Sample records for formate sl soda

  1. Soda-anthraquinone lignin sacrificial agents in oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dardis, R. E.

    1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A supplemental oil recovery method comprising injecting into a subterranean formation a fluid containing soda-anthraquinone lignin which is adsorbed by adsorptive sites therein and functions as a sacrificial agent and thereafter injecting a micellar dispersion containing a surfactant into the subterranean formation to displace the oil contained therein.

  2. Wyoming's Budget: From Champagne to Soda Pop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuhmann, Robert A; Skopek, Tracy A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Skopek: Wyoming’s Budget: From Champagne to Soda Popconstruction money from budget cuts,” Casper Star-Tribune.proposes leaner state budget. ” Associated Press. Neary,

  3. Blow up Balloon with Baking Soda One small empty plastic soda or water bottle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    Blow up Balloon with Baking Soda One small empty plastic soda or water bottle 1/2 cup of vinegar Small balloon Baking soda Funnel or piece of paper 1. Carefully pour the vinegar into the bottle. 2 and some tape. 3. Now carefully put the neck of the balloon all the way over the neck of the bottle without

  4. Soda Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, New York:SiG26588°,Socorro County, New Mexico:Soda Lake

  5. Travertine Deposits of Soda Dam, New Mexico, and Their Implications...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Travertine Deposits of Soda Dam, New Mexico, and Their Implications for the Age and Evolution of the Valles Caldera Hydrothermal System Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  6. Sisolar SL UB Garanty Project SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey JumpAirPowerSilcioEthanol LLC Place:SipexSisolar SL

  7. Valsolar SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmwelt Management AGUserVHF Technologies SAValleyValsolar SL

  8. LOW VELOCITY SHPERE IMPACT OF SODA LIME SILICATE GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity ( 30 m/s or 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations.

  9. Soda Lake I Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, New York:SiG26588°,Socorro County, New Mexico:Soda LakeI

  10. Soda Lake II Geothermal Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, New York:SiG26588°,Socorro County, New Mexico:Soda LakeIII

  11. Soda Lake, Nevada: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, New York:SiG26588°,Socorro County, New Mexico:Soda LakeIIILake,

  12. Soda Springs, Idaho: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |RippeyInformationSoda Springs, Idaho: Energy Resources

  13. City of Soda Springs, Idaho (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation Smyrna Beach, FloridaCityRuston,CitySoda Springs, Idaho

  14. East Soda Lake Geothermal Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Jump to:(RES-AEI)CoastSoda Lake Geothermal

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Altomare, Diego; Creek, Kim E.; Wunschel, David S.; Pajares-Merino, Sara; Martinez-Ballesteros, Ilargi; Garaizar, Javier; Oyarzabal, Omar A.; Samadpour, Mansour

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    IDENTIFICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL SPECIES BASED ON VARIATIONS IN PROTEIN SEQUENCES (MASS SPECTROMETRY) AND DNA SEQUENCE (sodA MICROARRAY)

  16. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Soda-Lime Silicate Glassmelts with Different Iron Contents Between 1100C and 1500C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    Effective Thermal Conductivity of Soda-Lime Silicate Glassmelts with Different Iron Contents collected for soda- lime silicate glasses with iron content ranging from 0.008 to 1.1 wt% and temperatures, refractory walls wear more rapidly for clear glassmelts compared with colored ones.1 Soda-lime silicate glass

  17. The Equitable Basis for sl_2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benkart, Georgia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article contains an investigation of the equitable basis for the Lie algebra sl_2. Denoting this basis by {x,y,z}, we have [x,y] = 2x + 2y, [y,z] = 2y + 2z, [z, x] = 2z + 2x. One focus of our study is the group of automorphisms G generated by exp(ad x*), exp(ad y*), exp(ad z*), where {x*,y*,z*} is the basis for sl_2 dual to {x,y,z} with respect to the trace form (u,v) = tr(uv). We show that G is isomorphic to the modular group PSL_2(Z). Another focus of our investigation is the lattice L=Zx+Zy+Zz. We prove that the orbit G(x) equals {u in L |(u,u)=2}. We determine the precise relationship between (i) the group G, (ii) the group of automorphisms for sl_2 that preserve L, (iii) the group of automorphisms and antiautomorphisms for sl_2 that preserve L, and (iv) the group of isometries for (,) that preserve L. We obtain analogous results for the lattice L* =Zx*+Zy*+Zz*. Relative to the equitable basis, the matrix of the trace form is a Cartan matrix of hyperbolic type; consequently,we identify the equitable ...

  18. Recap Lecture 1 Concepts of Supervised Learning (SL)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Qinfeng "Javen"

    ) Main types of Supervised Learning Classification Novelty detection Regression 3 Classification Learning (SL) Classification algorithms Supervised Learning definition revisit Main types of Supervised Learning Classification Novelty detection Regression Main types of SL We have (input, correct output

  19. INDEX OF REFRACTION OF SHOCK LOADED SODA-LIME GLASS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, C. S. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM 87185 (United States)

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Soda-lime glass (SLG) is a potential low-cost VISAR window for use at moderate shock pressures (up to 2430 GPa) where the material remains transparent. In order for SLG to be practical as a VISAR window, the correction factor, which describes the frequency correction related to the strain dependence of the refractive index, and hence the index of refraction itself, must be characterized as a function of pressure. Characterization data are reported in this paper and compared to previous results. The present data show good agreement with those of Dandekar [J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6614 (1998)] and separate study results by Gibbons and Ahrens [J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5489 (1971)] up to 7 GPa. However, at stresses over 7 GPa, marked discrepancies are evident between the present data and that of Gibbons and Ahrens. Differences in test methods may explain these discrepancies.

  20. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  1. Abengoa Bioenergia SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEE Jump to: navigation, search40Georgia:SL Jump to:

  2. TAU Solar SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained By FaultSunpodsSweetwater 4aSyntheticTAU Solar SL Place:

  3. Anemoi Renovables SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon Capture and SequestrationAnemoi Renovables SL Jump to:

  4. Enertis Solar SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLC Place:EnergyLite Inc Jump to:Enertis Solar SL

  5. The role of organic pollutants in the alteration of historic soda silicate glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinet, Laurianne

    , formic acid and formaldehyde on objects from the National Museums of Scotland and on replica glasses aged artificially, all with a soda silicate composition. Composition was determined by electron microprobe and analytical decomposition of the Raman...La stabilité d’un verre est liée à sa composition et l’environnement contrôle son altération. Pour les verres historiques, les polluants organiques émis par les vitrines en bois interviennent dans leur altération. Ce travail étudie les mécanismes d’altération des acides acétique et formique et du formaldéhyde sur des objets de musée et des verres vieillis artificiellement, de composition sodique. Après détermination de la composition par microsonde électronique, la décomposition des spectres Raman a servi à établir des corrélations entre composition et structure des verres, et à interpréter les variations de structure entre verre sain et altéré. La structure des objets altérés par les polluants est caractéristique d’une altération par lixiviation, où seuls les silicates liés aux alcalins sont transformés en silanols, qui polymérisent par la suite. Les profils de concentrations SIMS de verres vieillis en atmosphères artificielles et réelles ont permis de suivre l’altération en fonction du temps, l’humidité et la concentration en polluants. Le film d’eau formé à la surface par l’humidité et son acidité contrôlent l’altération par lixiviation des alcalins et hydratation du verre. Le formaldéhyde n’agit pas sur la réaction de lixiviation tandis que les acides l’accélèrent et l’amplifient. Quelques soient les proportions des polluants, les composés formates prédominent dans les produits cristallins, même en faible concentration d’acide formique. L’humidité et la température fluctuante des musées entretiennent la réaction de lixiviation. L’évidence du rôle néfaste des polluants organiques acides dans l’altération des verres sodiques permettra d’améliorer leur conservation....

  6. Tensor Hierarchy and Generalized Cartan Calculus in SL(3)$\\times$SL(2) Exceptional Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hohm, Olaf

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct exceptional field theory for the duality group SL(3)$\\times$SL(2). The theory is defined on a space with 8 `external' coordinates and 6 `internal' coordinates in the $(3,2)$ fundamental representation, leading to a 14-dimensional generalized spacetime. The bosonic theory is uniquely determined by gauge invariance under generalized external and internal diffeomorphisms. The latter invariance can be made manifest by introducing higher form gauge fields and a so-called tensor hierarchy, which we systematically develop to much higher degree than in previous studies. To this end we introduce a novel Cartan-like tensor calculus based on a covariant nil-potent differential, generalizing the exterior derivative of conventional differential geometry. The theory encodes the full $D=11$ or type IIB supergravity, respectively.

  7. Tensor Hierarchy and Generalized Cartan Calculus in SL(3)$\\times$SL(2) Exceptional Field Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olaf Hohm; Yi-Nan Wang

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct exceptional field theory for the duality group SL(3)$\\times$SL(2). The theory is defined on a space with 8 `external' coordinates and 6 `internal' coordinates in the $(3,2)$ fundamental representation, leading to a 14-dimensional generalized spacetime. The bosonic theory is uniquely determined by gauge invariance under generalized external and internal diffeomorphisms. The latter invariance can be made manifest by introducing higher form gauge fields and a so-called tensor hierarchy, which we systematically develop to much higher degree than in previous studies. To this end we introduce a novel Cartan-like tensor calculus based on a covariant nil-potent differential, generalizing the exterior derivative of conventional differential geometry. The theory encodes the full $D=11$ or type IIB supergravity, respectively.

  8. 72 Journal of Failure Analysis and PreventionVolume 4(5) October 2004 Analysis of Brittle Fracture of Soda Glass Bottles under Hydrostatic Pressure (continued)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    of Soda Glass Bottles under Hydrostatic Pressure (continued) Analysis of Brittle Fracture of Soda Glass. When soda glass bottles are pressurized to fracture, the crack density in the broken glass to estimate the pressure to which a bottle was subjected by analyzing the glass fragments. The crack patterns

  9. Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive catalogue of drill?hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. Plus, 13 cross?sections in Adobe Illustrator format.

  10. From $sl_q(2)$ to a parabosonic Hopf algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Hopf algebra with four generators among which an involution (reflection) operator, is introduced. The defining relations involve commutators and anticommutators. The discrete series representations are developed. Designated by $sl_{-1}(2)$, this algebra encompasses the Lie superalgebra $osp(1|2)$. It is obtained as a $q=-1$ limit of the $sl_q(2)$ algebra and seen to be equivalent to the parabosonic oscillator algebra in irreducible representations. It possesses a noncocommutative coproduct. The Clebsch-Gordan coefficients (CGC) of $sl_{-1}(2)$ are obtained and expressed in terms of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials. A generating function for the CGC is derived using a Bargmann realization.

