Sample records for formation producing wells

  1. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  2. Apparatus for operating a gas and oil producing well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wynn, S. R.

    1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for automatically operating a gas and oil producing well of the plunger lift type, including a comparator for comparing casing and tubing pressures, a device for opening the gas delivery valve when the difference between casing and tubing pressure is less than a selected minimum value, a device for closing the gas discharge valve when casing pressure falls below a selected casing bleed value, an arrival sensor switch for initially closing the fluid discharge valve when the plunger reaches the upper end of the tubing, and a device for reopening the fluid discharge valve at the end of a given downtime period in the event that the level of oil in the tubing produces a pressure difference greater than the given minimum differential value, and the casing pressure is greater than lift pressure. The gas discharge valve is closed if the pressure difference exceeds a selected maximum value, or if the casing pressure falls below a selected casing bleed value. The fluid discharge valve is closed if tubing pressure exceeds a maximum safe value. In the event that the plunger does not reach the upper end of the tubing during a selected uptime period, a lockout indication is presented on a visual display device, and the well is held shut-in until the well differential is forced down to the maximum differential setting of the device. When this occurs, the device will automatically unlock and normal cycling will resume.

  3. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  4. Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

  5. A comprehensive approach for stimulating produced water injection wells at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fambrough, J.D.; Lane, R.H.; Braden, J.C.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents a three-component approach to removing damage from produced water injection wells of Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska: (1) identification of plugging material, (2) evaluation and selection of potential treatment chemicals, and (3) design and implementation of a well treatment and placement method. Plugging material was sampled anaerobically and kept frozen prior to identification and evaluation. Appropriate treatment chemicals were determined through a series of solvation, filtration, and weight-loss tests. Field treatments were designed so that the treating chemicals entered the formation under normal operating conditions, i.e., at pressures and rates similar to those present during produced water injection. A number of treatments improved injection rates and profiles, but continued injection of oil and solids-laden water caused deterioration of well performance at rates that precluded general application of the treatment at Prudhoe Bay.

  6. Performance prediction of oil wells producing water in bounded reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochen, Valerie Ann Ellis

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    %IS TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . . lv LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V11 X11 INTRODUCTION Research Objectives Background Problem Statement Error Analysis 1 1 2 4 5 MULTIPHASE FLOW EQUATIONS THREE-PHASE FLOW IPR METHODS Brown's Method . Sukarno... 115 CONCLUSIONS . NOMENCLATURE . . . . 117 119 121 VITA 123 LIST OP TABLES Table Page 1 Well Test Information Used in Sample IPR Calculations 12 2 Comparison of IPR Methods to Simulator Case 1, Brown, Fw=25 . 22 3 Comparison of IPR Methods...

  7. Development of general inflow performance relationships (IPR's) for slanted and horizontal wells producing heterogeneous solution-gas drive reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1968, the Vogel equation has been used extensively and successfully for analyzing the inflow performance relationship (IPR) of flowing vertical wells producing by solution-gas drive. Oil well productivity can be rapidly estimated by using the Vogel IPR curve and well outflow performance. With recent interests on horizontal well technology, several empirical IPRs for solution-gas drive horizontal and slanted wells have been developed under homogeneous reservoir conditions. This report presents the development of IPRs for horizontal and slanted wells by using a special vertical/horizontal/slanted well reservoir simulator under six different reservoir and well parameters: ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability, wellbore eccentricity, stratification, perforated length, formation thickness, and heterogeneous permeability. The pressure and gas saturation distributions around the wellbore are examined. The fundamental physical behavior of inflow performance for horizontal wells is described.

  8. Regulatory Issues Affecting Management of Produced Water from Coal Bed Methane Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, John A.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the existing national discharge regulations, the ways in which CBM produced water is currently being managed, the current CBM discharge permitting practices, and how these options might change as the volume of produced water increases because of the many new wells being developed.

  9. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  10. Economics is a social science concerned with the economic behavior of consumers and producers as well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    5/2013 ECONOMICS Economics is a social science concerned with the economic behavior of consumers and producers as well as the operation and evaluation of economic systems. Economists study questions like why does the price of gasoline go up and down and what can we do to improve the economy. Studying economics

  11. Inflow performance relationship for perforated wells producing from solution gas drive reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukarno, P. [Inst. Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Tobing, E.L.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IPR curve equations, which are available today, are developed for open hole wells. In the application of Nodal System Analysis in perforated wells, an accurate calculation of pressure loss in the perforation is very important. Nowadays, the equation which is widely used is Blount, Jones and Glaze equation, to estimate pressure loss across perforation. This equation is derived for single phase flow, either oil or gas, therefore it is not suitable for two-phase production wells. In this paper, an IPR curve equation for perforated wells, producing from solution gas drive reservoir, is introduced. The equation has been developed using two phase single well simulator combine to two phase flow in perforation equation, derived by Perez and Kelkar. A wide range of reservoir rock and fluid properties and perforation geometry are used to develop the equation statistically.

  12. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  13. A Study on the Analysis of the Formation of High Water Saturation zones around Well perforations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alrumah, Muhammad

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The water produced with oil as a result of water coning is a serious problem as it decreases well productivity and increases the cost of… (more)

  14. Development of general inflow performance relationships (IPR`s) for slanted and horizontal wells producing heterogeneous solution-gas drive reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.M.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1968, the Vogel equation has been used extensively and successfully for analyzing the inflow performance relationship (IPR) of flowing vertical wells producing by solution-gas drive. Oil well productivity can be rapidly estimated by using the Vogel IPR curve and well outflow performance. With recent interests on horizontal well technology, several empirical IPRs for solution-gas drive horizontal and slanted wells have been developed under homogeneous reservoir conditions. This report presents the development of IPRs for horizontal and slanted wells by using a special vertical/horizontal/slanted well reservoir simulator under six different reservoir and well parameters: ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability, wellbore eccentricity, stratification, perforated length, formation thickness, and heterogeneous permeability. The pressure and gas saturation distributions around the wellbore are examined. The fundamental physical behavior of inflow performance for horizontal wells is described.

  15. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  16. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  17. Stopping a water crossflow in a sour-gas producing well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hello, Y. Le [Elf Aquitaine Production (Norway); Woodruff, J. [John Wight Co. (United States)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lacq is a sour-gas field in southwest France. After maximum production of 774 MMcf/D in the 1970`s, production is now 290 MMcf/D, with a reservoir pressure of 712 psi. Despite the loss of pressure, production is maintained by adapting the surface equipment and well architecture to reservoir conditions. The original 5-in. production tubing is being replaced with 7-in. tubing to sustain production rates. During openhole cleaning, the casing collapsed in Well LA141. The primary objective was to plug all possible hydraulic communication paths into the lower zones. The following options were available: (1) re-entering the well from the top and pulling the fish before setting cement plugs; (2) sidetracking the well; and (3) drilling a relief well to intercept Well LA141 above the reservoirs. The decision was made to start with the first option and switch to a sidetrack if this option failed.

  18. Robustness of topological order and formation of quantum well states in topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Robustness of topological order and formation of quantum well states in topological insulators (like transport measurements) and ultimate application of the topological insulators usually in- volve-resolved photoemission measurements to directly probe the surface state of the prototypical topological insulators, Bi2Se

  19. Determination of formation water resistivity using shale properties in geopressured wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dusenbery, Richard Allen

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No. 2 Riddle Oil Company, during the drilling of its Saldana well, No. 2 ran several logging surveys. Upon the determination of dry hole the logs were used in the Wells of Opportunity Program for the OOE. Shale Method: The calculated formation... Oil and Minerals Prairie Cana Well Rl Lear Petroleum Keolemay '. ll Martin Exploration 2-Crown Zellerbach Shale. R w . 1277 onm-m . 049 ohm-m . 122 ohm-m . 078 ohm-m Method 12, 000 ppm 39, 000 ppm 15, 800 ppm 27, 000 ppm Lab R w . 13 ohm...

  20. Electric Power Generation from Co-Produced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It is classified asThisEcoGridCounty,Portal,105.Electric FuelGas Wells

  1. Evaluations of Radionuclides of Uranium, Thorium, and Radium Associated with Produced Fluids, Precipitates, and Sludges from Oil, Gas, and Oilfield Brine Injection Wells in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ericksen, R.L.

    1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an unsurpassed lack of scientific data with respect to the concentrations and isotopic compositions of uranium, thorium, and radium in the produced formation fluids (brine), precipitates, and sludges generated with the operation of oil and gas wells in Mississippi. These radioactive elements when contained in the formation fluids have been given the term NORM, which is an acronym for naturally occurring radioactive materials. When they are technologically enhanced during oil and gas production activities resulting in the formation of scale (precipitates) and sludges they are termed TENORM (technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials). As used in this document, NORM and TENORM will be considered equivalent terms and the occurrence of NORM in the oilfield will be considered the result of production operations. As a result of the lack of data no scientifically sound theses may be developed concerning the presence of these radionuclides in the fluid brine, precipitate (scale), or sludge phases. Over the period of just one year, 1997 for example, Mississippi produced over 39,372,963,584 liters (10,402,368,186 gallons or 247,675,433 barrels) of formation water associated with hydrocarbon production from 41 counties across the state.

  2. Increasing gas hydrate formation temperature for desalination of high salinity produced water with secondary guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jong-Ho [ORISE; Seol, Yongkoo [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a new gas hydrate-based desalination process using water-immiscible hydrate formers; cyclopentane (CP) and cyclohexane (CH) as secondary hydrate guests to alleviate temperature requirements for hydrate formation. The hydrate formation reactions were carried out in an isobaric condition of 3.1 MPa to find the upper temperature limit of CO2 hydrate formation. Simulated produced water (8.95 wt % salinity) mixed with the hydrate formers shows an increased upper temperature limit from ?2 °C for simple CO2 hydrate to 16 and 7 °C for double (CO2 + CP) and (CO2 + CH) hydrates, respectively. The resulting conversion rate to double hydrate turned out to be similar to that with simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Hydrate formation rates (Rf) for the double hydrates with CP and CH are shown to be 22 and 16 times higher, respectively, than that of the simple CO2 hydrate at the upper temperature limit. Such mild hydrate formation temperature and fast formation kinetics indicate increased energy efficiency of the double hydrate system for the desalination process. Dissociated water from the hydrates shows greater than 90% salt removal efficiency for the hydrates with the secondary guests, which is also improved from about 70% salt removal efficiency for the simple hydrates.

  3. Simulation studies of a horizontal well producing from a thin oil-rim reservoir in the SSB1 field, Malaysia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdul Hakim, Hazlan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional simulation studies have been carried out to investigate the performance of a horizontal well producing from a thin oil-rim reservoir, X3/X4 in the SSBI field, Malaysia. A heterogeneous model was used which honored the reservoir...

  4. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III

    1997-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie`s Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. 7 figs.

  5. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation.

  6. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  7. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  8. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  9. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. Resistivity measurements are obtained from within the cased well by conducting A.C. current from within the cased well to a remote electrode at a frequency that is within the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz.

  10. Improved Detection of Bed Boundaries for Petrophysical Evaluation with Well Logs: Applications to Carbonate and Organic-Shale Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    : Applications to Carbonate and Organic-Shale Formations Zoya Heidari, SPE, Texas A&M University and Carlos of well logs acquired in organic shales and carbonates is challenging because of the presence of thin beds acquired in thinly bedded carbonates and in the Haynesville shale-gas formation. Estimates of petrophysical

  11. Correlation of producing Fruitland Formation coals within the western outcrop and coalbed methane leakage on the Southern Ute Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Christopher J.; Mathews, Stephanie; Wickman, Barbara

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Colorado Geological Survey and Southern Ute Indian Tribe proposed to determine the cause of several gas seeps which are occurring on the western outcrop of the coalbed methane producing Fruitland Formation on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation. Correlation between outcrop coals and subsurface coals was necessary to determine seep source in the northern part of the study area. Subsurface studies include structure and net coal isopach maps, stratigraphy was cross-sections, production maps, and a production database. Detailed coal stratigraphy was correlated through production wells near the outcrop region. These maps and cross-sections were correlated to new surface outcrop maps generated by the Colorado, Geological Survey and the Southern Ute Division of Energy Resources. Methane gas seepage has been noted historically within the study area. The total investigation may help determine if gas seepage is natural, a result of coalbed methane development, or some combination of the above.

  12. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bruno; Russell L. Detwiler; Kang Lao; Vahid Serajian; Jean Elkhoury; Julia Diessl; Nicky White

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  13. Recognition of hydrocarbon expulsion using well logs: Bakken Formation, Williston Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, R.; Zelt, F.B.; Morgan, S.R.; Passey, Q.R. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Snavely, P.D. III; Webster, R.L. (Exxon Co., U.S.A., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upper Mississippian-Lower Devonian Bakken Formation forms a source/carrier/reservoir system in the Williston basin. Hydrocarbon expulsion within the Bakken has been identified by overlaying sonic and resistivity logs. Typically, these curves track in organically lean, water-saturated mudrocks because both respond mainly to porosity; however, in thermally mature organic-rich rocks and hydrocarbon reservoirs or carrier beds, the curves separate due to the anomalously high resistivity associated with replacement of pore water by hydrocarbons. Sonic/resistivity-log overlays for wells throughout the Montana and North Dakota parts of the Williston basin reveal significant increases and maximum in-curve separation within the middle siltstone member of the Bakken at subsurface temperatures of about 170 and 200{degree}F, respectively. Sequence-stratigraphic characteristics of the Bakken define the framework within which the expulsion process operates. The organic-rich upper and lower shale members represent the transgressive and early highstand systems tracts of two adjacent depositional sequences. A sequence boundary within the intervening middle siltstone member separates nearshore siltstone and sandstone of the late highstand systems tract in the lower sequence from cross-bedded subtidal to intertidal sandstones of the lowstand systems tract in the upper sequence. Reservoir properties vary across this sequence boundary. The authors attribute the log separation in the siltstone member to hydrocarbons expelled from the adjacent shales. Abrupt shifts in several geochemical properties of the shale members, indicative of hydrocarbon generation occur over the same subsurface temperature range as the rapid increase in log separation in the middle siltstone, thus indicating the contemporaneity of generation and expulsion.

  14. FORMATION OF COSMIC CRYSTALS IN HIGHLY SUPERSATURATED SILICATE VAPOR PRODUCED BY PLANETESIMAL BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, H.; Yamada, J.; Tsukamoto, K.; Nozawa, J. [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tanaka, K. K.; Yamamoto, T. [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Nakamoto, T., E-mail: miurah@m.tohoku.ac.j [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Several lines of evidence suggest that fine silicate crystals observed in primitive meteorite and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) nucleated in a supersaturated silicate vapor followed by crystalline growth. We investigated evaporation of {mu}m-sized silicate particles heated by a bow shock produced by a planetesimal orbiting in the gas in the early solar nebula and condensation of crystalline silicate from the vapor thus produced. Our numerical simulation of shock-wave heating showed that these {mu}m-sized particles evaporate almost completely when the bow shock is strong enough to cause melting of chondrule precursor dust particles. We found that the silicate vapor cools very rapidly with expansion into the ambient unshocked nebular region; for instance, the cooling rate is estimated to be as high as 2000 K s{sup -1} for a vapor heated by a bow shock associated with a planetesimal of radius 1 km. The rapid cooling of the vapor leads to nonequilibrium gas-phase condensation of dust at temperatures much lower than those expected from the equilibrium condensation. It was found that the condensation temperatures are lower by a few hundred K or more than the equilibrium temperatures. This explains the results of the recent experimental studies of condensation from a silicate vapor that condensation in such large supercooling reproduces morphologies similar to those of silicate crystals found in meteorites. Our results strongly suggest that the planetesimal bow shock is one of the plausible sites for formation of not only chondrules but also other cosmic crystals in the early solar system.

  15. An Evaluation of Completion Parameters and Well Performance in the Montney Formation in British Columbia, Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeghi, Simin

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................... 95 5.1 Conclusions ......................................................................................................... 95 5.2 Recommendation for Future Framework ............................................................ 96 REFERENCES...- Type curve- all wells-Lily .............................................................................. 127 Fig. 95- Type curve- all wells-Nig ............................................................................... 127 Fig. 96- Type curve...

  16. Economic Impact of Reservoir Properties, Horizontal Well Length and Orientation on Production from Shale Formations: Application to New

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    on Production from Shale Formations: Application to New Albany Shale A. Kalantari Dahaghi, S. D. Mohaghegh, West and the orientation of horizontal wells on gas production in New Albany Shale. The study was conducted using as fracture bedding of the New Albany Shale are modeled using information found in the literature and outcrops

  17. An evaluation of acid frac/matrix stimulation of a tight limestone formation in exploratory wells in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.R.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of Kuwait's intensive exploratory activities to locate and test deeper geologic structures, tighter and very low porosity limestone formations were progressively encountered. Most of these hydrocarbon bearing formations initially appeared to be very stubborn and hardly indicated any fluid influx into the well-bore. In certain cases the hydrostatic head was nearly completely removed by unloading the well practically down to perforations, thereby creating optimum draw-down but it either resulted in poor inflow or none at all. In the absence of currently available chemicals, equipment, job design engineering and better understanding of tight carbonate formations and their responses to various acid formulations, some of these could have slipped into unattractive categories. With the implementation of specially designed matrix and acid-frac treatments, these formation have, however, been unmasked and turned out to be highly potential finds now. This paper basically outlines the salient features of theoretical and operational aspects of stimulating and testing some of the very low porosity hard limestone formations in Kuwait recently.

  18. Clay mineralogy and depositional history of the Frio Formation in two geopressured wells, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, R.L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-three shale samples ranging in depth from 5194 ft to 13,246 ft from Gulf Oil Corporation No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well and 33 shale samples ranging in depth from 2185 ft to 15,592 ft from General Crude Oil Company/Department of Energy No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well were examined by x-ray techniques to determine the mineralogy of the geopressured zone in the Brazoria Fairway. Both wells have similar weight-percent trends with depth for a portion of the mineralogy. Calcite decreases, and plagioclase, quartz and total clay increase slightly. Within the clays, illite in mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) increases and smectite in mixed-layer I/S decreases. Four minerals have distinctly different trends with depth for each well. In the No. 2 Texas State Lease 53034 well, potassium feldspar and mixed-layer I/S decrease, kaolinite increases, and discrete illite is constant. In the No. 1 Pleasant Bayou well, potassium feldspar and kaolinite are constant, mixed-layer I/S increases, and discrete illite decreases.

  19. Lithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria produce organic stalks to control mineral growth: implications for biosignature formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Clara S; Fakra, Sirine C; Emerson, David; Fleming, Emily J; Edwards, Katrina J

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) are often identified by their distinctive morphologies, such as the extracellular twisted ribbon-like stalks formed by Gallionella ferruginea or Mariprofundus ferrooxydans. Similar filaments preserved in silica are often identified as FeOB fossils in rocks. Although it is assumed that twisted iron stalks are indicative of FeOB, the stalk's metabolic role has not been established. To this end, we studied the marine FeOB M. ferrooxydans by light, X-ray and electron microscopy. Using time-lapse light microscopy, we observed cells excreting stalks during growth (averaging 2.2 {micro}m h(-1)). Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy show that stalks are Fe(III)-rich, whereas cells are low in Fe. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that stalks are composed of several fibrils, which contain few-nanometer-sized iron oxyhydroxide crystals. Lepidocrocite crystals that nucleated on the fibril surface are much larger ({approx}100 nm), suggesting that mineral growth within fibrils is retarded, relative to sites surrounding fibrils. C and N 1s NEXAFS spectroscopy and fluorescence probing show that stalks primarily contain carboxyl-rich polysaccharides. On the basis of these results, we suggest a physiological model for Fe oxidation in which cells excrete oxidized Fe bound to organic polymers. These organic molecules retard mineral growth, preventing cell encrustation. This model describes an essential role for stalk formation in FeOB growth. We suggest that stalk-like morphologies observed in modern and ancient samples may be correlated confidently with the Fe-oxidizing metabolism as a robust biosignature.

  20. Number of Producing Gas Wells

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReservesYear Jan Feb

  1. Statistical model for source rock maturity and organic richness using well-log data, Bakken Formation, Williston basin, United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krystinik, K.B.; Charpentier, R.R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the Bakken Formation, the proposed source rock for much of the hydrocarbons generated in the Williston basin, was done using bulk density, neutron porosity, and resistivity logs, and formation temperatures. Principal components, cluster, and discriminant analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of organic matter controls much of the variability in the log values. Present-day total organic carbon values are high in the central part of the basin near northeastern Montana and along the east edge of the basin, and low in the area of the Nesson anticline and along the southwest edge of the basin. Using a regression of density on temperature and the analysis of residuals from this regression, hydrocarbon maturity effects were partially separated from depositional effects. These analyses suggest that original concentrations of organic matter were low near the limits of the Bakken and increased to a high in northeastern Montana. The pre-maturation distribution of total organic carbon and the present-day total organic carbon distribution, as determined by statistical analyses of well-log data, agree with the results of geochemical analyses. The distributions can be explained by a relatively simple depositional pattern and thermal history for the Bakken. 6 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing with an apparatus having all current conducting electrodes within the cased well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information useful to determine the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from within the cased well are described. The multiple electrode apparatus has a plurality of spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage a portion of the interior of the cased well. During measurements of information useful to determine formation resistivity, current is conducted between a first current conducting electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the cased well to a second current conducting electrode that is also in electrical contact with the interior of the cased well. The first and second current conducting electrodes are separated by a distance sufficient so that at least a portion of the current conducted between the first and second current conducting electrodes is conducted through the geological formation of interest.

  3. Laboratory tests to evaluate and study formation damage with low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) for horizontal well completions in low pressure and depleted reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guoqiang

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing number of open hole horizontal well completions in low-pressure and depleted reservoirs requires the use of non-damaging low-density drill-in fluids (LDDIF) to avoid formation damage and realize optimum well productivity. To address...

  4. Method for determining formation quality factor from well log data and its application to seismic reservoir characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walls, Joel; Taner, M. Turhan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for seismic characterization of subsurface Earth formations includes determining at least one of compressional velocity and shear velocity, and determining reservoir parameters of subsurface Earth formations, at least including density, from data obtained from a wellbore penetrating the formations. A quality factor for the subsurface formations is calculated from the velocity, the density and the water saturation. A synthetic seismogram is calculated from the calculated quality factor and from the velocity and density. The synthetic seismogram is compared to a seismic survey made in the vicinity of the wellbore. At least one parameter is adjusted. The synthetic seismogram is recalculated using the adjusted parameter, and the adjusting, recalculating and comparing are repeated until a difference between the synthetic seismogram and the seismic survey falls below a selected threshold.

  5. EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM, AND RADIUM ASSOCIATED WITH PRODUCED FLUIDS, PRECIPITATES, AND SLUDGES FROM OIL, GAS, AND OILFIELD BRINE INJECTION WELLS IN MISSISSIPPI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Swann; John Matthews; Rick Ericksen; Joel Kuszmaul

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are known to be produced as a byproduct of hydrocarbon production in Mississippi. The presence of NORM has resulted in financial losses to the industry and continues to be a liability as the NORM-enriched scales and scale encrusted equipment is typically stored rather than disposed of. Although the NORM problem is well known, there is little publically available data characterizing the hazard. This investigation has produced base line data to fill this informational gap. A total of 329 NORM-related samples were collected with 275 of these samples consisting of brine samples. The samples were derived from 37 oil and gas reservoirs from all major producing areas of the state. The analyses of these data indicate that two isotopes of radium ({sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) are the ultimate source of the radiation. The radium contained in these co-produced brines is low and so the radiation hazard posed by the brines is also low. Existing regulations dictate the manner in which these salt-enriched brines may be disposed of and proper implementation of the rules will also protect the environment from the brine radiation hazard. Geostatistical analyses of the brine components suggest relationships between the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra, between the Cl concentration and {sup 226}Ra content, and relationships exist between total dissolved solids, BaSO{sub 4} saturation and concentration of the Cl ion. Principal component analysis points to geological controls on brine chemistry, but the nature of the geologic controls could not be determined. The NORM-enriched barite (BaSO{sub 4}) scales are significantly more radioactive than the brines. Leaching studies suggest that the barite scales, which were thought to be nearly insoluble in the natural environment, can be acted on by soil microorganisms and the enclosed radium can become bioavailable. This result suggests that the landspreading means of scale disposal should be reviewed. This investigation also suggests 23 specific components of best practice which are designed to provide a guide to safe handling of NORM in the hydrocarbon industry. The components of best practice include both worker safety and suggestions to maintain waste isolation from the environment.

  6. Formation damage studies of lubricants used with drill-in fluids systems on horizontal open-hole wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Fernando A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of lubricants in formation damage. Two types of lubricants were tested along with two types of drill-in fluids. The DIF's tested included a sized-calcium carbonate (SCC) and a sized-salt (SS). Also a set...

  7. Gypsum scale formation on a heated copper plate under natural convection conditions and produced water remediation technologies review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirhi, Mohamad H. (Mohamad Hussein)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scaling or crystallization fouling of unwanted salts is one of the most challenging and expensive problems encountered in different applications such as heat exchangers and thermal water treatment technologies. Formation ...

  8. Western cretaceous coal seam project formation evaluation of coalbed methane wells. Topical report, January 1988-December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavor, M.J.; Close, J.C.

    1991-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Procedures are discussed for collecting and interpreting sufficient data required to estimate coalbed methane gas and water production rates. The procedures include the collection of core, drill stem test, and open hole log data during the drilling of exploration and early development wells. The significance and use of the data is illustrated.

  9. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  10. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  11. Detection of miniband formation in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP quantum well solar cells by using a piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihara, Taketo; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kojima, Michiya; Ikari, Tetsuo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Interdisciplinary Research Organization, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sugiyama, Masakazu [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the effect of the miniband formation on the optical absorption spectrum, we adopted two non-destructive methodologies of piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) and photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopies for strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum-well (MQW) and superlattice (SL) structures inserted GaAs p-i-n solar cells. Because the barrier widths of the SL sample were very thin, miniband formations caused by coupling the wave functions between adjacent wells were expected. From PR measurements, a critical energy corresponding to the inter-subband transition between first-order electron and hole subbands was estimated for MQW sample, whereas two critical energies corresponding to the mini-Brillouin-zone center (?) and edge (?) were obtained for SL sample. The miniband width was calculated to be 19?meV on the basis of the energy difference between ? and ?. This coincided with the value of 16?meV calculated using the simple Kronig–Penney potential models. The obtained PPT spectrum for the SL sample was decomposed into the excitonic absorption and inter-miniband transition components. The latter component was expressed using the arcsine-like signal rise corresponding to the ? point in the mini-Brillouin zone that was enhanced by the Sommerfeld factor. The usefulness of the PPT methodology for investigating the inserted MQW and/or SL structure inserted solar cells is clearly demonstrated.

  12. Horizontal-well pilot waterflood tests shallow, abandoned field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAlpine, J.L. (White Buffalo Petroleum Co., Tulsa, OK (US)); Joshi, S.D. (Joshi Technologies International Inc., Tulsa, OK (US))

    1991-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the suitability of using horizontal wells in a waterflood of shallow, partially depleted sands which will be tested in the Jennings field in Oklahoma. The vertical wells drilled in the Jennings field intersect several well-known formations such as Red Fork, Misner, and Bartlesville sand. Most of these formations have been produced over a number of years, and presently no wells are producing in the field. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, wells were drilled on 10-acre spacing, and the last well was plugged in 1961. The field was produced only on primary production and produced approximately 1 million bbl of oil. Because the field was not waterflooded, a large potential exists to produce from the field using secondary methods. To improve the economics for the secondary process, a combination of horizontal and vertical wells was considered.

  13. Number of Producing Gas Wells (Summary)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year JanProduction 4 12 7311,925Count) Data Series: Wellhead

  14. Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G. (eds.) [eds.

    1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

  15. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  16. Shale mineralogy and burial diagenesis of Frio and Vicksburg Formations in two geopressured wells, McAllen Ranch area, Hidalgo County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, R.L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-six shale samples ranging in depth from 1454 ft to 13,430 ft from Shell Oil Company No. 1 Dixie Mortgage Loan well and 33 shale samples ranging in depth from 2183 ft to 13,632 ft from Shell Oil/Delhi-Taylor Oil Corporation No. 3 A.A. McAllen well were examined by x-ray techniques to determine the mineralogical parameters of the geopressured zone in the Vicksburg Fairway. Both wells have the same weight-percent trends with depth for the mineralogy: quartz, calcite, total clay, and potassium feldspar are constant; plagioclase feldspar gradually increases; kaolinite increases; discrete illite decreases; total mixed-layer illite-smectite (I/S) decreases; illite in mixed-layer I/S increases; and smectite in mixed-layer I/S decreases. Chlorite is found only in the geopressured zone of each well.

  17. Well performance graph simplifies field calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Ghetto, G.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphic Methods are widely employed in order to understand overall well behavior using only surface parameters. The authors propose a new graphic method, used successfully by Agip for oil and gas wells in Italy, Libya, Nigeria and Tunisia. The well performance graph helps solve many production problems, including estimation of: inflow performance relationship; causes of rate decline throughout well life; and production rate and bottomhole flowing pressure for various pressures upstream of the surface choke, and vice-versa. This method differs from others by using flow behavior through the choke for both critical and subcritical conditions. Equations describing flow through the formation, string and surface choke are also used. Results are quite reliable when these theoretical equations are calibrated with field data, either from the well concerned or from nearby wells producing the same fluid. This article describes the technique as it applies to oil wells. The methodology for gas wells is similar.

  18. Shale mineralogy and burial diagenesis of Frio and Vicksburg Formations in two geopressured wells, McAllen Ranch area, Hidalgo County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, R.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirty-six shale samples ranging in depth from 1454 ft to 13,430 ft from Shell Oil Company No. 1 Dixie Mortage Loan well and 33 shale samples ranging in depth from 2183 ft to 13,632 ft from Shell Oil/Delhi-Taylor Oil Corporation No. 3 A.A. McAllen well were examined by x-ray techniques to determine the mineralogical parameters of the geopressured zone in the Vicksburg Fairway. Both wells have the same weight-percent trends with depth for the mineralogy: quartz, calcite, total clay, and potassium feldspar are constant; plagioclase feldspar gradually increases; kaolinite increases; discrete illite decreases; total mixed-layer illite-smectite (I/S) decreases; illite in mixed layer I/S increases; and smectite in mixed-layer I/S decreases. Chlorite is found only in the geopressured zone of each well. The Boles and Franks model is compatible with a steady supply of original mixed-layer I/S during the depositional history of the McAllen Ranch area. The constant content with depth of calcite, quartz, and potassium feldspar indicates that limited material, if any, is supplied by the shales to surrounding sands. The ions generated by changes within the clay minerals are involved in further clay mineral reactions as outlined above. In addition, magnesium and iron are involved in forming chlorite within the shales.

  19. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  20. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  1. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  2. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  3. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  4. Geologic and hydrologic controls critical to coalbed methane producibility and resource assessment: Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Northwest Colorado. Topical report, December 1, 1993-November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this report are: To further evaluate the interplay of geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane production and resource assessment; to refine and validate our basin-scale coalbed methane producibility model; and to analyze the economics of coalbed methane exploration and development in the Piceance Basin.

  5. Combustion Assisted Gravity Drainage (CAGD): An In-Situ Combustion Method to Recover Heavy Oil and Bitumen from Geologic Formations using a Horizontal Injector/Producer Pair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahnema, Hamid

    2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion assisted gravity drainage (CAGD) is an integrated horizontal well air injection process for recovery and upgrading of heavy oil and bitumen from tar sands. Short-distance air injection and direct mobilized oil production are the main...

