alpha} clouds or cores for star formation during the initial non-linear phase of collapse. This angular momentum is characterized by the parameter, {lambda}, the ratio of the angular momentum of the cloud to that of a Keplerian orbit with the same central mass and radius. This parameter is calculated in very many simulations of structure formation of the universe as well as core formation and appears to be universal and independent of any scale. The specific angular momentum during the collapse of every cloud is locally conserved and universally produces a near flat rotation curve M{sub formation of a flat rotation curve (protostellar) disk of mass M{sub dsk} {sup -}30 M{sub o} of radius R{sub dsk} {approx_equal} 1100 AU or 5.4 x 10{sup -3} pc. In such a disk {Sigma} {proportional_to} 1/R and reaches the RVI condition at R{sub crit} {approx_equal} 40 AU where M{sub

  7. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  8. Method and apparatus for producing thermal vapor stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cradeur, Robert R.; Sperry, John S.; Krajicek, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    Method and apparatus for producing a thermal vapor stream for injecting into a subterranean formation for the recovery of liquefiable minerals therefrom, including a pressure vessel containing a high pressure combustion chamber for producing a heating gas for introduction into a heating gas injector. The heating gas injector is partly immersed in a steam generating section of the pressure vessel such that the heating gas is passed through the steam generating section to produce steam and combustion products which are directed between the pressure vessel and the combustion chamber for simultaneously cooling of the combustion chamber by further heating of the steam and combustion gases.

  9. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completions prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, Clovis A.

    1980-04-03

    This prospective well of opportunity was originally drilled and completed as a gas producer by Wrightsman Investment Company in early 1973. The original and present producing interval was from 15,216 to 15,238 feet. IMC Exploration Company, Inc. acquired the property from Wrightsman and is the present owner operator. The well is presently shut in s a non-economic producer and IMC proposed to perform plug and abandonment operations in April, 1980. This well has a good geopressured-geothermal water sand behind the 5-1/2 inch casing that has 94 feet of net sand thickness. Pursuant to DOE/NVO authorization of March 11,1980, Eaton negotiated an option agreement with IMC whereby IMC would delay their abandonment operations for a period of 90 days to permit DOE to evaluate the well for geopressure-geothermal testing. The IMC-Eaton option agreements provide that IMG will delay plugging the well until June 15, 1980. If Eaton exercises its option to acquire the well, IMC will sell the well bore, and an adjacent salt water disposal well, to Eaton for the sole consideration of Eaton assuming the obligation to plug and abandon the wells in accordance with lease and regulatory requirements. If Eaton does not exercise its option, then Eaton will pay IMC $95,000 cash and IMC will proceed with plugging and abandonment at the termination of the option period.

  10. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.