  11. From $sl_q(2)$ to a Parabosonic Hopf Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satoshi Tsujimoto; Luc Vinet; Alexei Zhedanov

    2011-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A Hopf algebra with four generators among which an involution (reflection) operator, is introduced. The defining relations involve commutators and anticommutators. The discrete series representations are developed. Designated by $sl_{-1}(2)$, this algebra encompasses the Lie superalgebra $osp(1|2)$. It is obtained as a $q=-1$ limit of the $sl_q(2)$ algebra and seen to be equivalent to the parabosonic oscillator algebra in irreducible representations. It possesses a noncocommutative coproduct. The Clebsch-Gordan coefficients (CGC) of $sl_{-1}(2)$ are obtained and expressed in terms of the dual -1 Hahn polynomials. A generating function for the CGC is derived using a Bargmann realization.

  12. (The Elephant's Toothpaste Experiment) A clean 16 ounce plastic soda bottle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    (The Elephant's Toothpaste Experiment) A clean 16 ounce plastic soda bottle 1/2 cup 20-volume will overflow from the bottle, so be sure to do this experiment on a washable surface, or place the bottle to carefully pour the hydrogen peroxide into the bottle. 2. Add 8 drops of your favorite food coloring

  13. Outdoor advertising, obesity, and soda consumption: a cross-sectional study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesser, Lenard I; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Cohen, Deborah A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gortmaker SL: The global obesity pandemic: shaped by globalto Sell Fat: The Rise of Obesity in the Modern Economy. Annucontributes to childhood obesity and what can be done. Annu

  14. The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus)

    1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIHENT STATIDJ A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 490 MARCH, 1934 .--' --7 , The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton - AGRICULTURAL... of nitrate of soda on yield, length and percentage of lint, size of boll, shedding, and other characters of the cotton plant on the sandy soils of eastern Texas, as a basis for developing a more intelligent and profitable fertilizer practice for cotton...

  15. The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner); Langley, B. C. (Bryon Caldwell); Johnson, P. R. (Paul Rufus)

    1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIHENT STATIDJ A. R. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY. TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 490 MARCH, 1934 .--' --7 , The Effect of Time and Rate of Application of Nitrate of Soda on the Yield of Cotton - AGRICULTURAL... bolls and not by increasing the length of lint or percentage of lint, as shown in experiments at Nacogdoches and Troup, during four years ending 1930, to determine the best time and rate of applica- tion of nitrate of soda for cotton...

  16. The Rahman polynomials and the Lie algebra sl_3(C)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliev, Plamen

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We interpret the Rahman polynomials in terms of the Lie algebra $sl_3(C)$. Using the parameters of the polynomials we define two Cartan subalgebras for $sl_3(C)$, denoted $H$ and $\\tilde{H}$. We display an antiautomorphism $\\dagger$ of $sl_3(C)$ that fixes each element of $H$ and each element of $\\tilde{H}$. We consider a certain finite-dimensional irreducible $sl_3(C)$-module $V$ consisting of homogeneous polynomials in three variables. We display a nondegenerate symmetric bilinear form $$ on $V$ such that $ = $ for all $\\beta \\in sl_3(C)$ and $\\xi,\\zeta \\in V$. We display two bases for $V$; one diagonalizes $H$ and the other diagonalizes $\\tilde{H}$. Both bases are orthogonal with respect to $$. We show that when $$ is applied to a vector in each basis, the result is a trivial factor times a Rahman polynomial evaluated at an appropriate argument. Thus for both transition matrices between the bases each entry is described by a Rahman polynomial. From these results we recover the previously known orthogonalit...

  17. SL(2,C) gravity on noncommutative space with Poisson structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao Yangang; Zhang Shaojun [Department of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Einstein's gravity theory can be formulated as an SL(2,C) gauge theory in terms of spinor notations. In this paper, we consider a noncommutative space with the Poisson structure and construct an SL(2,C) formulation of gravity on such a space. Using the covariant coordinate technique, we build a gauge invariant action in which, according to the Seiberg-Witten map, the physical degrees of freedom are expressed in terms of their commutative counterparts up to the first order in noncommutative parameters.

  18. Time-Domain Electromagnetics At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson EthanolTillson, New York: EnergyInformation Soda Lake

  19. Analysis of volatile contaminants in US Navy fleet soda lime. Technical report, August 1992-May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lillo, R.S.; Ruby, R.; Gummin, D.D.; Porter, W.R.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contamination was suspected of U.S. Navy Fleet soda lime (High Performance Sodasorb(R)) when an ammonia-like odor was reported during its use in August 1992. This material contained indicator dye and was used for carbon dioxide absorption during diving. This incident had a major impact on the U.S Navy diving program when the Navy temporarily banned use of Sodasorb(R) and authorized Sofnolime(R) as an interim replacement. The Naval Medical Research Institute was immediately assigned to investigate. Testing involved sampling from the headspace (gas space) inside closed buckets and from an apparatus simulating conditions during operational diving. Volatile organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry; ammonia and amines were measured by infrared spectroscopy. Significant amounts of ammonia (up to 30 ppm), ethyl and diethyl amines (up to several ppm), and various aliphatic hydrocarbons (up to 60 ppm) were detected during testing of both Sodasorb(R) and Sofnolime(R). Contaminants were slowly removed by gas flow and did not return. The source(s) of the ammonia and amines are unknown, although they may result from the breakdown of the indicator dye. Hydrocarbon contamination appeared to result from the materials of which the bucket is constructed. Based on these findings, the U.S. Navy is expected to phase in non-indicating soda lime that will be required to meet defined contaminant limits.

  20. SL-01, an oral derivative of gemcitabine, inhibited human breast cancer growth through induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Yi-Zhuo; Wang, Rui-Qi [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China); Li, Wen-Bao, E-mail: wbli92128@yahoo.com [Sanlugen PharmaTech, Rm 506, No. 2766 Yingxiu Road, Jinan 250101 (China)] [Sanlugen PharmaTech, Rm 506, No. 2766 Yingxiu Road, Jinan 250101 (China); Qu, Xian-Jun, E-mail: qxj@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)] [Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan 250012 (China)

    2013-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine. •SL-01 possessed activity against human breast cancer growth via apoptotic induction. •SL-01’s activity was more potently than that of gemcitabine. •SL-01 inhibited cancer growth without toxicity to mice. -- Abstract: SL-01 is an oral derivative of gemcitabine that was synthesized by introducing the moiety of 3-(dodecyloxycarbonyl) pyrazine-2-carbonyl at N4-position on cytidine ring of gemcitabine. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SL-01 on human breast cancer growth. SL-01 significantly inhibited MCF-7 proliferation as estimated by colorimetric assay. Flow cytometry assay indicated the apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. SL-01 modulated the expressions of p-ATM, p53 and p21 and decrease of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 cells. Further experiments were performed in a MCF-7 xenografts mouse model. SL-01 by oral administration strongly inhibited MCF-7 xenografts growth. This effect of SL-01 might arise from its roles in the induction of apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry assay showed the increase of TUNEL staining cells. Western blotting indicated the modulation of apoptotic proteins in SL-01-treated xenografts. During the course of study, there was no evidence of toxicity to mice. In contrast, the decrease of neutrophil cells in peripheral and increase of AST and ALT levels in serum were observed in the gemcitabine-treated mice. Conclusion: SL-01 possessed similar activity against human breast cancer growth with gemcitabine, whereas, with lower toxicity to gemcitabine. SL-01 is a potent oral agent that may supplant the use of gemcitabine.

  1. Generation of alkali-free and high-proton concentration layer in a soda lime glass using non-contact corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)] [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)] [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan)] [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)] [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation mechanisms of alkali-free and high-proton concentration surfaces were investigated for a soda lime glass using a corona discharge treatment under an atmospheric pressure. Protons produced by high DC voltage around an anode needle electrode were incorporated into a sodium ion site in the anode side glass. The sodium ion was swept away to the cathode side as a charge carrier. Then it was discharged. The precipitated sodium was transformed to a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} powder when the surface contacted with air. The sodium ion in the glass surface layer of the anode side was replaced completely by protons. The concentration of OH groups in the layer was balanced with the amount of excluded sodium ions. The substitution reaction of sodium ions with protons tends to be saturated according to a square root function of time. The alkali depletion layer formation rate was affected by the large difference in mobility between sodium ions and protons in the glass.

  2. sl{sub 2} Gaudin model with jordanian twist

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cirilo Antonio, N.; Manojlovic, N. [Departamento de Matematica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Matematica, FCT, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sl{sub 2} Gaudin model with jordanian twist is studied. This system can be obtained as the semiclassical limit of the XXX spin chain deformed by the jordanian twist. The appropriate creation operators that yield the Bethe states of the Gaudin model and consequently its spectrum are defined. Their commutation relations with the generators of the corresponding loop algebra as well as with the generating function of integrals of motion are given. The inner products and norms of Bethe states and the relation to the solutions of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations are discussed.

  3. SlISANA MARTINEZ Governor JOHN A. SANCHEZ Lieutenant Governor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9Morgan McCorkleSingin'ixSlISANA MARTINEZ Governor JOHN

  4. Aries Solar Termoelectrica SL ASTE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumAgua CalienteEnergyArgonne NationalSA JumpSL

  5. Complete genome sequence of Halorhodospira halophila SL1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Challacombe, Jean F [ORNL; Majid, Sophia [University of Chicago; Deole, Ratnakar [Oklahoma State University; Brettin, Thomas S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Delano, Susana [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gleasner, Cheryl D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Reitenga, Krista K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Saunders, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hoff, Wouter D. [Oklahoma State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Halorhodospira halophila is among the most halophilic organisms known. It is an obligately photosynthetic and anaerobic purple sulfur bacterium that exhibits autotrophic growth up to saturated NaCl concentrations. The type strain H. halophila SL1 was isolated from a hypersaline lake in Oregon. Here we report the determination of its entire genome in a single contig. This is the first genome of a phototrophic extreme halophile. The genome consists of 2,678,452 bp, encoding 2493 predicted genes as determined by automated genome annotation. Of the 2407 predicted proteins, 1905 were assigned to a putative function. Future detailed analysis of this genome promises to yield insights into the halophilic adaptations of this organism, its ability for photoautotrophic growth under extreme conditions, and its characteristic sulfur metabolism.

  6. A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

  7. Page 1 MATH 262 Quiz 9 April 17 Name: *SL IIJ" n* PID: Solve the ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Name: *SL IIJ" n* PID: Solve the problem systematically and neatly and Show all your work. l. (4pts) Let man) = u1(a^)i='fc -l- u2(as)e“4x be the particular ...

  8. Fusion Rules for Affine sl(2|1;C) at Fractional Level k=-1/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavin Johnstone

    2001-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate fusion rules for the admissible representations of the affine superalgebra sl(2|1;C) at fractional level k=-1/2 in the Ramond sector. By representing 3-point correlation functions involving a singular vector as the action of differential operators on the sl(2|1;C) invariant 3-point function, we obtain conditions on permitted quantum numbers involved. We find that in this case the primary fields close under fusion.