  6. Dimensions of Wellness Staying Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    to protect your physical health by eating a well-balanced diet, getting plenty of physical activity-evaluation and self-assessment. Wellness involves continually learning and making changes to enhance your state) A state in which your mind is engaged in lively interaction with the world around you. Intellectual

  7. Monitoring well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitoring well including a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto.

  8. Monitoring well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  9. Monitoring well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  10. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  11. Report on Produced Water

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the pond, as well as the quality of the produced water. In semiarid regions, hot, dry air moving from a land surface will result in high evaporation rates for smaller ponds. As...

  12. Coalbed methane producibility from the Mannville coals in Alberta, Canada: A comparison of two areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Coalbed methane producibility from the Mannville coals in Alberta, Canada: A comparison of two wells drilled at Corbett Creek. Keywords: Coalbed methane; Mannville coals; Alberta; Petrology 71 TCF of methane, the Belly River Formation coals 147 TCF, and the Ardley Formation coals about 57

  13. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  14. Treating-pressure analysis in the Bakken formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, D.D. (BJ Services (US))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bakken formation is an oil-producing interval in the Williston basin. Usually, commercial Bakken wells are linked to an anisotropic natural fracture network. Hydraulic fracturing treatments have been used extensively in vertical wells and to a limited extent in horizontal wells. In this paper, bottom hole treating pressure (BHTP's) are analyzed to improve understanding of hydraulic fracture propagation in the Bakken.

  15. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony (Houston, TX); Bauldreay, Joanna M. (Chester, GB)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  16. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Nair, Vijay; Munsterman, Erwin Hunh; Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus; Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a subsurface formation and compositions produced therefrom are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  17. Compositions produced using an in situ heat treatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX); Munsterman, Erwin Henh (Amsterdam, NL); Van Bergen, Petrus Franciscus (Amsterdam, NL); Van Den Berg, Franciscus Gondulfus Antonius (Amsterdam, NL)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing hydrocarbons from a subsurface formation includes providing heat to the subsurface formation using an in situ heat treatment process. One or more formation particles may be formed during heating of the subsurface formation. Fluid that includes hydrocarbons and the formation particles may be produced from the subsurface formation. The formation particles in the produced fluid may include cenospheres and have an average particle size of at least 0.5 micrometers.

  18. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  19. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production...

  20. Program solves for gas well inflow performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engineer, R. [AERA Energy LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Grillete, G. [Bechtel Petroleum Operations Inc., Tupman, CA (United States)

    1997-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Windows-based program, GasIPR, can solve for the gas well inflow performance relationship (IPR). The program calculates gas producing rates at various pressures and is applicable for both turbulent and non-turbulent flow. It also has the following capabilities: computes PVT properties {gamma}{sub g}, P{sub c}, T{sub c}, heating value, Z, {mu}{sub g}, B{sub g}, and {rho}{sub g} from input gas composition data; calculates the Reynolds number (N{sub Re}) and shows the gas flow rates at the sandface at which the turbulence effect must be considered; helps the user to optimize the net perforation interval (h{sub p}) so that the turbulence effect can be minimized; and helps the user to evaluate the sensitivity of formation permeability on gas flow rate for a new play. IPR is a critical component in forecasting gas well deliverability. IPRs are used for sizing optimum tubing configurations and compressors, designing gravel packs, and solving gas well loading problems. IPR is the key reference for nodal analysis.

  1. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Mark D.; Bacon, Diana H.; White, Signe K.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2013-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Wells are the primary engineered component of geologic sequestration systems with deep subsurface reservoirs. Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well trajectories, well pressures, and fluid flow rates are parameters over which well engineers and operators have control during the geologic sequestration process. Current drilling practices provided well engineers flexibility in designing well trajectories and controlling screened intervals. Injection pressures and fluids can be used to purposely fracture the reservoir formation or to purposely prevent fracturing. Numerical simulation of geologic sequestration processes involves the solution of multifluid transport equations within heterogeneous geologic media. These equations that mathematically describe the flow of fluid through the reservoir formation are nonlinear in form, requiring linearization techniques to resolve. In actual geologic settings fluid exchange between a well and reservoir is a function of local pressure gradients, fluid saturations, and formation characteristics. In numerical simulators fluid exchange between a well and reservoir can be specified using a spectrum of approaches that vary from totally ignoring the reservoir conditions to fully considering reservoir conditions and well processes. Well models are a numerical simulation approach that account for local conditions and gradients in the exchange of fluids between the well and reservoir. As with the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow in the reservoir, variation in fluid properties with temperature and pressure yield nonlinearities in the mathematical equations that describe fluid flow within the well. To numerically simulate the fluid exchange between a well and reservoir the two systems of nonlinear multifluid flow equations must be resolved. The spectrum of numerical approaches for resolving these equations varies from zero coupling to full coupling. In this paper we describe a fully coupled solution approach for well model that allows for a flexible well trajectory and screened interval within a structured hexahedral computational grid. In this scheme the nonlinear well equations have been fully integrated into the Jacobian matrix for the reservoir conservation equations, minimizing the matrix bandwidth.

  2. ARSENIC IN PRIVATE WELLS IN NH YEAR 1 FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bucci, David J.

    performed geospatial analysis of the well water arsenic estimates and survey results and produced the maps .................................................................................................. 7 Well water quality...................................................................................................... 7 Well water testing

  3. Flow tests of the Gladys McCall well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report pulls together the data from all of the geopressured-geothermal field research conducted at the Gladys McCall well. The well produced geopressured brine containing dissolved natural gas from the Lower Miocene sands at a depth of 15,150 to 16,650 feet. More than 25 million barrels of brine and 727 million standard cubic feet of natural gas were produced in a series of flow tests between December 1982 and October 1987 at various brine flow rates up to 28,000 barrels per day. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 9 Sand found the permeability to be 67 to 85 md (millidarcies) for a brine volume of 85 to 170 million barrels. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 8 Sand found a permeability of 113 to 132 md for a reservoir volume of 430 to 550 million barrels of brine. The long-term flow and buildup test of the Number 8 Sand found that the high-permeability reservoir connected to the wellbore (measured by the short-term flow test) was connected to a much larger, low-permeability reservoir. Numerical simulation of the flow and buildup tests required this large connected reservoir to have a volume of about 8 billion barrels (two cubic miles of reservoir rock) with effective permeabilities in the range of 0.2 to 20 md. Calcium carbonate scale formation in the well tubing and separator equipment was a problem. During the first 2 years of production, scale formation was prevented in the surface equipment by injection of an inhibitor upstream of the choke. Starting in 1985, scale formation in the production tubing was successfully prevented by injecting inhibitor pills'' directly into the reservoir. Corrosion and/or erosion of surface piping and equipment, as well as disposal well tubing, was also significant.

  4. Well control procedures for extended reach wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gjorv, Bjorn

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    been found to be critical to the success of ERD are torque and drag, drillstring design, wellbore stability, hole cleaning, casing design, directional drilling optimization, drilling dynamics and rig sizing.4 Other technologies of vital importance... are the use of rotary steerable systems (RSS) together with measurement while drilling (MWD) and logging while drilling (LWD) to geosteer the well into the geological target.5 Many of the wells drilled at Wytch Farm would not have been possible to drill...

  5. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  6. Air drilling has some pluses for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carden, R.S. (Grace, Shursen, Moore and Associates, Inc., Amarillo, TX (US))

    1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Drilling horizontal wells with air as the circulating medium is not a common practice; however, air has come distinct advantages over drilling mud. They are: Significant increase in rate of penetration which leads to shorter drilling time. Elimination of lost circulation problems, especially in areas of very low bottom hole pressures. Continual drill stem test of potential producing formations. Minimal damage to the formation. Unfortunately, there are some disadvantages to drilling with air. Downhole motor life is shorter and less predictable. No measurement-while-drilling (MWD) system is currently available that will work consistently in air drilling environments. Hole cleaning is a problem at inclinations above 50{degree}. The horizontal section length is reduced because of the increased friction (drag) between the drillstring and borehole. The types of lithologies and targets are limited. Several horizontal wells have been successfully drilled with air or foam since 1986. At a minimum, operators drill the horizontal section with air or foam to eliminate lost circulation problems in low pressure or partially depleted reservoirs and to reduce formation damage due to drilling fluid invasion. However, problems have been encountered in drilling horizontal wells with air. Not all of the problems are unique to air drilling, but some may be exaggerated by the conditions in an air-drilled hole.

  7. Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKay, A.S.

    1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

  8. Altering Reservoir Wettability to Improve Production from Single Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. W. Weiss

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured and typically produce less than 10% original oil in place during primary recovery. Spontaneous imbibition has proven an important mechanism for oil recovery from fractured reservoirs, which are usually weak waterflood candidates. In some situations, chemical stimulation can promote imbibition of water to alter the reservoir wettability toward water-wetness such that oil is produced at an economic rate from the rock matrix into fractures. In this project, cores and fluids from five reservoirs were used in laboratory tests: the San Andres formation (Fuhrman Masho and Eagle Creek fields) in the Permian Basin of Texas and New Mexico; and the Interlake, Stony Mountain, and Red River formations from the Cedar Creek Anticline in Montana and South Dakota. Solutions of nonionic, anionic, and amphoteric surfactants with formation water were used to promote waterwetness. Some Fuhrman Masho cores soaked in surfactant solution had improved oil recovery up to 38%. Most Eagle Creek cores did not respond to any of the tested surfactants. Some Cedar Creek anticline cores had good response to two anionic surfactants (CD 128 and A246L). The results indicate that cores with higher permeability responded better to the surfactants. The increased recovery is mainly ascribed to increased water-wetness. It is suspected that rock mineralogy is also an important factor. The laboratory work generated three field tests of the surfactant soak process in the West Fuhrman Masho San Andres Unit. The flawlessly designed tests included mechanical well clean out, installation of new pumps, and daily well tests before and after the treatments. Treatments were designed using artificial intelligence (AI) correlations developed from 23 previous surfactant soak treatments. The treatments were conducted during the last quarter of 2006. One of the wells produced a marginal volume of incremental oil through October. It is interesting to note that the field tests were conducted in an area of the field that has not met production expectations. The dataset on the 23 Phosphoria well surfactant soaks was updated. An analysis of the oil decline curves indicted that 4.5 lb of chemical produced a barrel of incremental oil. The AI analysis supports the adage 'good wells are the best candidates.' The generally better performance of surfactant in the high permeability core laboratory tests supports this observation. AI correlations were developed to predict the response to water-frac stimulations in a tight San Andres reservoir. The correlations maybe useful in the design of Cedar Creek Anticline surfactant soak treatments planned for next year. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scans of dolomite cores to measure porosity and saturation during the high temperature laboratory work were acquired. The scans could not be correlated with physical measurement using either conventional or AI methods.

  9. Regulations of Wells (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Protection regulates the construction, repair, and abandonment of wells, as well as the persons and businesses undertaking such practices. Governing boards of water...

  10. Groundwater and Wells (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section describes regulations relating to groundwater protection, water wells, and water withdrawals, and requires the registration of all water wells in the state.

  11. Plugging Abandoned Water Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    . It is recommended that before you begin the process of plugging an aban- doned well that you seek advice from your local groundwater conservation district, a licensed water well driller in your area, or the Water Well Drillers Program with the Texas Department... hire a licensed water well driller or pump installer to seal and plug an abandoned well. Well contractors have the equipment and an understanding of soil condi- tions to determine how a well should be properly plugged. How can you take care...

  12. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  13. Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Fracture characteristics and their relationships to producing zones in deep wells, Raft River...

  14. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  15. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  16. Horizontal well IPR calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, L.K.; Todd, B.J.; Evans, C.E.; Pierson, R.G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the calculation of near-wellbore skin and non-Darcy flow coefficient for horizontal wells based on whether the well is drilled in an underbalanced or overbalanced condition, whether the well is completed openhole, with a slotted liner, or cased, and on the number of shots per foot and phasing for cased wells. The inclusion of mechanical skin and the non-Darcy flow coefficient in previously published horizontal well equations is presented and a comparison between these equations is given. In addition, both analytical and numerical solutions for horizontal wells with skin and non-Darcy flow are presented for comparison.

  17. Underground Wells (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Class I, III, IV and V injection wells require a permit issued by the Executive Director of the Department of Environmental Quality; Class V injection wells utilized in the remediation of...

  18. Treatment of produced water using chemical and biological unit operations.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Liang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Water generated along with oil and gas during coal bed methane and oil shale operations is commonly known as produced water, formation water, or oilfield… (more)

  19. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  20. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  1. Fully Coupled Well Models for Fluid Injection and Production...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wells provide a conduit for injecting greenhouse gases and producing reservoirs fluids, such as brines, natural gas, and crude oil, depending on the target reservoir. Well...

  2. Well drilling apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prins, K.; Prins, R.K.

    1982-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A drill rig for drilling wells having a derrick adapted to hold and lower a conductor string and drill pipe string. A support frame is fixed to the derrick to extend over the well to be drilled, and a rotary table, for holding and rotating drill pipe strings, is movably mounted thereon. The table is displaceable between an active position in alignment with the axis of the well and an inactive position laterally spaced therefrom. A drill pipe holder is movably mounted on the frame below the rotary table for displacement between a first position laterally of the axis of the well and a second position in alignment with the axis of the well. The rotary table and said drill pipe holder are displaced in opposition to each other, so that the rotary table may be removed from alignment with the axis of the well and said drill pipe string simultaneously held without removal from said well.

  3. Quantum well multijunction photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaffin, R.J.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1983-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic, quantum well, multilayer photovoltaic cell comprises a p-n junction comprising a p-region on one side and an n-region on the other side, each of which regions comprises a series of at least three semiconductor layers, all p-type in the p-region and all n-type in the n-region; each of said series of layers comprising alternating barrier and quantum well layers, each barrier layer comprising a semiconductor material having a first bandgap and each quantum well layer comprising a semiconductor material having a second bandgap when in bulk thickness which is narrower than said first bandgap, the barrier layers sandwiching each quantum well layer and each quantum well layer being sufficiently thin that the width of its bandgap is between said first and second bandgaps, such that radiation incident on said cell and above an energy determined by the bandgap of the quantum well layers will be absorbed and will produce an electrical potential across said junction.

  4. Device for temporarily closing duct-formers in well completion apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandmer, H.M.; Zandmer, S.M.

    1981-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A duct-forming device is disclosed for use in a well completion apparatus of the kind, wherein a bore hole casing is positioned in a bore hole and duct-forming devices of alkali- and acid resistant metal-such as steel-are secured at spaced levels to the casing in alignment with holes machined in the casing wall. In accordance with the invention, a closure device is arranged within the duct-forming device which permits flow of predetermined amounts of liquid, such as acid, from the interior of the casing through the duct-forming device and into the producing formation, while gradually being moved by the liquid into a position in which such fluid flow is prevented. After the fluid flow has been stopped by the closure device and when the formation pressure exceeds the pressure within the duct-forming device and the casing, fluid from the formation then forces the closure device toward and into the casing space to permit thereafter free flow of formation fluid into the duct-forming device and the casing or of pressurized treatment liquid from the casing into the formation. The inventive arrangement permits inter alia the establishment of a sufficient and substantially uniform feeding rate of treatment liquid, such as acid, from the casing into the producing formation through all the duct-formers in preparation for subsequent acidification or other treatments, such as sand fracking.

  5. T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well, Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Geopressured-geothermal well report, Volume II. Well workover and production testing, February 1982-October 1985. Final report. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The T-F and S/DOE Gladys McCall No. 1 well was the fourth in a series of wells in the DOE Design Wells Program that were drilled into deep, large geopressured-geothermal brine aquifers in order to provide basic data with which to determine the technological and economic viability of producing energy from these unconventional resources. This brine production well was spudded on May 27, 1981 and drilling operations were completed on November 2, 1981 after using 160 days of rig time. The well was drilled to a total depth of 16,510 feet. The target sands lie at a depth of 14,412 to 15,860 feet in the Fleming Formation of the lower Miocene. This report covers well production testing operations and necessary well workover operations during the February 1982 to October 1985 period. The primary goals of the well testing program were: (1) to determine reservoir size, shape, volume, drive mechanisms, and other reservoir parameters, (2) to determine and demonstrate the technological and economic viability of producing energy from a geopressured-geothermal brine aquifer through long-term production testing, and (3) to determine problem areas associated with such long-term production, and to develop solutions therefor.

  6. Estimation of static formation temperatures in geothermal wells | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It isInformationexplains a4 Climate Zone Subtype A.EssexApproachEnergy

  7. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  8. Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

  9. Geothermal well stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, A.R.; Pittard, F.J.; Hanold, R.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All available data on proppants and fluids were examined to determine areas in technology that need development for 300 to 500/sup 0/F (150/sup 0/ to 265/sup 0/C) hydrothermal wells. While fluid properties have been examined well into the 450/sup 0/F range, proppants have not been previously tested at elevated temperatures except in a few instances. The latest test data at geothermal temperatures is presented and some possible proppants and fluid systems that can be used are shown. Also discussed are alternative stimulation techniques for geothermal wells.

  10. Acoustic well cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E. (11904 Bell Ave., Austin, TX 78759-2415); Sharma, Mukul M. (Dept. of Petroleum Engr. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712)

    1997-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  11. BUFFERED WELL FIELD OUTLINES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    drainage radii) ...see figure below. Copy the code into a new module. Inputs: In ArcMap, data frame named "Task 1" Well FC as first layer (layer 0). Output: Polygon feature class...

  12. Shock Chlorination of Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarland, Mark L.; Dozier, Monty

    2003-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Shock chlorination is a method of disinfecting a water well. This publication gives complete instructions for chlorinating with bleach or with dry chlorine. It is also available in Spanish as publication L-5441S...

  13. Isobaric groundwater well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a parameter in a well, under isobaric conditions, including such parameters as hydraulic gradient, pressure, water level, soil moisture content and/or aquifer properties the method as presented comprising providing a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends, the casing supporting a transducer having a reference port; placing the casing lengthwise into the well, second end first, with the reference port vented above the water table in the well; and sealing the first end. A system is presented for measuring a parameter in a well, the system comprising a casing having first and second opposite ends, and a length between the ends and being configured to be placed lengthwise into a well second end first; a transducer, the transducer having a reference port, the reference port being vented in the well above the water table, the casing being screened across and above the water table; and a sealing member sealing the first end. In one embodiment, the transducer is a tensiometer transducer and in other described embodiments, another type transducer is used in addition to a tensiometer.

  14. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  15. Carbonate depositional environments and facies of the shelf margin and outer shelf, Lower Cretaceous Sligo Formation, south Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkland, Brenda Lee

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with well interpretation, and Dr. John Spang for sharing his concern and advice. This study was sponsored by Tenneco Oil. Mr. Douglas B. Selvius suggested the project and he and Mr. Christopher E. Betz made many helpful suggestions and provided materials... Texas (Cook, 1979). Production from gas fields in the time and facies equivalent Cupido Formation of northern Nexico has been excellent, and although produc- tion from the Sligo Formation has been disappointing, several wells drilled between 1982...

  16. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  17. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  18. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  19. Spacer for deep wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, G. D.

    1984-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A spacer for use in a deep well that is to have a submersible pump situated downhole and with a string of tubing attached to the pump for delivering the pumped fluid. The pump is electrically driven, and power is supplied via an armored cable which parallels the string of tubing. Spacers are clamped to the cable and have the tubing running through an eccentrically located passage in each spacer. The outside dimensions of a spacer fit freely inside any casing in the well.

  20. Eat Well for Less.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Maeona; Mason, Louise; Reasonover, Frances L.; Tribble, Marie; Gibson, G. G.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    planned, balanced meal: which are appetizing and ltiilate and less expensive pose a task for the homemaker, but I are possible with wise buying, careful storing, clever planning lmaginative cooking. I BOW TO BUY I Select vegetables with little waste.... For Vegetables Not Needing Refrigeration 9 Store potatoes, onions, topless carrots, beets and winter squ:! in a cool, dry, ventilated place. -0 (1 . L Da ir-y Produc fs Store fresh milk and cream in their container in the coldest l! of the refrigerator...

  1. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Pauline Kraft Well No. 1, Nueces County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pauline Kraft Well No. 1 was originally drilled to a depth of 13,001 feet and abandoned as a dry hole. The well was re-entered in an effort to obtain a source of GEO/sup 2/ energy for a proposed gasohol manufacturing plant. The well was tested through a 5-inch by 2-3/8 inch annulus. The geological section tested was the Frio-Anderson sand of Mid-Oligocene age. The interval tested was from 12,750 to 12,860 feet. A saltwater disposal well was drilled on the site and completed in a Micocene sand section. The disposal interval was perforated from 4710 to 4770 feet and from 4500 to 4542 feet. The test well failed to produce water at substantial rates. Initial production was 34 BWPD. A large acid stimulation treatment increased productivity to 132 BWPD, which was still far from an acceptable rate. During the acid treatment, a failure of the 5-inch production casing occurred. The poor production rates are attributed to a reservoir with very low permeability and possible formation damage. The casing failure is related to increased tensile strain resulting from cooling of the casing by acid and from the high surface injection pressure. The location of the casing failure is now known at this time, but it is not at the surface. Failure as a result of a defect in a crossover joint at 723 feet is suspected.

  2. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  3. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-EC-5 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 342.6 meters below ground surface. The borehole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 309.9 meters, 40 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 18 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 349.6 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results from detailed chemical and mineralogical analyses of rock samples. The well penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Thirsty Canyon Group, caldera moat-filling sedimentary deposits, lava of the Beatty Wash Formation, and landslide breccia and tuffs of the Timber Mountain Group. The well reached total depth in welded ashflow tuff of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff after penetrating 440.1 meters of this unit, which is also the main water-producing unit in the well. The geologic interpretation of data from this well constrains the western margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera to the west of the well location.

  4. Economic analysis of shale gas wells in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Christopher D. (Christopher Daniel)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural gas produced from shale formations has increased dramatically in the past decade and has altered the oil and gas industry greatly. The use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has enabled the production ...

  5. Spatially indirect excitons in coupled quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Chih-Wei Eddy

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic quantum phenomena such as interference or phase coherence between different quantum states are rarely manifest in macroscopic systems due to a lack of significant correlation between different states. An exciton system is one candidate for observation of possible quantum collective effects. In the dilute limit, excitons in semiconductors behave as bosons and are expected to undergo Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) at a temperature several orders of magnitude higher than for atomic BEC because of their light mass. Furthermore, well-developed modern semiconductor technologies offer flexible manipulations of an exciton system. Realization of BEC in solid-state systems can thus provide new opportunities for macroscopic quantum coherence research. In semiconductor coupled quantum wells (CQW) under across-well static electric field, excitons exist as separately confined electron-hole pairs. These spatially indirect excitons exhibit a radiative recombination time much longer than their thermal relaxation time a unique feature in direct band gap semiconductor based structures. Their mutual repulsive dipole interaction further stabilizes the exciton system at low temperature and screens in-plane disorder more effectively. All these features make indirect excitons in CQW a promising system to search for quantum collective effects. Properties of indirect excitons in CQW have been analyzed and investigated extensively. The experimental results based on time-integrated or time-resolved spatially-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and imaging are reported in two categories. (i) Generic indirect exciton systems: general properties of indirect excitons such as the dependence of exciton energy and lifetime on electric fields and densities were examined. (ii) Quasi-two-dimensional confined exciton systems: highly statistically degenerate exciton systems containing more than tens of thousands of excitons within areas as small as (10 micrometer){sup 2} were observed. The spatial and energy distributions of optically active excitons were used as thermodynamic quantities to construct a phase diagram of the exciton system, demonstrating the existence of distinct phases. Optical and electrical properties of the CQW sample were examined thoroughly to provide deeper understanding of the formation mechanisms of these cold exciton systems. These insights offer new strategies for producing cold exciton systems, which may lead to opportunities for the realization of BEC in solid-state systems.

  6. Decontaminating Flooded Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boellstorff, Diana; Dozier, Monty; Provin, Tony; Dictson, Nikkoal; McFarland, Mark L.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ER-011 6-06 Mark L. McFarland, Associate Professor and Extension Water Resources Specialist; Diane E. Boellstorff, Program Specialist Water Quality; Tony L. Provin, Associate Professor and Extension Soil Chemist; Monty C. Dozier, Assistant... and local hospitals may also test water samples for bacteria. The cost of the test ranges from $8 to $30, depending on the lab. Well disinfection does not eliminate hydrocarbons (fuels, oils), pesticides, heavy metals or other types of nonbiological...

  7. Basic Data Report for Monitor Well AEC-7 Reconfiguration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (OSE) permitted well AEC-7 as C-2742. This well has been part of the far-field monitoring network since 1974. The well was used to obtain water level elevations and hydraulic parameters from both the Bell Canyon Formation and the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation. This basic data report provides a historical account of the well from the original installation to the current configuration.

  8. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondouin, M.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavy Oil is abundant in California. It is a very viscous fluid, which must be thinned in order to flow from wells at economical rates. The best method of oil viscosity reduction is by cyclic steam injection into the oil-containing rock formations. Making steam in conventional generators fueled with Natural Gas is, however, a costly process. The main objective of this Project is to reduce the cost of the required steam, per Barrel of Oil produced. This is made possible by a combination of Patented new technologies with several known methods. The best known method for increasing the production rate from oil wells is to use horizontal drainholes, which provide a much greater flow area from the oil zone into the well. A recent statistic based on 344 horizontal wells in 21 Canadian Oil fields containing Heavy Oil shows that these are, on the average six times more prolific than vertical wells. The cost of horizontal wells, however, is generally two to three times that of a vertical well, in the same field, so our second goal is to reduce the net cost of horizontal wells by connecting two of them to the same vertical casing, well head and pumping system. With such a well configuration, it is possible to get two horizontal wells for the price of about one and a half times the price of a single vertical well.

  9. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  10. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

  12. Coal markets squeeze producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supply/demand fundamentals seem poised to keep prices of competing fossil fuels high, which could cushion coal prices, but increased mining and transportation costs may squeeze producer profits. Are markets ready for more volatility?

  13. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    West Carney Field produces from Hunton Formation. All the wells produce oil, water and gas. The main objective of this study is to understand the unique behavior observed in the field. This behavior includes: (1) Decrease in WOR over time; (2) Decrease in GOR at initial stages; (3) High decline rates of oil and gas; and (4) strong hydrodynamic connectivity between wells. This report specifically addresses two issues relevant to our understanding of the West Carney reservoir. By using core and log data as well as fluorescence information, we demonstrate that our hypothesis of how the reservoir is formed is consistent with these observations. Namely, oil migrated in water wet reservoir, over time, oil changed the wettability of some part of the reservoir, oil eventually leaked to upper formations prompting re-introduction of water into reservoir. Because of change in wettability, different pore size distributions responded differently to water influx. This hypothesis is consistent with fluorescence and porosity data, as we explain it in this quarterly report. The second issue deals with how to best calculate connected oil volume in the reservoir. The log data does not necessarily provide us with relevant information regarding oil in place. However, we have developed a new material balance technique to calculate the connected oil volume based on observed pressure and production data. By using the technique to four different fields producing from Hunton formation, we demonstrate that the technique can be successfully applied to calculate the connected oil in place.

  14. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godchaux, Frank A.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is a detailed prognosis covering the acquisition, completion, drilling, testing and abandonment of the Frank A. Godchaux, III, Well No. 1 under the Wells of Opportunity Program. The well is located approximately 12 miles southeast of the city of Abbeville, Louisiana. Eaton Operating Company proposes to test a section of the Planulina sand at a depth ranging from 15,584 to 15,692 feet. The reservoir pressure is estimated to be 14,480 psi and the temperature of the formation water is expected to be 298 F. The water salinity is calculated to be 75,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce 20,000 barrels of water per day with a gas content of 44 standard cubic feet pre barrel. The well was acquired from C and K Petroleu, Inc. on March 20, 1981. C and K abandoned the well at a total depth of 16,000 feet. The well has a 7-5/8 inches liner set at 13,387 feet. Eaton proposes to set 5-1/2 inch casing at 16,000 feet and produce the well through the casing using a 2-3/8 inch tubing string for wireline protection and for pressure control. A 4,600 foot saltwater disposal well will be drilled on the site and testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton tests. The total estimated cost to perform the work is $2,959,000. An optional test from 14,905 to 15,006 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous Eaton WOO tests will be utilized on this test. This equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. The Institute of Gas Technology and Mr. Don Clark will handle the sampling and testing and reservoir evaluation, respectively, as on the previous Eaton tests.

  15. Development Wells At Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Salt Wells Area (Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Development Wells At Salt Wells Area...

  16. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  17. Numerical studies of enthalpy and CO2 transients in two-phase wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Similarity Method for Geothermal Well Test Analysis", Waterbut in most cases geothermal wells are produced at constantwith data from many geothermal wells. Radial variations in

  18. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger--Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden and Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners previously provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have enhanced and streamlined our software, and we are beta-testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We have processed all well information and identified potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, the final technical report is almost finished and a draft version is being reviewed by Gary Covatch.

  19. Ultra Thin Quantum Well Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr Saeid Ghamaty

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has enabled Hi-Z technology Inc. (Hi-Z) to understand how to improve the thermoelectric properties of Si/SiGe Quantum Well Thermoelectric Materials. The research that was completed under this project has enabled Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) to satisfy the project goal to understand how to improve thermoelectric conversion efficiency and reduce costs by fabricating ultra thin Si/SiGe quantum well (QW) materials and measuring their properties. In addition, Hi-Z gained critical new understanding on how thin film fabrication increases the silicon substrate's electrical conductivity, which is important new knowledge to develop critical material fabrication parameters. QW materials are constructed with alternate layers of an electrical conductor, SiGe and an electrical insulator, Si. Film thicknesses were varied, ranging from 2nm to 10nm where 10 nm was the original film thickness prior to this work. The optimum performance was determined at a Si and SiGe thickness of 4nm for an electrical current and heat flow parallel to the films, which was an important conclusion of this work. Essential new information was obtained on how the Si substrate electrical conductivity increases by up to an order of magnitude upon deposition of QW films. Test measurements and calculations are accurate and include both the quantum well and the substrate. The large increase in substrate electrical conductivity means that a larger portion of the electrical current passes through the substrate. The silicon substrate's increased electrical conductivity is due to inherent impurities and thermal donors which are activated during both molecular beam epitaxy and sputtering deposition of QW materials. Hi-Z's forward looking cost estimations based on future high performance QW modules, in which the best Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity are taken from separate samples predict that the electricity cost produced with a QW module could be achieved at <$0.35/W. This price would open many markets for waste heat recovery applications. By installing Hi-Z's materials in applications in which electricity could be produced from waste heat sources could result in significant energy savings as well as emissions reductions. For example, if QW thermoelectric generators could be introduced commercially in 2015, and assuming they could also capture an additional 0.1%/year of the available waste heat from the aluminum, steel, and iron industries, then by 2020, their use would lead to a 2.53 trillion Btu/year reduction in energy consumption. This translates to a $12.9 million/year energy savings, and 383.6 million lb's of CO2 emissions reduction per year. Additionally, Hi-Z would expect that the use of QW TE devices in the automotive, manufacturing, and energy generation industries would reduce the USA's petroleum and fossil fuel dependence, and thus significantly reduce emissions from CO2 and other polluting gasses such as NOx, SOx, and particulate matter (PM), etc.