  9. Finite-dimensional irreducible modules for the three-point $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$ loop algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Tatsuro

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently Brian Hartwig and the second author found a presentation for the three-point $sl_2$ loop algebra by generators and relations. To obtain this presentation they defined a Lie algebra $\\boxtimes$ by generators and relations, and displayed an isomorphism from $\\boxtimes$ to the three-point $sl_2$ loop algebra. In this paper we describe the finite-dimensional irreducible $\\boxtimes$-modules from multiple points of view.

  10. Relationship of the superoxide dismutase genes, sodA and sodB, to the iron uptake (/ital fur/) regulon in /ital Escherichia coli/ K-12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niederhoffer, E.C.; Naranjo, C.M.; Fee, J.A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Expression of sodA, as indicated by MnSod activity is normal in /ital fur/ mutants. This suggests that sodA is not a member of the /ital fur/ regulon and that the putative Fe-binding, regulatory protein of sodA, suggested by Moody and Hassan is not the Fur protein. by contrast, expression of sodB, as indicated by FeSod activity, is completely blocked in /ital fur/ mutants and the effect is restored by transformation with a plasmid having a normal /ital fur/ locus. The observations suggest that Fur, either directly or indirectly, controls SodB biosynthesis. Additional observations are described which indicate that SodB and Fur act together in a complicated fashion to control the biosynthesis of enterobactin. 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Time-resolved measurement of photon emission during fast crack propagation in three-point bending fracture of silica glass and soda lime glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiota, Tadashi, E-mail: tshiota@ceram.titech.ac.jp; Sato, Yoshitaka; Yasuda, Kouichi [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)] [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-S7-13 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of photon emission (PE) and fast crack propagation upon bending fracture were conducted in silica glass and soda lime glass. Observation of fracture surfaces revealed that macroscopic crack propagation behavior was similar between the silica glass and soda lime glass when fracture loads for these specimens were comparable and cracks propagated without branching. However, a large difference in the PE characteristics was found between the two glasses. In silica glass, PE (645–655?nm) was observed during the entire crack propagation process, whereas intense PE (430–490?nm and 500–600?nm) was observed during the initial stages of propagation. In contrast, only weak PE was detected in soda lime glass. These results show that there is a large difference in the atomic processes involved in fast crack propagation between these glasses, and that PE can be used to study brittle fracture on the atomic scale.

  12. SL(2,R) duality-symmetric action for electromagnetic theory with electric and magnetic sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Choonkyu, E-mail: cklee@phya.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hyunsoo, E-mail: hsmin@dirac.uos.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the SL(2,R) duality-invariant generalization of Maxwell electrodynamics in the presence of both electric and magnetic sources, we formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action by introducing a pair of four-potentials A{sup ?} and B{sup ?} in a judicious way. On the two potentials A{sup ?} and B{sup ?} the SL(2,R) duality transformation acts in a simple linear manner. In quantum theory including charged source fields, this action can be recast as a SL(2,Z)-invariant action. Also given is a Zwanziger-type action for SL(2,R) duality-invariant Born–Infeld electrodynamics which can be important for D-brane dynamics in string theory. -- Highlights: •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, Zwanziger-type action. •Maxwell electrodynamics is generalized to include dilaton and axion fields. •SL(2,R) symmetry is manifest. •We formulate a local, manifestly duality-symmetric, nonlinear Born–Infeld action with SL(2,R) symmetry.

  13. Insights into the Inhibition of the p90 Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) by the Flavonol Glycoside SL0101 from the 1.5 Å Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Domain of RSK2 with Bound Inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Derewenda, Urszula; Olekhnovich, Natalya; Szukalska, Gabriela; Banerjee, Budhaditya; Hilinski, Michael K.; Lannigan, Deborah A.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Derewenda, Zygmunt S. (Lodz - Poland); (UV)

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The p90 ribosomal S6 family of kinases (RSK) are potential drug targets, due to their involvement in cancer and other pathologies. There are currently only two known selective inhibitors of RSK, but the basis for selectivity is not known. One of these inhibitors is a naturally occurring kaempferol-a-l-diacetylrhamnoside, SL0101. Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex of the N-terminal kinase domain of the RSK2 isoform with SL0101 at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution. The refined atomic model reveals unprecedented structural reorganization of the protein moiety, as compared to the nucleotide-bound form. The entire N-lobe, the hinge region, and the aD-helix undergo dramatic conformational changes resulting in a rearrangement of the nucleotide binding site with concomitant formation of a highly hydrophobic pocket spatially suited to accommodate SL0101. These unexpected results will be invaluable in further optimization of the SL0101 scaffold as a promising lead for a novel class of kinase inhibitors.

  14. A Superconnection for Riemannian Gravity as Spontaneously Broken SL(4,R) Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuval Ne'eman

    1997-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconnection is a supermatrix whose even part contains the gauge-potential one-forms of a local gauge group, while the odd parts contain the (0-form) Higgs fields; the combined grading is thus odd everywhere. We demonstrate that the simple supergroup ${\\bar P}(4,R)$ (rank=3) in Kac' classification (even subgroup $\\bar {SL}(4,R)$) prverline {SL}(4,R)$) provides for the most economical spontaneous breaking of $\\bar{SL}(4,R)$ as gauge group, leaving just local $\\bar{SO}(1,3)$ unbroken. As a result, post-Riemannian SKY gravity yields Einstein's theory as a low-energy (longer range) effective theory. The theory is renormalizable and may be unitary.

  15. A Superconnection for Riemannian Gravity as Spontaneously Broken SL(4,R) Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ne'eman, Yuval

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconnection is a supermatrix whose even part contains the gauge-potential one-forms of a local gauge group, while the odd parts contain the (0-form) Higgs fields; the combined grading is thus odd everywhere. We demonstrate that the simple supergroup ${\\bar P}(4,R)$ (rank=3) in Kac' classification (even subgroup $\\bar {SL}(4,R)$) prverline {SL}(4,R)$) provides for the most economical spontaneous breaking of $\\bar{SL}(4,R)$ as gauge group, leaving just local $\\bar{SO}(1,3)$ unbroken. As a result, post-Riemannian SKY gravity yields Einstein's theory as a low-energy (longer range) effective theory. The theory is renormalizable and may be unitary.

  16. The quantum algebra $U_q(sl_2)$ and its equitable presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuro Ito; Paul Terwilliger; Chih-wen Weng

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the quantum algebra $U_q(sl_2)$ has a presentation with generators $x,x^{-1},y,z$ and relations $x x^{-1}=1$, $x^{-1} x=1$, $\\frac{qxy-q^{-1}yx}{q-q^{-1}}=1$, $\\frac{qyz-q^{-1}zy}{q-q^{-1}}=1$, $\\frac{qzx-q^{-1}xz}{q-q^{-1}}=1$. We call this the equitable presentation. We investigate the action of $x,x^{-1},y,z$ on finite-dimensional $U_q(sl_2)$-modules.

  17. Generalization of the Gell-Mann formula for sl(5, R) and su(5) algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Salom; Djordje Sijacki

    2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The so called Gell-Mann formula expresses the Lie algebra elements in terms of the corresponding Inonu-Wigner contracted ones. In the case of sl(n, R) and su(n) algebras contracted w.r.t. so(n) subalgebras, the Gell-Mann formula is generally not valid, and applies only in the cases of some algebra representations. A generalization of the Gell-Mann formula for sl(5,R) and su(5) algebras, that is valid for all representations, is obtained in a group manifold framework of the SO(5) and/or Spin(5) group.

  18. Adaptive and Non-Adaptive ISI Sparse Channel Estimation Based on SL0 and Its Application in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive and Non-Adaptive ISI Sparse Channel Estimation Based on SL0 and Its Application in ML presented in [1] for estimation of sparse In- ter Symbol Interface (ISI) channels which will appear method based on SL0 sparse signal representation is proposed. ISI channel estimation will have a direct

  19. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH rpt61.tex CERN SL/97-61 (AP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keil, Eberhard

    of plane ground motion waves on the closed orbit in circular storage rings, such as LEP, LHC, or largerEUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH rpt61.tex CERN SL/97-61 (AP) Effect of Plane Ground Waves on the Closed Orbit in Circular Colliders Eberhard Keil Abstract The effect of plane ground waves

  20. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN SL/98-060 (RF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keil, Eberhard

    EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN SL/98-060 (RF) A Recirculating Electron Accelerator will become available after the decommissioning of LEP. The major design features and subjects of further developments are discussed. Geneva, Switzerland October 9, 1998 #12;1 INTRODUCTION The European nuclear physics

  1. Fusion Rules for the q-deformed Vertex Operators of U_q(sl(2)^)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Awata; Y. Yamada

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the properties of the q-vertex operators of U_q(sl(2)^) introduced by Frenkel and Reshetikhin. As the condition for the null vector decoupling, we derive the existence condition of the q-vertex operators ( the fusion rules ).

  2. Fusion procedure for the two-parameter quantum algebra $U_{r,s}(sl_n)$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihuan Jing; Ming Liu

    2014-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Irreducible modules of the two-parameter quantum enveloping algebra $U_{r,s}(\\mathfrak{sl}_n)$ are explicitly constructed using the fusion procedure, when $rs^{-1}$ is not a root of unity. This provides an alternative and combinatorial description of the Schur-Weyl duality for two-parameter quantum algebras of type $A$.

  3. The Universal Central Extension of the Three-point sl_2 Loop Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia Benkart; Paul Terwilliger

    2005-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a presentation of the universal central extension of the three-point loop algebra L over sl_2 by generators and relations. Our presentation arises from the realization of L as the tetrahedron Lie algebra and leads to connections between the universal central extension and the Onsager Lie algebra. Symmetry under the alternating group A_4 features prominently in this work.

  4. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN-SL-2001-061 AP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keil, Eberhard

    EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN-SL-2001-061 AP CERN-NUFACT Note 99 Summary of WG3 held, on (i) Acceleration and FFAG Machines, (ii) Targetting and Collection, (iii) Cooling, and (iv.5 ¢ £¥¤ ¡§¨ 2.6 ¢ £¥¤ ¡§¨ Target material lHg Hg lHg Collection system Horn Horn Solenoid Energy range/MeV 100

  5. Have you ever placed a soda in the fridge to cool? Ever wonder what is happening inside the bottle as it cools?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Have you ever placed a soda in the fridge to cool? Ever wonder what is happening inside the bottle of an Isothermal Line at the Density Maximum in H2O and D2O William R. Gorman, Gregory J. Parks, and James D is at ~0.3 cm from the top of the container. We describe this disturbance as a cold front or isothermal

  6. Kinetics of CO2-Fluid-Rock Reactions in a Basalt Aquifer, Soda Springs, Idaho

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maskell, Alexandra; Kampman, Niko; Chapman, Hazel; Condon, Daniel J.; Bickle, Mike

    2015-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    of the fluvial Salt Lake Formation unconformably above Proterozoic and Palaeozoic rocks characterise this extensional period (e.g. Miller, 1991; Oriel, 1968; Oriel and Platt, 1980; Sacks and Platt, 1985). Several generations of faults cut the Salt Lake... 30.2' ???? ? ??? ??? [1] This gave a bulk hydraulic conductivity of 1.2 x 10-4 ± 1.8 x 10-5 m/min. Uncertainty was calculated using the equations in Appendix A. Drilling conducted by the U.S. Army Engineers (1968) in the upper aquifer...