  20. Hydrocarbon potential of Spearfish Formation in eastern Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodge C.J.N.; Reid, F.S.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 36 million bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic traps in sandstones of the Triassic-Jurassic Spearfish Formation in the eastern part of the Williston basin. Newburg field has produced 32 million bbl of oil and Waskada field, discovered in 1980, is estimated to have over 10 million bbl of oil in reserves. A binocular microscopic and petrographic examination of cores from each of the fields has revealed considerable differences in the characteristics of producing sandstones. Cores and sample cuttings from 30 wells in the US and Canada form the basis for this comparison of the two fields. The Spearfish Formation consists of porous, permeable, well-sorted, very fine-grained sandstones with a sucrosic dolomite matrix that are interbedded with impermeable sandstones, siltstones, and shale. The environment of deposition is believed to be the intertidal zone (tidal flat). Sediments of the Spearfish Formation were deposited by a transgressive sea on an eroded Mississippian carbonate section. Oil found in the Spearfish sandstones is derived from the Mississippian.

  1. Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Single-Well and Cross-Well Seismic...

  2. Producing computer facial animation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koehlert, Erik Wulf

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    animation. A description of current state of the art provides current achievements by academic and industrial labs as well as individual artists. A tutorial focusing on modeling, texturing, and setting up animation controls for a facial model offers step...

  3. Produce syngas for methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.L. (Foster Wheeler International Corp., Milan (IT))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined reforming, in which an oxygen reforming reactor is added downstream from a conventional tubular reactor to produce syngas for methanol, achieves a substantial reduction in energy consumption with the least impact on the environment. This paper reports that the advantages of this process scheme are as follows: 8% to 10% reduction in the consumption of natural gas per ton of methanol, The size of the primary reformer is reduced, Reduction of syngas compression requirement due to increased syngas pressure, Reduced steam consumption, Production of syngas with the stoichiometric composition required by methanol synthesis. Synthesis gases for the production of methanol and synfuels are basically mixtures of hydrogen and carbon oxides. They have been produced from natural gas by steam reforming, autothermal reforming and noncatalytic partial oxidation.

  4. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  5. Additional Reserve Recovery Using New Polymer Treatment on High Water Oil Ratio Wells in Alameda Field, Kingman County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Spillane

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemical Flooding process, like a polymer treatment, as a tertiary (enhanced) oil recovery process can be a very good solution based on the condition of this field and its low cost compared to the drilling of new wells. It is an improved water flooding method in which high molecular-weight (macro-size molecules) and water-soluble polymers are added to the injection water to improve the mobility ratio by enhancing the viscosity of the water and by reducing permeability in invaded zones during the process. In other words, it can improve the sweep efficiency by reducing the water mobility. This polymer treatment can be performed on the same active oil producer well rather than on an injector well in the existence of strong water drive in the formation. Some parameters must be considered before any polymer job is performed such as: formation temperature, permeability, oil gravity and viscosity, location and formation thickness of the well, amount of remaining recoverable oil, fluid levels, well productivity, water oil ratio (WOR) and existence of water drive. This improved oil recovery technique has been used widely and has significant potential to extend reservoir life by increasing the oil production and decreasing the water cut. This new technology has the greatest potential in reservoirs that are moderately heterogeneous, contain moderately viscous oils, and have adverse water-oil mobility ratios. For example, many wells in Kansas's Arbuckle formation had similar treatments and we have seen very effective results. In addition, there were previous polymer treatments conducted by Texaco in Alameda Field on a number of wells throughout the Viola-Simpson formation in the early 70's. Most of the treatments proved to be very successful.

  6. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  7. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  8. SB 4 Well Stimulation Treatment Regulations Text of Proposed Regulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    surveys; routine activities that do not affect the integrity of the well or the formation; the removal SB 4 Well Stimulation Treatment Regulations Text of Proposed Regulations Page 1 of 13 SB 4 WELL STIMULATION TREATMENT REGULATIONS TEXT OF PROPOSED REGULATIONS Added text is shown in underline

  9. Well-pump alignment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  10. Method for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, J.L.

    1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

  11. Well Permits (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Well permits are required for the installation of wells in private and public space. Wells are defined as any trest hole, shaft, or soil excavation created by any means including, but not limited...

  12. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  13. Knowledge-based stratigraphic well-log correlation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, Michael A.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    represents the formations, and new rules for the knowledge-base that can correlate formations in reservoirs with secondary stratification. This expert system has correlated ovei' 3, 500 ft. of well-log data from three different types of rock sequences... inspirational support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT nl DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES x1 LIST OF FIGURES xl1 CHAPTER I ? INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Well-Logs 1. 2 Stratigraphic Well-Log Correlation . 1. 3 Well-Log Correlation...

  14. Well-pump alignment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  15. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  16. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  17. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  18. Low temperature barriers with heat interceptor wells for in situ processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for reducing heat load applied to a frozen barrier by a heated formation is described. The system includes heat interceptor wells positioned between the heated formation and the frozen barrier. Fluid is positioned in the heat interceptor wells. Heat transfers from the formation to the fluid to reduce the heat load applied to the frozen barrier.

  19. Geological aspects of the first horizontal well drilled in Romania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baleanu, C.; Petrom, R.A. [Institute for Research and Technology, Prahova (Romania)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979 on the Lebada Est field of the Romanian Offshore of the Black Sea between the Albian and the Eocene hydrocarbon accumulations, the Upper Cretaceous hydrocarbon accumulation was discovered. Situated in the Coniacian-Santonian and Turonian limey rocks, this accumulation cannot be produced efficiently by conventional wells. Some geological aspects which characterize the field such as: the physical properties of the reservoir rocks, the low effective thickness, heterogeneity, the vertical fissure and microfissure system and other production and economic aspects led to the conclusion that oil can be produced efficiently by horizontal wells or high angle wells. The benefits of horizontal well trajectory to produce the oil from the reservoir with this geometry are many and they were proved by the high rate of production as compared with the production tests of the vertical wells. After a long period of time when the reservoir was considered to be economically inefficient it can be finally produced.

  20. Utility Formation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism inS-4500II Field EmissionFunctional MaterialsRobertUtility-Formation

  1. Sampling for Bacteria in Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication will instruct you on the proper procedures for collecting a sample from a water well for bacteriological analysis....

  2. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  3. Apparatus for use in rejuvenating oil wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warnock, C.E. Sr.

    1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A sub incorporating a check valve is connected into the lower end of a well pipestring. This valve will pass hot steam injected down the pipestring to the formations to loosen up the thick crude oil. The check valve prevents back flow and thus will hold the high pressure steam. To resume production, the production pump can then be lowered through the pipestring. The pump itself is provided with an extended probe member which will unseat the check valve when the pump is in proper position so that production pumping can resume.

  4. Well performance under solutions gas drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camacho-Velazquez, R.G.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fully implicit black-oil simulator was written to predict the drawdown and buildup responses for a single well under Solution Gas Drive. The model is capable of handling the following reservoir behaviors: Unfractured reservoir, Double-Porosity system, and Double Permeability-Double Porosity model of Bourdet. The accuracy of the model results is tested for both single-phase liquid flow and two-phase flow. The results presented here provide a basis for the empirical equations presented in the literature. New definitions of pseudopressure and dimensionless time are presented. By using these two definitions, the multiphase flow solutions correlate with the constant rate liquid flow solution for both transient and boundary-dominated flow. For pressure buildup tests, an analogue for the liquid solution is constructed from the drawdown pseudopressure, similar to the reservoir integral of J. Jones. The utility of using the producing gas-oil ration at shut in to compute pseudopressures and pseudotimes is documented. The influence of pressure level and skin factor on the Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) of wells producing solution gas drive systems is examined. A new definition of flow efficiency that is based on the structure of the deliverability equations is proposed. This definition avoids problems that result when the presently available methods are applied to heavily stimulated wells. The need for using pseudopressures to analyze well test data for fractured reservoirs is shown. Expressions to compute sandface saturations for fractured systems are presented.

  5. Data from selected Almond Formation outcrops -- Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.R.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this research program are to: (1) determine the reservoir characteristics and production problems of shoreline barrier reservoirs; and (2) develop methods and methodologies to effectively characterize shoreline barrier reservoirs to predict flow patterns of injected and produced fluids. Two reservoirs were selected for detailed reservoir characterization studies -- Bell Creek field, Carter County, Montana, that produces from the Lower Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Muddy Formation, and Patrick Draw field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming that produces from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group. An important component of the research project was to use information from outcrop exposures of the producing formations to study the spatial variations of reservoir properties and the degree to which outcrop information can be used in the construction of reservoir models. A report similar to this one presents the Muddy Formation outcrop data and analyses performed in the course of this study (Rawn-Schatzinger, 1993). Two outcrop localities, RG and RH, previously described by Roehler (1988) provided good exposures of the Upper Almond shoreline barrier facies and were studied during 1990--1991. Core from core well No. 2 drilled approximately 0.3 miles downdip of outcrop RG was obtained for study. The results of the core study will be reported in a separate volume. Outcrops RH and RG, located about 2 miles apart were selected for detailed description and drilling of core plugs. One 257-ft-thick section was measured at outcrop RG, and three sections {approximately}145 ft thick located 490 and 655 feet apart were measured at the outcrop RH. Cross-sections of these described profiles were constructed to determine lateral facies continuity and changes. This report contains the data and analyses from the studied outcrops.

  6. Horizontal natural gas storage caverns and methods for producing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Anthony (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides caverns and methods for producing caverns in bedded salt deposits for the storage of materials that are not solvents for salt. The contemplated salt deposits are of the bedded, non-domed variety, more particularly salt found in layered formations that are sufficiently thick to enable the production of commercially usefully sized caverns completely encompassed by walls of salt of the formation. In a preferred method, a first bore hole is drilled into the salt formation and a cavity for receiving insolubles is leached from the salt formation. Thereafter, at a predetermined distance away from the first bore hole, a second bore hole is drilled towards the salt formation. As this drill approaches the salt, the drill assumes a slant approach and enters the salt and drills through it in a horizontal direction until it intersects the cavity for receiving insolubles. This produces a substantially horizontal conduit from which solvent is controlledly supplied to the surrounding salt formation, leaching the salt and producing a concentrated brine which is removed through the first bore hole. Insolubles are collected in the cavity for receiving insolubles. By controlledly supplying solvent, a horizontal cavern is produced with two bore holes extending therefrom.

  7. Zero Discharge Water Management for Horizontal Shale Gas Well Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Jennifer Hause; Raymond Lovett; David Locke Harry Johnson; Doug Patchen

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic fracturing technology (fracking), coupled with horizontal drilling, has facilitated exploitation of huge natural gas (gas) reserves in the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale Formation (Marcellus) of the Appalachian Basin. The most-efficient technique for stimulating Marcellus gas production involves hydraulic fracturing (injection of a water-based fluid and sand mixture) along a horizontal well bore to create a series of hydraulic fractures in the Marcellus. The hydraulic fractures free the shale-trapped gas, allowing it to flow to the well bore where it is conveyed to pipelines for transport and distribution. The hydraulic fracturing process has two significant effects on the local environment. First, water withdrawals from local sources compete with the water requirements of ecosystems, domestic and recreational users, and/or agricultural and industrial uses. Second, when the injection phase is over, 10 to 30% of the injected water returns to the surface. This water consists of flowback, which occurs between the completion of fracturing and gas production, and produced water, which occurs during gas production. Collectively referred to as returned frac water (RFW), it is highly saline with varying amounts of organic contamination. It can be disposed of, either by injection into an approved underground injection well, or treated to remove contaminants so that the water meets the requirements of either surface release or recycle use. Depending on the characteristics of the RFW and the availability of satisfactory disposal alternatives, disposal can impose serious costs to the operator. In any case, large quantities of water must be transported to and from well locations, contributing to wear and tear on local roadways that were not designed to handle the heavy loads and increased traffic. The search for a way to mitigate the situation and improve the overall efficiency of shale gas production suggested a treatment method that would allow RFW to be used as make-up water for successive fracs. RFW, however, contains dissolved salts, suspended sediment and oils that may interfere with fracking fluids and/or clog fractures. This would lead to impaired well productivity. The major technical constraints to recycling RFW involves: identification of its composition, determination of industry standards for make-up water, and development of techniques to treat RFW to acceptable levels. If large scale RFW recycling becomes feasible, the industry will realize lower transportation and disposal costs, environmental conflicts, and risks of interruption in well development schedules.

  8. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  9. Kinetics of acrylamide formation in potato chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granda, Claudia Esthela

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    in potato chips. Seven potato cultivars were analyzed to determine their influence on acrylamide formation during traditional and vacuum frying. The White Rose cultivar produced the highest level of acrylamide during both traditional and vacuum frying...

  10. Upper Mission Canyon coated-grain producing facies in Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, M.L. (Hendricks and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The upper Mission Canyon formation, along the northeastern flank of the Williston basin, is a regressive carbonate and evaporite sequence, which has been informally divided into log-defined intervals. Oil production locally occurs at the transition from anhydrite to carbonate for each of the regressive intervals. These carbonate shoreline reservoirs are limestones dominated by coated grains. Porosity is intergranular and vuggy, and production from these reservoirs locally exceeds 400,000 bbl of oil/well. Upper Mission Canyon beds are also productive in island-shoal reservoirs, which developed basinward of of shorelines. These limestone reservoirs are also dominated by coated grains and porosity is intergranular and vuggy. Oil production from these reservoirs is variable, but wells within the Sherwood field along the US-Canadian border have produced over 2.0 MMbbl of oil/well.

  11. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  12. Oil removal for produced water treatment and micellar cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beech, Scott Jay

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Produced water is a major waste produced from oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source… (more)

  13. Snubdrilling a new well in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aasen, J.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new well was successfully drilled using a snubbing jack. The drill bit was rotated using a rotary table, downhole motors and combination of the two. Expected high-pressure zones prompted this use of ``snubdrilling.`` The primary objective was to drill a vertical well through underlying sands and gain information about formation pressures. This data would aid in the drilling of a relief well using a conventional drilling rig. The secondary objective was to relieve pressure by putting this new well on production. In addition to special high-pressure drilling jobs, there are other drilling applications where snubbing jacks are a feasible alternative to conventional rotary drilling rigs or coiled tubing units. Slimhole, underbalanced and flow drilling, and sidetracking of existing wells are excellent applications for snubdrilling. Advantages of snubdrilling vs. coiled tubing drilling, include ability to rotate drillstrings, use high-torque downhole motors, pump at high rates and pressures, apply significant overpull in case of stuck pipe, and run casing and liners without rigging down. Shortcomings of drilling with snubbing jacks compared to coiled tubing are the need to stop circulation while making new connections and inability to run continuous cable inside workstrings.

  14. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

  15. Well Monitoring System for EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EGS well monitoring tools offer a unique set of solutions which will lower costs and increase confidence in future geothermal projects.

  16. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  17. Well Monitoring System for EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Peer Review Well Monitoring Systems for EGS Principal Investigator Randy Normann Perma Works LLC May 19, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or...

  18. Development Wells At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Dreesen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    into EE-2 at an average flow rate of 100 Ls and downhole pressure of 83 MPa, the fracture pattern produced again failed to connect the two wells. A third attempt to fracture...

  19. Shallow gas well drilling with coiled tubing in the San Juan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, R.G.; Ovitz, R.W.; Guild, G.J.; Biggs, M.D.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coiled tubing is being utilized to drill new wells, for re-entry drilling to deepen or laterally extend existing wells, and for underbalanced drilling to prevent formation damage. Less than a decade old, coiled tubing drilling technology is still in its inaugral development stage. Initially, utilizing coiled tubing was viewed as a {open_quotes}science project{close_quotes} to determine the validity of performing drilling operations in-lieu of the conventional rotary rig. Like any new technology, the initial attempts were not always successful, but did show promise as an economical alternative if continued efforts were made in the refinement of equipment and operational procedures. A multiwell project has been completed in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico which provides documentation indicating that coiled tubing can be an alternative to the conventional rotary rig. A 3-well pilot project, a 6-well project was completed uniquely utilizing the combined resources of a coiled tubing service company, a producing company, and a drilling contractor. This combination of resources aided in the refinement of surface equipment, personnel, mud systems, jointed pipe handling, and mobilization. The results of the project indicate that utilization of coiled tubing for the specific wells drilled was an economical alternative to the conventional rotary rig for drilling shallow gas wells.

  20. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  1. Entiat 4Mile WELLs Completion Report, 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowksi, Richard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Entiat 4-mile Wells (Entiat 4-mile) project is located in the Entiat subbasin and will benefit Upper Columbia steelhead, spring Chinook and bull trout. The goal of this project is to prevent juvenile fish from being diverted into an out-of-stream irrigation system and to eliminate impacts due to the annual maintenance of an instream pushup dam. The objectives include eliminating a surface irrigation diversion and replacing it with two wells, which will provide Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) with a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) BiOp metric credit of one. Wells were chosen over a new fish screen based on biological benefits and costs. Long-term biological benefits are provided by completely eliminating the surface diversion and the potential for fish entrainment in a fish screen. Construction costs for a new fish screen were estimated at $150,000, which does not include other costs associated with implementing and maintaining a fish screening project. Construction costs for a well were estimated at $20,000 each. The diversion consisted of a pushup dam that diverted water into an off-channel pond. Water was then pumped into a pressurized system for irrigation. There are 3 different irrigators who used water from this surface diversion, and each has multiple water right claims totaling approximately 5 cfs. Current use was estimated at 300 gallons per minute (approximately 0.641 cfs). Some irrigated acreage was taken out of orchard production less than 5 years ago. Therefore, approximately 6.8 acre-feet will be put into the State of Washington Trust Water Right program. No water will be set aside for conservation savings. The construction of the two irrigation wells for three landowners was completed in September 2006. The Lower Well (Tippen/Wick) will produce up to 175 gpm while the Upper Well (Griffith) will produce up to 275 gpm during the irrigation season. The eight inch diameter wells were developed to a depth of 75 feet and 85 feet, respectively, and will be pumped with Submersible Turbine pumps. The irrigation wells have been fitted with new electric boxes and Siemens flowmeters (MAG8000).

  2. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  3. Fraced horizontal well shows potential of deep tight gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schueler, S. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany); Santos, R. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful completion of a multiple fraced, deep horizontal well demonstrated new techniques for producing tight gas sands. In Northwest Germany, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH drilled, cased, and fraced the world`s deepest horizontal well in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand at 15,687 ft (4,783 m) true vertical depth. The multiple frac concept provides a cost-efficient method to economically produce significant gas resources in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand. Besides the satisfactory initial gas production rate, the well established several world records, including deepest horizontal well with multiple fracs, and proved this new technique to develop ultra-tight sands.

  4. Optimization of fractured well performance of horizontal gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magalhaes, Fellipe Vieira

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In low-permeability gas reservoirs, horizontal wells have been used to increase the reservoir contact area, and hydraulic fracturing has been further extending the contact between wellbores and reservoirs. This thesis presents an approach...

  5. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR STRIPPER GAS WELL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles M. Boyer II; Ronald J. MacDonald P.G.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Task 1 in Advanced Technologies for Stripper Gas Well Enhancement, Schlumberger-Holditch Reservoir Technologies (H-RT) has joined with two Appalachian Basin producers, Great Lakes Energy Partners, LLC, and Belden & Blake Corporation to develop methodologies for identification and enhancement of stripper wells with economic upside potential. These industry partners have provided us with data for more than 700 wells in northwestern Pennsylvania. Phase 1 goals of this project are to develop and validate methodologies that can quickly and cost-effectively identify wells with enhancement potential. We have continued to enhance and streamline our software, and we are testing the final stages of our new Microsoft{trademark} Access/Excel based software. We are continuing to process the information and are identifying potential candidate wells that can be used in Phase 2 to validate the new methodologies. In addition, preparation of the final technical report is underway. During this quarter, we have presented our project and discussed the software to numerous Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) workshops located in various regions of the United States.

  6. Decline curve analysis for horizontal wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Min-Yu

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    support kept me from losing sight of my goals. Thanks to Sam Hou, Joseph Wang, Robert Liau, James Wang, and Shou for their company and in particular to Li Fan and Mrs. Shou-Lee Chang for their caring and delicious meals when I forgot my dinner. Thanks... Pressure (L/2xe= 0. 2) Composite Dimensionless Flow Rate Integral and Flow Rate Integral Derivative Functions Type Curve for an Infinite-Conductivity Horizontal Well Located in the Center of a Square Drainage Area, Producing at Constant Bottomhole...

  7. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  8. SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF STRIPPER GAS WELLS FOR PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT, MOCANE-LAVERNE FIELD, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Reeves; Buckley Walsh

    2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1996, Advanced Resources International (ARI) began performing R&D targeted at enhancing production and reserves from natural gas fields. The impetus for the effort was a series of field R&D projects in the early-to-mid 1990's, in eastern coalbed methane and gas shales plays, where well remediation and production enhancement had been successfully demonstrated. As a first step in the R&D effort, an assessment was made of the potential for restimulation to provide meaningful reserve additions to the U.S. gas resource base, and what technologies were needed to do so. That work concluded that: (1) A significant resource base did exist via restimulation (multiples of Tcf). (2) The greatest opportunities existed in non-conventional plays where completion practices were (relatively) complex and technology advancement was rapid. (3) Accurate candidate selection is the greatest single factor that contributes to a successful restimulation program. With these findings, a field-oriented program targeted at tight sand formations was initiated to develop and demonstrate successful candidate recognition technology. In that program, which concluded in 2001, nine wells were restimulated in the Green River, Piceance and East Texas basins, which in total added 2.9 Bcf of reserves at an average cost of $0.26/Mcf. In addition, it was found that in complex and heterogeneous reservoirs (such as tight sand formations), candidate selection procedures should involve a combination of fundamental engineering and advanced pattern recognition approaches, and that simple statistical methods for identifying candidate wells are not effective. In mid-2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded ARI an R&D contract to determine if the methods employed in that project could also be applied to stripper gas wells. In addition, the ability of those approaches to identify more general production enhancement opportunities (beyond only restimulation), such as via artificial lift and compression, was also sought. A key challenge in this effort was that, whereas the earlier work suggested that better (producing) wells tended to make better restimulation candidates, stripper wells are by definition low-volume producers (either due to low pressure, low permeability, or both). Nevertheless, the potential application of this technology was believed to hold promise for enhancing production for the thousands of stripper gas wells that exist in the U.S. today. The overall procedure for the project was to select a field test site, apply the candidate recognition methodology to select wells for remediation, remediate them, and gauge project success based on the field results. This report summarizes the activities and results of that project.

  9. Modelling Pattern Formation in Dip-Coating Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Wilczek; Walter B. H. Tewes; Svetlana V. Gurevich; Michael H. Köpf; Lifeng Chi; Uwe Thiele

    2015-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review selected mathematical models that describe the dynamics of pattern formation phenomena in dip-coating and Langmuir-Blodgett transfer experiments, where solutions or suspensions are transferred onto a substrate producing patterned deposit layers with structure length from hundreds of nanometres to tens of micrometres. The models are presented with a focus on their gradient dynamics formulations that clearly shows how the dynamics is governed by particular free energy functionals and facilitates the comparison of the models. In particular, we include a discussion of models based on long-wave hydrodynamics as well as of more phenomenological models that focus on the pattern formation processes in such systems. The models and their relations are elucidated and examples of resulting patterns are discussed before we conclude with a discussion of implications of the gradient dynamics formulation and of some related open issues.

  10. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  11. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), established a national industry-driven Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) that is focused on improving the production performance of domestic petroleum and/or natural gas stripper wells. The SWC represents a partnership between U.S. petroleum and natural gas producers, trade associations, state funding agencies, academia, and the NETL. This document serves as the twelfth quarterly technical progress report for the SWC. Key activities for this reporting period included: (1) Drafting and releasing the 2007 Request for Proposals; (2) Securing a meeting facility, scheduling and drafting plans for the 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; (3) Conducting elections and announcing representatives for the four 2007-2008 Executive Council seats; (4) 2005 Final Project Reports; (5) Personal Digital Assistant Workshops scheduled; and (6) Communications and outreach.

  12. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 1: Success of horizontal well technology, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume I of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA. and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA. and 88 in Canada. Operators responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  13. Helicopter Surveys for Locating Wells and Leaking Oilfield Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.; Hodges, G. (Fugro Airborne Surveys)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys

  14. Characterization Well R-7 Geochemistry Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.Longmire; F.Goff

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides analytical results for four groundwater-sampling rounds conducted at characterization well R-7. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine if contaminants from Technical Area (TA)-2 and TA-21 of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. Figure 1.0-1 shows the well's location in the narrow upper part of Los Alamos Canyon, between the inactive Omega West reactor and the mouth of DP Canyon. Well R-7 is in an excellent location to characterize the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in both perched groundwater and the regional aquifer near sites of known Laboratory effluent release, including radionuclides and inorganic chemicals (Stone et al. 2002, 72717). The Risk Reduction and Environmental Stewardship-Remediation (RRES-R) Program (formerly the Environmental Restoration [ER] Project) installed well R-7 as part of groundwater investigations to satisfy requirements of the ''Hydrogeologic Workplan'' (LANL 1998, 59599) and to support the Laboratory's ''Groundwater Protection Management Program Plan'' (LANL 1996, 70215). Well R-7 was designed primarily to provide geochemical or water quality and hydrogeologic data for the regional aquifer within the Puye Formation. This report also presents a geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for well R-7 and provides hydrogeochemical interpretations using analytical results for groundwater samples collected at the well. Discussion of other hydrogeochemical data collected within the east-central portion of the Laboratory, however, is deferred until they can be evaluated in the context of sitewide information collected from other RRES and Hydrogeologic Workplan characterization wells (R-8A, R-9, and R-9i). Once all deep groundwater investigations in the east-central portion of the Laboratory are completed, geochemical and hydrogeologic conceptual models for the Los Alamos Canyon watershed may be included in a groundwater risk analysis. These models will include an evaluation of potential contaminant transport pathways. Well R-7 was completed on March 9, 2001, with three screens (363.2 to 379.2 ft, 730.4 to 746.4 ft, and 895.5 to 937.4 ft). Screen No.2 was dry during characterization sampling. Four rounds of groundwater characterization samples, collected from a perched zone and the regional aquifer from depths of 378.0 ft (screen No.1) and 915.0 ft (screen No.3), were chemically characterized for radionuclides, metals and trace elements, major ions, high-explosive (HE) compounds, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, organic compounds, and stable isotopes (H, N, and O). Although well R-7 is primarily a characterization well, its design and construction also meet the requirements of a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-compliant monitoring well as described in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) document ''RCRA Groundwater Monitoring: Draft Technical Guidance,'' November 1992, EPA 530-R-93- 001. Incorporation of this well into a Laboratory-wide groundwater-monitoring program will be considered, and more specifically evaluated (e.g., sampling frequency, analytes, etc.), when the results of the well R-7 characterization activities are comprehensively evaluated in conjunction with other groundwater investigations in the ''Hydrogeologic Workplan'' (LANL 1998, 59599).

  15. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the reactor. Batch tests were conducted to examine naphthenic acid biodegradability under several conditions. The conditions used were seed from the anaerobic reactor, wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and a sterile control. The naphthenic acid was from a commercial source isolated from Gulf Coast petroleum as was dosed at 2 mg/mL. The incubations were for 30 days at 30 C. The results showed that the naphthenic acids were not biodegraded under anaerobic conditions, but were degraded under aerobic conditions. Despite poor performance of the anaerobic reactor, it remains likely that anaerobic treatment of acetate, toluene, and, potentially, other produced-water components is feasible.

  17. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  18. General inflow performance relationship for solution-gas reservoir wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias-Couto, L.E.; Golan, M.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two equations are developed to describe the inflow performance relationship (IPR) of wells producing from solution-gas drive reservoirs. These are general equations (extensions of the currently available IPR's) that apply to wells with any drainage-area shape at any state of completion flow efficiency and any stage of reservoir depletion. 7 refs.

  19. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  20. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  1. Air bubbles clean produced water for reinjection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michnick, M.J. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The reuse of produced water in a waterflood may be hazardous to the health and wealth of the reservoir. Disposal of produced water and finding a new source of water for a waterflood can double your costs. Air flotation is being tested to rehabilitate produced water on a lease in eastern Kansas. The use of air flotation in the oil field is at least forty years old. However, many operators are reluctant to spend the capital for surface equipment to assure a supply of good quality water for their waterflood operation. Before the installation of the air flotation unit only the produced water was filtered through a 75-micron bag and the filter water was then added to the make-up water. Seventy-five micron cartridge filters were used at the wellhead. Both the plant and wellhead filters required frequent replacement. Injection wells averaged more than one cleaning and acidization per year. Since installation of the air flotation unit, the combined produced and makeup water is passed through either a 25-or 10-micron bag filter in the plant and a 10-micron cartridge at the wellhead. The results of the test being conducted by an independent oil operator show a reduction in the cost for the water injection system. This study is part of the Department of Energy Class I PONS with independent oil operators.

  2. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well cements, and further their deterioration was a major impediment in expediting the development of geothermal energy resources.

  3. Method for producing a borohydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing a borohydride is described and which includes the steps of providing a source of borate; providing a material which chemically reduces the source of the borate to produce a borohydride; and reacting the source of borate and the material by supplying heat at a temperature which substantially effects the production of the borohydride.

  4. Method of producing molybdenum-99

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Eric John

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of producing molybdenum-99, comprising accelerating ions by means of an accelerator; directing the ions onto a metal target so as to generate neutrons having an energy of greater than 10 MeV; directing the neutrons through a converter material comprising techentium-99 to produce a mixture comprising molybdenum-99; and, chemically extracting the molybdenum-99 from the mixture.

  5. Generalized IPR curves for predicting well behavior. [Inflow Performance Relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, L.D.; Goland, M.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil well productivity calculations are required to relate surface measured oil rate to the pressure drawdown of the well in order to predict well behavior. The productivity index concept and the inflow performance relation concept can be combined to derive a workable form of a well's deliverability which covers the entire pressure range above and below the bubble point. A procedure for predicting well behavior is presented using equations to determine the relationship between shut-in bottom-hole pressure, bubble point pressure, and bottom-hole producing pressure. An example calculation is provided comparing 2 wells. The conclusion is that one set of production test data (rate and bottom-hole producing pressure) together with the shut-in bottom-hole pressure (or average reservoir pressure) and bubble point pressure are enough to construct a reliable inflow performance relation.

  6. Glass produced by underground nuclear explosions. [Rainier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, L.; Piwinskii, A.; Ryerson, F.; Tewes, H.; Beiriger, W.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonation of an underground nuclear explosive produces a strong shock wave which propagates spherically outward, vaporizing the explosive and nearby rock and melting, the surrounding rock. The vaporized material expands adiabatically, forming a cavity. As the energy is dissipated during the cavity formation process, the explosive and rock debris condense and mix with the melted rock. The melt flows to the bottom of the cavity where it is quenched by fractured rock fragments falling from above as the cavity collapses. Measurements indicate that about 740 tonnes of rock and/or soil are melted for every kiloton (10/sup 12/ calories) of explosive energy, or about 25% of the explosive energy goes to melting rock. The resulting glass composition reflects the composition of the unaltered rock with explosive debris. The appearance ranges from white pumice to dense, dark lava. The bulk composition and color vary with the amount of explosive iron incorporated into the glass. The refractory explosion products are mixed with the solidified melt, although the degree of mixing is variable. Electron microprobe studies of glasses produced by Rainier in welded tuff have produced the following results: glasses are dehydrated relative to the host media, glasses are extremely heterogeneous on a 20 ..mu..m scale, a ubiquitous feature is the presence of dark marble-cake regions in the glass, which were locally enriched in iron and may be related to the debris, optically amorphous regions provide evidence of shock melting, only limited major element redistribution and homogenization occur within the cavity.