  7. Confluent KZ equations for sl_N with Poincare rank 2 at infinity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajime Nagoya; Juanjuan Sun

    2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct confluent KZ equations with Poincare rank 2 at infinity for the case of sl_N and the integral representation for the solutions. Hamiltonians of these confluent KZ equations are derived from suitable quantization of dlog tau constructed in the theory of monodromy preserving deformation by Jimbo, Miwa and Ueno. Our confluent KZ equations may be viewed as a quantization of monodromy preserving deformation with Poincare rank 2 at infinity.

  8. The Tetrahedron algebra, the Onsager algebra, and the $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$ loop algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian Hartwig; Paul Terwilliger

    2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Let $K$ denote a field with characteristic 0 and let $T$ denote an indeterminate. We give a presentation for the three-point loop algebra $\\mathfrak{sl}_2 \\otimes K\\lbrack T, T^{-1},(T-1)^{-1}\\rbrack$ via generators and relations. This presentation displays $S_4$-symmetry. Using this presentation we obtain a decomposition of the above loop algebra into a direct sum of three subalgebras, each of which is isomorphic to the Onsager algebra.

  9. Sulfate Fining Chemistry in Oxidized and Reduced Soda-Lime-Silica Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Various reducing agents were used and their additions were varied to (1) increase glass quality through eliminating defects from silica scum, (2) decrease SOx emissions through changing the kind and quantity of reducing agents, and (3) improve production efficiency through increased flexibility of glass redox control during continuous processing. The work included measuring silica sand dissolution and sulfate decomposition in melts from glass batches. Glass batches were heated at a temperature-increase rate deemed similar to that experienced in the melting furnace. The sulfate decomposition kinetics was investigated with thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis. Sulfur concentrations in glasses quenched at different temperatures were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The distribution of residual sand (that which was not dissolved during the initial batch reactions) in the glass was obtained as a function of temperature with optical microscopy in thin-sections of melts. The fraction of undissolved sand was measured with X-ray diffraction. The results of the present study helped Visteon Inc. reduce the energy consumption and establish the batch containing 0.118 mass% of graphite as the best candidate for Visteon glass production. The improved glass batch has a lower potential for silica scum formation and for brown fault occurrence in the final glass product. It was established that bubbles trapped in the melt even at 1450 C have a high probability to be refined when reaching the hot zone in the glass furnace. Furthermore, silica sand does not accumulate at the glass surface and dissolves faster in the batch with graphite than in the batch with carbocite.

  10. Spontaneously broken topological SL(5,R) gauge theory with standard gravity emerging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mielke, Eckehard W. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, C.P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A completely metric-free sl(5,R) gauge framework is developed in four dimensions. After spontaneous symmetry breaking of the corresponding topological BF scheme, Einstein spaces with a tiny cosmological constant emerge, similarly as in (anti-)de Sitter gauge theories of gravity. The induced {Lambda} is related to the scale of the symmetry breaking. A ''background'' metric surfaces from a Higgs-like mechanism. The finiteness of such a topological scheme converts into asymptotic safeness after quantization of the spontaneously broken model.

  11. Classification of qubit entanglement: SL(2,C) versus SU(2) invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Osterloh

    2008-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of SU(2) invariants for the classification of multiparty entanglement is discussed and exemplified for the Kempe invariant I_5 of pure three-qubit states. It is found to being an independent invariant only in presence of both W-type entanglement and threetangle. In this case, constant I_5 admits for a wide range of both threetangle and concurrences. Furthermore, the present analysis indicates that an SL^3 orbit of states with equal tangles but continuously varying I_5 must exist. This means that I_5 provides no information on the entanglement in the system in addition to that contained in the tangles (concurrences and threetangle) themselves. Together with the numerical evidence that I_5 is an entanglement monotone this implies that SU(2) invariance or the monotone property are too weak requirements for the characterization and quantification of entanglement for systems of three qubits, and that SL(2,C) invariance is required. This conclusion can be extended to general multipartite systems (including higher local dimension) because the entanglement classes of three-qubit systems appear as subclasses.

  12. SL-1 Accident Briefing Report - 1961 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown Educational Documentary

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (Idaho Operations Office) briefing about the SL-1 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown. The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. The direct cause was the improper withdrawal of the central control rod, responsible for absorbing neutrons in the reactor core. The event is the only known fatal reactor accident in the United States. The accident released about 80 curies (3.0 TBq) of Iodine-131, which was not considered significant due to its location in a remote desert of Idaho. About 1,100 curies (41 TBq) of fission products were released into the atmosphere. The facility, located at the National Reactor Testing Station approximately 40 miles (64 km) west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, was part of the Army Nuclear Power Program and was known as the Argonne Low Power Reactor (ALPR) during its design and build phase. It was intended to provide electrical power and heat for small, remote military facilities, such as radar sites near the Arctic Circle, and those in the DEW Line. The design power was 3 MW (thermal). Operating power was 200 kW electrical and 400 kW thermal for space heating. In the accident, the core power level reached nearly 20 GW in just four milliseconds, precipitating the reactor accident and steam explosion.

  13. SL-1 Accident Briefing Report - 1961 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown Educational Documentary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (Idaho Operations Office) briefing about the SL-1 Nuclear Reactor Meltdown. The SL-1, or Stationary Low-Power Reactor Number One, was a United States Army experimental nuclear power reactor which underwent a steam explosion and meltdown on January 3, 1961, killing its three operators. The direct cause was the improper withdrawal of the central control rod, responsible for absorbing neutrons in the reactor core. The event is the only known fatal reactor accident in the United States. The accident released about 80 curies (3.0 TBq) of Iodine-131, which was not considered significant due to its location in a remote desert of Idaho. About 1,100 curies (41 TBq) of fission products were released into the atmosphere. The facility, located at the National Reactor Testing Station approximately 40 miles (64 km) west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, was part of the Army Nuclear Power Program and was known as the Argonne Low Power Reactor (ALPR) during its design and build phase. It was intended to provide electrical power and heat for small, remote military facilities, such as radar sites near the Arctic Circle, and those in the DEW Line. The design power was 3 MW (thermal). Operating power was 200 kW electrical and 400 kW thermal for space heating. In the accident, the core power level reached nearly 20 GW in just four milliseconds, precipitating the reactor accident and steam explosion.

  14. The $B\\to X_sl^+l^-$ and $B\\to X_s ?$ decays with the fourth generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao-Shang Huang; Wu-Jun Huo; Yue-Liang Wu

    1999-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    If the fourth generation fermions exist, the new quarks could influence the branching ratios of the decays of $B\\to X_s \\gamma$ and $B\\to X_sl^+l^-$. We obtain two solutions of the fourth generation CKM factor $V^{*}_{t^{'}s}V_{t^{'}b}$ from the decay of $B\\to X_s \\gamma$. We use these two solutions to calculate the new contributions of the fourth generation quark to Wilson coefficients of the decay of $B\\to X_sl^+l^-$. The branching ratio and the forward-backward asymmetry of the decay of $B\\to X_sl^+l^-$ in the two cases are calculated. Our results are quite different from that of SM in one case, almost same in another case. If Nature chooses the formmer, the $B$ meson decays could provide a possible test of the forth generation existence.

  15. Gschwind B., Mnard L., Albuisson M., Wald L., 2005. Three years of experience with the SoDa web service delivering solar radiation information: lessons learned and perspectives. In Proceedings of the 19th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    service delivering solar radiation information: lessons learned and perspectives. In Proceedings of the 19 of experience with the SoDa web service delivering solar radiation information: lessons learned and perspectives Benoît Gschwind, Lionel Ménard, Michel Albuisson and Lucien Wald1 Abstract Information on solar radiation

  16. Fusion in Fractional Level sl^(2)-Theories with k=-1/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Ridout

    2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion rules of conformal field theories admitting an sl^(2)-symmetry at level k=-1/2 are studied. It is shown that the fusion closes on the set of irreducible highest weight modules and their images under spectral flow, but not when "highest weight" is replaced with "relaxed highest weight". The fusion of the relaxed modules, necessary for a well-defined u^(1)-coset, gives two families of indecomposable modules on which the Virasoro zero-mode acts non-diagonalisably. This confirms the logarithmic nature of the associated theories. The structures of the indecomposable modules are completely determined as staggered modules and it is shown that there are no logarithmic couplings (beta-invariants). The relation to the fusion ring of the c=-2 triplet model and the implications for the beta gamma ghost system are briefly discussed.

  17. Krawtchouk polynomials, the Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{sl}_2$, and Leonard pairs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nomura, Kazumasa

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Leonard pair is a pair of diagonalizable linear transformations of a finite-dimensional vector space, each of which acts in an irreducible tridiagonal fashion on an eigenbasis for the other one. In the present paper we give an elementary but comprehensive account of how the following are related: (i) Krawtchouk polynomials; (ii) finite-dimensional irreducible modules for the Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{sl}_2}$; (iii) a class of Leonard pairs said to have Krawtchouk type. Along the way we obtain elementary proofs of some well-known facts about Krawtchouk polynomials, such as the three-term recurrence, the orthogonality, the difference equation, and the generating function. The paper is a tutorial meant for a graduate student or a researcher unfamiliar with the above topics.

  18. PFISR and ROPA observations of pulsating aurora S.L. Jones a,, M.R. Lessard a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    PFISR and ROPA observations of pulsating aurora S.L. Jones a,Ã, M.R. Lessard a , P.A. Fernandes Keywords: Pulsating aurora Auroral thickness Auroral ionosphere PFISR Sounding rocket ROPA a b s t r a c t Previous observations have shown that pulsating aurora sometimes occurs with patches of a vertical extent

  19. Subarctic Pacific evidence for a glacial deepening of the oceanic respired carbon pool S.L. Jaccard a,d,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    Subarctic Pacific evidence for a glacial deepening of the oceanic respired carbon pool S.L. Jaccard of the overturning circulation. Volumetrically the Pacific Ocean dominates the world ocean (it is three times larger of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, USA c Department of Geosciences, Princeton

  20. Introduction Algebras K Superficial webs Characterisation Perspectives Sur l'homologie sl3 des enchev^etrements ; alg`ebres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franchi, Jacques

    Introduction Algebras K Superficial webs Characterisation Perspectives Sur l'homologie sl3 des Blanchet Louis-Hadrien Robert Alg`ebre de Khovanov ­ Kuperberg #12;Introduction Algebras K Superficial webs Characterisation Perspectives 1 Introduction 2 The Khovanov ­ Kuperberg algebras 3 Superficial webs 4

  1. SlAM J. NUMER. ANAL. Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 1060-1080, October 1989

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caflisch, Russel

    the physically correct singularity formation and roll-up of the sheet. Krasny [13], [14] has overcome

  2. S.L. Dudarev, K. Arakawa, X. Yi1;, Z. Yao, M.L. Jenkins, M.R. Gilbert, and P.M. Derlet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S.L. Dudarev, K. Arakawa, X. Yi1;, Z. Yao, M.L. Jenkins, M.R. Gilbert, and P.M. Derlet CCFE-PR(14 in ion-Irradiated Materials S.L. Dudarev 1 , K. Arakawa 2 , X. Yi1; 3 , Z. Yao 4 , M.L. Jenkins 3 , M.R-irradiated materials. S.L. Dudarev1 , K. Arakawa2 , X. Yi1,3 , Z. Yao4 , M.L. Jenkins3 , M.R. Gilbert1 , and P

  3. Validity of the Gell-Mann formula for sl(n,R) and su(n) algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Salom; Djordje Sijacki

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The so called Gell-Mann formula, a prescription designed to provide an inverse to the Inonu-Wigner Lie algebra contraction, has a great versatility and potential value. This formula has no general validity as an operator expression. The question of applicability of Gell-Mann's formula to various algebras and their representations was only partially treated. The validity constraints of the Gell-Mann formula for the case of sl(n,R) and su(n) algebras are clarified, and the complete list of representations spaces for which this formula applies is given. Explicit expressions of the sl(n,R) generators matrix elements are obtained, in these cases, by making use of the Gell-Mann formula.

  4. Detection of miniband formation in strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP quantum well solar cells by using a piezoelectric photothermal spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aihara, Taketo; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kojima, Michiya; Ikari, Tetsuo [Faculty of Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Suzuki, Hidetoshi [Interdisciplinary Research Organization, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen-Kibanadai-Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Sugiyama, Masakazu [School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiaki [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the effect of the miniband formation on the optical absorption spectrum, we adopted two non-destructive methodologies of piezoelectric photothermal (PPT) and photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopies for strain-balanced InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum-well (MQW) and superlattice (SL) structures inserted GaAs p-i-n solar cells. Because the barrier widths of the SL sample were very thin, miniband formations caused by coupling the wave functions between adjacent wells were expected. From PR measurements, a critical energy corresponding to the inter-subband transition between first-order electron and hole subbands was estimated for MQW sample, whereas two critical energies corresponding to the mini-Brillouin-zone center (?) and edge (?) were obtained for SL sample. The miniband width was calculated to be 19?meV on the basis of the energy difference between ? and ?. This coincided with the value of 16?meV calculated using the simple Kronig–Penney potential models. The obtained PPT spectrum for the SL sample was decomposed into the excitonic absorption and inter-miniband transition components. The latter component was expressed using the arcsine-like signal rise corresponding to the ? point in the mini-Brillouin zone that was enhanced by the Sommerfeld factor. The usefulness of the PPT methodology for investigating the inserted MQW and/or SL structure inserted solar cells is clearly demonstrated.

  5. Generalization of the Gell-Mann formula for sl(n,R) and su(n) algebras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor Salom; Djordje Sijacki

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The so called Gell-Mann or decontraction formula is proposed as an algebraic expression inverse to the Inonu-Wigner Lie algebra contraction. It is tailored to express the Lie algebra elements in terms of the corresponding contracted ones. In the case of sl(n,R) and su(n) algebras, contracted w.r.t. so(n) subalgebras, this formula is generally not valid, and applies only in the cases of some algebra representations. A generalization of the Gell-Mann formula for sl(n,R) and su(n) algebras, that is valid for all tensorial, spinorial, (non)unitary representations, is obtained in a group manifold framework of the SO(n) and/or Spin(n) group. The generalized formula is simple, concise and of ample application potentiality. The matrix elements of the SL(n,R)/Spin(n), i.e. SU(n)/SO(n), generators are determined, by making use of the generalized formula, in a closed form for all irreducible representations.

  6. Nd-YAG laser welding of the fiber optic connector to the header shell on the 2SL actuator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.T.; Kwiatkowski, J.J.

    1994-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was completed to determine the feasibility of laser welding a fiber optic connector at a right angle to the header shell of the 2SL actuator. The work was completed at the request of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These studies showed a minimal temperature rise at the fiber-to-connector shell seal area and essentially no loss in light transmission after welding. Both metallographic sections and tensile pull-test failure values were obtained. This study proves feasibility and with minimal change in parameters the penetration can be easily increased, which will yield higher tensile pull-test failure values.

  7. The genus Macroteleia Westwood in Middle Miocene amber from Peru (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae s.l., Scelioninae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrichot, Vincent; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Flynn, John J.; Engel, Michael S.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    paleontology Genus Macroteleia Westwood, 1835 Macroteleia yaguarum Perrichot & Engel, sp. n. http://zoobank.org/8D3E135D-8273-4A15-A97D-BD4FDB0C76ED Figs 1–2 Type material. Holotype MUSM-A-2006-4a, female, in amber fragment from the Pebas Formation (Mollusc... | Received 29 May 2014 | Accepted 1 June 2014 | Published 17 Juny 2014 http://zoobank.org/6CD8F6A2-5D5E-4B25-AEB6-B0A4425EF2AB Citation: Perrichot V, Antoine P-O, Salas-Gismondi R, Flynn JJ, Engel MS (2014) The genus Macroteleia Westwood...

  8. Alternate Thesis & Dissertation Formats Manuscript Format Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    Alternate Thesis & Dissertation Formats Manuscript Format Guidelines In addition to the standard format for dissertation/thesis, the Graduate School allows for the use of an alternative format. The manuscript format refers to the use of articles and/or book chapters to replace the standard dissertation

  9. Fusion, Crossing and Monodromy in Conformal Field Theory Based on $SL(2)$ Current Algebra with Fractional Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Petersen; J. Rasmussen; M. Yu

    1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on our earlier work on free field realizations of conformal blocks for conformal field theories with $SL(2)$ current algebra and with fractional level and spins, we discuss in some detail the fusion rules which arise. By a careful analysis of the 4-point functions, we find that both the fusion rules previously found in the literature are realized in our formulation. Since this is somewhat contrary to our expectations in our first work based on 3-point functions, we reanalyse the 3-point functions and come to the same conclusion. We compare our results on 4-point conformal blocks in particular with a different realization of these found by O. Andreev, and we argue for the equivalence. We describe in detail how integration contours have to be chosen to obtain convenient bases for conformal blocks, both in his and in our own formulation. We then carry out the rather lengthy calculation to obtain the crossing matrix between s- and t-channel blocks, and we use that to determine the monodromy invariant 4-point greens functions. We use the monodromy coefficients to obtain the operator algebra coefficients for theories based on admissible representations.

  10. Fusion Hierarchy and Finite-Size Corrections of $U_q[sl(2)]$ Invariant Vertex Models with Open Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu-Kui Zhou

    1995-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The fused six-vertex models with open boundary conditions are studied. The Bethe ansatz solution given by Sklyanin has been generalized to the transfer matrices of the fused models. We have shown that the eigenvalues of transfer matrices satisfy a group of functional relations, which are the $su$(2) fusion rule held by the transfer matrices of the fused models. The fused transfer matrices form a commuting family and also commute with the quantum group $U_q[sl(2)]$. In the case of the parameter $q^h=-1$ ($h=4,5,\\cdots$) the functional relations in the limit of spectral parameter $u\\to \\i\\infty$ are truncated. This shows that the $su$(2) fusion rule with finite level appears for the six vertex model with the open boundary conditions. We have solved the functional relations to obtain the finite-size corrections of the fused transfer matrices for low-lying excitations. From the corrections the central charges and conformal weights of underlying conformal field theory are extracted. To see different boundary conditions we also have studied the six-vertex model with a twisted boundary condition.

  11. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN MOLECULAR CLOUD CORE DC 000.4-19.5 (SL42) IN CORONA AUSTRALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardegree-Ullman, E.; Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)] [New York Center for Astrobiology and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Harju, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500, Piikkioe (Finland)] [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500, Piikkioe (Finland); Juvela, M.; Sipilae, O. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)] [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hotzel, S., E-mail: hardee@rpi.edu [Observatory, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical reactions in starless molecular clouds are heavily dependent on interactions between gas phase material and solid phase dust and ices. We have observed the abundance and distribution of molecular gases in the cold, starless core DC 000.4-19.5 (SL42) in Corona Australis using data from the Swedish ESO Submillimeter Telescope. We present column density maps determined from measurements of C{sup 18}O (J = 2-1, 1-0) and N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1-0) emission features. Herschel data of the same region allow a direct comparison to the dust component of the cloud core and provide evidence for gas phase depletion of CO at the highest extinctions. The dust color temperature in the core calculated from Herschel maps ranges from roughly 10.7 to 14.0 K. This range agrees with the previous determinations from Infrared Space Observatory and Planck observations. The column density profile of the core can be fitted with a Plummer-like density distribution approaching n(r) {approx} r {sup -2} at large distances. The core structure deviates clearly from a critical Bonnor-Ebert sphere. Instead, the core appears to be gravitationally bound and to lack thermal and turbulent support against the pressure of the surrounding low-density material: it may therefore be in the process of slow contraction. We test two chemical models and find that a steady-state depletion model agrees with the observed C{sup 18}O column density profile and the observed N(C{sup 18}O) versus A{sub V} relationship.

  12. Safeguards Laboratory (SL) | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton n uSTEM-ASafeguards &Safeguards

  13. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts. Abstract: We...

  14. ABSTRACT & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDELINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi

    2 ABSTRACT & DISSERTATION FORMAT GUIDELINES The Knowledge Navigation Center (second floor these guidelines. The most up-to-date version of the Abstract and Dissertation Format Guidelines is available;2 Abstract Format Guidelines ABSTRACT Title of the Dissertation by by Student's Name Chair: Chair's name Text

  15. Discrete Quantum Gravity: II. Simplicial complexes, irreps of SL(2,C), and a Lorentz invariant weight in a state sum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Kramer; M. Lorente

    2008-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In part I of [1] we have developed the tensor and spin representation of SO(4) in order to apply it to the simplicial decomposition of the Barrett-Crane model. We attach to each face of a triangle the spherical function constructed from the Dolginov-Biedenharn function. In part II we apply the same technique to the Lorentz invariant state sum model. We need three new ingredients: the classification of the edges and the corresponding subspaces that arises in the simplicial decomposition, the irreps of SL(2,C) and its isomorphism to the bivectors appearing in the 4-simplices, the need of a zonal spherical function from the intertwining condition of the tensor product for the simple representations attached to the faces of the simplicial decomposition.