  7. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, March 1996--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Class II field project has demonstrated that economic quantities of hydrocarbons can be produced from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. The site selected for the demonstration horizontal well was Crystal Field, a nearly abandoned Dundee oil field in Montcalm County, Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well, the TOW 1-3, drilled as a field demonstration pilot was successful, producing at rate of 100 bbls of oil per day with a zero water cut. Although the well is capable of producing at a of 500+ bbls/day, the production rate is being kept low deliberately to try to prevent premature water coning. Cumulative production exceeded 50,000 bbls of oil by the end of April, 1997 and lead to the permitting and licensing of several dozen Dundee wells by project end. Twelve of these permits were for continued development of Crystal Field. Two long horizontal wells were drilled successfully in Crystal after the TOW 1-3, but were disappointing economically. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The addition of several horizontal wells will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels.

  8. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eilers, Louis H. (Inola, OK)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  9. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartsock, J.H.; Rodgers, J.A.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the life of the project, 1143 wildcat wells were screened for possible use. Although many did not meet the program's requirement for sand development, a surprisingly large number were abandoned because of downhole mechanical problems. Only 94 of these wells were completed as commercial hydrocarbon producers. Five wells of opportunity were funded for testing. Of these, two were evaluated for their hydraulic energy, thermal energy, and recoverable methane, and three were abandoned because of mechanical problems. (MHR)

  10. Coke formation during pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmen, A. [Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Lindvag, O.A. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Most processes involving hydrocarbons or carbon oxides at high temperatures suffer from the disadvantage of coke formation. The formation of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is of significant practical importance. Examples of such processes are the steam cracking of alkanes to produce olefins and the thermal decomposition of 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC) for the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Even id the rate of coke production is low, the cumulative nature of the solid product will result in reactor fouling. The present work deals with the thermal decomposition of EDC. Coke formation has been studied on metal surfaces in a quartz tubular reactor. The rate of coke deposition was measures on metal foils hanging from one arm of a microbalance. A complete analysis of the product gas was accomplished using on-line gas chromatography. The results show that coke deposition during thermal decomposition of EDC depends on the composition of the feed as well as on the nature of the surface of the metal foil. Small amounts of other components (contamination with other chlorinated hydrocarbons as an example) may have a large influence on the rate of coke formation. The results are discussed in terms of surface composition/morphology of the metal foil and the free radical mechanism for thermal decomposition of FDC.

  11. OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    OPTICAL EMISSION DIAGNOSTICS OF LASER PRODUCED PLASMA FROM GRAPHITE AND YBa2Cu30 7 HARILAL. s irradiances, ionization occurs which leads to the plasma formation. Spectroscopic studies of optical emission and the resulting plasma. Optical emission spectroscopy is a technique which analyzes the light emitted from

  12. Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fairbanks, Michael David (Katy, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); McKinzie, II, Billy John (Houston, TX); Hirshblond, Stephen Palmer (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system configured to heat a portion of a formation includes a plurality of heat sources. At least one production well is in the formation. A bottom portion of the production well is a sump in an underburden of the formation below the heated portion of the formation. Fluids from the heated portion of the formation are allowed to flow into the sump. A pump system has an inlet in the sump. A production conduit is coupled to the pump system. The production conduit is configured to transport fluids in the sump out of the formation.

  13. Methods and systems for producing fluid from an in situ conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fairbanks, Michael David [Katy, TX; Keltner, Thomas Joseph [Spring, TX

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that includes a plurality of heat sources configured to heat a portion of a formation is described. At least one production well is in the formation. A bottom portion of the production well is a sump in an underburden of the formation below the heated portion of the formation. Fluids from the heated portion of the formation are allowed to flow into the sump. A pump system has an inlet in the sump. A production conduit is coupled to the pump system. The production conduit is configured to transport fluids in the sump out of the formation.

  14. Bitumen production through a horizontal well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livesey, D.B.; Toma, P.

    1987-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for thermal stimulation and production of a viscous hydrocarbon from a reservoir having a productive layer which retains the hydrocarbon until the latter is made flowable by contact with a hot stimulating medium. The method includes the steps of: forming a borehole having a substantially horizontal segment which transverses the productive layer, registering a well completion in the borehole which includes; an elongated perforate well liner, a fluid conduit extending through the liner and having a discharge end, and a well head at the liner upper end communicated with the fluid conduit, positioning a variable length flow diverter in the liner adjacent to the fluid conduit discharge end, whereby to define a quasi-barrier in the liner which is pervious to passage of the hot stimulating medium, and which divides the liner into injection and production segments respectively, heating the productive layer about the substantially horizontal segment of the elongated liner, introducing a pressurized stream of the hot stimulant through the fluid conduit and into the liner injection segment, and producing hydrocarbon emulsion which flows into the liner production segment.

  15. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  16. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H.C.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques. 5 figs.

  17. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  18. Cellulase producing microorganism ATCC 55702

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, H. Craig (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria which produce large amounts of cellulase--containing cell-free fermentate have been identified. The original bacterium (ATCC 55703) was genetically altered using nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment to produce the enhanced cellulase producing bacterium (ATCC 55702), which was identified through replicate plating. ATCC 55702 has improved characteristics and qualifies for the degradation of cellulosic waste materials for fuel production, food processing, textile processing, and other industrial applications. ATCC 55702 is an improved bacterial host for genetic manipulations using recombinant DNA techniques, and is less likely to destroy genetic manipulations using standard mutagenesis techniques.

  19. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  20. Borehole completion data package for well 199-N-81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartman, M.J.

    1994-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Well 199-N-81 was drilled in 1993 as a RCRA groundwater monitoring for the 1324-N network. The well is completed at the top of the uppermost aquifer, in the Ringold Formation. This data package includes information on drilling, construction, development, and aquifer testing. Copies of forms, notes, and diagrams completed in the field comprise the bulk of this document. Few interpretations are included. Lithologic contacts were picked by the site geologist. An attempt was made to interpret aquifer test data.

  1. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains. Annual report, May 1, 1995--April 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, J.R.

    1996-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and economics success of producing oil from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. The project is a cooperative venture between Michigan Technological University (MTU), Western Michigan University (WMU), and Terra Energy (now Cronus Development Co.). During the fall of 1995, the demonstration well for this project, the TOW No. 1-3 well in Crystal Field, Montcalm County, Michigan, was completed in the Dundee Formation and for the first three months of operation produced 50 bbl/day oil with no water cut. Because surface facilities were inadequate to handle full production, the well was produced for 12 hrs/day and shut in for 12 hrs/day. In January, 1996, new surface Facilities were completed and production was raised to 100 bbl/day. Daily production has varied from about 75 to 100 BOPD since that time. To date, the well has produced over 10, 000 bbls. The water cut remains at 0% and pressure has been maintained at 1445 psi by an active water drive. If expectations are met, the well will pay out in less than 1 year and continue on production for at least 5 years. Cronus Development Co. is tentatively planning to drill three more horizontal wells in the Dundee in Crystal Field. Thus, the play concept we chose to test, that bypassed attic oil remained in the Dundee reservoir between wells that had been produced at excessively high flow rates and had coned water during primary production, appears to be correct, and the TOW No. 1-3 HD-1 well is now a scientific, and appears soon to become an economic, success.

  2. Productivity and Injectivity of Horizontal Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid Aziz; Sepehr Arababi; Thomas A. Hewett

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A general wellbore flow model is presented to incorporate not only frictional, accelerational and gravitational pressure drops, but also the pressure drop caused by inflow. Influence of inflow or outflow on the wellbore pressure drop is analyzed. New friction factor correlations accounting for both inflow and outflow are also developed. The greatest source of uncertainty is reservoir description and how it is used in simulators. Integration of data through geostatistical techniques leads to multiple descriptions that all honor available data. The reality is never known. The only way to reduce this uncertainty is to use more data from geological studies, formation evaluation, high resolution seismic, well tests and production history to constrain stochastic images. Even with a perfect knowledge about reservoir geology, current models cannot do routine simulations at a fine enough scale. Furthermore, we normally don't know what scale is fine enough. Upscaling introduces errors and masks some of the physical phenomenon that we are trying to model. The scale at which upscaling is robust is not known and it is probably smaller in most cases than the scale actually used for predicting performance. Uncertainties in the well index can cause errors in predictions that are of the same magnitude as those caused by reservoir heterogeneities. Simplified semi-analytical models for cresting behavior and productivity predictions can be very misleading.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Characterization of the cellulolytic and hydrogen-producing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or acid rain (Nath and Das 2004). Moreover, H2 can be produced biologically from renew- able resources this efficiently through physicochemical techniques such as steam explo- sion and dilute-acid pretreatment, as well

  4. A new well surveying tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haghighi, Manuchehr Mehdizabeh

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    directional well was to tip the entire rig, then block up one side of the rotary table so as to incline the uppermost joint of the drill pipe. The accuracy obtained by this method left much to be desired. The technique of controlled directional drilling... by Surveying Device for S and 19 , N and 41 . 21 3. Comparison of Measured Angles and Angles Indicated by Surveying Device for NE snd 9 , W and 45 . . . . . . . ~ 22 ABSTRNl T Ever since the advent of rotary drilling the petroleum industry has been...

  5. Observation Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus AreaDataBusPFAN)Change Assessment Model (GCAM) | OpenWells

  6. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of the proposed study are as follows: (1) To understand and evaluate an unusual primary oil production mechanism which results in decreasing (retrograde) oil cut (ROC) behavior as reservoir pressure declines. (2) To improve calculations of initial oil in place so as to determine the economic feasibility of completing and producing a well. (3) To optimize the location of new wells based on understanding of geological and petrophysical properties heterogeneities. (4) To evaluate various secondary recovery techniques for oil reservoirs producing from fractured formations. (5) To enhance the productivity of producing wells by using new completion techniques. These objectives are important for optimizing field performance from West Carney Field located in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. The field, which was discovered in 1980, produces from Hunton Formation in a shallow-shelf carbonate reservoir. The early development in the field was sporadic. Many of the initial wells were abandoned due to high water production and constraints in surface facilities for disposing excess produced water. The field development began in earnest in 1995 by Altex Resources. They had recognized that production from this field was only possible if large volumes of water can be disposed. Being able to dispose large amounts of water, Altex aggressively drilled several producers. With few exceptions, all these wells exhibited similar characteristics. The initial production indicated trace amount of oil and gas with mostly water as dominant phase. As the reservoir was depleted, the oil cut eventually improved, making the overall production feasible. The decreasing oil cut (ROC) behavior has not been well understood. However, the field has been subjected to intense drilling activity because of prior success of Altex Resources. In this work, we will investigate the primary production mechanism by conducting several core flood experiments. After collecting cores from representative wells, we will study the wettability of the rock and simulate the depletion behavior by mimicking such behavior under controlled lab conditions. The overall project goal would be to validate our hypothesis and to determine the best method to exploit reservoirs exhibiting ROC behavior. To that end, we have completed the Budget Period I and have fulfilled many of the objectives. We have developed a viable model to explain the reservoir mechanism and have been able to develop a correlation between core and log data so that we can extend our analysis to other, yet unexploited, regions. In Budget Period II, we will continue to drill several additional, geologically targeted wells. Depending on the depositional system, these wells can be either vertical or horizontal wells. We will closely examine the secondary recovery techniques to improve the ultimate recovery from this field. In the mean time, we will continue to refine our geological and petrophysical model so that we can extend our approach to other adjacent fields. In the Budget Period III, we will monitor the field performance and revise and refine our models to further optimize the performance.

  7. System for stabbing well casing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McArthur, J.R.

    1984-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for stabbing well casing to join casing sections to each other, includes a rotary table assembly for supporting a casing section in a well bore, a derrick over the rotary table assembly, a crown block at the top of the derrick, a first piston and cylinder subassembly pivotally mounted on one side of the derrick over the rotary table assembly and below the crown block for pivotation about a horizontal axis, a second piston and cylinder subassembly pivotally mounted on a second side of the derrick for pivotation about a horizontal axis. The second piston and cylinder subassembly is located over the rotary table assembly and below the crown block and extends substantially normal to the direction of extension of the first piston and cylinder subassembly. The cooperating casing clamping elements are carried on the piston rods of the first and second piston and cylinder subassemblies, and counter balancing subassemblies are connected to the first and second piston and cylinder subassemblies for pivoting the first and second piston and cylinder subassemblies to a vertically extending inoperative position.

  8. CONVERT 15 WELLS TO BORS PUMPING UNITS AND TEST/COMPARE TO CONVENTIONAL UNITS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter B. North

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of fluid lifting equipment called Balanced Oil Recovery System (trade named BORS Lift{trademark}) was installed on several idle oil wells to demonstrate the operating efficiency of this innovative equipment technology. The BORS Lift system is designed to bring oil to the surface without the accompanying formation water. The BORS Lift system uses an innovative strap mechanism that takes oil from the top of the downhole oilwater column and lifts it to the surface, eliminating production of the formation water. Eliminating salt water production could potentially increase oil production, reduce operational costs, benefit the environment, and cut salt water disposal costs. Although the BORS Lift units did not function as intended, lessons learned during the course of the field demonstration project resulted in improvements in the technology and redesign of subsequent generation BORS Lift units which are reported to have significantly improved their performance characteristics. BORS Lift units were installed on 15 temporarily abandoned wells which had been shut down due to low oil production, high water production, and uneconomic operating conditions. The wells had been producing with artificial lift at a high watercut from a shallow (850-900 feet), pressure depleted oil sand reservoir prior to being shut down. The electrical motor driven BORS Lift units provided a possible approach for economically returning the shallow, low-volume oil wells to production. The BORS Lift units used in this field demonstration were designed to recover up to roughly 22 barrels of fluid per day from depths ranging to 1,700 feet, ideal for many marginal stripper well operations. The BORS units were first-production-model test units, operated under oil field conditions for the first time, and were naturally expected to experience some design problems. From the onset, the operator experienced mechanical, design, and operational problems with the BORS Lift units and was unable to maintain un-interrupted production operations. The inventor provided considerable on-site technical support in an ongoing effort to correct the problems with the units and the inventor worked extensively with the operator to make design and manufacturing changes to the units to try to improve their reliability and performance. The operational problems were mostly related to the durability of the various components under oil field operating conditions such as inadequate mechanical, electrical, and electronic design for rough service, extended operation, and severe weather conditions. During the course of the demonstration project, it further appeared that the producing formation lacked sufficient reservoir energy and/or favorable oil properties to mobilize and displace oil from the formation into the well bore in order to recharge the oil column in the well. The BORS Lift units were then moved to a second lease which appeared to have more favorable WTI quality oil properties. Eight of these units were reported to have been installed and placed in operation on the second lease, however, operational difficulties continued. It was determined that the units were inadequately designed and would need to be replace by improved second generation units. Due to the lack of success with the first generation units and the extra cost to replace them with the redesigned units, the operators decided not to continue with the project and the project was terminated at that point.

  9. Current Producers of Developed Grasses Producers Contact Phone Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rod 979-543-0121 Trinity Turf Nursery* Doug O'Conner 800-290-8873 Wharton Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979 Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979-532-4340 Wittig Grass Farms Allan Wittig 979-657-4496 Diamond Producers Contact Turfgrass Jimmy Kocurek 979-532-4340 Winstead Turf Farms* (AR, MS, TN) Bobby Winstead 800-624-8873 Wittig

  10. Evaluation of existing wells at the Nevada Test Site for plugging and abandonment or for recompletion as monitoring wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this investigation, various information sources from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), national laboratories and the Desert Research Institute were utilized to verify the existence of approximately 250 existing wells or boreholes at the NTS. Of these wells, 40 were determined to be located within one kilometer of underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 m) or below the water table. These 40 existing wells were then investigated in detail to determine their drilling and construction history, lithology and hydrologic units penetrated, and current conditions. These findings are presented for each well, as well as recommendations as to whether individual wells should be plugged and abandoned or could possibly be recompleted as groundwater quality monitoring locations. Two of the 40 wells, UE-20e and UE-2a, contain lost drilling strings and do not penetrate aquifers. These two wells should be plugged and abandoned and removed from the NTS well inventory. Three other wells, TestWell No. 1, TestWell No. 5, and TestWell No. 6, are reported stemmed with sand to the surface. These three wells did not penetrate the water table and would require substantial deepening to be recompleted as groundwater monitoring locations. If not recompleted, these wells should also be plugged and abandoned and removed from the NTS well inventory. Eleven of the 34 wells, Test Well No. 7, RNM No. 1, RNM No. 2, RNM No. 2S, U-3cn No. 5, UE-20n No. 1, UE-7ns, UE-5n, UE-4t, UE-3e No. 3 and U-15k Test Hole, penetrate aquifers and do not require recompletion to produce groundwater monitoring locations. These wells are either constructed such that recompletion is not needed or not possible. Several of the 11 wells may require the removal of tubing and the placement or replacement of pump equipment. All five of the wells require wellhead rehabilitation to ensure they are not contaminated by surface water or other materials.

  11. Completion Report for Well ER-2-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-2-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (formerly Nevada Operations Office), in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in February and March of 2003, as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine Corrective Action Unit in the northeastern portion of the Nevada Test Site. Well ER-2-1 was drilled as part of the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit Phase I drilling initiative. The well is located in north central Yucca Flat within Area 2 of the Nevada Test Site, and provided information regarding the radiological and physical environment near underground nuclear tests conducted in a saturated volcanic aquifer setting. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 83 sidewall samples taken at various depths between 113.7 and 754.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 27 samples of drill cuttings. The well was collared in tuffaceous alluvium, and penetrated Tertiary-age tuffs of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush Groups, Calico Hills and Wahmonie Formations, Crater Flat Group, Grouse Canyon Formation, before reaching total depth in the Tunnel Bed Formation.

  12. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Woodridge, IL); Heiberger, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  13. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Hf4+, Sn4+, Zr4+, Nb5+, W6+, Pr3+, Er3+, Nd3+, Ce3+, U3+ and Y3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of FexOy gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  14. Production Well Performance Enhancement using Sonication Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewumi, Michael A; Ityokumbul, M Thaddeus; Watson, Robert W; Eltohami, Eltohami; Farias, Mario; Heckman, Glenn; Houlihan, Brendan; Karoor, Samata Prakash; Miller, Bruce G; Mohammed, Nazia; Olanrewaju, Johnson; Ozdemir, Mine; Rejepov, Dautmamed; Sadegh, Abdallah A; Quammie, Kevin E; Zaghloul, Jose; Hughes, W Jack; Montgomery, Thomas C

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop a sonic well performance enhancement technology that focused on near wellbore formation damage. In order to successfully achieve this objective, a three-year project was defined. The entire project was broken into four tasks. The overall objective of all this was to foster a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in sonic energy interactions with fluid flow in porous media and adapt such knowledge for field applications. The fours tasks are: • Laboratory studies • Mathematical modeling • Sonic tool design and development • Field demonstration The project was designed to be completed in three years; however, due to budget cuts, support was only provided for the first year, and hence the full objective of the project could not be accomplished. This report summarizes what was accomplished with the support provided by the US Department of Energy. Experiments performed focused on determining the inception of cavitation, studying thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions, investigating sonic energy interactions with glass beads and oil, and studying the effects of sonication on crude oil properties. Our findings show that the voltage threshold for onset of cavitation is independent of transducer-hydrophone separation distance. In addition, thermal dissipation under cavitation conditions contributed to the mobilization of deposited paraffins and waxes. Our preliminary laboratory experiments suggest that waxes are mobilized when the fluid temperature approaches 40°C. Experiments were conducted that provided insights into the interactions between sonic wave and the fluid contained in the porous media. Most of these studies were carried out in a slim-tube apparatus. A numerical model was developed for simulating the effect of sonication in the nearwellbore region. The numerical model developed was validated using a number of standard testbed problems. However, actual application of the model for scale-up purposes was limited due to funding constraints. The overall plan for this task was to perlorm field trials with the sonication tooL These trials were to be performed in production and/or injection wells located in Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Four new wells were drilled in preparation for the field demonstration. Baseline production data were collected and reservoir simulator tuned to simulate these oil reservoirs. The sonication tools were designed for these wells. However, actual field testing could not be carried out because of premature termination of the project.

  15. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron, and organics. Pilot study results indicate that produced water from the San Ardo oilfield can be treated to meet project water quality goals. Approximately 600 mg/l of caustic and 100 mg/l magnesium dosing were required to meet the hardness and silica goals in the warm softening unit. Approximately 30% of the ammonia was removed in the cooling tower; additional ammonia could be removed by ion exchange or other methods if necessary. A brackish water reverse osmosis membrane was effective in removing total dissolved solids and organics at all pH levels evaluated; however, the boron treatment objective was only achieved at a pH of 10.5 and above.

  16. Additive manufacturing method of producing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    Additive manufacturing method of producing silver or copper tracks on polyimide film Problem/stripping) using an additive process support by a novel bio- degradable photo-initiator package. technology. Building on previous work by Hoyd- Gigg Ng et al. [1,2], Heriot-Watt has developed an additive film

  17. Process for producing chalcogenide semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Chen, Y.W.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing chalcogenide semiconductor material is disclosed. The process includes forming a base metal layer and then contacting this layer with a solution having a low pH and containing ions from at least one chalcogen to chalcogenize the layer and form the chalcogenide semiconductor material.

  18. Prairie Canal Well No. 1, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana. Volume 1. Completion and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Prairie Canal Company, Inc. Well No. 1, approximately 8 miles south of the city of Lake Charles, Louisiana, was tested through the annulus between 5-1/2 inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 14,782 to 14,820 feet. The geological section was the Hackberry Sand, a member of the Oligocene Frio formation. Produced water was injected into a disposal well which was perforated in several Miocene Sands from 3070 to 4600 feet. Original plans were to test a section of the Hackberry sand from 14,976 to 15,024 feet. This primary zone, however, produced a large amount of sand, shale, gravel, and rocks during early flow periods and was abandoned in favor of the secondary zone. Four pressure drawdown flow tests and three pressure buildup tests were conducted during a 12-day period. A total of 36,505 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was approximately 7100 BWPD. The gas-to-water ratio, measured during testing, ranged from 41 to 50 SCF/BBL. There is disagreement as to the saturation value of the reservoir brine, which may be between 43.3 and 49.7 SCF/BBL. The methane content of the flare line gas averaged 88.4 mole percent. The CO/sub 2/ content averaged 8.4 mole percent. Measured values of H/sub 2/S in the gas were between 12 and 24 ppM.

  19. Effects of Additive Elements on the Phase Formation and Morphological Stability of Nickel Monosilicide Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavoie,C.; Detavernier, C.; Cabral, Jr. , C.; d'Heurle, F.; Kellock, A.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Harper, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloying elements can substantially affect the formation and morphological stability of nickel monosilicide. A comprehensive study of phase formation was performed on 24 Ni alloys with varying concentrations of alloying elements. Silicide films have been used for more than 15 years to contact the source, drain and gate of state-of-the-art complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices. In the past, the addition of alloying elements was shown to improve the transformation from the high resistivity C49 to the low resistivity C54-TiSi{sub 2} phase and to allow for the control of surface and interface roughness of CoSi{sub 2} films as well as produce significant improvements with respect to agglomeration of the films. Using simultaneous time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance and light scattering measurements, we follow the formation of the silicide phases in real time during rapid thermal annealing. Additions to the Ni-Si system lead to modifications in the phase formation sequence at low temperatures (metal-rich phases), to variations in the formation temperatures of NiSi and NiSi{sub 2}, and to changes in the agglomeration behavior of the films formed. Of the 24 elements studied, additions of Mo, Re, Ta and W are amongst the most efficient to retard agglomeration while elements such as Pd, Pt and Rh are most efficient to retard the formation of NiSi{sub 2}.

  20. The Star Formation History of NGC 6822

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ted K. Wyder

    2001-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of five fields in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822 obtained with the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} in the F555W and F814W filters are presented. Photometry for the stars in these images was extracted using the Point-Spread-Function fitting program HSTPHOT/MULTIPHOT. The resulting color-magnitude diagrams reach down to $V\\approx26$, a level well below the red clump, and were used to solve quantitatively for the star formation history of NGC 6822. Assuming that stars began forming in this galaxy from low-metallicity gas and that there is little variation in the metallicity at each age, the distribution of stars along the red giant branch is best fit with star formation beginning in NGC 6822 12-15 Gyr ago. The best-fitting star formation histories for the old and intermediate age stars are similar among the five fields and show a constant or somewhat increasing star formation rate from 15 Gyr ago to the present except for a possible dip in the star formation rate from 3 to 5 Gyr ago. The main differences among the five fields are in the higher overall star formation rate per area in the bar fields as well as in the ratio of the recent star formation rate to the average past rate. These variations in the recent star formation rate imply that stars formed within the past 0.6 Gyr are not spatially very well mixed throughout the galaxy.

  1. Cryogenic Treatment of Production Components in High-Wear Rate Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, M.

    2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep Cryogenic Tempering (DCT) is a specialized process whereby the molecular structure of a material is ''re-trained'' through cooling to -300 F and then heating to +175-1100 F. Cryocon, Inc. (hereafter referred to as Cryocon) and RMOTC entered an agreement to test the process on oilfield production components, including rod pumps, rods, couplings, and tubing. Three Shannon Formation wells were selected (TD about 500 ft) based on their proclivity for high component wear rates. Phase 1 of the test involved operation for a nominal 120 calendar day period with standard, non-treated components. In Phase 2, treated components were installed and operated for another nominal 120 calendar day period. Different cryogenic treatment profiles were used for components in each well. Rod pumps (two treated and one untreated) were not changed between test phases. One well was operated in pumped-off condition, resulting in abnormal wear and disqualification from the test. Testing shows that cryogenic treatment reduced wear of rods, couplers, and pump barrels. Testing of production tubing produced mixed results.

  2. Heating of Oil Well by Hot Water Circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladen Jurak; Zarko Prnic

    2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    When highly viscous oil is produced at low temperatures, large pressure drops will significantly decrease production rate. One of possible solutions to this problem is heating of oil well by hot water recycling. We construct and analyze a mathematical model of oil-well heating composed of three linear parabolic PDE coupled with one Volterra integral equation. Further on we construct numerical method for the model and present some simulation results.

  3. Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - amino acid producer Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF AMINO ACID FORMATION IN INTERSTELLAR ICE ANALOGS Jamie E. Elsila,1,2 Summary: ). Ice chemistry can produce the type of deuterium enrichments seen in the Murchison amino...

  5. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  6. Thermogenic and secondary biogenic gases, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico - Implications for coalbed gas producibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)); Ayers, W.B. Jr. (Taurus Exploration, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States))

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this paper are to (1) describe the types and the major components of coalbed gases, (2) evaluate the variability of Fruitland coalbed gas composition across the basin, (3) assess factors affecting coalbed gas origin and composition, (4) determine the timing and extent of gas migration and entrapment, and (5) suggest application of these results to coalbed gas producibility. Data from more than 750 Fruitland coalbed gas wells were used to make gas-composition maps and to evaluate factors controlling gas origin. The gas data were divided into overpressured, underpressured, and transitional categories based on regional pressure regime. Also, [delta][sup 13]C isotopic values from 41 methane, 7 ethane and propane, 13 carbon dioxide, and 10 formation-water bicarbonate samples were evaluated to interpret gas origin. The data suggests that only 25-50% of the gas produced in the high-productivity fairway was generated in situ during coalification. 82 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices (Stiff-Davis and Oddo-Thomson) to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (11) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (12) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (13) Cleanup and integration of water quality databases. (14) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  8. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed of water quality data entry. (4) Acquisition of ground water data from the New Mexico State Engineer's office, including chloride content and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) for over 30,000 data points in southeast New Mexico. (5) Creation of a web-based scale prediction tool, again with a web-based interface, that uses two common scaling indices to predict the likelihood of scaling. This prediction tool can either run from user input data, or the user can select samples from the water analysis database. (6) Creation of depth-to-groundwater maps for the study area. (7) Analysis of water quality data by formation. (8) Continuation of efforts to collect produced water quality information from operators in the southeast New Mexico area. (9) Qualitative assessment of produced water from various formations regarding corrosivity. (10) Efforts at corrosion education in the region through operator visits. Future work on this project will include: (1) Development of an integrated web and GIS interface for all the information collected in this effort. (2) Continued development of a fuzzy logic spill risk assessment tool that was initially developed prior to this project. Improvements will include addition of parameters found to be significant in determining the impact of a brine spill at a specific site. (3) Compilation of both hard copy and online corrosion toolkit material.

  9. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity increases, the remaining oil saturation decreases. This is evident from log and core analysis. (5) Using a compositional simulator, we are able to reproduce the important reservoir characteristics by assuming a two layer model. One layer is high permeability region containing water and the other layer is low permeability region containing mostly oil. The results are further verified by using a dual porosity model. Assuming that most of the volatile oil is contained in the matrix and the water is contained in the fractures, we are able to reproduce important reservoir performance characteristics. (6) Evaluation of secondary mechanisms indicates that CO{sub 2} flooding is potentially a viable option if CO{sub 2} is available at reasonable price. We have conducted detailed simulation studies to verify the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} huff-n-puff process. We are in the process of conducting additional lab tests to verify the efficacy of the same displacement. (7) Another possibility of improving the oil recovery is to inject surfactants to change the near well bore wettability of the rock from oil wet to water wet. By changing the wettability, we may be able to retard the water flow and hence improve the oil recovery as a percentage of total fluid produced. If surfactant is reasonably priced, other possibility is also to use huff-n-puff process using surfactants. Laboratory experiments are promising, and additional investigation continues. (8) Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that vertical wells outperform horizontal wells. Future work in the project would include: (1) Build multi-well numerical model to reproduce overall reservoir performance rather than individual well performance. Special emphasis will be placed on hydrodynamic connectivity between wells. (2) Collect data from adjacent Hunton reservoirs to validate our understanding of what makes it a productive reservoir. (3) Develop statistical methods to rank various reservoirs in Hunton formation. This will allow us to evaluate other Hunton formations based on old well logs, and determine, apriori, if

  10. Process for producing advanced ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing (Tuscaloosa, AL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the synthesis of homogeneous advanced ceramics such as SiC+AlN, SiAlON, SiC+Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 +AlN from natural clays such as kaolin, halloysite and montmorillonite by an intercalation and heat treatment method. Included are the steps of refining clays, intercalating organic compounds into the layered structure of clays, drying the intercalated mixture, firing the treated atmospheres and grinding the loosely agglomerated structure. Advanced ceramics produced by this procedure have the advantages of homogeneity, cost effectiveness, simplicity of manufacture, ease of grind and a short process time. Advanced ceramics produced by this process can be used for refractory, wear part and structure ceramics.

  11. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  12. Hydrologic Tests at Characterization Well R-14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. McLin; W. Stone

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well R-14 is located in Ten Site Canyon and was completed at a depth of 1316 ft below ground surface (bgs) in August 2002 within unassigned pumiceous deposits located below the Puye Formation (fanglomerate). The well was constructed with two screens positioned below the regional water table. Individual static depths measured for each isolated screen after the Westbay{trademark} transducer monitoring system was installed in mid-December 2002 were nearly identical at 1177 ft bgs, suggesting only horizontal subsurface flow at this time, location, and depth. Screen 1 straddles the geologic contact between the Puye fanglomerate and unassigned pumiceous deposits. Screen 2 is located about 50 ft deeper than screen 1 and is only within the unassigned pumiceous deposits. Constant-rate, straddle-packer, injection tests were conducted at screen 2, including two short tests and one long test. The short tests were 1 minute each but at different injection rates. These short tests were used to select an appropriate injection rate for the long test. We analyzed both injection and recovery data from the long test using the Theis, Theis recovery, Theis residual-recovery, and specific capacity techniques. The Theis injection, Theis recovery, and specific capacity methods correct for partial screen penetration; however, the Theis residual-recovery method does not. The long test at screen 2 involved injection at a rate of 10.1 gallons per minute (gpm) for 68 minutes and recovery for the next 85 minutes. The Theis analysis for screen 2 gave the best fit to residual recovery data. These results suggest that the 158-ft thick deposits opposite screen 2 have a transmissivity (T) equal to or greater than 143 ft{sup 2}/day, and correspond to a horizontal hydraulic conductivity (K) of at least 0.9 ft/day. The specific capacity method yielded a T value equal to or greater than 177 ft{sup 2}/day, and a horizontal K of at least 1.1 ft/day. Results from the injection and recovery phases of the test at screen 2 were similar to those from the residual-recovery portion of the test, but were lower by a factor of about two. The response to injection was typical for a partially penetrating well screen in a very thick aquifer.