  16. Tulane Neurophenotyping Platform, Rm. 3731, SL-83, Tulane University Medical Center 1430 Tulane Avenue New Orleans, LA 70112, USA Tel: 1 (504)-988-3353 Fax: 1 (504)-988-5283

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Tulane Neurophenotyping Platform, Rm. 3731, SL-83, Tulane University Medical Center 1430 Tulane@gmail.com Tulane Neurophenotyping Platform Behavioral Core Facility and Learning Resource Center serving Tulane a new transgenic mouse strain? - Tulane Neurophenotyping Platform (TNP) will be glad to help

  17. Wyoming's Budget: From Champagne to Soda Pop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuhmann, Robert A; Skopek, Tracy A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Wyoming economy as coal, natural gas, oil, and trona (aeconomy in the months ahead (Mast, 7/4/09). Natural gas

  18. Wyoming's Budget: From Champagne to Soda Pop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuhmann, Robert A; Skopek, Tracy A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pushing down prices. Gas well drilling in the state wasefficiencies in the well drilling process, production

  19. Wyoming's Budget: From Champagne to Soda Pop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schuhmann, Robert A; Skopek, Tracy A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    very heavily on the mineral extraction industry for itsfrom levies on mineral extraction. As of this summer, (2010)

  20. Soda Lake Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt LtdShawangunk, New York:SiG26588°,Socorro County, New Mexico:

  1. Observing Massive Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2002-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major goal of contemporary astrophysics is understanding the origin of the most massive galaxies in the universe, particularly nearby ellipticals and spirals. Theoretical models of galaxy formation have existed for many decades, although low and high redshift observations are only beginning to put constraints on different ideas. We briefly describe these observations and how they are revealing the methods by which galaxies form by contrasting and comparing fiducial rapid collapse and hierarchical formation model predictions. The available data show that cluster ellipticals must have rapidly formed at z > 2, and that up to 50% of all massive galaxies at z ~ 2.5 are involved in major mergers. While the former is consistent with the monolithic collapse picture, we argue that hierarchal formation is the only model that can reproduce all the available observations.

  2. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of triggered star formation in a cosmological context.

  3. JPEG File Interchange Format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Eric

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    interchange format compressed image representation • PC or Mac or Unix workstation compatible • Standard color space: one or three components. For three components, YCbCr (CCIR 601-256 levels) • APP0 marker used to specify Units, X pixel density, Y pixel... by the Macintosh but not by PCs or workstations. JPEG File Interchange Format, Version 1.02 2 Standard color space The color space to be used is YCbCr as defined by CCIR 601 (256 levels). The RGB components calculated by linear conversion from YCbCr shall...

  4. Hair follicle Formation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Hair follicle Formation of new follicles Bud Healed skin Hair bulge Open wound Epidermis a b Dermis 1950s and help to explain the controversy. What is the origin of the cells that make up these new hair follicles? Are they derived from existing hair follicles located at the wound edge

  5. Energes SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:Emminol Jump to:Energ tica Campos de Cima da

  6. Enerthi SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:Emminol JumpEnergyEnerley Jump to:EnerpointEnertechEnerthi

  7. Prehenita SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergyInformation toPower andPoyry Group

  8. Intrameder SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtelInterias Solar Energy Jump to:IESInterval Data Systems Inc

  9. Rodesol SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |Rippey Jump to: navigation,RockPortRocklandThisRidge I

  10. Empordavent SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest,Energy InformationEmily, Minnesota:EmmonsLouisiana:Empordavent

  11. NO. SL, DeLan,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 August 2008 Office7-TACi+J-UN>:-1.1Pp. 2-l

  12. Albabio SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEEAisin Seikiand Telephone CoStatutes: TitleAlbaTERN Jump

  13. Anasol SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place:Alvan BlanchAmiteInExploration

  14. Husesolar SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua New Energy Development Co

  15. Esinfer SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLCInsulation IncentivesEshone Energy Jump to:Esinfer

  16. Planning and Search Exam format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alechina, Natasha

    is the frame problem. Revision 5 #12;Exam topics: planning Classical planning. How the problem definitionPlanning and Search Revision Revision 1 #12;Outline Exam format Exam topics How to revise Revision 2 #12;Exam format 4 questions out of 6 same format as 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 exams (on G52PAS

  17. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  18. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  19. FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    FORMATION GESTION DU STRESS CONTEXTE, PUBLIC, FINALITE DE LA FORMATION La vie moderne et le stress : mettre en place des stratégies de gestion , étudier quelques aspects essentiels de la et cas cliniques composés par les participants ou fournis par le formateur . - Jeux de rôle en sous

  20. Star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a simple semianalytic model of the star formation rate as a function of time. We estimate the star formation rate for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  1. Star Formation and Galaxy Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. K. C. Yee

    2000-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The dependence of star formation rate on galaxian environment is a key issue in the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. However, the study of this subject is complex and observationally challenging. This paper reviews some of the current results, drawing mostly from recent large redshift surveys such the LCRS, the MORPH collaboration, and the CNOC1 and CNOC2 redshift surveys.

  2. Formation depths of Fraunhofer lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurtovenko, E A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have summed up our investigations performed in 1970--1993. The main task of this paper is clearly to show processes of formation of spectral lines as well as their distinction by validity and by location. For 503 photospheric lines of various chemical elements in the wavelength range 300--1000 nm we list in Table the average formation depths of the line depression and the line emission for the line centre and on the half-width of the line, the average formation depths of the continuum emission as well as the effective widths of the layer of the line depression formation. Dependence of average depths of line depression formation on excitation potential, equivalent widths, and central line depth are demonstrated by iron lines.

  3. 0. 98 [mu]m InGaAs-InGaAsP-InGaP GRIN-SCH SL-SQW lasers for coupling high optical power into single-mode fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohkubo, Michio; Namiki, Shu; Ijichi, Tetsuro; Iketani, Akira; Kikuta, Toshio (Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan))

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CW coupled optical power of 75 mW into a single-mode fiber (SMF) at a driving current of 200 mA was achieved by InGaAs-InGaAsP-InGaP GRIN-SCH SL-SQW ridge waveguide lasers emitting at 0.98 [mu]m. The GRIN-SCH profile was optimized to minimize the series resistance due to spikes at GaAs-InGaP heterointerfaces. The other approach was proposed for high coupling efficiency into the SMF with cutoff wavelength of 0.88 [mu]m: The ridge mesa width was precisely controlled around 2 [mu]m, and an aspect ratio of far-field pattern ([theta][sub [perpendicular

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL. 25, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 1999 1 J:\\PRODUCTION\\TSE\\2-INPROD\\105579\\105579-1.DOC regularpaper98.dot SL 19,968 04/14/99 2:14 PM 1 / 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenton, Norman

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, VOL. 25, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 1999 1 J:\\PRODUCTION\\TSE\\2-INPROD\\105579\\105579-1.DOC regularpaper98.dot SL 19,968 04/14/99 2:14 PM 1 / 15 A Critique of Software Defect Prediction Models Norman E. Fenton, Member, IEEE Computer Society, and Martin Neil, Member, IEEE

  5. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  6. Use-driven concept formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Jennifer M. (Jennifer Marie)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When faced with a complex task, humans often identify domain-specific concepts that make the task more tractable. In this thesis, I investigate the formation of domain-specific concepts of this sort. I propose a set of ...

  7. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusion Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dursch, Thomas

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the University of California. Ice Formation in Gas-Diffusionsub-freezing conditions, ice forms in the gas-diffusionstrategies exist to prevent ice formation, there is little

  8. REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation REGULATORY COOPERATION COUNCIL - WORK PLANNING FORMAT: Natural Gas Use in Transportation RCC Workplan NGV.PDF More Documents &...

  9. South Mississippi's Hosston, Sligo formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hosston and Sligo formations, of Early Cretaceous age, lie above the Cotton Valley group and below the Pine Island formation. The beds dip southwesterly and become thicker within the Mississippi Interior Salt basin, where virtually all of the Hosston/Sligo oil and gas production occurs. The 3500 ft of alternating sands and shales found at 10,000-17,000 ft depths have the attributes of fluvial deltaic sediments. The Newsom, Bowie Creek, and Seminary fields are representative of recent gas discoveries in the Hosston/Sligo.

  10. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  11. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Formation Interuniversitaire de Physique Hydrodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balbus, Steven

    Formation Interuniversitaire de Physique Module : Hydrodynamics S. Balbus 1 #12;TO LEARN.8.3 Piston Driven into Gas Cylinder . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.8.4 Driven Acoustic Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 6.2.3 Inertial Drag of a Sphere by an Ideal Fluid . . . . . . . 113 6.3 Line Vortices and Flow

  13. Structurally Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Structurally connected secondary mirror EMFF secondary mirror EMFF Design Electromagnetic Formation for a smaller, simpler system. µEMFF investigates the use of conventional conductors, capacitors, and solar propellants that often limit lifetime, the EMFF system uses solar power to energize a magnetic field

  14. Star Formation in the Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Bousso; Stefan Leichenauer

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a simple semi-analytic model of the star formation rate (SFR) as a function of time. We estimate the SFR for a wide range of values of the cosmological constant, spatial curvature, and primordial density contrast. Our model can predict such parameters in the multiverse, if the underlying theory landscape and the cosmological measure are known.

  15. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  16. VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION MADALENA CHAVES, ROBERT DAY, LUCIA GOMEZ a network of vehicles exchanging information among themselves with the intention of achieving a specified the performance of the vehicle network. A stochastic model for information flow is also considered, allowing

  17. Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estalella, Robert

    Chapter 4 Cloud Formation, Evolution and Destruction We now begin to trace the journey towards a star. How long does this take? The answer is surprisingly short: a good many clouds already contain new stars and these stars tend to be young. The typical cloud cannot spend long, if any time at all

  18. Absorption and elimination of formate following oral administration of calcium formate in female human subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanzlik, Robert P.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Eells, Janis T.

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published abstract: Calcium formate is a water-soluble salt of an essential mineral nutrient with potential for use as a dietary calcium supplement. Formate ion is a product of endogenous and xenobiotic metabolism, but sustained high plasma formate...

  19. Photophoresis boosts giant planet formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiser, Jens

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the core accretion model of giant planet formation, a solid protoplanetary core begins to accrete gas directly from the nebula when its mass reaches about 5 earth masses. The protoplanet has at most a few million years to reach runaway gas accretion, as young stars lose their gas disks after 10 million years at the latest. Yet gas accretion also brings small dust grains entrained in the gas into the planetary atmosphere. Dust accretion creates an optically thick protoplanetary atmosphere that cannot efficiently radiate away the kinetic energy deposited by incoming planetesimals. A dust-rich atmosphere severely slows down atmospheric cooling, contraction, and inflow of new gas, in contradiction to the observed timescales of planet formation. Here we show that photophoresis is a strong mechanism for pushing dust out of the planetary atmosphere due to the momentum exchange between gas and dust grains. The thermal radiation from the heated inner atmosphere and core is sufficient to levitate dust grains and to ...

  20. Formation of polar ring galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Bournaud; F. Combes

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Polar ring galaxies are peculiar systems in which a gas rich, nearly polar ring surrounds an early-type or elliptical host galaxy. Two formation scenarios for these objects have been proposed: they are thought to form either in major galaxy mergers or by tidal accretion of the polar material from a gas rich donor galaxy. Both scenarios are studied through N-body simulations including gas dynamics and star formation. Constraints on physical parameters are drawn out, in order to determine which scenario is the most likely to occur. Polar ring galaxies from each scenario are compared with observations and we discuss whether the accretion scenario and the merging scenario account for observational properties of polar ring galaxies. The conclusion of this study is that the accretion scenario is both the most likely and the most supported by observations. Even if the merging scenario is rather robust, most polar ring galaxies are shown to be the result of tidal gas accretion events.