  13. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  14. Method for producing hydrophobic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.; Coronado, P.R.

    1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating a dried monolithic aerogel containing non-dispersed particles, with an organometallic surface modifying agent to produce hydrophobic aerogels. The dried, porous hydrophobic aerogels contain a protective layer of alkyl groups, such as methyl groups, on the modified surfaces of the pores of the aerogel. The alkyl groups at the aerogel surface typically contain at least one carbon-metal bond per group.

  15. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Armstrong, Pamela S. (Abingdon, MD); Panitz, Janda Kirk G. (Edgewood, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.

  16. Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S.; Panitz, J.K.G.

    1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid electrolytic capacitor is described having a solid electrolyte comprising manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of further cure to form polyimide linkages, the solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects. 2 figs.

  17. Flow tests of the Gladys McCall well. Appendix A, Gladys McCall Site (Cameron Parish, LA): Final report, October 1985--October 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report pulls together the data from all of the geopressured-geothermal field research conducted at the Gladys McCall well. The well produced geopressured brine containing dissolved natural gas from the Lower Miocene sands at a depth of 15,150 to 16,650 feet. More than 25 million barrels of brine and 727 million standard cubic feet of natural gas were produced in a series of flow tests between December 1982 and October 1987 at various brine flow rates up to 28,000 barrels per day. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 9 Sand found the permeability to be 67 to 85 md (millidarcies) for a brine volume of 85 to 170 million barrels. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 8 Sand found a permeability of 113 to 132 md for a reservoir volume of 430 to 550 million barrels of brine. The long-term flow and buildup test of the Number 8 Sand found that the high-permeability reservoir connected to the wellbore (measured by the short-term flow test) was connected to a much larger, low-permeability reservoir. Numerical simulation of the flow and buildup tests required this large connected reservoir to have a volume of about 8 billion barrels (two cubic miles of reservoir rock) with effective permeabilities in the range of 0.2 to 20 md. Calcium carbonate scale formation in the well tubing and separator equipment was a problem. During the first 2 years of production, scale formation was prevented in the surface equipment by injection of an inhibitor upstream of the choke. Starting in 1985, scale formation in the production tubing was successfully prevented by injecting inhibitor ``pills`` directly into the reservoir. Corrosion and/or erosion of surface piping and equipment, as well as disposal well tubing, was also significant.

  18. Geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin for the applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process for simultaneous gas recovery and water disposal in production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maryn, S.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted a geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin to evaluate the applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for gas recovery and water disposal in production wells. A review of available publications was conducted to identify, (1) natural gas reservoirs which generate large quantities of gas and water, and (2) underground injection zones for produced water. Research efforts were focused on unconventional natural gas formations. The Antrim Shale is a Devonian gas shale which produces gas and large quantities of water. Total 1992 production from 2,626 wells was 74,209,916 Mcf of gas and 25,795,334 bbl of water. The Middle Devonian Dundee Limestone is a major injection zone for produced water. ``Waterless completion`` wells have been completed in the Antrim Shale for gas recovery and in the Dundee Limestone for water disposal. Jack McIntyre`s patented process has potential application for the recovery of gas from the Antrim Shale and simultaneous injection of produced water into the Dundee Limestone.

  19. Orson Welles' intermedial versions of Shakespeare in theatre, radio and film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Vara, Clara

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to being a keyfigure in the history of filmmaking, Orson Welles was an original theatre director and radio performer and producer. The aim of this thesis is to study Welles' achievements and failures in theatre, ...

  20. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2004, 6.26 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 250 MCFD. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May. The amount of carbon dioxide produced was small during this period. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.5 B/D in May and June. Operational problems encountered during the initial stages of the flood were identified and resolved.

  1. Formatted: Footer, Left Formatted: Font: 10 pt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Formatted: Space Before: 12 pt, Border: Bottom: (Single solid line, Auto, 0.5 pt Line width) Deleted: Angelis ­ Sacramento Municipal Utility District Anne Gillette ­ California Public Utilities Commission Steven Kelly

  2. Thermal extraction analysis of five Los Azufres production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Paul; Quijano, Luis

    1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal energy extraction from five wells supplying 5-MWe wellhead generators in three zones of the Los Azufres geothermal field has been examined from production and chemical data compiled over 14-years of operation. The data, as annual means, are useful in observing small-scale changes in reservoir performance with continuous production. The chemical components are chloride for quality control and the geothermometer elements for reservoir temperatures. The flowrate and fluid enthalpy data are used to calculate the thermal extraction rates. Integration of these data provides an estimate of the total energy extracted from the zone surrounding the well. The combined production and chemical geothermometer data are used to model the produced fluid as coming from just-penetrating wells for which the annual produced mass originates from a series of concentric hemispheric shells moving out into the reservoir. Estimates are made of the drawdown distance into the reservoir and the far-field conditions.

  3. Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a non-naturally occurring polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a carboxylic acid or a lactone, and a composition such that a carboxylic acid or lactone is included. The carboxylic acid or lactone, or derivative thereof, is useful as a biofuel. The present invention also provides for a recombinant nucleic acid or vector that encodes such a PKS, and host cells which also have such a recombinant nucleic acid or vector. The present invention also provides for a method of producing such carboxylic acids or lactones using such a PKS.

  4. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  5. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  6. IMPROVED NATURAL GAS STORAGE WELL REMEDIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Furness; Donald O. Johnson; Michael L. Wilkey; Lynn Furness; Keith Vanderlee; P. David Paulsen

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the research conducted during Budget Period One on the project ''Improved Natural Gas Storage Well Remediation''. The project team consisted of Furness-Newburge, Inc., the technology developer; TechSavants, Inc., the technology validator; and Nicor Technologies, Inc., the technology user. The overall objectives for the project were: (1) To develop, fabricate and test prototype laboratory devices using sonication and underwater plasma to remove scale from natural gas storage well piping and perforations; (2) To modify the laboratory devices into units capable of being used downhole; (3) To test the capability of the downhole units to remove scale in an observation well at a natural gas storage field; (4) To modify (if necessary) and field harden the units and then test the units in two pressurized injection/withdrawal gas storage wells; and (5) To prepare the project's final report. This report covers activities addressing objectives 1-3. Prototype laboratory units were developed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory testing of the sonication technology indicated that low-frequency sonication was more effective than high-frequency (ultrasonication) at removing scale and rust from pipe sections and tubing. Use of a finned horn instead of a smooth horn improves energy dispersal and increases the efficiency of removal. The chemical data confirmed that rust and scale were removed from the pipe. The sonication technology showed significant potential and technical maturity to warrant a field test. The underwater plasma technology showed a potential for more effective scale and rust removal than the sonication technology. Chemical data from these tests also confirmed the removal of rust and scale from pipe sections and tubing. Focusing of the underwater plasma's energy field through the design and fabrication of a parabolic shield will increase the technology's efficiency. Power delivered to the underwater plasma unit by a sparkplug repeatedly was interrupted by sparkplug failure. The lifecycle for the plugs was less than 10 hours. An electrode feed system for delivering continuous power needs to be designed and developed. As a result, further work on the underwater plasma technology was terminated. It needs development of a new sparking system and a redesign of the pulsed power supply system to enable the unit to operate within a well diameter of less than three inches. Both of these needs were beyond the scope of the project. Meanwhile, the laboratory sonication unit was waterproofed and hardened, enabling the unit to be used as a field prototype, operating at temperatures to 350 F and depths of 15,000 feet. The field prototype was extensively tested at a field service company's test facility before taking it to the field site. The field test was run in August 2001 in a Nicor Gas storage field observation well at Pontiac, Illinois. Segmented bond logs, gamma ray neutron logs, water level measurements and water chemistry samples were obtained before and after the downhole demonstration. Fifteen tests were completed in the field. Results from the water chemistry analysis showed an increase in the range of calcium from 1755-1984 mg/l before testing to 3400-4028 mg/l after testing. For magnesium, the range increased from 285-296 mg/l to 461-480 mg/l. The change in pH from a range of 3.11-3.25 to 8.23-8.45 indicated a buffering of the acidic well water, probably due to the increased calcium available for buffering. The segmented bond logs showed no damage to the cement bond in the well and the gamma ray neutron log showed no increase in the amount of hydrocarbons present in the formation where the testing took place. Thus, the gas storage bubble in the aquifer was not compromised. A review of all the field test data collected documents the fact that the application of low-frequency sonication technology definitely removes scale from well pipe. Phase One of this project took sonication technology from the concept stage through a successful ''proof-of-concept'' downhole application in a natural gas storage field

  7. Method of producing nanopatterned articles, and articles produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Thomas P; Park, Soojin; Xu, Ting

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanopatterned surface is prepared by forming a block copolymer film on a miscut crystalline substrate, annealing the block copolymer film, then reconstructing the surface of the annealed block copolymer film. The method creates a well-ordered array of voids in the block copolymer film that is maintained over a large area. The nanopatterned block copolymer films can be used ina variety of different applications, including the fabrication of high density data storage media.

  8. Produced Water Treatment Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, A. P.; Campbell, R. [Campbell Applied Physics] [Campbell Applied Physics

    2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL has developed a treatment for produced water using a combination of microbial fuel cells and electrosorption. A collaboration between Campbell Applied Physics and ORNL was initiated to further investigate development of the technology and apply it to treatment of field produced water. The project successfully demonstrated the potential of microbial fuel cells to generate electricity from organics in produced water. A steady voltage was continuously generated for several days using the system developed in this study. In addition to the extraction of electrical energy from the organic contaminants, use of the energy at the representative voltage was demonstrated for salts removal or desalination of the produced water. Thus, the technology has potential to remove organic as well as ionic contaminants with minimal energy input using this technology. This is a novel energy-efficient method to treat produced water. Funding to test the technology at larger scale is being pursued to enable application development.

  9. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Health and Wellness Guide for Students Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dimensions of health and wellness. The 7 dimensions are: Physical Wellness ­ Taking care of your body Wellness ­ Taking care of what's around you 2Health andWellness Guide for Students #12;Physical Wellness · Communicate with your partner if you have questions or concerns · Meet with a Health Care Provider on campus

  11. Method for producing high surface area chromia materials for catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Satcher, Joe (Patterson, CA); Tillotson, Thomas (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence (Pleasanton, CA); Simpson, Randall (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured chromium(III)-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing and a synthetic route for producing such materials are disclosed herein. Monolithic aerogels and xerogels having surface areas between 150 m.sup.2/g and 520 m.sup.2/g have been produced. The synthetic method employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-chromium(III) inorganic salts and common solvents such as water, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, t-butanol, 2-ethoxy ethanol, and ethylene glycol, DMSO, and dimethyl formamide. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by an addition of a proton scavenger, such as an epoxide, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively.

  12. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  13. Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Abstract: The reduction of...

  14. Neural networks predict well inflow performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alrumah, Muhammad K.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting well inflow performance relationship accurately is very important for production engineers. From these predictions, future plans for handling and improving well performance can be established. One method of predicting well inflow...

  15. Industry survey for horizontal wells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, D.D.; Kaback, D.S. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Denver, CO (United States); Denhan, M.E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Watkins, D. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An international survey of horizontal environmental wells was performed during May and June of 1993. The purpose of the survey was to provide the environmental industry with an inventory of horizontal environmental wells and information pertaining to the extent of the use of horizontal environmental wells, the variety of horizontal environmental well applications, the types of geologic and hydrogeologic conditions within which horizontal environmental wells have been installed, and the companies that perform horizontal environmental well installations. Other information, such as the cost of horizontal environmental well installations and the results of tests performed on the wells, is not complete but is provided as general information with the caveat that the information should not be used to compare drilling companies. The result of the survey is a catalogue of horizontal environmental wells that are categorized by the objective or use of the wells, the vertical depth of the wells, and the drilling company contracted to install the wells.

  16. New multilateral well architecture in heterogeneous reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Hongqiao

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . The performance of new multilateral well in heterogeneous reservoirs is studied, and that is compared with vertical well architecture also. In order to study the productivity of new multilateral wells, we use a numerical simulation method to set up heterogeneous...

  17. INVITATIONAL WELL-TESTING SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil, Gas, • . . 81 and Geothermal Well Tests (abstract) W.has been testing geothermal wells for about three years, andof Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Well Tests W. E. Brigham

  18. Oil and Gas Wells: Regulatory Provisions (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation having possession or control of any natural gas well, oil well or coalbed natural gas well, whether as a contractor, owner, lessee, agent or...

  19. Coupled Modeling of Dynamic Reservoir/Well Interactions under Liquid-loading Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limpasurat, Akkharachai

    2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    backpressure on the formation, which decreases the gas production rate and may stop the well from flowing. To model these phenomena, the dynamic interaction between the reservoir and the wellbore must be characterized. Due to wellbore phase re...

  20. Capping of Water Wells for Future Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Mechell, Justin

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    in determining the condition of your well, contact: S your local groundwater conservation dis- trict http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/permitting/ water_supply/groundwater/districts.html S a licensed water well driller in your area S the Water Well Drillers Program... are the steps in capping a well? The landowner, a licensed well driller or a licensed pump installer may cap a well. There are several steps involved. The well casing should extend above the ground surface to limit the risk of water entering the well...

  1. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  2. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Hall, R. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Colina, K. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  3. Monitoring polymer properties in production wells of Chateaurenard oilfield

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Putz, A.G. (Elf Aquitaine, Avenue Larribau, Pau (FR)); Lecourtier, J. (Inst. Francais du Petrole, Avenue Bois-Preau, 92500 Rueil-Malmaison (FR))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer flooding test was conducted in the Chateaurenard field (France) from 1985 to 1989. The test was run on a ten-acre inverted five-spot. A total of 240,000 m{sup 3} of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide at a concentration of 1000 ppm was injected followed by an equal volume of solution but at a tapered concentration. A strong response in oil recovery for three of the four producers was observed. This paper reports on an original methodology that was designed for sampling and analyzing the polymer in the effluents of the producing wells. Concentrations and main characteristics of produced polyacrylamide were determined versus injected volume. No degradation of the polymer was detected. A molecular weight fractionation during polymer slug propagation into the reservoir due to adsorption/retention chromatography was observed. The low-polymer concentration of the effluents could be explained by a strong retention of the polymer in the low permeability zones of the reservoir.

  4. The Implications and Flow Behavior of the Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Shale Gas Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almarzooq, Anas Mohammadali S.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................................................ 41 xii FIGURE Page 3.15 Matching the linear flow interval to evaluate Acm using the Shale Gas VBA... .................................................................................................... 42 3.16 After resetting the time to zero and matching the interval with gas lift effect, the same calculations were cared to evaluate Acm using the Shale Gas VBA...

  5. Depositional facies and environments of the lower Mineral Wells formation, Pennsylvanian Strawn group, north central Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Susan Elizabeth

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Or Q 0 v) X Q &, Q VI C OI c Id Q 0 C VI c e ? '2 mn. po ? 0eO ~e e. & W omocp Emetic gw o m c U m v) m ? ?o 0 m g) ? xc 0 Q 'VI ? VI C C 0 m c ae "Qm a)c E hc Ol- CLc 0 E0p (Bcm&m ops LL ? omId? 35 the naked eye (Wright, 1985). Silty...

  6. A Comprehensive Placement and Diversion Model for Matrix Acidizing in Vertical Wells in Heterogeneous Thick Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nozaki, Manabu

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    , the line- source solution of Eq. 2.10 is given by (Dake 1983): ? ? ? ? ? ? ???? ? ? ? kt rc kh q pds s e kh q ptp wti kt rc s iw wt 4 Ei 44 )( 2 4 2 ?? ? ? ? ? ?? . .......................... (2.11) Now we introduce...

  7. 96-well Format DNA Extraction Protocol for Freeze-dried Maize Seedling Leaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    Cat# T100-30). Add ~ 1 cM of glass beads* or three 3 mm metal beads (3 mm Tungsten Carbide Beads of the youngest leaf. * Note that glass beads are not compatible all extraction methods. Metal beads are necessary for MagAttract. If tissue may be used for other methods, use metal beads. b. Cover tubes with air pore

  8. Band Formation in a Molecular Quantum Well via 2D Superatom Orbital...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unoccupied molecular orbital of C&8326;F&8326; on a Cu(111) surface. In fractal islands, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy systematically stabilizes...

  9. Band Formation in a Molecular Quantum Well via 2D Superatom Orbital

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien, I. Ben-Zvi, P. Study ofJ U LY

  10. 2009138th Annual Meeting & Exhibition noticeable. Crack formation is well investigated in theory and many techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    horizontal single belt casting machines (HSBC). The purpose of this paper was to investigate the surface quality of the strip by casting Aluminum AA6111 alloy on an HSBC simulator using a copper mould

  11. Track 4: Employee Health and Wellness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 4: Employee Health and Wellness

  12. Thank you for joining: 360WELLNESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    shortly. If you are experiencing technical difficulties with Adobe Connect, please call 1 March 22, 2012 12 pm ­ 1pm ET #12;360° WELLNESS: Achieving Wellness At Work And At Home Workshop & Self-Assessment © Joe Rosenlicht, Certified Coach 3 #12;8 Wellness Areas Wellness Nutrition Brain Power Fitness Sleep

  13. Rabi Waves and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitry Yearchuck; Alla Dovlatova

    2011-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes, produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves - has been experimentally identified for the first time. Raman spectra in perfect quasi-1D carbon nanotubes are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D carbon nanotubes of larger diameter. They characterized by vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice and its revival part in frequency representation, which is the consequence of Rabi wave packet formation.

  14. Characterization and interwell connectivity evaluation of Green Rver reservoirs, Wells Draw study area, Uinta Basin, Utah

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abiazie, Joseph Uchechukwu

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    and seal rocks of the Green River petroleum system. Datum is Mahoganey oil shale bed (1). 49 27 Fig. 11?Cross-section of thermal maturity of oil accumulations in the Green River petroleum system. 49 28 Fig. 12? Lake Uinta depositional... This petroleum system has produced more than 450 MMBO mainly from two formations, the Green River and Colton Formations. 7 The Green River Formation contains the source rock and most of the reservoir and seal rocks (Fig. 10). 49 Most of the kerogen-rich oil...

  15. Volume 22, Part 1-September 1975 P"$P".hdpk of the Sunailand Formation, an ~-pm&chg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    of the Sunniland Formation, an Oil-producing 17ormat1on in South Florida ................................. Helen C to the geology of Utah for beginn~ngstudents and laymen. Distributed September 30, 1975 Price $5.00 (Subject to change without notice) #12;Petrographic Analysis of the Sunniland Formation, an Oil-producing Formation

  16. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-7, ER-20-8 #2, and ER-EC-11, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes the following data collected from ER-20-7, ER-20-8 No.2, and ER-EC-11 during WDT operations: (1) Chemical indicators of well development (Section 2.0); (2) Static hydraulic head (Section 3.0); (3) Radiochemistry and geochemistry (Section 4.0); (4) Drawdown observed at locations distal to the pumping well (Section 5.0); and (5) Drilling water production, flow logs, and temperature logs (Section 6.0). The new data are further considered with respect to existing data as to how they enhance or change interpretations of groundwater flow and transport, and an interim small-scale conceptual model is also developed and compared to Phase I concepts. The purpose of well development is to remove drilling fluids and drilling-associated fines from the formation adjacent to a well so samples reflecting ambient groundwater water quality can be collected, and to restore hydraulic properties near the well bore. Drilling fluids can contaminate environmental samples from the well, resulting in nonrepresentative measurements. Both drilling fluids and preexisting fines in the formation adjacent to the well can impede the flow of water from the formation to the well, creating artifacts in hydraulic response data measured in the well.

  17. Meteoritical and dynamical constraints on the growth mechanisms and formation times of asteroids and Jupiter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward R. D. Scott

    2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak temperatures inside meteorite parent bodies are closely linked to accretion times. Most iron meteorites come from bodies that accreted 3-5 Myr after CAIs formed. This precludes formation of Jupiter via a gravitational instability <1 Myr after the solar nebula formed, and strongly favors core accretion. Shocks formed by gravitational instabilities in the disk, proto-Jupiter, or by planetary embryos may have produced some chondrules. The minimum lifetime for the solar nebula of 3-5 Myr inferred from CAI and chondrule ages may exceed the median 3 Myr lifetime for protoplanetary disks, but is well within the total 1-10 Myr range. Shorter formation times for extrasolar planets may help to explain why their orbits are unlike those of solar giant planets.

  18. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  19. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  20. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  1. New well control companies stress planning, engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, S.; Wright, R.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology for capping a blowing well has not changed during the last 50 years. Still, operators are finding new ways of using well control companies' expertise to help avoid potentially disastrous situations. This trend is especially critical given the current environmentally sensitive and cost-cutting times facing the oil industry. While regulatory agencies world-wide continue to hinder well control efforts during an offshore event, well control companies are focusing on technologies to make their job easier. Some of the most exciting are the hydraulic jet cutter, which gained fame in Kuwait, and electromagnetic ranging for drilling more accurate relief wells. With the number of subsea wells increasing, subsea intervention is a major target for future innovations. Well control companies are experiencing a change in their role to the offshore oil industry. Well control professionals discuss this expanded responsibility as well as other aspects of offshore blowouts including regulatory hindrances, subsea intervention and future technologies.

  2. Method and system for producing complex-shape objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeantette, Francisco P. (Albuquerque, NM); Keicher, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Romero, Joseph A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schanwald, Lee P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are provided for producing complex, three-dimensional, net shape objects from a variety of powdered materials. The system includes unique components to ensure a uniform and continuous flow of powdered materials as well as to focus and locate the flow of powdered materials with respect to a laser beam which results in the melting of the powdered material. The system also includes a controller so that the flow of molten powdered materials can map out and form complex, three-dimensional, net-shape objects by layering the molten powdered material. Advantageously, such complex, three-dimensional net-shape objects can be produced having material densities varying from 90% of theoretical to fully dense, as well as a variety of controlled physical properties. Additionally, such complex, three-dimensional objects can be produced from two or more different materials so that the composition of the object can be transitioned from one material to another.

  3. Optimal Bidding Strategies for Wind Power Producers with Meteorological Forecasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannitrapani, Antonello

    bid is computed by exploiting the forecast energy price for the day ahead market, the historical wind renewable energy resources, such as wind and photovoltaic, has grown rapidly. It is well known the problem of optimizing energy bids for an independent Wind Power Producer (WPP) taking part

  4. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wylie, Allan H. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus has been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing.

  5. Vapor port and groundwater sampling well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubbell, J.M.; Wylie, A.H.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus have been developed for combining groundwater monitoring wells with unsaturated-zone vapor sampling ports. The apparatus allows concurrent monitoring of both the unsaturated and the saturated zone from the same well at contaminated areas. The innovative well design allows for concurrent sampling of groundwater and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the vadose (unsaturated) zone from a single well, saving considerable time and money. The sample tubes are banded to the outer well casing during installation of the well casing. 10 figs.

  6. Prenatal cadmium exposure produces persistent changes to thymus and spleen cell phenotypic repertoire as well as the acquired immune response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Hanson, Miranda L.; Schafer, Rosana [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Barnett, John B., E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Cell Biology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental contaminant. Adult exposure to Cd alters the immune system, however, there are limited studies on the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at 20 weeks of age. Prenatal Cd exposure caused an increase in the percent of CD4{sup ?}CD8{sup ?}CD44{sup +}CD25{sup ?} (DN1) thymocytes in both sexes and a decrease in the percent of CD4{sup ?}CD8{sup ?}CD44{sup ?}CD25{sup +} (DN3) thymocytes in females. Females had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells, CD8{sup +} T cells, and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of NK cells and granulocytes (Gr-1{sup +}). Males had an increase in the percent of splenic CD4{sup +} T cells and CD45R/B220{sup +} B cells and a decrease in the percent of CD8{sup +} T cells, NK cells, and granulocytes. The percentage of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells were reduced in both sexes. The percent of splenic nTreg cells was decreased in all Cd-exposed offspring. Cd-exposed offspring were immunized with a streptococcal vaccine and the antibody response was determined. PC-specific serum antibody titers were decreased in Cd exposed female offspring but increased in the males. PspA-specific serum IgG titers were increased in both females and males compared to control animals. Females had a decrease in PspA-specific serum IgM antibody titers. Females and males had a decrease in the number of splenic anti-PspA antibody-secreting cells when standardized to the number of B cells. These findings demonstrate that very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term sex-specific alterations on the immune system of the offspring. -- Highlights: ? Prenatal exposure to cadmium alters the immune system of 20 week old offspring. ? The percentage of DN1 and DN3 thymocytes was changed. ? Males and females had changed percentages of numerous splenic cell populations. ? The antibody response of a streptococcal vaccine showed numerous changes.

  7. Evaluation of Membrane Treatment Technology to Optimize and Reduce Hypersalinity Content of Produced Brine for Reuse in Unconventional Gas Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eboagwu, Uche

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    scale were performed using pretreatment, microfiltration and nanofiltration processes. Membrane performance was selected based on high flux separation efficiency, high tolerance for solids and fluid treatments. Over 95 % solids rejection and greater...

  8. Godchaux Well No. 1, Vermilion Parish, Louisiana: completion and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Godchaux Well No. 1 was originally drilled too a total depth of 16,000 feet in January, 1981 by C and K Petroleum, Inc. and was temporarily abandoned. The well was re-entered by Eaton on 6 August 1981 in an effort to clean out the original open hole below the 7-5/8 inch liner and test a section of the Planulina sand at a depth ranging from 15,584 to 15,692 feet. The reservoir pressure was estimated to be 14,480 psi, and the temperature of the formation water was expected to be 298/sup 0/F. The water salinity was predicted to be 70,000 ppM. The well was expected to produce up to 20,000 BWPD, was a gas content of 44 SCF per barrel. An optional test of a zone from 14,905 to 15,006 feet was also proposed in the detailed completion prognosis, which preceded the attempted test. In the process of drilling the cement plug set by the original operators, the drill string became side-tracked from the original hole. While drilling at 14,510 feet a severe loss of circulation of drilling fluid occurred through a hole in the intermediate casing. The reduction in hydrostatic head resulting from lost circulation caused the open hole to close around and stick the drill string. Efforts to repair the intermediate casing and return to normal operations were estimated to be prohibitively expensive in view of the expected poor probability of success; accordingly, the decision to plug and abandon was carried out on September 12, 1981.

  9. Geologic controls influencing CO2 loss from a leaking well.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Polly L.; Martinez, Mario J.; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Klise, Katherine A.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO2 into formations containing brine is proposed as a long-term sequestration solution. A significant obstacle to sequestration performance is the presence of existing wells providing a transport pathway out of the sequestration formation. To understand how heterogeneity impacts the leakage rate, we employ two dimensional models of the CO2 injection process into a sandstone aquifer with shale inclusions to examine the parameters controlling release through an existing well. This scenario is modeled as a constant-rate injection of super-critical CO2 into the existing formation where buoyancy effects, relative permeabilities, and capillary pressures are employed. Three geologic controls are considered: stratigraphic dip angle, shale inclusion size and shale fraction. In this study, we examine the impact of heterogeneity on the amount and timing of CO2 released through a leaky well. Sensitivity analysis is performed to classify how various geologic controls influence CO2 loss. A 'Design of Experiments' approach is used to identify the most important parameters and combinations of parameters to control CO2 migration while making efficient use of a limited number of computations. Results are used to construct a low-dimensional description of the transport scenario. The goal of this exploration is to develop a small set of parametric descriptors that can be generalized to similar scenarios. Results of this work will allow for estimation of the amount of CO2 that will be lost for a given scenario prior to commencing injection. Additionally, two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations are compared to quantify the influence that surrounding geologic media has on the CO2 leakage rate.

  10. RFI Well Integrity 06 JUL 1400

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This PowerPoint report entitled "Well Integrity During Shut - In Operations: DOE/DOI Analyses" describes risks and suggests risk management recommendations associated with shutting in the well.

  11. Economic evaluation of smart well technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Omair, Abdullatif A.

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    comprehensive review of this technology has been discussed. The possible reservoir environments in which smart well technology could be used and also, the possible benefits that could be realized by utilizing smart well technology has been discussed...

  12. Disinfecting Water Wells by Shock Chlorination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If your well has been flooded, it must be shock chlorinated before it can be used as a source of drinking water. This publication explains how to disinfect a well using either dry chlorine or liquid household bleach....

  13. INVITATIONAL WELL-TESTING SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discharge Using Ground- Water Storage," Trans. , AGU (1935),of a well using ground-water storage: ~n. Geophys. Unionof a Well Using Ground-Water Storage," Trans. , AGU (1935),

  14. Well Owner's Guide To Water Supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    's groundwater and guidelines, including national drinking water standards, to test well water to insure safe drinking water in private wells. National drinking water standards and common methods of home water .....................22 Contaminants in Water........................................23 Drinking Water Guidelines

  15. Production Trends of Shale Gas Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Waqar A.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    To obtain better well performance and improved production from shale gas reservoirs, it is important to understand the behavior of shale gas wells and to identify different flow regions in them over a period of time. It is also important...

  16. Decision matrix for liquid loading in gas wells for cost/benefit analyses of lifting options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Han-Young

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    rotation using an electric motor at the surface. Fig. 2.9 – PCP system (Schlumberger, 2007). Applications PCP can be applied to the wells producing sand-laden heavy oil and bitumen, high water-cut wells, and in the gas wells that require...

  17. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  18. Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Biomass Producer or Collector Tax Credit (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     The Oregon Department of Energy provides a tax credit for agricultural producers or collectors of biomass.  The credit can be used for eligible biomass used to produce biofuel; biomass used in...

  20. Quantifying the parameters of successful agricultural producers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaase, Gregory Herman

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the study was to quantify the parameters of successful agricultural producers. Through the use of the Financial and Risk Management (FARM) Assistance database, this study evaluated economic measures for row-crop producers...

  1. Basic Data Report for Well Plugging and Abandonment and Reconfiguration Activities for Fiscal Year 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The FY 2005 program was initiated on March 31, 2005, and concluded on July 16, 2005. The FY 2005 program initially included 25 wells requiring workover (P&A, Magenta reconfiguration, cleaning and keeping). During the process, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requested transfer of two wells (H-7c and H-8c) to their ownership for future livestock watering. These wells were transferred to the BLM through execution of Form wr-03, Declaration of Owner of Underground Water Rights, between the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE), the BLM, and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). One well (H-2b2) was cleaned and retained as a Culebra monitor well for continued use. One well (H-3d) was converted to a shallow well to monitor the formational contact between the Dewey Lake Redbeds Formation and the Santa Rosa Formation in support of the DP-831 discharge permit monitoring program. Nine dual-completion wells were reconfigured as Magenta-only monitor wells, and 12 wells were plugged and abandoned permanently. This report presents the summary in the same order that the wells were worked in the field.