  1. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  2. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, T.P.; Moses, E.I.; Patterson, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.

    1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse using one or more delay loops is disclosed. The delay loops have a partially reflective beam splitter and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors arranged such that the laser beam pulse enters into the delay loop through the beam splitter and circulates therein along a delay loop length defined by the mirrors. As the laser beam pulse circulates within the delay loop a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse strikes the beam splitter. The laser beam pulse is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses. The delay loops are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses using additive waveform synthesis. 8 figs.

  3. Shock Formation in Lovelock Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey S. Reall; Norihiro Tanahashi; Benson Way

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that Lovelock theories of gravity suffer from shock formation, unlike General Relativity. We consider the propagation of (i) a discontinuity in curvature, and (ii) weak, high frequency, gravitational waves. Such disturbances propagate along characteristic hypersurfaces of a "background" spacetime and their amplitude is governed by a transport equation. In GR the transport equation is linear. In Lovelock theories, it is nonlinear and its solutions can blow up, corresponding to the formation of a shock. We show that this effect is absent in some simple cases e.g. a flat background spacetime, and demonstrate its presence for a plane wave background. We comment on weak cosmic censorship, the evolution of shocks, and the nonlinear stability of Minkowski spacetime, in Lovelock theories.

  4. Kinetic models of opinion formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Toscani

    2006-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and discuss certain kinetic models of (continuous) opinion formation involving both exchange of opinion between individual agents and diffusion of information. We show conditions which ensure that the kinetic model reaches non trivial stationary states in case of lack of diffusion in correspondence of some opinion point. Analytical results are then obtained by considering a suitable asymptotic limit of the model yielding a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of opinion among individuals.

  5. Formation damage in underbalanced drilling operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyes Serpa, Carlos Alberto

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation damage has long been recognized as a potential source of reduced productivity and injectivity in both horizontal and vertical wells. From the moment that the pay zone is being drilled until the well is put on production, a formation...

  6. Structure formation: Models, Dynamics and Status

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Padmanabhan

    1995-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constraints on the models for the structure formation arising from various cosmological observations at different length scales are reviewed. The status of different models for structure formation is examined critically in the light of these observations.

  7. Dynamics and control of electromagnetic satellite formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahsun, Umair, 1972-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Satellite formation flying is an enabling technology for many space missions, especially for space-based telescopes. Usually there is a tight formation-keeping requirement that may need constant expenditure of fuel or at ...

  8. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  9. Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sastry, S. Shankar

    Autonomous Helicopter Formation using Model Predictive Control Hoam Chung and S. Shankar Sastry are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. The starting point for safe autonomous into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient space between it and all other vehicles

  10. UV Resonance Raman Detection of Artificial Sweetener in Soda Pop-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    in complicated fuel, coal liquid, and petroleum mixtures? An increase of up to six orders of magnitude. In this correspondance, the UVRR spectra of two soft drinks, Diet Coke and New Coke, are reported. UV ex- citation enhances phenylalanine ring modes in the ar- tifical sweetener Nutrasweet in Diet Coke. This artifical

  11. Magnetotellurics At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOfRose Bend < MHKconverter <WAGMadisonOpen Energynot indicated

  12. Gas Cooling Through Galaxy Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariwan A. Rasheed; Mohamad A. Brza

    Abstract-- Gas cooling was studied in two different boxes of sizes and by simulation at same redshifts. The gas cooling is shown in four different redshifts (z=1.15, 0.5, 0.1 and 0). In the simulation the positions of the clumps of cooled gas were studied with slices of the two volumes and also the density of cooled gas of the two volumes shown in the simulation. From the process of gas cooling it is clear that this process gives different results in the two cases. Index Term- Gas Cooling, Simulation, galaxy Formation. I.

  13. Petrophysical evaluation of subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, James D; Schoderbek, David A; Mailloux, Jason M

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are provided for evaluating petrophysical properties of subterranean formations and comprehensively evaluating hydrate presence through a combination of computer-implemented log modeling and analysis. Certain embodiments include the steps of running a number of logging tools in a wellbore to obtain a variety of wellbore data and logs, and evaluating and modeling the log data to ascertain various petrophysical properties. Examples of suitable logging techniques that may be used in combination with the present invention include, but are not limited to, sonic logs, electrical resistivity logs, gamma ray logs, neutron porosity logs, density logs, NRM logs, or any combination or subset thereof.

  14. Electrochemical formation of field emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical formation of field emitters, particularly useful in the fabrication of flat panel displays. The fabrication involves field emitting points in a gated field emitter structure. Metal field emitters are formed by electroplating and the shape of the formed emitter is controlled by the potential imposed on the gate as well as on a separate counter electrode. This allows sharp emitters to be formed in a more inexpensive and manufacturable process than vacuum deposition processes used at present. The fabrication process involves etching of the gate metal and the dielectric layer down to the resistor layer, and then electroplating the etched area and forming an electroplated emitter point in the etched area.

  15. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Coring in deep hardrock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy is involved in a variety of scientific and engineering feasibility studies requiring extensive drilling in hard crystalline rock. In many cases well depths extend from 6000 to 20,000 feet in high-temperature, granitic formations. Examples of such projects are the Hot Dry Rock well system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico and the planned exploratory magma well near Mammoth Lakes, California. In addition to these programs, there is also continuing interest in supporting programs to reduce drilling costs associated with the production of geothermal energy from underground sources such as the Geysers area near San Francisco, California. The overall progression in these efforts is to drill deeper holes in higher temperature, harder formations. In conjunction with this trend is a desire to improve the capability to recover geological information. Spot coring and continuous coring are important elements in this effort. It is the purpose of this report to examine the current methods used to obtain core from deep wells and to suggest projects which will improve existing capabilities. 28 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A Random Walk through Star and Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maness, Holly

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and its Neptune-Mass Planet 3.1 Introduction . . . . . . .of Low Mass Star Formation . . . . . 1.3 Planet FormationConstraining Theories of Planet Formation and Evolution .

  18. Global Celsius SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd toWell2008) |GigaCrete IncIGlenrock IIICelsius

  19. Grupo Proener SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI ReferenceJumpEnergy Information

  20. Energia Igesol SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:Emminol Jump to:Energ tica Campos de CimaEnergetixEnergia

  1. Enersol Proyectos SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:Emminol JumpEnergyEnerley Jump to:Enerpoint SrlEnerray

  2. Erbi Solar SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:EmminolEntergyEnvisory Financial RiskEpyon JumpErbi Solar

  3. Fergo Galicia Vento SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  19. Globasol Energias Renovables SL | Open Energy Information

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  20. Solsureste Juber SL | Open Energy Information

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  1. Sun Fund 5 SL | Open Energy Information

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  2. Maxsun Energia Natural SL | Open Energy Information

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  3. Sol3g SL | Open Energy Information

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  5. Solaris Gestion Solar SL | Open Energy Information

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  6. Soltec Energias Renovables SL | Open Energy Information

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  13. Vade Solar SL | Open Energy Information

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  16. Adaptive Optics in Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfgang Brandner

    2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past ten years, the concept of adaptive optics has evolved from early experimental stages to a standard observing tool now available at almost all major optical and near-infrared telescope facilities. Adaptive optics will also be essential in exploiting the full potential of the large optical/infrared interferometers currently under construction. Both observations with high-angular resolution and at high contrast, and with a high point source sensitivity are facilitated by adaptive optics. Among the areas which benefit most from the use of adaptive optics are studies of the circumstellar environment (envelopes, disks, outflows), substellar companions and multiple systems, and dense young stellar populations. This contribution highlights some of the recent advances in star formation studies facilitated by adaptive optics, and gives a brief tutorial on optimized observing and data reduction strategies.

  17. Zonal Flow as Pattern Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this section, we examine the transition from statistically homogeneous turbulence to inhomogeneous turbulence with zonal flows. Statistical equations of motion can be derived from the quasilinear approximation to the Hasegawa-Mima equation. We review recent work that finds a bifurcation of these equations and shows that the emergence of zonal flows mathematically follows a standard type of pattern formation. We also show that the dispersion relation of modulational instability can be extracted from the statistical equations of motion in a certain limit. The statistical formulation can thus be thought to offer a more general perspective on growth of coherent structures, namely through instability of a full turbulent spectrum. Finally, we offer a physical perspective on the growth of large-scale structures.

  18. Methanol Masers and Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Sobolev; A. B. Ostrovskii; M. S. Kirsanova; O. V. Shelemei; M. A. Voronkov; A. V. Malyshev

    2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol masers which are traditionally divided into two classes provide possibility to study important parts of the star forming regions: Class~II masers trace vicinities of the massive YSOs while class~I masers are likely to trace more distant parts of the outflows where newer stars can form. There are many methanol transitions which produce observed masers. This allows to use pumping analysis for estimation of the physical parameters in the maser formation regions and its environment, for the study of their evolution. Extensive surveys in different masing transitions allow to conclude on the values of the temperatures, densities, dust properties, etc. in the bulk of masing regions. Variability of the brightest masers is monitored during several years. In some cases it is probably caused by the changes of the dust temperature which follow variations in the brightness of the central YSO reflecting the character of the accretion process. A unified catalogue of the class II methanol masers consisting of more than 500 objects is compiled. Analysis of the data shows that: physical conditions within the usual maser source vary considerably; maser brightness is determined by parameters of some distinguished part of the object - maser formation region; class II methanol masers are formed not within the outflows but in the regions affected by their propagation. It is shown that the "near" solutions for the kinematic distances to the sources can be used for statistical analysis. The luminosity function of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers is constructed. It is shown that improvement of the sensitivity of surveys can increase number of detected maser sources considerably.

  19. Radio Triggered Star Formation in Cooling Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. R. McNamara

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The giant galaxies located at the centers of cluster cooling flows are frequently sites of vigorous star formation. In some instances, star formation appears to have been triggered by the galaxy's radio source. The colors and spectral indices of the young populations are generally consistent with short duration bursts or continuous star formation for durations much less than 1 Gyr, which is less than the presumed ages of cooling flows. The star formation properties are inconsistent with fueling by a continuously accreting cooling flow, although the prevalence of star formation is consistent with repeated bursts and periodic refueling. Star formation may be fueled, in some cases, by cold material stripped from neighboring cluster galaxies.

  20. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  1. Nonequilibrium Atmospheric Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aerosol Formation and Growth. Abstract: Airborne particles play a critical role in air quality, human health effects, visibility and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA)...

  2. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Standard Format and Content for Emergency Plans

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume addresses recommended emergency plan format and content for Operational Emergency Base Programs and Operational Emergency Hazardous Material Programs. Canceled by DOE G 151.1-3.