  2. 41.4: Discontinuous Alignment Thin-Film Formation by Self-Organized Dewetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    41.4: Discontinuous Alignment Thin-Film Formation by Self-Organized Dewetting Chung-Yung Lee, Man alignment layer [4]. In this paper, we study the formation of a discontinuous alignment film by a dewetting be produced. The alignments produced are robust. Moreover, the processing window is also maximized. 2

  3. User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

  4. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stanecki, John (Blanco, TX)

    2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  5. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  6. Hydrological and geochemical monitoring for a CO2 sequestration pilot in a brine formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Freifeld, Barry M.; Gunter, William D.

    2004-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrological and geochemical monitoring are key components of site characterization and CO2 plume monitoring for a pilot test to inject CO2 into a brine-bearing sand of the fluvial-deltaic Frio formation in the upper Texas Gulf Coast. In situ, injected CO2 forms a supercritical phase that has gas-like properties (low density and viscosity) compared to the surrounding brine, while some CO2 dissolves in the brine. The pilot test employs one injection well and one monitor well, with continuous pressure and flow-rate monitoring in both wells, and continuous surface fluid sampling and periodic down-hole fluid sampling from the monitor well. Pre-injection site-characterization includes pump tests with pressure-transient analysis to estimate single-phase flow properties, establish hydraulic connectivity between the wells, determine appropriate boundary conditions, and analyze ambient phase conditions within the formation. Additionally, a pre-injection tracer test furnishes estimates of kinematic porosity and the geometry of flow paths between injection and monitor wells under single-phase conditions. Pre-injection geochemical sampling provides a baseline for subsequent geochemical monitoring and helps determine the optimal tracers to accompany CO2 injection. During CO2 injection, hydrological monitoring enables estimation of two-phase flow properties and helps track the movement of the injected CO2 plume, while geochemical sampling provides direct evidence of the arrival of CO2 and tracers at the monitor well. Furthermore, CO2-charged water acts as a weak acid, and reacts to some extent with the minerals in the aquifer, producing a distinct chemical signature in the water collected at the monitor well. Comparison of breakthrough curves for the single-phase tracer test and the CO2 (and its accompanying tracers) illuminates two-phase flow processes between the supercritical CO2 and native brine, an area of current uncertainty that must be better understood to effectively sequester CO2 in saline aquifers.

  7. Horizontal well improves oil recovery from polymer flood--

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruckert, L. (Elf Aquitaine, Boussens, (FR))

    1989-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Horizontal drilling associated with an injection scheme appears to be highly promising for obtaining additional oil recovery. Horizontal well CR 163H, in the Chateaurenard field is discussed. It demonstrated that a thin unconsolidated sand can be successfully drilled and cased. The productivity index (PI) of the well was much greater than vertical wells, and an unproduced oil bank was successfully intersected. On the negative side, it was necessary to pump low in a very deviated part of the well, and the drilling cost was high compared to an onshore vertical well. CR 163H was the fifth and probably most difficult horizontal well drilled by Elf Aquitaine. Located within a polymer-flood project, the target was a 7-m thick sand reservoir at a vertical depth of 590:0080 m. In this inverted seven-spot configuration with one injector in the center and six producers at a distance of 400 m, a polymer solution was injected from 1977 to 1983, followed by water injection.

  8. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley.

  9. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, R.; Smith, R.M.; Hall, S.H.; Smart, J.E.; Gustafson, G.S.

    1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion. 8 figs.

  10. Well purge and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, Ronald (Kennewick, WA); Smith, Ronald M. (Richland, WA); Hall, Stephen H. (Kennewick, WA); Smart, John E. (Richland, WA); Gustafson, Gregg S. (Redmond, WA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly with a packer, pump and exhaust, that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. The packer is positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  11. DUST EMISSION AND STAR FORMATION IN STEPHAN'S QUINTET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natale, G.; Tuffs, R. J. [Max Planck Institute fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Xu, C. K.; Lu, N. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Popescu, C. C. [University of Central Lancashire, Preston, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Fischera, J. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada); Lisenfeld, U. [Department de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dopita, M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Duc, P.-A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Dapnia/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Reach, W. [Spitzer Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sulentic, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa, CSIC, Apdo. 3004, 18080, Granada (Spain); Yun, M., E-mail: giovanni.natale@mpi-hd.mpg.d, E-mail: richard.buffs@mpi-hd.mpg.d [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a comprehensive set of MIR/FIR observations of Stephan's Quintet (SQ), taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our study reveals the presence of a luminous (L{sub IR} {approx} 4.6 x 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}) and extended component of infrared dust emission, not connected with the main bodies of the galaxies, but roughly coincident with the X-ray halo of the group. We fitted the inferred dust emission spectral energy distribution of this extended source and the other main infrared emission components of SQ, including the intergalactic shock, to elucidate the mechanisms powering the dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission, taking into account collisional heating by the plasma and heating through UV and optical photons. Combining the inferred direct and dust-processed UV emission to estimate the star formation rate (SFR) for each source we obtain a total SFR for SQ of 7.5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, similar to that expected for non-interacting galaxies with stellar mass comparable to the SQ galaxies. Although star formation in SQ is mainly occurring at, or external to the periphery of the galaxies, the relation of SFR per unit physical area to gas column density for the brightest sources is similar to that seen for star formation regions in galactic disks. We also show that available sources of dust in the group halo can provide enough dust to produce up to L{sub IR} {approx} 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} powered by collisional heating. Though a minority of the total infrared emission (which we infer to trace distributed star-formation), this is several times higher than the X-ray luminosity of the halo, so could indicate an important cooling mechanism for the hot intergalactic medium (IGM) and account for the overall correspondence between FIR and X-ray emission. We investigate two potential modes of star formation in SQ consistent with the data, fueled either by gas from a virialized hot IGM continuously accreting onto the group, whose cooling is enhanced by grains injected from an in situ population of intermediate mass stars, or by interstellar gas stripped from the galaxies. The former mode offers a natural explanation for the observed baryon deficiency in the IGM of SQ as well as for the steep L{sub X}-T{sub X} relation of groups such as SQ with lower velocity dispersions.

  12. Geothermal wells: a forecast of drilling activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, G.L.; Mansure, A.J.; Miewald, J.N.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numbers and problems for geothermal wells expected to be drilled in the United States between 1981 and 2000 AD are forecasted. The 3800 wells forecasted for major electric power projects (totaling 6 GWe of capacity) are categorized by type (production, etc.), and by location (The Geysers, etc.). 6000 wells are forecasted for direct heat projects (totaling 0.02 Quads per year). Equations are developed for forecasting the number of wells, and data is presented. Drilling and completion problems in The Geysers, The Imperial Valley, Roosevelt Hot Springs, the Valles Caldera, northern Nevada, Klamath Falls, Reno, Alaska, and Pagosa Springs are discussed. Likely areas for near term direct heat projects are identified.

  13. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  14. Wells, Borings, and Underground Uses (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section regulates wells, borings, and underground storage with regards to protecting groundwater resources. The Commissioner of the Department of Health has jurisdiction, and can grant permits...

  15. Characterization Well R-22 Geochemistry Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick Longmire

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides analytical results for groundwater collected during four characterization-sampling rounds conducted at well R-22 from March 2001 through March 2002. Characterization well R-22 was sampled from March 6 through 13, 2001; June 19 through 26, 2001; November 30 through December 10, 2001; and February 27 through March 7, 2002. The goal of the characterization efforts was to assess the hydrochemistry and to determine whether or not contaminants are present in the regional aquifer in the vicinity of the well. A geochemical evaluation of the analytical results for the well is also presented in this report.

  16. A Modified Genetic Algorithm Applied to Horizontal Well Placement Optimization in Gas Condensate Reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morales, Adrian

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    location could be determined as the center of the reservoir, but when considering the complexity of a heterogeneous reservoir with initial compositional variation, the well placement dilemma does not produce such a simple result. In this research, a...

  17. ACTIVE CONTROL STRATEGY FOR DENSITY-WAVE IN GAS-LIFTED WELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saint-Pierre Pierre Lem´etayer CAS, ´Ecole des Mines de Paris, France CSTJF, TOTAL Exploration-Production: Process Control, Gas-Lifted Well, Density-wave, Stabilization. 1. INTRODUCTION Producing oil from deep) and the production pipe (tubing, point D) where it enters. Oil produced from the reservoir (point F) and injected gas

  18. Precise inversion of logged slownesses for elastic parameters in a gas shale formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Douglas E.

    Dipole sonic log data recorded in a vertical pilot well and the associated production well are analyzed over a 200×1100-ft section of a North American gas shale formation. The combination of these two wells enables angular ...

  19. SAFETY & WELLNESS Annual Report 2012-2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinnamon, Gordon J.

    HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLNESS Annual Report 2012-2013 #12;HEALTH, SAFETY & WELLNESS UPDATE ON SAFETY PROGRAMS The professionals working in the Health and Safety team and Rehabilitation Services group have had a very successful year in supporting individuals to take accountability for their own safety and health

  20. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  1. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing.

  2. Unloading using auger tool and foam and experimental identification of liquid loading of low rate natural gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bose, Rana

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-pressure, low-producing natural gas wells commonly encounter liquid loading during production. Because of the decline in the reservoir pressure and the flow capacity, wells can fall below terminal velocity. Identifying and predicting the onset...

  3. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Volume 2: Applications overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deskins, W.G.; McDonald, W.J.; Knoll, R.G.; Springer, S.J.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Horizontal technology has been applied in over 110 formations in the USA. Volume 1 of this study addresses the overall success of horizontal technology, especially in less-publicized formations, i.e., other than the Austin Chalk, Bakken, and Niobrara. Operators in the USA and Canada were surveyed on a formation-by-formation basis by means of a questionnaire. Response data were received describing horizontal well projects in 58 formations in the USA and 88 in Canada. Operators` responses were analyzed for trends in technical and economic success based on lithology (clastics and carbonates) and resource type (light oil, heavy oil, and gas). The potential impact of horizontal technology on reserves was also estimated. A forecast of horizontal drilling activity over the next decade was developed.

  4. Optimization of well length in waterflooding a five-spot pattern of horizontal wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Zulay J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the horizontal wells and provide a good return on investment. Horizontal Wells in Waterflood Pr t A worldwide interest exists today in drilling horizontal wells to increase productivity, Horizontal wells can be used in any phase of reservoir recovery... efficiency7. Several investigatorss-ic have studied waterflooding using horizontal wells. droman et al, s reported a field application using horizontal wells in the Prudhoe Bay Unit where the main reservoir drive mechanism is gas cap expansion...

  5. Stimulation rationale for shale gas wells: a state-of-the-art report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, C.; Barbour, T.; Blanton, T.L.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the large quantities of gas contained in the Devonian Shales, only a small percentage can be produced commercially by current production methods. This limited production derives both from the unique reservoir properties of the Devonian Shales and the lack of stimulation technologies specifically designed for a shale reservoir. Since October 1978 Science Applications, Inc. has been conducting a review and evaluation of various shale well stimulation techniques with the objective of defining a rationale for selecting certain treatments given certain reservoir conditions. Although this review and evaluation is ongoing and much more data will be required before a definitive rationale can be presented, the studies to date do allow for many preliminary observations and recommendations. For the hydraulic type treatments the use of low-residual-fluid treatments is highly recommended. The excellent shale well production which is frequently observed with only moderate wellbore enlargement treatments indicates that attempts to extend fractures to greater distances with massive hydraulic treatments are not warranted. Immediate research efforts should be concentrated upon limiting production damage by fracturing fluids retained in the formation, and upon improving proppant transport and placement so as to maximize fracture conductivity. Recent laboratory, numerical modeling and field studies all indicate that the gas fracturing effects of explosive/propellant type treatments are the predominate production enhancement mechanism and that these effects can be controlled and optimized with properly designed charges. Future research efforts should be focused upon the understanding, prediction and control of wellbore fracturing with tailored-pulse-loading charges. 36 references, 7 figures, 2 tables.

  6. A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alahmadi, Hasan Ali H.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . The model consists of three contiguous porous media: the matrix, less permeable micro-fractures and more permeable macro-fractures. Only the macro-fractures produce to the well while they are fed by the micro-fractures only. Consequently, the matrix feeds... the micro-fractures only. Therefore, the flow is sequential from one medium to the other. Four sub-models are derived based on the interporosity flow assumption between adjacent media, i.e., pseudosteady state or transient flow assumption. These are fully...

  7. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Townsend, M.J.

    2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-EC-1 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 675.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 566.3 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 31 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 680 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, the Crater Flat Group, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. The preliminary geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-EC-1 indicates the presence of a structural trough or bench filled with a thick section of post-Rainier Mesa lava. These data also suggest that this site is located on a buried structural ridge that may separate the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-18-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-18-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well, located on Buckboard Mesa in the western part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth 408.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 762.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 369.7 meters approximately two months after the completion string was installed. One completion string with three isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 15 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 420 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. The upper part of the well penetrated Tertiary-age basalt, underlain by tuffaceous moat-filling sediments interbedded with ash-flow tuff units of the Thirsty Canyon Group and the Beatty Wash Formation. The lower half of the drill hole penetrated ash-flow tuff of the mafic-rich Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from Well ER-18-2 indicates that this site is located inside the structural margin of the Ammonia Tanks caldera.

  10. Completion Report for Well ER-12-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-12-2 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled from November 2002 to January 2003 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Yucca Flat Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology in the northwestern portion of Yucca Flat. The well was drilled to total measured depth of 2,097.9 meters. The 131.1-centimeter-diameter borehole was left open (i.e., uncased) below the base of the intermediate casing at 901.6 meters. A piezometer string was installed outside the surface casing to a depth of 176.4 meters to monitor a zone of perched water. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters, sidewall core samples from 7 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated, in descending order, 137.5 meters of Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium, 48.8 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks, 289.6 meters of Mississippian Chainman Shale, and 1,622.5 meters of Mississippian and Upper Devonian Eleana Formation consisting of shale, argillite, sandstone, quartzite, and limestone. Forty-seven days after the well was drilled the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 65.43 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 127.14 meters.

  11. Observing Massive Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

  12. Production-systems analysis for fractured wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.L. (Halliburton Services (US))

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production-systems analysis has been in use for many years to design completion configurations on the basis of an expected reservoir capacity. The most common equations used for the reservoir calculations are for steady-state radial flow. Most hydraulically fractured wells require the use of an unsteady-state production simulator to predict the higher flow rates associated with the stimulated well. These high flow rates may present problems with excessive pressure drops through production tubing designed for radial-flow production. Therefore, the unsteady-state nature of fractured-well production precludes the use of steady-state radial-flow inflow performance relationships (IPR's) to calculate reservoir performance. An accurate prediction of fractured-well production must be made to design the most economically efficient production configuration. It has been suggested in the literature that a normalized reference curve can be used to generate the IPR's necessary for production-systems analysis. However, this work shows that the reference curve for fractured-well response becomes time-dependent when reservoir boundaries are considered. A general approach for constructing IPR curves is presented, and the use of an unsteady-state fractured-well-production simulator coupled with the production-systems-analysis approach is described. A field case demonstrates the application of this method to fractured wells.

  13. Permeability Evaluation in Heterogcmecw Formations Eiocldy of Petroleum Engineers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ~ SPE 26060 Permeability Evaluation in Heterogcmecw Formations Eiocldy of Petroleum Engineers Lking for reservoir characterization. The permeability of the formation is usually evaluated from the cores and of permeability from well log data represents a significant technical as weli as economic advantage

  14. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Saldana well No. 2, Zapata County, Texas. Volume I. Completion and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saldana Well No. 2, approximately 35 miles Southeast of the city of Laredo, Texas, was the sixth successful test of a geopressured-geothermal aquifer under the DOE Wells of Opportunity Program. The well was tested through the annulus between 7-inch casing and 2-3/8 inch tubing. The interval tested was from 9745 to 9820 feet. The geological section was the 1st Hinnant Sand, an upper member of the Wilcox Group. Produced water was injected into the Saldana Well No. 1, which was also acquired from Riddle Oil Company and converted to a disposal well. A Miocene salt water sand was perforated from 3005 to 3100 feet for disposal. One pressure drawdown flow test and one pressure buildup test were conducted during a 10-day period. A total of 9328 barrels of water was produced. The highest sustained flow rate was 1950 BWPD.

  15. California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that validated the viability of this technology platform for producing cellulosic ethanol from corn stover at reasonable yields. The California Energy Commission has awarded...

  16. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transparent, light-harvesting material Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3,...

  17. JPEG File Interchange Format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Eric

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    interchange format compressed image representation • PC or Mac or Unix workstation compatible • Standard color space: one or three components. For three components, YCbCr (CCIR 601-256 levels) • APP0 marker used to specify Units, X pixel density, Y pixel... by the Macintosh but not by PCs or workstations. JPEG File Interchange Format, Version 1.02 2 Standard color space The color space to be used is YCbCr as defined by CCIR 601 (256 levels). The RGB components calculated by linear conversion from YCbCr shall...

  18. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  19. Birth of Supermassive Black holes and Star Formation after the Big Bang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Paramashivam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern observations of star formation in different galaxies contradicts with the current star formation theories. There are few questions and observations where current star formation theories were not able to explain well. This paper proposes an alternative theory of Star formation and birth of Supermassive Black holes after the Big Bang, which can answer the contradictions without violating the physics laws and fit perfectly well with the modern observations.

  20. Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

  1. A resource evaluation of the Bakken Formation (Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian) continuous oil accumulation, Williston Basin, North Dakota and Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmoker, J.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation in the United States portion of the Williston Basin is both the source and the reservoir for a continuous oil accumulation -- in effect a single very large field -- underlying approximately 17,800 mi{sup 2} (46,100 km{sup 2}) of North Dakota and Montana. Within this area, the Bakken Formation continuous oil accumulation is not significantly influenced by the water column and cannot be analyzed in terms of conventional, discrete fields. Rather, the continuous accumulation can be envisioned as a collection of oil-charged cells, virtually all of which are capable of producing some oil, but which vary significantly in their production characteristics. Better well-performance statistics are linked regionally to higher levels of thermal maturity and to lower levels of reservoir heterogeneity. Although portions of the Bakken Formation continuous oil accumulation have reached a mature stage of development, the accumulation as a whole is far from depleted.

  2. Completion of Oil Wells May 4, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudge, John

    Completion of Oil Wells John Rudge May 4, 2003 1 Introduction After the initial drilling of an oil the small gap, lubrication theory can be used to study the flow. Non-dimensionalise all lengths on the gap

  3. Two-phase flow in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ihara, Masaru [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Yanai, Koji [Nippon Kokan Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Yanai, Koji

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow in horizontal wells and two-phase flow interaction with the reservoir were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Two-phase flow behavior has been recognized as one of the most important problems in production engineering. The authors designed and constructed a new test facility suitable for acquiring data on the relationship between pressure drop and liquid holdup along the well and fluid influx from the reservoir. For the theoretical work, an initial model was proposed to describe the flow behavior in a horizontal well configuration. The model uses the inflow-performance-relationship (IPR) approach and empirical correlations or mechanistic models for wellbore hydraulics. Although good agreement was found between the model and experimental data, a new IPR apart from the extension of Darcy`s law must be investigated extensively to aid in the proper design of horizontal wells.

  4. INVITATIONAL WELL-TESTING SYMPOSIUM PROCEEDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interpretation of Drill Stem Test M. F. Anderson Halliburtonby William value of drill-stem tests. Myron Dorfman dis-well development, drill-stem tests, direc- tional surveys,

  5. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  6. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the performance of wells in compartmentalized reservoirs can be quite challenging to most conventional reservoir engineering tools. The purpose of this research is to develop a Compartmentalized Gas Depletion Model that applies not only...

  7. Modeling techniques for simulating well behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rattu, Bungen Christina

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a catalog of modeling techniques useful in simulating well behavior in certain types of reservoirs that are often encountered in petroleum reservoirs. Emphasis has been placed on techniques that can be used with any conventional...

  8. Modeling well performance in compartmentalized gas reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf, Nurudeen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting the performance of wells in compartmentalized reservoirs can be quite challenging to most conventional reservoir engineering tools. The purpose of this research is to develop a Compartmentalized Gas Depletion Model that applies not only...

  9. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Tyler J. (Pasco, WA); Holdren, Jr., George R. (Kennewick, WA); Kaplan, Daniel I. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques.

  10. Groundwater well with reactive filter pack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, T.J.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water wherein a reactive pack material is added to the annular fill material utilized in standard well construction techniques. 3 figs.

  11. PrimeEnergy/DOE/GRI slant well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drimal, C.E.; Muncey, G.; Carden, R.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents final results of the Sterling Boggs 1240 slant well. Objectives of the project were (1) to test the potential for improved recovery efficiency in a fractured Devonian Shale reservoir from a directionally drilled well, (2) to perform detailed tests of reservoir properties and completion methods, and (3) to provide technology to industry which may ultimately improve the economics of drilling in the Devonian Shale and thereby stimulate development of its resources.

  12. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUD FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES: CHARACTERIZING SIMULATED VERSUS OBSERVED CLOUD CATALOGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benincasa, Samantha M.; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Wadsley, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Tasker, Elizabeth J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a study of simulated giant molecular clouds (GMCs) formed in a Milky Way-type galactic disk with a flat rotation curve. This simulation, which does not include star formation or feedback, produces clouds with masses ranging between 10{sup 4} M{sub ?} and 10{sup 7} M{sub ?}. We compare our simulated cloud population to two observational surveys: the Boston University-Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory Galactic Ring Survey and the BIMA All-Disk Survey of M33. An analysis of the global cloud properties as well as a comparison of Larson's scaling relations is carried out. We find that simulated cloud properties agree well with the observed cloud properties, with the closest agreement occurring between the clouds at comparable resolution in M33. Our clouds are highly filamentary—a property that derives both from their formation due to gravitational instability in the sheared galactic environment, as well as to cloud-cloud gravitational encounters. We also find that the rate at which potentially star-forming gas accumulates within dense regions—wherein n{sub thresh} ? 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}—is 3% per 10 Myr, in clouds of roughly 10{sup 6} M{sub ?}. This suggests that star formation rates in observed clouds are related to the rates at which gas can be accumulated into dense subregions within GMCs via filamentary flows. The most internally well-resolved clouds are chosen for listing in a catalog of simulated GMCs—the first of its kind. The cataloged clouds are available as an extracted data set from the global simulation.

  13. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays is disclosed. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area. 12 figs.

  14. The effect of grain size distribution on H$_2$ formation rate in the interstellar medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azi Lipshtat; Ofer Biham

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium takes place on the surfaces of dust grains. Hydrogen molecules play a role in gas-phase reactions that produce other molecules, some of which serve as coolants during gravitational collapse and star formation. Thus, the evaluation of the roduction rate of hydrogen molecules and its dependence on the physical conditions in the cloud are of great importance. Interstellar dust grains exhibit a broad size distribution in which the small grains capture most of the surface area. Recent studies have shown that the production efficiency strongly depends on the grain composition and temperature as well as on its size. In this paper we present a formula which provides the total production rate of H$_2$ per unit volume in the cloud, taking into account the grain composition and temperature as well as the grain size distribution. The formula agrees very well with the master equation results. It shows that for a physically relevant range of grain temperatures, the production rate of H$_2$ is significantly enhanced due to their broad size distribution.

  15. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  16. Pahute Mesa Well Development and Testing Analyses for Wells ER-20-8 and ER-20-4, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff and Sam Marutzky

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 were drilled during fiscal year (FY) 2009 and FY 2010 (NNSA/NSO, 2011a and b). The closest underground nuclear test detonations to the area of investigation are TYBO (U-20y), BELMONT (U-20as), MOLBO (U-20ag), BENHAM (U-20c), and HOYA (U-20 be) (Figure 1-1). The TYBO, MOLBO, and BENHAM detonations had working points located below the regional water table. The BELMONT and HOYA detonation working points were located just above the water table, and the cavity for these detonations are calculated to extend below the water table (Pawloski et al., 2002). The broad purpose of Wells ER-20-4 and ER-20-8 is to determine the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater, the geologic formations, groundwater geochemistry as an indicator of age and origin, and the water-bearing properties and hydraulic conditions that influence radionuclide migration. Well development and testing is performed to determine the hydraulic properties at the well and between other wells, and to obtain groundwater samples at the well that are representative of the formation at the well. The area location, wells, underground nuclear detonations, and other features are shown in Figure 1-1. Hydrostratigraphic cross sections A-A’, B-B’, C-C’, and D-D’ are shown in Figures 1-2 through 1-5, respectively.

  17. Introduction Format Proprietaire -Standard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnier, Stefan

    Code for Information Interchange) 4. Unicode IFT-1215 Stefan Monnier 7 #12;BCD IFT-1215 Stefan MonnierSOMMAIRE Introduction Format Propri´etaire -Standard Code Alphanum´erique Entr´ee Alphanum : !, ?, ", (, . . . · Caract`eres sp´eciaux : *, $, ¿, . . . Quelques standards utilis´es pour les coder en binaires 1. BCD

  18. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  19. Method for producing microporous metal bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danko, Joseph C. (Danville, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten is vapor-deposited by hydrogen reduction of tungsten hexafluoride (WF.sub.6) to produce a tungsten body having from 40 to 100 ppm fluorine. The tungsten is then heated under vacuum to produce grain boundary porosity for a sufficient period of time to allow the pores along the grain boundaries to become interconnected.

  20. PRODUCER -SCROUNGER GAME n-Person Game

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraco, Thomas

    size, ESS frequency of scrounging Assumptions of Producer-Scrounger Game Fix group (or population size Producer invades Scrounger n-Person Game with ESS q* : 0 ESS ** q P q S dq dW dq dW ESS frequency of scrounger

  1. Completion report for Well ER-EC-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-EC-6 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the spring of 1999 as part of the DOE's hydrogeologic investigation well program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 66-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to the depth of 485.1 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 1,524.0 meters. A preliminary composite, static, water level was measured at the depth of approximately 434.6 meters prior to installation of the completion string. One completion string with four isolated, slotted intervals was installed in the well. Detailed lithologic descriptions with preliminary stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and 33 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 504.4 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples are in progress. The well penetrated Tertiary-age lava and tuff of the Timber Mountain Group, the Paintbrush Group, the Calico Hills Formation, and the Volcanics of Quartz Mountain. Intense hydrothermal alteration was observed below the depth of 640 m. The preliminary geologic interpretation indicates that this site may be located on a buried structural ridge that separates the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes.

  2. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well ER-EC-8 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This well was drilled in the summer of 1999 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's hydrogeologic investigation program in the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley region just west of the Nevada Test Site. A 44.5-centimeter surface hole was drilled and cased off to a depth of 129.8 meters below the surface. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 609.6 meters. One completion string with three isolated slotted intervals was installed in the well. A preliminary composite, static water level was measured at the depth of 98.4 meters, 24 days after installation of the completion string. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments are included in the report. These are based on evaluation of composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters, and 20 sidewall samples taken at various depths below 157.9 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data and results of detailed chemical and mineralogical studies of rock samples. Drilling began in Tertiary-age tuff of the Thirsty Canyon Group, and penetrated tuffs of the Beatty Wash Formation, tuff of Buttonhook Wash, and the upper portion of the Ammonia Tanks Tuff. The geologic interpretation of data from this well helps define the location of the western margin of the Timber Mountain caldera complex in the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. Geologic and hydrologic data from the well will aid in development of models to predict groundwater flow and contaminant migration within and near the Nevada Test Site.

  3. Project management improves well control events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberlender, G.D. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Abel, L.W. [Wild Well Control Inc., Spring, TX (United States)

    1995-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    During a well control operation, the efficient use of personnel and equipment, through good project management techniques, contributes to increased safety and ensures a quality project. The key to a successful blowout control project is to use all resources in the most efficient manner. Excessive use of resources leads to unnecessary expenditures and delays in bringing the project under control. The Kuwait well control project, which involved more than 700 blowouts, was accomplished in a much shorter time (8 months) than first estimated (5 years). This improvement partly resulted from the application of sound project management techniques. These projects were prime examples of the need for a formal project management approach to handling wild well projects. There are many examples of projects that were successful in controlling wells but were economic disasters. Only through the effective application of project management can complex well control projects be completed in reasonable time frames at reasonable cost. The paper describes team management, project scope, organizational structures, scheduling, tracking models, critical path method, and decision trees.

  4. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) well construction technology evaluation report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capuano, Louis, Jr. (Thermasource Inc.); Huh, Michael; Swanson, Robert (Thermasource Inc.); Raymond, David Wayne; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Polsky, Yarom; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity production from geothermal resources is currently based on the exploitation of hydrothermal reservoirs. Hydrothermal reservoirs possess three ingredients critical to present day commercial extraction of subsurface heat: high temperature, in-situ fluid and high permeability. Relative to the total subsurface heat resource available, hydrothermal resources are geographically and quantitatively limited. A 2006 DOE sponsored study led by MIT entitled 'The Future of Geothermal Energy' estimates the thermal resource underlying the United States at depths between 3 km and 10 km to be on the order of 14 million EJ. For comparison purposes, total U.S. energy consumption in 2005 was 100 EJ. The overwhelming majority of this resource is present in geological formations which lack either in-situ fluid, permeability or both. Economical extraction of the heat in non-hydrothermal situations is termed Enhanced or Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS). The technologies and processes required for EGS are currently in a developmental stage. Accessing the vast thermal resource between 3 km and 10 km in particular requires a significant extension of current hydrothermal practice, where wells rarely reach 3 km in depth. This report provides an assessment of well construction technology for EGS with two primary objectives: (1) Determining the ability of existing technologies to develop EGS wells. (2) Identifying critical well construction research lines and development technologies that are likely to enhance prospects for EGS viability and improve overall economics. Towards these ends, a methodology is followed in which a case study is developed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate EGS well construction technology needs. A baseline EGS well specification is first formulated. The steps, tasks and tools involved in the construction of this prospective baseline EGS well are then explicitly defined by a geothermal drilling contractor in terms of sequence, time and cost. A task and cost based analysis of the exercise is subsequently conducted to develop a deeper understanding of the key technical and economic drivers of the well construction process. Finally, future research & development recommendations are provided and ranked based on their economic and technical significance.

  5. Horizontal well drill-in fluid utilizing alcohol ethoxylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jachnik, R.P.; Green, P.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The drilling of horizontal wells in the last 6 years has significantly improved the economics of oil and gas production from depleted reservoirs or tight sands. This paper illustrates the application of an alcohol ethoxylate into a drill-in fluid designed to minimize formation damage in low permeability sandstones while drilling horizontal sections as long as 1,617 meters (5,306 ft) at depths approaching 6,580 meters (21,600 ft) and to facilitate formation cleanup. The chemistry of alcohol ethoxylates/alkoxylates are described and the more popular names used within the industry will be discussed. Laboratory results are presented which illustrate colloidal phenomena not previously reported with these systems, the routes taken for successful application into a drill-in fluid and how complex these particular colloidal systems are from a physical chemical viewpoint, along with the inevitable learning curve required to fully optimize these systems. Generalized case histories from the UK Southern North Sea will be described, along with field observations which back up the colloidal phenomena seen in the laboratory.

  6. Apparatus for stringing well pipe of casing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sexton, J.L.

    1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for use in running a string of threaded well pipe or casing in a vertical configuration in a deep well bore which is adapted to convert a top head drive drilling rig for use in running each length of pipe into the well bore. A drive spindle adaptor is provided which may be securely attached in a removably mounted manner to the rotary drive spindle or sub of a top head drive drilling rig. The drive spindle includes a pair of opposing, outwardly extending lugs disposed at a right angle to the axial direction of the spindle and a true centering guide means. A collar is included which is provided with frictional gripping members for removably securing the collar to one end of a length of conventional pipe and a pair of axially extending, spaced ears which cooperate upon engagement with said lugs on said spindle adaptor to transfer rotary motion of said spindle to said length of pipe.

  7. Apparatus for rotating and reciprocating well pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.D.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for simultaneously rotating and reciprocating well pipe, having an upper end, and mechanically utilizing a rotary table attached to a drilling rig, comprising: a rotating pipe clamp assembly having an irregular cross-sectional mid-member and clamp members for releasably gripping the well pipe connected to the ends of the mid-member for rotation therewith; a square block for fitting to the rotary table square and having a selected grooved interior configuration; a torque transmitting means fitted into the grooves having openings therethrough having the same irregular cross-section as the mid-member cross-section; and a torque limiting means connecting the torque transmitting means and the block for limiting torque applied through the well pipe via the clamp assembly and the torque transmitting means.

  8. Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion S. S. Harilal,a Beau O in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithographic light source. An ambient gas that is transparent to 13.5 nm and deceleration of plume species, the addition of ambient gas leads to other events such as double peak formation

  9. Development and demonstration of an enhanced spreadsheet-based well log analysis software. Final report, May 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watney, W.L.; Doveton, J.H.; Guy, W.J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Class Work Program is a field-based research and demonstration program for demonstration of advanced or improved technologies identified in the Department of Energy`s Class Field Demonstration Projects. The objective of the Advanced Class Work program is to conduct field demonstrations of technologies for which a small, incremental amount of work will produce or improve a transferable, useful technology for oil recovery. The goal of the program is to enhance the products of near-term Class projects and maximize the applicability and effectiveness of project results. PfEFFER (Petrofacies Evaluation of Formations For Engineering Reservoirs) is a well log analysis computer package. The software was tested and successfully applied in Schaben Field, a DOE Class 2 Field Demonstration Project to assist in improving reservoir characterization and assessing reservoir performance. PfEFFER v.1 was released in January, 1996 as a commercial spreadsheet-based well-log analysis program developed and distributed through the Kansas Geological Survey. The objectives of this project were: Task 1 -- Enhance the PfEFFER software package; Task 2 -- Develop major new modules to significantly augment PfEFFER capabilities; Task 3 -- Conduct field demonstration of software application using the necessary reservoir data acquired from oil operators and construct a database; and Task 4 -- Perform technology transfer activities that include workshops, reports, presentations, or other methods to communicate results to interested parties.

  10. Numerical simulation of an energy storage well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ebeling, Lynn Louis

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ Isothera aap oC ~ at the end of 0. 25 yr. of in]ectiou. . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ 48 7 ~ Isobar aap, Rilopascals, after 0. 25 yr. of storaqe. 49 8. Isothera aap, oC ~ after 0 25 yr. of stozaqe. . . . ~ 50 9 Isobar nap. Rilopascal, after 0 ~ 25 yr...-recovery schedules to insure an economical operation and to prevent theraal pollution of the aquifer. Sa~iaal 511~I mayer and Todd (1973) did preliminary calculations for a well in a 33 a thick confined aquifer of 25 percent poros- ity. The well received 99o...

  11. Pressure buildup characteristics in Austin Chalk wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claycomb, Eddy

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    20 40 60 60 Mr lee IOOKrlemelere EEKAR 6 UA SALMI' WILSON LAVACA hrAVERICK ZAVA' A FRIG ATAECOSA KARNES DE WITT 0 0 IMMIT LA SALLE ~CO o& @g'v Figure I ? Austin Chalk Trend in Texas Early in the development of Clayton W, Williams, Jr..., Henry J. , Jr. : "Well- Test Analysis for Vertically Fractured Wells, " J. Pet. Tech. (Aug. 1972) 1014-1020; Trans. , AINE, 253. VITA Name: Eddy Claycomb Birth Date: March 18, 1956 Birthplace: Tyler, Texas Parents: Mr. and Mrs. Tom Claycomb, Jr...

  12. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photosynthetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels Euntaek Lee,Photosyn- thetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels”, Journal of

  13. Method and apparatus for producing composites of materials exhibiting thermoplastic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garvey, Raymond E. (Knoxville, TN); Grostick, Edmund T. (Faragut, TN)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobile device for the complete consolidation of layers of material which exhibit thermoplastic properties for the formation of a composite of the layers upon a complex contoured substrate. The principal of the device is to provide heating into the molten temperature range of the thermoplastic material, applying sufficient pressure to the layers to cause flow of the plastic for a time sufficient to achieve full consolidation of the layers, and quickly cooling the structure to prevent delamination or other non-consolidation action. In the preferred form, there is an element to deposit a layer of the mateiral against another layer in close proximity. The two layers are pre-heated to near the melting temperature, and then further heated into the melting temperature range as they are brought into intimate contact with sufficient pressure to cause flow of the plastic for a time sufficient to achieve the full consolidation. The structure is then cooled. The mechanism for the application of pressure is selected such that the layers can be deformed to conform to a complex contour. In the preferred form, this pressurization is produced using a compliant hood that supplies both the pressure and at least a portion of the melting temperature, as well as the cooling. The apparatus, and method of operation, are described relative to the use of fiber-reinforced PEEK in the making of fully-consolidated composites. Other applications are discussed.

  14. Geometric Analysis of the Formation Problem for Autonomous Robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorfler, Florian

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the formation control problem for autonomous robots a distributed control law steers the robots to the desired target formation. A local stability result of the target formation can be derived by methods of linearization and center manifold theory or via a Lyapunov-based approach. It is well known that there are various other undesired invariant sets of the robots' closed-loop dynamics. This paper addresses a global stability analysis by a differential geometric approach considering invariant manifolds and their local stability properties. The theoretical results are then applied to the well-known example of a cyclic triangular formation and result in instability of all invariant sets other than the target formation.

  15. Directional Drilling and Equipment for Hot Granite Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R. E.; Neudecker, J. W.; Rowley, J.C.; Brittenham, T. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Directional drilling technology was extended and modified to drill the first well of a subsurface geothermal energy extraction system at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, hot dry rock (HDR) experimental site. Borehole geometries, extremely hard and abrasive granite rock, and high formation temperatures combined to provide a challenging environment for directional drilling tools and instrumentation. Completing the first of the two-wellbore HDR system resulted in the definition of operation limitations of -many conventional directional drilling tools, instrumentation, and techniques. The successful completion of the first wellbore, Energy Extraction Well No. 2 (EE-21), to a measured depth of 4.7 km (15,300 ft) in granite reservoir rock with a bottomhole temperature of 320 C (610 F) required the development of a new high-temperature downhole motor and modification of existing wireline-conveyed steering tool systems. Conventional rotary-driven directional assemblies were successfully modified to accommodate the very hard and abrasive rock encountered while drilling nearly 2.6 km (8,500 ft) of directional hole to a final inclination of 35{sup o} from the vertical at the controlled azimuthal orientation. Data were collected to optimize the drilling procedures far the programmed directional drilling of well EE-3 parallel to, and 370 metres (1,200 ft) above, Drilling equipment and techniques used in drilling wellbores for extraction of geothermal energy from hot granite were generally similar to those that are standard and common to hydrocarbon drilling practices. However, it was necessary to design some new equipment for this program: some equipment was modified especially for this program and some was operated beyond normal ratings. These tools and procedures met with various degrees of success. Two types of shock subs were developed and tested during this project. However, downhole time was limited, and formations were so varied that analysis of the capabilities of these items is not conclusive. Temperature limits of the tools were exceeded. EE-2. Commercial drilling and fishing jars were improved during the drilling program. Three-cone, tungsten-carbide insert bit performance with downhole motors was limited by rapid gauge wear. Rotary drilling was optimized for wells EE-2 and EE-3 using softer (IADS 635 code) bits and provided a balance between gauge,. cutting structure, and bearing life. Problems of extreme drill string drag, drill string twist-off, and corrosion control are discussed.

  16. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosic, Slavko

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

  17. Foolproof completions for high rate production wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tosic, Slavko

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    gravel pack (GP) and high rate water pack (HRWP) completions over high-permeability fracturing (HPF), known in the vernacular as a frac&pack (FP) for very high rate wells. While a properly designed GP completion may prevent sand production, it does...

  18. Visualizing Motion in Potential Wells* Pratibha Jolly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zollman, Dean

    , directly and plot the potential energy diagrams using a magnetic field sensor. The ease of measurement of potential #12;2 barriers and wells. The previous developers used a photo-interrupt and timing device for the sake of economy a single sensor was employed. Then, the experiment had to be repeated a large number

  19. Promoting Balance, Wellness & Fitness Creating healthier lives.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    in student recruitment and retention. Engagement ­ We provide opportunities for students and members of their leisure time. Participation in such activities also assists students in performing well in a demanding interpersonal conflicts, learn healthy life-style habits, provide first aid and emergency response services

  20. T2WELL/ECO2N

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002966IBMPC00 T2Well/ECO2N Version 1.0: Multiphase and Non-Isothermal Model for Coupled Wellbore-Reservoir Flow of Carbon Dioxide and Variable Salinity Water  http:..esd.lbl.gov/tough/licensing.html 

  1. FOR THE ACTIVE Health and Wellness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    FOR THE ACTIVE Health and Wellness n EARLY BIRD SWIM Monday, Wednesday & Friday Sept. 16-Dec. 6, 7, Seniors: $58 n SWIMMER'S SPECIAL (Participate in 36 swims of your choice of Early Bird or Evening Swim Education fasttrac for 55+ ASTRONOMY ­ OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AND BEYOND This basic introductory course

  2. FOR THE ACTIVE Health and Wellness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    FOR THE ACTIVE Health and Wellness n EARLY BIRD SWIM Monday, Wednesday & Friday Sept. 16-Dec. 6, 7, Seniors: $58 n SWIMMER'S SPECIAL (Participate in 36 swims of your choice of Early Bird or Evening Swim Education fasttrac for 55+ ASTRONOMY ­ Our Solar System and Beyond This basic introductory course

  3. Fracturing pressures and near-well fracture geometry of arbitrarily oriented and horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z.; Economides, M.J.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydraulic fracturing of arbitrarily oriented and horizontal wells is made challenging by the far more complicated near-well fracture geometry compared to that of conventional vertical wells. This geometry is important both for hydraulic fracture propagation and the subsequent post-treatment well performance. Fracture tortuosity of arbitrarily oriented and horizontal wells is likely to cause large initiation pressures and reduction in the fracture widths. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effects of important variables, including the principal stresses, wellbore orientation, and perforation configuration on fracture geometry. Initiation pressures, the contact between arbitrarily oriented wells and the fracture plane, and the near-well fracture geometry are determined and discussed. This study also shows that because of the near-well stress concentration the fracture width at the wellbore is always smaller than the maximum fracture width. This can have important consequences during hydraulic fracturing.

  4. A study of the effects of stimulation on Devonian Shale gas well performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuber, Michael Dean

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of actual production data from producing Devonian Shale gas wells throughout the Appalachian Basin. These comparisons are of limited use, however, because they fail to take into account recently developed stimulation technologies and because compari... by analysis of these data. Unfortunately, too little data are available for wells stimulated using current technologies. This study included no production data from wells stimulated by radial (tailored-pulse) fracturing methods. These data are vital...

  5. Demonstration of the enrichment of medium quality gas from gob wells through interactive well operating practices. Final report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackburn, S.T.; Sanders, R.G.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.; Stevenson, J.W.; Mills, R.A.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane released to the atmosphere during coal mining operations is believed to contribute to global warming and represents a waste of a valuable energy resource. Commercial production of pipeline-quality gob well methane through wells drilled from the surface into the area above the gob can, if properly implemented, be the most effective means of reducing mine methane emissions. However, much of the gas produced from gob wells is vented because the quality of the gas is highly variable and is often below current natural gas pipeline specifications. Prior to the initiation of field-testing required to further understand the operational criteria for upgrading gob well gas, a preliminary evaluation and assessment was performed. An assessment of the methane gas in-place and producible methane resource at the Jim Walter Resources, Inc. No. 4 and No. 5 Mines established a potential 15-year supply of 60 billion cubic feet of mien methane from gob wells, satisfying the resource criteria for the test site. To understand the effect of operating conditions on gob gas quality, gob wells producing pipeline quality (i.e., < 96% hydrocarbons) gas at this site will be operated over a wide range of suction pressures. Parameters to be determined will include absolute methane quantity and methane concentration produced through the gob wells; working face, tailgate and bleeder entry methane levels in the mine; and the effect on the economics of production of gob wells at various levels of methane quality. Following this, a field demonstration will be initiated at a mine where commercial gob gas production has not been attempted. The guidelines established during the first phase of the project will be used to design the production program. The economic feasibility of various utilization options will also be tested based upon the information gathered during the first phase. 41 refs., 41 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Producing a computer generated explosive effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Wei

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is conducted in order to produce a convincing explosive effect with a computer. A description of the current state of the art provides current achievements by industry and individual artists. A tutorial focusing on modeling, lighting, and setting up animation...

  7. Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . It can store the energy from diverse domestic resources (including clean coal, nuclear renewable resources, nuclear energy, and coal with carbon capture and storage. 1 #12;Potential for clean1 #12;Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen................1 Hydrogen Production Technologies

  8. Producing tritium in a homogenous reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cawley, William E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for the joint production and separation of tritium. Tritium is produced in an aqueous homogenous reactor and heat from the nuclear reaction is used to distill tritium from the lower isotopes of hydrogen.

  9. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  10. Methods and systems for producing syngas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkes, Grant L; O'Brien, James E; Stoots, Carl M; Herring, J. Stephen; McKellar, Michael G; Wood, Richard A; Carrington, Robert A; Boardman, Richard D

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for producing syngas utilizing heat from thermochemical conversion of a carbonaceous fuel to support decomposition of at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells. Simultaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide and water or steam by one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells may be employed to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A portion of oxygen produced from at least one of water and carbon dioxide using one or more solid-oxide electrolysis cells is fed at a controlled flow rate in a gasifier or combustor to oxidize the carbonaceous fuel to control the carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratio produced.

  11. Dynamical Constraints on Disk Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacy McGaugh

    1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The rotation curves of disk galaxies exhibit a number of striking regularities. The amplitude of the rotation is correlated with luminosity (Tully-Fisher), the shape of the rotation curve is well predicted by the luminous mass distribution, and the magnitude of the mass discrepancy increases systematically with decreasing centripetal acceleration. These properties indicate a tight connection between light and mass, and impose strong constraints on theories of galaxy formation.

  12. Lithium implantation at low temperature in silicon for sharp buried amorphous layer formation and defect engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliviero, E. [CSNSM, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 108, 91405 Orsay (France); David, M. L.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F. [Institut Pprime, CNRS-Universite de Poitiers-ENSMA, SP2MI, Bd Marie et Pierre Curie, BP30179, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil Cedex (France); Fichtner, P. F. P. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av Bento Goncalves 9500, Caixa Postal 15051, 90035-190 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystalline-to-amorphous transformation induced by lithium ion implantation at low temperature has been investigated. The resulting damage structure and its thermal evolution have been studied by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy channelling (RBS/C) and cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). Lithium low-fluence implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature is shown to produce a three layers structure: an amorphous layer surrounded by two highly damaged layers. A thermal treatment at 400 Degree-Sign C leads to the formation of a sharp amorphous/crystalline interfacial transition and defect annihilation of the front heavily damaged layer. After 600 Degree-Sign C annealing, complete recrystallization takes place and no extended defects are left. Anomalous recrystallization rate is observed with different motion velocities of the a/c interfaces and is ascribed to lithium acting as a surfactant. Moreover, the sharp buried amorphous layer is shown to be an efficient sink for interstitials impeding interstitial supersaturation and {l_brace}311{r_brace} defect formation in case of subsequent neon implantation. This study shows that lithium implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature can be suitable to form a sharp buried amorphous layer with a well-defined crystalline front layer, thus having potential applications for defects engineering in the improvement of post-implantation layers quality and for shallow junction formation.

  13. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Kiesel, Richard F.; Englund, David J; Hendrickson, Dave

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets may include providing multiple layers of agglomerates, such as briquettes, balls and extrusions, of a reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and of a reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) on a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material) and providing a coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material over at least some of the agglomerates. Heating the agglomerates of reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  14. Method and system for producing metallic iron nuggets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iwasaki, Iwao; Lindgren, Andrew J.; Kiesel, Richard F.

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and system for producing metallic nuggets includes providing reducible mixture of reducing material (such as carbonaceous material) and reducible iron bearing material (such as iron oxide) that may be arranged in discrete portions, such as mounds or briquettes, on at least a portion of a hearth material layer (such as carbonaceous material). A coarse overlayer of carbonaceous material may be provided over at least some of the discrete portions. Heating the reducible mixture to 1425.degree. C. or 1400.degree. C. or 1375.degree. C. results in formation of an intermediate product of one or more metallic iron nuggets, which may have a sulfur content of less than 0.03%, and slag, which may have less than 5% mass MgO, which may have a ratio of percent by weight sulfur in the slag over percent by weight sulfur in the metallic nuggets of at least about 12 or at least about 15.

  15. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1, -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley fault, and suggests that the main plume is controlled, at least in part, by flow from this fault system. The temperature data also defines the geothermal resource with gradients >100oC/km, which covers an area a minimum of 8 km2. Structural blocks, down dropped with respect to the Pumpernickel Valley fault, may define an immediate reservoir. The geothermal system almost certainly continues beyond the recently drilled holes and might be open to the east and south, whereas the heat source responsible for the temperatures associated with this plume has not been intersected and must be at a depth greater than 920 meters (depth of the deepest well – Magma well). The geological and structural setting and other characteristics of the Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area are markedly similar to the portions of the nearby Dixie Valley geothermal field. These similarities include, among others, the numerous, unexposed en echelon faults and large-scale pull-apart structure, which in Dixie Valley may host part of the geothermal field. The Pumpernickel Valley project area, for the majority of which Nevada Geothermal Power Company has geothermal rights, represents a geothermal site with a potential for the discovery of a relatively high temperature reservoir suitable for electric power production. Among locations not previously identified as having high geothermal potential, Pumpernickel Valley has been ranked as one of four sites with the highest potential for electrical power production in Nevada (Shevenell and Garside, 2003). Richards and Blackwell (2002) estimated the total heat loss and the preliminary production capacity for the entire Pumpernickel Valley geothermal system to be at 35MW. A more conservative estimate, for

  16. Efficiency limits of quantum well solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connolly, J P; Barnham, K W J; Bushnell, D B; Tibbits, T N D; Roberts, J S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantum well solar cell (QWSC) has been proposed as a flexible means to ensuring current matching for tandem cells. This paper explores the further advantage afforded by the indication that QWSCs operate in the radiative limit because radiative contribution to the dark current is seen to dominate in experimental data at biases corresponding to operation under concentration. The dark currents of QWSCs are analysed in terms of a light and dark current model. The model calculates the spectral response (QE) from field bearing regions and charge neutral layers and from the quantum wells by calculating the confined densities of states and absorption coefficient, and solving transport equations analytically. The total dark current is expressed as the sum of depletion layer and charge neutral radiative and non radiative currents consistent with parameter values extracted from QE fits to data. The depletion layer dark current is a sum of Shockley-Read-Hall non radiative, and radiative contributions. The charge neu...

  17. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  18. Trip report for field visit to Fayetteville Shale gas wells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a visit to several gas well sites in the Fayetteville Shale on August 9, 2007. I met with George Sheffer, Desoto Field Manager for SEECO, Inc. (a large gas producer in Arkansas). We talked in his Conway, Arkansas, office for an hour and a half about the processes and technologies that SEECO uses. We then drove into the field to some of SEECO's properties to see first-hand what the well sites looked like. In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) made several funding awards under a program called Low Impact Natural Gas and Oil (LINGO). One of the projects that received an award is 'Probabilistic Risk-Based Decision Support for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Facilities in Sensitive Ecosystems'. The University of Arkansas at Fayetteville has the lead on the project, and Argonne National Laboratory is a partner. The goal of the project is to develop a Web-based decision support tool that will be used by mid- and small-sized oil and gas companies as well as environmental regulators and other stakeholders to proactively minimize adverse ecosystem impacts associated with the recovery of gas reserves in sensitive areas. The project focuses on a large new natural gas field called the Fayetteville Shale. Part of the project involves learning how the natural gas operators do business in the area and the technologies they employ. The field trip on August 9 provided an opportunity to do that.

  19. Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z. [Centre of Excellence in Nanomaterials, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Hasan, S. T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Sharma, A. C. [Physics Department, Sibli National College, Azamgarh-276128 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

  20. Gas well operation with liquid production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lea, J.F.; Tighe, R.E.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of liquid loading in gas wells is discussed in terms of intersecting tubing or system performance curves with IPR curves and by using a more simplified critical velocity relationship. Different methods of liquid removal are discussed including such methods as intermittent lift, plunger lift, use of foam, gas lift, and rod, jet, and electric submersible pumps. Advantages, disadvantages, and techniques for design and application of the methods of liquid removal are discussed.

  1. Oscillation dynamics of multi-well condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mossmann; C. Jung

    2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new approach to the macroscopic dynamics of three-well Bose-Einstein condensates, giving particular emphasis to self-trapping and Josephson oscillations. Although these effects have been studied quite thoroughly in the mean-field approximation, a full quantum description is desirable, since it avoids pathologies due to the nonlinear character of the mean-field equations. Using superpositions of quantum eigenstates, we construct various oscillation and trapping scenarios.

  2. Geothermal Well Completion Tests | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, searchGeaugaInformation Mexico - A Survey of Work to DateWell

  3. Method of drilling and casing a well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyadjieff, G.I.; Campbell, A.B.

    1983-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A well drilling rig having a rotary table for driving a drill string rotatively and having jacking mechanism for lowering casing into the well after drilling, with the jacking mechanism including fluid pressure actuated piston and cylinder means which may be left in the rig during drilling and which are positioned low enough in the rig to avoid interference with operation of the rotary table. The jacking mechanism also includes a structure which is adapted to be connected to the piston and cylinder means when the casing or other well pipe is to be lowered and which is actuable upwardly and downwardly and carries one of two pipe gripping units for progressively jacking the pipe downwardly by vertical reciprocation of that structure. The reciprocating structure may take the form of a beam extending between two pistons and actuable thereby, with a second beam being connected to cylinders within which the pistons are contained and being utilized to support the second gripping element. In one form of the invention, the rotary table when in use is supported by this second beam.

  4. Recompletion Report for Well UE-10j

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Townsend

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing Well UE-10j was deepened and recompleted for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was originally drilled to a total depth of 725.4 meters in 1965 for use as a hydrologic test hole in the northern portion of Yucca Flat in Area 8 of the Nevada Test Site. The well is located up-gradient of the Yucca Flat underground test area and penetrates deep into the Paleozoic rocks that form the lower carbonate aquifer of the NTS and surrounding areas. The original 24.4-centimeter-diameter borehole was drilled to a depth of 725.4 meters and left uncompleted. Water-level measurements were made periodically by the U.S. Geological Survey, but access to the water table was lost between 1979 and 1981 due to hole sloughing. In 1993, the hole was opened to 44.5 centimeters and cased off to a depth of 670.0 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters for drilling to a total depth of 796.4 meters. The depth to water in the open borehole was measured at 658.7 meters on March 18, 1993.

  5. Remote down-hole well telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Freund, Samuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes an apparatus and method for telemetry communication with oil-well monitoring and recording instruments located in the vicinity of the bottom of gas or oil recovery pipes. Such instruments are currently monitored using electrical cabling that is inserted into the pipes; cabling has a short life in this environment, and requires periodic replacement with the concomitant, costly shutdown of the well. Modulated reflectance, a wireless communication method that does not require signal transmission power from the telemetry package will provide a long-lived and reliable way to monitor down-hole conditions. Normal wireless technology is not practical since batteries and capacitors have to frequently be replaced or recharged, again with the well being removed from service. RF energy generated above ground can also be received, converted and stored down-hole without the use of wires, for actuating down-hole valves, as one example. Although modulated reflectance reduces or eliminates the loss of energy at the sensor package because energy is not consumed, during the transmission process, additional stored extra energy down-hole is needed.

  6. UV Star Formation Rates in the Local Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samir Salim; R. Michael Rich; Stéphane Charlot; Jarle Brinchmann; Benjamin D. Johnson; David Schiminovich; Mark Seibert; Ryan Mallery; Timothy M. Heckman; Karl Forster; Peter G. Friedman; D. Christopher Martin; Patrick Morrissey; Susan G. Neff; Todd Small; Ted K. Wyder; Luciana Bianchi; Jose Donas; Young-Wook Lee; Barry F. Madore; Bruno Milliard; Alex S. Szalay; Barry Y. Welsh; Sukyoung K. Yi

    2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We measure star formation rates of ~50,000 optically-selected galaxies in the local universe (z~0.1), spanning a range from gas-rich dwarfs to massive ellipticals. We obtain dust-corrected SFRs by fitting the GALEX (UV) and SDSS (optical) photometry to a library of population synthesis models that include dust attenuation. For star-forming galaxies, our UV-based SFRs compare remarkably well with those derived from SDSS H alpha. Deviations from perfect agreement between these two methods are due to differences in the dust attenuation estimates. In contrast to H alpha, UV provides reliable SFRs for galaxies with weak or no H alpha emission, and where H alpha is contaminated with an emission from an AGN. We use full-SED SFRs to calibrate a simple prescription that uses GALEX UV magnitudes to produce good SFRs for normal star-forming galaxies. The specific SFR is considered as a function of stellar mass for (1) star-forming galaxies with no AGN, (2) those hosting an AGN, and for (3) galaxies without H alpha emission. We find that the three have distinct star formation histories, with AGN lying intermediate between the star-forming and the quiescent galaxies. Normal star forming galaxies (without an AGN) lie on a relatively narrow linear sequence. Remarkably, galaxies hosting a strong AGN appear to represent the massive continuation of this sequence. Weak AGN, while also massive, have lower SFR, sometimes extending to the realm of quiescent galaxies. We propose an evolutionary sequence for massive galaxies that smoothly connects normal star-forming galaxies to quiescent (red sequence) galaxies via strong and weak AGN. We confirm that some galaxies with no H alpha emission show signs of SF in the UV. We derive a UV-based cosmic SFR density at z=0.1 with smaller total error than previous measurements (abridged).

  7. Reducing or stopping the uncontrolled flow of fluid such as oil from a well

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncontrolled flow of fluid from an oil or gas well may be reduced or stopped by injecting a composition including 2-cyanoacrylate ester monomer into the fluid stream. Injection of the monomer results in a rapid, perhaps instantaneous, polymerization of the monomer within the flow stream of the fluid. This polymerization results in formation of a solid plug that reduces or stops the flow of additional fluid from the well.

  8. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation (Devonian) of the Michigan Basin using horizontal drains. Final report, April 28, 1994--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, J.R.; Pennington, W.D.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total hydrocarbon production in the Michigan Basin has surpassed 1 billion barrels (Bbbls) and total unrecovered reserves are estimated at 1--2 BBbls. However, hydrocarbon production in Michigan has fallen from 35 MMbbls/yr in 1979 to about 10 MMbbls/yr in 1996. In an effort to slow this decline, a field demonstration project designed around using a horizontal well to recover bypassed oil was designed and carried out at Crystal Field in Montcalm County, MI. The project had two goals: to test the viability of using horizontal wells to recover bypassed oil from the Dundee Formation, and to characterize additional Dundee reservoirs (29) that are look alikes to the Crystal Field. As much as 85 percent of the oil known to exist in the Dundee Formation in the Michigan Basin remains in the ground as bypassed oil. Early production techniques in the 137 fields were poor, and the Dundee was at risk of being abandoned, leaving millions of barrels of oil behind. Crystal Field in Montcalm County, Michigan is a good example of a worn out field. Crystal Field was once a prolific producer which had been reduced to a handful of wells, the best of which produced only 5 barrels per day. The demonstration well drilled as a result of this project, however, has brought new life to the Crystal Field. Horizontal drilling is one of the most promising technologies available for oil production. The new well was completed successfully in October of 1995 and has been producing 100 barrels of oil per day, 20 times better than the best conventional well in the field.

  9. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

  10. Laser Oil and Gas Well Drilling Demonstration Videos

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ANL's Laser Applications Laboratory and collaborators are examining the feasibility of adapting high-power laser technology to drilling for gas and oil. The initial phase is designed to establish a scientific basis for developing a commercial laser drilling system and determine the level of gas industry interest in pursuing future research. Using lasers to bore a hole offers an entirely new approach to mechanical drilling. The novel drilling system would transfer light energy from lasers on the surface, down a borehole by a fiber optic bundle, to a series of lenses that would direct the laser light to the rock face. Researchers believe that state-of-the-art lasers have the potential to penetrate rock many times faster than conventional boring technologies - a huge benefit in reducing the high costs of operating a drill rig. Because the laser head does not contact the rock, there is no need to stop drilling to replace a mechanical bit. Moreover, researchers believe that lasers have the ability to melt the rock in a way that creates a ceramic sheath in the wellbore, eliminating the expense of buying and setting steel well casing. A laser system could also contain a variety of downhole sensors, including visual imaging systems that could communicate with the surface through the fiber optic cabling. Earlier studies have been promising, but there is still much to learn. One of the primary objectives of the new study will be to obtain much more precise measurements of the energy requirements needed to transmit light from surface lasers down a borehole with enough power to bore through rocks as much as 20,000 feet or more below the surface. Another objective will be to determine if sending the laser light in sharp pulses, rather than as a continuous stream, could further increase the rate of rock penetration. A third aspect will be to determine if lasers can be used in the presence of drilling fluids. In most wells, thick fluids called "drilling muds" are injected into the borehole to wash out rock cuttings and keep water and other fluids from the underground formations from seeping into the well. The technical challenge will be to determine whether too much laser energy is expended to clear away the fluid where the drilling is occurring. (Copied with editing from http://www.ne.anl.gov/facilities/lal/laser_drilling.html). The demonstration videos, provided here in QuickTime format, are accompanied by patent documents and PDF reports that, together, provide an overall picture of this fascinating project.

  11. Underground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies & Practicality.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    environments and are very salty, like the Marcellus shale and other oil and gas formations underlying the areaUnderground Injection Wells as an Option for Disposal of Shale Gas Wastewaters: Policies), Region 3. Marcellus Shale Educational Webinar, February 18, 2010 (Answers provide below by Karen Johnson

  12. Method to produce large, uniform hollow spherical shells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method to produce large uniform hollow spherical shells by (1) forming uniform size drops of heat decomposable or vaporizable material, (2) evaporating the drops to form dried particles, (3) coating the dried particles with a layer of shell forming material and (4) heating the composite particles to melt the outer layer and to decompose or vaporize the inner particle to form an expanding inner gas bubble. The expanding gas bubble forms the molten outer layer into a shell of relatively large diameter. By cycling the temperature and pressure on the molten shell, nonuniformities in wall thickness can be reduced. The method of the invention is utilized to produce large uniform spherical shells, in the millimeter to centimeter diameter size range, from a variety of materials and of high quality, including sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness, for use as laser fusion or other inertial confinement fusion targets as well as other applications.

  13. Short pulse laser produced energetic electron and positron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hui; Wilks, Scott C.; Patel, Parvesh K.; Shepherd, Ronnie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Very energetic (>MeV) electrons are commonly produced from ultraintense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser-solid interactions. Diagnosing these so-called hot electrons is of fundamental importance in understanding the detailed laser plasma physics present in these interactions, as well as in potential applications. Interestingly, positrons can also be produced in these interactions if the number and effective temperature of hot electrons exceed a threshold value. This additional information may help to better determine the effective electron temperature that exists in these targets. We have designed and constructed a compact spectrometer that can simultaneously measure the energy spectra of both electrons and positrons. Presented here are the principles of the spectrometer together with its experimental results obtained on the ultraintense (>10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Vulcan petawatt laser.

  14. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  15. Level Diagram Format Choice

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011 LawrenceE C HLester toRecalcitrantWhich format

  16. NETL Report format template

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that large-scale CO 2 storage is safe and effective requires predicting the long-term integrity of storage sites as well as demonstrating the comprehensive consideration of...

  17. NETL Report format template

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ground motion is usually well below a level that poses a risk to surface structures, CO 2 storage operations aim to avoid any conditions that could cause felt ground-motion events....

  18. Planning and Search Exam format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    is the frame problem. Revision 5 #12;Exam topics: planning Classical planning. How the problem definitionPlanning and Search Revision Revision 1 #12;Outline Exam format Exam topics How to revise Revision 2 #12;Exam format 4 questions out of 6 same format as 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 exams (on G52PAS

  19. Effectsof ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takano, Yoshihide

    Effectsof ice-crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud experimental and ray campaign, four 220halo-producing cirrus clouds were studied jointly from a ground- based polarization lidar of the aircraft, which collecteda total of 84slides byimpaction, preserving the ice crystals for later microscopic

  20. Stable plateau formation and Brillouin suppression in laser plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulser, P. [Theoretical Quantum Electronics (TQE), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Weng, S. M. [Theoretical Quantum Electronics (TQE), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, D-80333 Munich (Germany)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the variety of ponderomotively induced density structures in laser produced plasmas in one dimension, it is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that the stable plateau formation at critical, subcritical, and above critical density is possible. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering is suppressed with increasing laser intensity.

  1. RMOTC - Field Information - Wells and Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115, 2001Data sets Notice: As ofOnlineWells

  2. Well Log Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformationSEDSWawarsing,Webb County,Energy Information 2001)Al.,Well

  3. Salt Wells Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-g Grant ofRichardton Abbey Wind Farm(CTIhinderProject SmartSalt Wells

  4. Willow Well Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300 South Place:ReferenceEdit JumpWill County, Illinois: Facility WillowWell

  5. Wells Rural Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save EnergyGlouster,Winside,WarrenWells Rural Electric Co Place:

  6. Category:Production Wells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: EnergyBostonFacilityCascadeJump to:Lists Jump to:PoliticalProduction Wells

  7. Effect of overbalance pressure on formation damage S.Z. Jilani a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    to the invasion of drilling fluids during drilling operations. The formation impairment or skin due to drilling formation comes first time in contact with a foreign fluid, i.e. drilling mud, which invades the formation and plugs the pores around the well bore. Although drilling fluids are presently being designed

  8. abandoned wells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Lesson Topics WhatisDiabetes? Nutrition-FirstSteptoDiabetesManagement...

  9. abandoning wells working: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Do Well, Be Well with Diabetes Lesson Topics WhatisDiabetes? Nutrition-FirstSteptoDiabetesManagement...

  10. Well injection valve with retractable choke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pringle, R.E.

    1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An injection valve is described for use in a well conduit consisting of: a housing having a bore, a valve closure member in the bore moving between open and closed positions, a flow tube telescopically movable in the housing for controlling the movement of the valve closure member, means for biasing the flow tube in a direction for allowing the valve closure member to move to the closed position, an expandable and contractible fluid restriction connected to the flow tube and extending into the bore for moving the flow tube to the open position in response to injection fluid, but allowing the passage of well tools through the valve, the restriction contractible in response to fluid flow, the restriction includes, segments movable into and out of the bore, and biasing means yieldably urging the segments into the bore, a no-go shoulder on the flow tube, and releasable lockout means between the flow tube and the housing for locking the flow tube and valve in the open position.

  11. Recovery of bypassed oil in the Dundee Formation using horizontal drains, Quarterly technical report, 1/1/97--3/31/97

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This Class 11 field project has demonstrated that economic quantities of hydrocarbons can be produced from abandoned or nearly abandoned fields in the Dundee Formation of Central Michigan using horizontal drilling technology. The site selected for the demonstration horizontal well was Crystal Field, a nearly abandoned Dundee oil field in Montcalm County, Michigan. This field had produced over 8 million barrels of oil, mostly in the 1930`s and 1940`s. At the height of development, Crystal Field produced from 193 wells, but by 1995, only seven producing wells remained, each producing less than 10 bbls/day. A horizontal well, the TOW 1-3, drilled as a field demonstration pilot was successful, producing at rate of 100 bbls of oil per day with a zero water cut. Although the well is capable of producing at a rate of 500+ bbls/day, the production rate is being kept low deliberately to try to prevent premature water coning. Cumulative production exceeded 50,000 bbls of oil by the end of April, 1997 and lead to the permitting and licensing of several dozen Dundee wells by project end. Twelve of these permits were for continued development of Crystal Field. Two subsequent wells, the Frost 5-3 and the Happy Holidays 6-3, have not been as successful. Both are currently producing 10 BOPD with 90% water cut. Efforts are underway to determine why these wells are performing so poorly and to see if the situation can be remedied. The reasons for these poor performances of the new wells are not clear at this time. It is possible that the wells entered the Dundee too low and missed pay higher in the section. When the TOW 1-3 was drilled, a vertical probe well was also drilled and cored. That probe well penetrated the pay zone and helped guide the horizontal well. The important lesson may be that vertical probe wells are a crucial step in producing these old fields and should not be eliminated simply to save what amounts to a small incremental cost. Core and logs from the Dundee interval were recovered from a vertical borehole at the same surface location. The addition of several horizontal wells will likely add another 2 million bbls (or more) to the cumulative production of the field over the next few years. If other abandoned Dundee fields are re-developed in a similar manner, the additional oil produced could exceed 80 million barrels. Additional project work involved the characterization of 28 other Dundee fields in Michigan to aid in determining appropriate additional candidates for development through horizontal drilling. Further quantification of reservoir parameters such as importance of fracturing, fracture density, and irregularity of the dolomitized surface at the top of the reservoir will help in designing the optimal strategy for horizontal drilling. The project was a cooperative venture involving the US Department of Energy, Michigan Technological University (MTU), Western Michigan University (WMU), and Terra Energy (now Cronus Development Co.) in Traverse City, MI.

  12. Manganese sulfide formation via concomitant microbial manganese oxide and thiosulfate reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kennedy, David W.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Moore, Dean A.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Reed, Samantha B.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 produced {gamma}-MnS (rambergite) nanoparticles during the concurrent reduction of MnO{sub 2} and thiosulfate coupled to H{sub 2} oxidation. To investigate effect of direct microbial reduction of MnO{sub 2} on MnS formation, two MR-1 mutants defective in outer membrane c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA and {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA/{Delta}mtrF) were also used and it was determined that direct reduction of MnO{sub 2} was dominant relative to chemical reduction by biogenic sulfide generated from thiosulfate reduction. Although bicarbonate was excluded from the medium, incubations of strain MR-1 with lactate as the electron donor produced MnCO{sub 3} (rhodochrosite) as well as MnS in nearly equivalent amounts as estimated by micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) analysis. It was concluded that carbonate released from lactate metabolism promoted MnCO{sub 3} formation and that Mn(II) mineralogy was strongly affected by carbonate ions even in the presence of abundant sulfide and weakly alkaline conditions expected to favor the precipitation of MnS. Formation of MnS, as determined by a combination of micro-XRD, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction analyses was consistent with equilibrium speciation modeling predictions. Biogenic manganese sulfide may be a manganese sink in the Mn biogeochemical cycle in select environments such as deep anoxic marine basins within the Baltic Sea.

  13. Project Management Plan - Small Producers Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    completions within the Bakken shale and assess whether alternative well completionfracture configurations might provide higher oil recoveries. Our major findings in the tasks...

  14. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  15. Method of producing a hybrid matrix fiber composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J. (Livermore, CA); Lyon, Richard E. (Absecon, NJ); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites comprised of two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  16. Sedimentology, petrology, and gas potential of the Brallier Formation: upper Devonian turbidite facies of the Central and Southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundegard, P.D.; Samuels, N.D.; Pryor, W.A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upper Devonian Brallier Formation of the central and southern Appalachian basin is a regressive sequence of siltstone turbidites interbedded with mudstones, claystones, and shales. It reaches 1000 meters in thickness and overlies basinal mudrocks and underlies deltaic sandstones and mudrocks. Facies and paleocurrent analyses indicate differences between the depositional system of the Brallier Formation and those of modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences. The Brallier system is of finer grain size and lower flow intensity. In addition, the stratigraphic transition from turbidites to deltaic sediments is gradual and differs in its facies succession from the deposits of the proximal parts of modern submarine fans. Such features as massive and pebbly sandstones, conglomerates, debris flows, and massive slump structures are absent from this transition. Paleocurrents are uniformly to the west at right angles to basin isopach, which is atypical of ancient turbidite systems. This suggests that turbidity currents had multiple point sources. The petrography and paleocurrents of the Brallier Formation indicate an eastern source of sedimentary and low-grade metasedimentary rocks with modern relief and rainfall. The depositional system of the Brallier Formation is interpreted as a series of small ephemeral turbidite lobes of low flow intensity which coalesced in time to produce a laterally extensive wedge. The lobes were fed by deltas rather than submarine canyons or upper fan channel systems. This study shows that the present-day turbidite facies model, based mainly on modern submarine fans and ancient Alpine flysch-type sequences, does not adequately describe prodeltaic turbidite systems such as the Brallier Formation. Thickly bedded siltstone bundles are common features of the Brallier Formation and are probably its best gas reservoir facies, especially when fracture porosity is well developed.

  17. TEST OF SQUARE LAW FOR DEUTERON FORMATION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAR COLLISIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noack, C.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF SQUARE lAW FOR m::utERONFORMATION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEAROF SQUARE LAW FOR DEUTERON FORMATION IN RELATIVISTIC NUCLEARlaw for high energy deuterons and protons produced in nuclear

  18. Bayesian Learning via Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics Max Welling welling@ics.uci.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaski, Samuel

    Bayesian Learning via Stochastic Gradient Langevin Dynamics Max Welling welling@ics.uci.edu D. Bren on iterative learning from small mini-batches. By adding the right amount of noise to a standard stochastic" and collects sam- ples after it has been surpassed. We apply the method to three models: a mixture of Gaussians

  19. Geohydrology of Pahute Mesa-3 test well, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilroy, K.C.; Savard, C.S.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pahute Mesa-3 test well is on Pahute Mesa about 3 miles west of the Nevada Test Site and 20 miles northeast of Oasis Valley near Beatty, Nevada. The well was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy Radionuclide Migration Program to monitor conditions near the western edge of the Nevada Test Site. The well was drilled with conventional rotary methods and an air-foam drilling fluid to a depth of 3,019 feet. A 10.75-inch diameter steel casing was installed to a depth of 1,473 feet. The test well penetrates thick units of non-welded to partly welded ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age with several thin layers of densely welded tuff, rhyolite and basalt flows, and breccia. Geophysical logs indicate that fractures are significant in the Tiva Canyon Tuff of the Paintbrush Group and this was confirmed by high flow in this unit during a borehole-flow survey. The geophysical logs also show that the effective porosity in tuffaceous units ranges from 19 to 38 percent and averages 30 percent, and the total porosity ranges from 33 to 55 percent and averages 42 percent. The measured temperature gradient of 1.00 degree Celsius per 100 feet is steep, but is similar to that of other nearby wells, one of which penetrates a buried granite intrusion. Injection tests for six intervals of the well yielded transmissivities that ranged from 3.1 x 10{sup -3} to 25 feet squared per day and hydraulic conductivities that ranged from 6 x 10{sup -5} to 0.12 foot per day. The sum of the transmissivities is 28 feet squared per day and the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity is 1.7 x 10{sup -3} foot per day. Estimates of storage coefficient range from 2.1 x 10{sup -5} to 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, indicating that the aquifer responded to the injection tests in a confined manner. An aquifer test produced a drawdown of 78 feet during 31 hours of testing at 169 gallons per minute.

  20. Drilling of wells with top drive unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyadjieff, G.I.

    1984-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Well drilling apparatus including a top drive drilling assembly having a motor driven stem adapted to be attached to the upper end of a drill string and drive it during a drilling operation, a torque wrench carried by the top drive assembly and movable upwardly and downwardly therewith and operable to break a threated connection between the drill string and the stem, and an elevator carried by and suspended from the top drive assembly and adapted to engage a section of drill pipe beneath the torque wrench in suspending relation. The torque wrench and elevator are preferably retained against rotation with the rotary element which drives the drill string, but may be movable vertically relative to that rotary element and relative to one another in a manner actuating the apparatus between various different operating conditions.

  1. Kuwait poised for massive well kill effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that full scale efforts to extinguish Kuwait's oil well fires are to begin. The campaign to combat history's worst oil fires, originally expected to begin in mid-March, has been hamstrung by logistical problems, including delays in equipment deliveries caused by damage to Kuwait's infrastructure. Meantime, production from a key field off Kuwait--largely unaffected by the war--is expected to resume in May, but Kuwaiti oil exports will still be hindered by damaged onshore facilities. In addition, Kuwait is lining up equipment and personnel to restore production from its heavily damaged oil fields. Elsewhere in the Persian Gulf, Saudi Arabia reports progress in combating history's worst oil spills but acknowledges a continuing threat.

  2. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

  3. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces, and this reduction can be scaled by the gravitational dimensionless time. Mechanistic simulation of core-scale surfactant brine imbibition matches the experimentally observed imbibition data. In-situ distributions observed through simulation indicate that surfactant diffusion (which depends on temperature and molecular weight) is the rate limiting step. Most of the oil is recovered through gravitational forces. Oil left behind at the end of this process is at its residual oil saturation. The capillary and Bond numbers are not large enough to affect the residual oil saturation. At the field-scale, 50% of the recoverable oil is produced in about 3 years if the fracture spacing is 1 m and 25% if 10 m, in the example simulated. Decreasing fracture spacing and height, increasing permeability, and increasing the extent of wettability alteration increase the rate of oil recovery from surfactant-aided gravity drainage. This dilute surfactant aided gravity-drainage process is relatively cheap. The chemical cost for a barrel of oil produced is expected to be less than $1.

  4. June 2011 Natural Gas and Produced Water Sampling at the Gasbuggy, New Mexico, Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual natural gas and produced water monitoring was conducted for gas wells adjacent to Section 36, where the Gasbuggy test was conducted, in accordance with the draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Gasbuggy Site, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351, continually updated). Natural gas samples were collected for tritium and carbon-14 analyses. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed for tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides (by high-resolution gamma spectrometry), gross alpha, and gross beta. A duplicate produced water sample was collected from well 30-039-21743. Produced water samples were not collected at locations 30-039-30161 and 30-039-21744 because of the lack of water. Samples were not collected from location 30-039-29988 because the well was shut-in.

  5. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    limit the performance of optoelectronic devices containing quantum well or quantum dot active regions Commercially available group III-nitride-based optoelectronic devices are grown along the polar c direction. This inherent polarization limits the performance of optoelectronic devices containing quantum well or quantum

  6. SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EUROPE SOVIETS BUILD MACHINES TO PRODUCE KRILL PASTE' The Soviet Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography ( V N I R 0) has built machines for production of a protein- rich paste from protein paste from Black Sea shrimp. Each machine, operated by 2 people, has a processing capacity of 1

  7. Producing dicarboxylic acids using polyketide synthases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Leonard; Fortman, Jeffrey L; Keasling, Jay D

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing a dicarboxylic acid (diacid). Such diacids include diketide-diacids and triketide-diacids. The invention includes recombinant nucleic acid encoding the PKS, and host cells comprising the PKS. The invention also includes methods for producing the diacids.

  8. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  10. Metrics for a Sustainable Produced By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    Metrics for a Sustainable EcoVillage #12;2 Produced By: Nam Nguyen Master of Urban and Regional Project Manager Project for Pride in Living (PPL) Jeffrey Skrenes Housing Director Hawthorne Neighborhood Council Photo source: Unless otherwise noted, photos are provided by People for Pride in Living

  11. Drilling/producing depths; Two records and a revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that record depths for natural gas or oil well drilling or producing continue to be rare occurrences, although one or two still come in each year. Records fell in Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) District 9 and in the California area of the Minerals Management Service (MMS) Pacific Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) in 1990. Deep drilling and production has traditionally been defined as well depths greater than 15,000 ft. Smith Tool reported that 9.4% of all active rotary rigs were dedicated to targets below 15,000 ft at the beginning of 1991. Deep rigs had dropped to 8.1% by year-end 1991, but remained above the 1989 and 1990 levels of 8.4 and 7.6%, respectively. In 1988 about 11% of active rigs were drilling deep at any given time.

  12. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Martin Dubois; Richard Pancake; Timothy Carr; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfn; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of December 2004, 11.39 MM lb of carbon dioxide were injected into the pilot area. Carbon dioxide injection rates averaged about 242 MCFD. Vent losses were excessive during June as ambient temperatures increased. Installation of smaller plungers in the carbon dioxide injection pump reduced the recycle and vent loss substantially. Carbon dioxide was detected in one production well near the end of May and in the second production well in August. No channeling of carbon dioxide was observed. The GOR has remained within the range of 3000-4000 for most the last six months. Wells in the pilot area produced 100% water at the beginning of the flood. Oil production began in February, increasing to an average of about 2.35 B/D for the six month period between July 1 and December 31. Cumulative oil production was 814 bbls. Neither well has experienced increased oil production rates expected from the arrival of the oil bank generated by carbon dioxide injection.

  13. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  14. Characterization of aerosols produced by surgical procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeh, H.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lundgren, D.L.; Guilmette, R.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Jones, R.K. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turner, R.S. [Lovelace Health Systems, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many surgeries, especially orthopedic procedures, power tools such as saws and drills are used. These tools may produce aerosolized blood and other biological material from bone and soft tissues. Surgical lasers and electrocautery tools can also produce aerosols when tissues are vaporized and condensed. Studies have been reported in the literature concerning production of aerosols during surgery, and some of these aerosols may contain infectious material. Garden et al. (1988) reported the presence of papilloma virus DNA in the fumes produced from laser surgery, but the infectivity of the aerosol was not assessed. Moon and Nininger (1989) measured the size distribution and production rate of emissions from laser surgery and found that particles were generally less than 0.5 {mu}m diameter. More recently there has been concern expressed over the production of aerosolized blood during surgical procedures that require power tools. In an in vitro study, the production of an aerosol containing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was reported when power tools were used to cut tissues with blood infected with HIV. Another study measured the size distribution of blood aerosols produced by surgical power tools and found blood-containing particles in a number of size ranges. Health care workers are anxious and concerned about whether surgically produced aerosols are inspirable and can contain viable pathogens such as HIV. Other pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are also of concern. The Occupational Safety and Health funded a project at the National Institute for Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute to assess the extent of aerosolization of blood and other tissues during surgical procedures. This document reports details of the experimental and sampling approach, methods, analyses, and results on potential production of blood-associated aerosols from surgical procedures in the laboratory and in the hospital surgical suite.

  15. Depositional and diagenetic controls on reservoir quality and their petrophysical predictors within the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) Doe Creek Member of the Kaskapau Formation at Valhalla Field, Northwest Alberta.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Nathaniel H.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Valhalla Field, discovered in 1979 and located in northwest Alberta, produces from the Upper Cretaceous Doe Creek Member of the Kaskapau Formation. Original reserves in… (more)

  16. Black holes, cuspy atmospheres, and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo-heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark halos expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.

  17. Spectral optical properties of selected photosynthetic microalgae producing biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Euntaek; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biochemical composition of microalgae from the green algalof Selected Photosynthetic Microalgae Producing Biofuelsof Selected Photosyn- thetic Microalgae Producing Biofuels”,

  18. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  19. Approach to Recover Hydrocarbons from Currently Off-Limit Areas of the Antrim Formation, MI Using Low-Impact Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Wood; William Quinlan

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to develop and execute a novel drilling and completion program in the Antrim Shale near the western shoreline of Northern Michigan. The target was the gas in the Lower Antrim Formation (Upper Devonian). Another goal was to see if drilling permits could be obtained from the Michigan DNR that would allow exploitation of reserves currently off-limits to exploration. This project met both of these goals: the DNR (Michigan Department of Natural Resources) issued permits that allow drilling the shallow subsurface for exploration and production. This project obtained drilling permits for the original demonstration well AG-A-MING 4-12 HD (API: 21-009-58153-0000) and AG-A-MING 4-12 HD1 (API: 21-009-58153-0100) as well as for similar Antrim wells in Benzie County, MI, the Colfax 3-28 HD and nearby Colfax 2-28 HD which were substituted for the AG-A-MING well. This project also developed successful techniques and strategies for producing the shallow gas. In addition to the project demonstration well over 20 wells have been drilled to date into the shallow Antrim as a result of this project's findings. Further, fracture stimulation has proven to be a vital step in improving the deliverability of wells to deem them commercial. Our initial plan was very simple; the 'J-well' design. We proposed to drill a vertical or slant well 30.48 meters (100 feet) below the glacial drift, set required casing, then angle back up to tap the resource lying between the base to the drift and the conventional vertical well. The 'J'-well design was tested at Mancelona Township in Antrim County in February of 2007 with the St. Mancelona 2-12 HD 3.

  20. NEWS & VIEWS PATTERN FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    to reproduce statistical properties of the dams. These statistical properties are in themselves of interest no apologies for investing energy into problems of specific application to a particular process in nature, understand and appreciate this almost aesthetical aspect of science very well, funding bodies sometimes less

  1. Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 28237 Design and Development of an Artificial Neural Network for Estimation of Formation and measuring their oldest practices for estimating the formation permeability. Coring every well in a large, especially in fields with hundreds of wells, requires a large amount of capital. In a heterogeneous field

  2. Feasibility of Optimizing and Reserves from a Mature and Geological Complex Multiple Turbidite Offshore California Reservoir Through the Drilling and Completion of a Trilateral Horizontal Well.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to devise an effective re- development strategy to combat producibility problems related to the Repetto turbidite sequences of the Carpinteria Field. The lack of adequate reservoir characterization, high-water cut production, and scaling problems have in the past contributed to the field`s low productivity. To improve productivity and enhance recoverable reserves, the following specific goals were proposed: (1) Develop an integrated database of all existing data from work done by the former ownership group. (2) Expand reservoir drainage and reduce sand problems through horizontal well drilling and completion. (3) Operate and validate reservoir`s conceptual model by incorporating new data from the proposed trilateral well. (4) Transfer methodologies employed in geologic modeling and drilling multilateral wells to other operators with similar reservoirs. Pacific Operators Offshore, Inc. with the cooperation of its team members; the University of Southern California; Schlumberger; Baker Oil Tools; Halliburton Energy Services and Coombs and Associates undertook a comprehensive study to reexamine the reservoir conditions leading to the cent field conditions and to devise methodologies to mitigate the producibility problems. A computer based data retrieval system was developed to convert hard copy documents containing production, well completion and well log data into easily accessible on-line format. To ascertain the geological framework of the reservoir, a thorough geological modeling and subsurface mapping of the Carpinteria field was developed. The model is now used to examine the continuity of the sands, characteristics of the sub-zones, nature of water influx and transition intervals in individual major sands. The geological model was then supplemented with a reservoir engineering study of spatial distribution of voidage in individual layers using the production statistics and pressure surveys. Efforts are continuing in selection of optimal location for drilling and completion of probing wells to obtain new data about reservoir pressure, in-situ saturation and merits of drilling a series of horizontal wells. The probing re-drills and horizontal wells are scheduled for Budget period 11. Information generated on the characteristics of the geology and reservoir setting have been presented at various SPE Meetings and Tech Transfer workshops of PTTC. Oil and gas professionals from State and Federal agencies have visited POOI offices and have received briefings on the Carpinteria re-development progress.

  3. Spheromak formation and sustainment studies at the sustained spheromak physics experiment using high-speed imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Spheromak formation and sustainment studies at the sustained spheromak physics experiment using image the formation and evolution of the sustained spheromak physics experiment SSPX E. B. Hooper et al The sustained spheromak physics experiment1 SSPX routinely produces spheromaks from a coaxial magnetized plasma

  4. Paper Number 15736-PA Title Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    Paper Number 15736-PA Title Reaction Kinetics of Fuel Formation for In-Situ Combustion Authors Abu believed to cause fuel formation for in-situ combustion have been studied and modeled. A thin, packed bed the approach of a combustion front. Analysis of gases produced from the reaction cell revealed that pyrolysis

  5. MODELING OF CO2 LEAKAGE UP THROUGH AN ABANDONED WELL FROM DEEP SALINE AQUIFER TO SHALLOW FRESH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MODELING OF CO2 LEAKAGE UP THROUGH AN ABANDONED WELL FROM DEEP SALINE AQUIFER TO SHALLOW FRESH restricted to: (i) supercritical CO2 injection and storage within the Dogger reservoir aquifer, (ii) CO2 the cement-rock formation interface in the abandoned well (iii) impacts on the Albian aquifer water quality

  6. Flow in geothermal wells: Part III. Calculation model for self-flowing well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilicki, Z.; Kestin, J.; Michaelides, E.E.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical model described predicts the temperature, pressure, dynamic dryness fraction, and void fraction along the vertical channel of two-phase flow. The existing data from operating wells indicate good agreement with the model. (MHR)

  7. Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhuoyi

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    be used to obtain downhole flow conditions, which is key information to control and optimize horizontal well production. However, the fluid flow in the reservoir is often multiphase and complex, which makes temperature and pressure interpretation very...

  8. The Decay of Accreting Triple Systems as Brown Dwarf Formation Scenario

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Umbreit; Andreas Burkert; Thomas Henning; Seppo Mikkola; Rainer Spurzem

    2005-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamical decay of non-hierarchical accreting triple systems and its implications on the ejection model as Brown Dwarf formation scenario. A modified chain-regularization scheme is used to integrate the equations of motion, that also allows for mass changes over time as well as for momentum transfer from the accreted gas mass onto the bodies. We integrate an ensemble of triple systems within a certain volume with different accretion rates, assuming several prescriptions of how momentum is transferred onto the bodies. We follow their evolution until the systems have decayed. We analyze the end states and decay times of these systems and determine the fraction of Brown Dwarfs formed, their escape speeds as well as the semi-major axis distribution of the formed Brown Dwarf binaries. We find that the formation probability of Brown Dwarfs depends strongly on the assumed momentum transfer which is related to the motion of the gas. Due to ongoing accretion and consequent shrinkage of the systems, the median escape velocity is increased by a factor of 2 and the binary separations are decreased by a factor of 5 compared with non-accreting systems. Furthermore, the obtained semi-major axis distribution drops off sharply to either side of the median, which is also supported by observations. We conclude that accretion and momentum transfer of accreted gas during the dynamical decay of triple systems is able to produce the observed distribution of close binary Brown Dwarfs, making the ejection model a viable option as Brown Dwarf formation scenario.

  9. X-ray CT Observations of Methane Hydrate Distribution Changes over Time in a Natural Sediment Core from the BPX-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Englezos, P. , 2009. Gas hydrate formation in a variableDOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test WellFormation of natural gas hydrates in marine sediments. 1.

  10. Method for producing catalysis from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Derbyshire, Frank (Lexington, KY); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Jagtoyen, Marit (Lexington, KY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere.

  11. Method for producing catalysts from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

    1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

  12. Producing and Marketing High-Value Calves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleere, Jason; Boleman, Larry L.

    2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    carcasses. Oklahoma State University (Smith et al., 2000) and University of Arkansas (Troxel et al., 2001) researchers conducted livestock market surveys to determine factors that affect value in feeder cattle. Their data indicate that small... cattle that will produce calves with adequate muscling. Body condition. The Oklahoma study found that thin cattle received discounts of $9 to $10 per cwt when compared to cattle of average condition, and that fat cattle received discounts of $6...

  13. Adventures in Laser Produced Plasma Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, M

    2006-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the UK the study of laser produced plasmas and their applications began in the universities and evolved to a current system where the research is mainly carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Central Laser Facility ( CLF) which is provided to support the universities. My own research work has been closely tied to this evolution and in this review I describe the history with particular reference to my participation in it.

  14. Process for producing furan from furfural aldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Evans, R.J.

    1987-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing furan and derivatives thereof as disclosed. The process includes generating furfural aldehyde vapors and then passing those vapors over a zeolite catalyst at a temperature and for a residence time effective to decarbonylate the furfural aldehydes to form furans and derivatives thereof. The resultant furan vapors and derivatives are then separated. In a preferred form, the furfural aldehyde vapors are generated during the process of converting biomass materials to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  15. Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III; Momii, S.T.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the ``slip`` portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical ``station-to-station logging tool`` may be modified to be a ``continuous logging tool,`` where ``continuous`` means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool. 12 figs.

  16. Methods and apparatus to produce stick-slip motion of logging tool attached to a wireline drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described to produce stick-slip motion of a logging tool within a cased well attached to a wireline that is drawn upward by a continuously rotating wireline drum. The stick-slip motion results in the periodic upward movement of the tool in the cased well described in terms of a dwell time during which time the tool is stationary, the move time during which time the tool moves, and the stroke that is upward distance that the tool translates during the "slip" portion of the stick-slip motion. This method of measurement is used to log the well at different vertical positions of the tool. Therefore, any typical "station-to-station logging tool" may be modified to be a "continuous logging tool", where "continuous" means that the wireline drum continually rotates while the tool undergoes stick-slip motion downhole and measurements are performed during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary. The stick-slip methods of operation and the related apparatus are particularly described in terms of making measurements of formation resistivity from within a cased well during the dwell times when the tool is momentarily stationary during the periodic stick-slip motion of the logging tool.

  17. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  18. Microbial Community Changes in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Produced Water from Shale Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J.; Hammack, Richard W.; Vidic, Radisav D.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  19. FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION La vie moderne et le stress : mettre en place des stratégies de gestion , étudier quelques aspects essentiels de la et cas cliniques composés par les participants ou fournis par le formateur . - Jeux de rôle en sous

  20. Dependent capitalist accumulation in an oil-producing nation: Iran

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavareei, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical and empirical analysis of underdevelopment has remained significantly limited with respect to the oil-producing nations of the Middle East. This study points out reasons for such shortcomings and then goes on to advance the analysis of the region. The theoretical framework of the study is based on a critical evaluation of the dependency model from a Marxist perspective. More specifically, the study delves into the analysis of underdevelopment in Iran by focusing on the dynamics of change in the country since the turn of the nineteenth century. The forces of change in Iran are seen to be the consequence of such external pressure on the one hand and internal resistance to it on the other. This resistance is analyzed in terms of the country's social class structure and its changing formation. The focus of the study, however, is on the fundamental class nature of change in Iran since the development of dependent capitalism began in the early 1960s. The study recognizes the interests of the United States as the single outside force most directly related to the formation of the Shah's regime as a repressive client state: the most-significant impetus for change in the country since 1963. Analyzed in detail are the economic changes of this period and the rising social and political contradictions which were the inevitable consequence of this process. The central feature of these contradictions is recognized as the promotion of capitalist relations of production motivated by the preservation of the political control of the Shah's regime. It is precisely in this context that the uprising of 1979, its success in overthrowing the Shah's regime, and its failure in maintaining a domocratic revolutionary process is discussed.