  4. Heating systems for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for heating a subsurface formation are described herein. A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a sealed conduit positioned in an opening in the formation and a heat source. The sealed conduit includes a heat transfer fluid. The heat source provides heat to a portion of the sealed conduit to change phase of the heat transfer fluid from a liquid to a vapor. The vapor in the sealed conduit rises in the sealed conduit, condenses to transfer heat to the formation and returns to the conduit portion as a liquid.

  5. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  6. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  7. Theoretical Investigations on the Formation and Dehydrogenation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of boron-nitrogen-hydrogen (BNHx) compounds that are promising materials for chemical hydrogen storage. Understanding the kinetics and reaction pathways of formation of these...

  8. Format requirements of thermal neutron scattering data in a nuclear data format to succeed the ENDF format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In November 2012, the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation Subgroup 38 (WPEC-SG38) began with the task of developing a nuclear data format and supporting infrastructure to replace the now nearly 50 year old ENDF format. The first step in this process is to develop requirements for the new format and infrastructure. In this talk, I will review the status of ENDF's Thermal Scattering Law (TSL) formats as well as support for this data in the GND format (from which the new format is expected to evolve). Finally, I hope to begin a dialog with members of the thermal neutron scattering community so that their data needs can be accurately and easily accommodated by the new format and tools, as captured by the requirements document. During this discussion, we must keep in mind that the new tools and format must; Support what is in existing data files; Support new things we want to put in data files; and Be flexible enough for us to adapt it to future unanticipated challenges.

  9. Halogen-Based Plasma Etching of Novel Field-Effect Transistor Gate Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiehlbaugh, Kasi Michelle

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface Interactions in Fluorocarbon Etching of Silicon2706. Xu, S.L. , et al. , Fluorocarbon polymer formation,

  10. Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 1 Grtice J. Vincent Le logiciel Tigre en formation PLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    "Tigre" en formation PLC 1 Grétice J. Vincent Le logiciel « Tigre » en formation PLC J. Vincent Le;______________________________________________________________________________________ Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 2 Grétice J. Vincent 1.1. La lecture Voici l'écran d;______________________________________________________________________________________ Le logiciel "Tigre" en formation PLC 3 Grétice J. Vincent Figure 3 1.2. La démonstration Voici l

  11. Shell Formation and Bone Strength Laying Hens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age, Daidzein and Exogenous Estrogen Cover aquarelle: E. Spörndly-Nees #12;Shell Formation and Bone Strength in Laying Hens Effects of Age eggshells as shell quality declines with age during the laying period. This is a concern for food safety

  12. DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Wayne H.

    DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE Submitted by Jonathan L. Vigh Department of Atmospheric OF THE HURRICANE EYE BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY. Schubert Department Head: Richard H. Johnson ii #12;ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION FORMATION OF THE HURRICANE EYE

  13. FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waddington, Ian

    FAINT RADIO SOURCES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORY Deborah B. Haarsma 1 , R. Bruce Partridge 1 , Ian 85287­1504 USA Abstract. Faint extragalactic radio sources provide important information about the global history of star formation. Sensitive radio observations of the Hubble Deep Field and other fields

  14. First Structure Formation and the First Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael L. Norman; Tom Abel; Greg Bryan

    2000-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the results of recent 3D simulations of first structure formation in relationship to the formation of the first stars. On the basis of a new, high-resolution AMR simulation (spatial dynamic range = 30,000,000), we conclude that the first stars are likely to be massive.

  15. Methods for forming wellbores in heated formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona; Mansure, Arthur James

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a wellbore in a heated formation includes flowing liquid cooling fluid to a bottom hole assembly in a wellbore in a heated formation. At least a portion of the liquid cooling fluid is vaporized at or near a region to be cooled. Vaporizing the liquid cooling fluid absorbs heat from the region to be cooled.

  16. Sequentially Triggered Star Formation in OB Associations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Preibisch; Hans Zinnecker

    2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss observational evidence for sequential and triggered star formation in OB associations. We first review the star formation process in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association, the nearest OB association to the Sun, where several recent extensive studies have allowed us to reconstruct the star formation history in a rather detailed way. We then compare the observational results with those obtained for other OB associations and with recent models of rapid cloud and star formation in the turbulent interstellar medium. We conclude that the formation of whole OB subgroups (each consisting of several thousand stars) requires large-scale triggering mechanisms such as shocks from expanding wind and supernova driven superbubbles surrounding older subgroups. Other triggering mechanisms, like radiatively driven implosion of globules, also operate, but seem to be secondary processes, forming only small stellar groups rather than whole OB subgroups with thousands of stars.

  17. The Formation of the Hubble Sequence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of galaxy formation via star formation and stellar mass assembly rates is now known with some certainty, yet the connection between high redshift and low redshift galaxy populations is not yet clear. By identifying and studying individual massive galaxies at high-redshifts, z > 1.5, we can possibly uncover the physical effects driving galaxy formation. Using the structures of high-z galaxies, as imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope, we argue that it is now possible to directly study the progenitors of ellipticals and disks. We also briefly describe early results that suggest many massive galaxies are forming at z > 2 through major mergers.

  18. HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-SUPPORTED COBALT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benner, Linda S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NV~ August 25-29, 1980 HYDROCARBON FORMATION ON POLYMER-catalyzed reduction of CO to hydrocarbons Tropscb. Among theof CO to saturated linear hydrocarbons and appears to retain

  19. Modeling deposit formation in diesel injector nozzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhiesh Kumar, Chintoo

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of deposit in the diesel injector nozzle affects the injection behavior and hinders performance. Under running condition, deposit precursors are washed away by the ensuing injection. However, during the cool down ...

  20. Electromagnetic formation flight of satellite arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Daniel W., 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed methods of actuating spacecraft in sparse aperture arrays use propellant as a reaction mass. For formation flying systems, propellant becomes a critical consumable which can be quickly exhausted while maintaining ...

  1. Cyclic Imide Dioxime: Formation and Hydrolytic Stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.O. [University of Kansas; Vukovic, Sinisa [ORNL; Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly(acrylamidoximes) play an important role in the uranium extraction from seawater. The present work reports solution studies of simple analogs to address the formation and stability of two binding sites present in these polymers, open-chain amidoximes and cyclic imide dioximes, including: 1) conditions that maximize the formation of the cyclic form, 2) existence of a base-induced conversion from open-chain to cyclic form, and 3) degradation under acid and base conditions.

  2. Situ microbial plugging process for subterranean formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McInerney, Michael J. (Norman, OK); Jenneman, Gary E. (Norman, OK); Knapp, Roy M. (Norman, OK); Menzie, Donald E. (Norman, OK)

    1985-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Subterranean paths of water flow are impeded or changed by the facilitation of microbial growth therein. Either indigenous bacterial growth may be stimulated with nutrients or the formation may be first seeded with bacteria or their spores which inhibit fluid flow after proliferation. These methods and bacteria are usable to alter the flow of water in a waterflooded oil formation and to impede the outflow of contaminated water.

  3. Formation evaluation MWD enters new capability realm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearn, F. (Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent industry advances in formation evaluation measurement-while-drilling (FEMWD) have been achieved in well log data acquisition quality and in geosteering drilling applications. This paper presents new technology as applied by Baker Hughes INTEQ which includes: geosteering techniques which help navigate through horizontally drilled reservoirs including improved quality dual propagation resistivity, neutron-porosity and formation-density measurements; predictive modeling of tool responses in reservoir geosteering applications; environmental computer modeling which aids interpretation, including tool eccentering; and new measurement enhancements.

  4. Triggered star formation in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Elmegreen; J. Palous; Kenji Bekki

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract. We discuss how tidal interaction between the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and the Galaxy triggers galaxy-wide star formation in the Clouds for the last ? 0.2 Gyr based on our chemodynamical simulations on the Clouds. Our simulations demonstrate that the tidal interaction induces the formation of asymmetric spiral arms with high gas densities and consequently triggers star formation within the arms in the LMC. Star formation rate in the present LMC is significantly enhanced just above the eastern edge of the LMC’s stellar bar owing to the tidal interaction. The location of the enhanced star formation is very similar to the observed location of 30 Doradus, which suggests that the formation of 30 Doradus is closely associated with the last Magellanic collision about 0.2 Gyr ago. The tidal interaction can dramatically compress gas initially within the outer part of the SMC so that new stars can be formed from the gas to become intergalactic young stars in the inter-Cloud region (e.g., the Magellanic Bridge). The metallicity distribution function of the newly formed stars in the Magellanic Bridge has a peak of [Fe/H] ? ?0.8, which is significantly lower than the stellar metallicity of the SMC.

  5. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  6. Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electroche...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Hydrogen Bubbles and Formation of Nanoporous Silicon during Electrochemical Etching. Abstract: Many...

  7. NO Adsorption on Ultrathin O Films: Formation of Nitrite and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorption on Ultrathin O Films: Formation of Nitrite and Nitrate Species. NO Adsorption on Ultrathin O Films: Formation of Nitrite and Nitrate Species. Abstract: Interaction of...

  8. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

  9. Atomistic Model for the Polyamide Formation from ?-Lactam...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model for the Polyamide Formation from ?-Lactam Catalyzed by Candida Antarctica Lipase B. Atomistic Model for the Polyamide Formation from ?-Lactam Catalyzed by Candida...

  10. Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2. Fayalite Dissolution and Siderite Formation in Water-Saturated Supercritical CO2. Abstract:...

  11. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive Layer Assisted Deposition. Cryogenic CO2 Formation on Oxidized Gold Clusters Synthesized via Reactive...

  12. Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results Mixed-mode diesel HCCI with External Mixture Formation: Preliminary Results 2003 DEER Conference...

  13. Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Predicting Nickel Precipitate Formation in Contaminated Soils. (3717) Authors: E. Peltier* - Univ controlling precipitate formation is still needed. In this study, we have combined experimental data on nickel

  14. ash formation deposition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deep-water depositional systems : the upper Miocene Upper Mount messenger formation, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand and Pliocene Repetto and Pico formations, Ventura Basin,...

  15. ash deposit formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deep-water depositional systems : the upper Miocene Upper Mount messenger formation, Taranaki Basin, New Zealand and Pliocene Repetto and Pico formations, Ventura Basin,...

  16. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes. Abstract: Sources and chemical composition...

  17. Effects of Ambient Density and Temperature on Soot Formation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Density and Temperature on Soot Formation under High-EGR Conditions Effects of Ambient Density and Temperature on Soot Formation under High-EGR Conditions Presentation given at...

  18. The Formation and Evolution of Prestellar Cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philippe André; Shantanu Basu; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka

    2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving our understanding of the initial conditions and earliest stages of star formation is crucial to gain insight into the origin of stellar masses, multiple systems, and protoplanetary disks. We review the properties of low-mass dense cores as derived from recent millimeter/submillimeter observations of nearby molecular clouds and discuss them in the context of various contemporary scenarios for cloud core formation and evolution. None of the extreme scenarios can explain all observations. Pure laminar ambipolar diffusion has relatively long growth times for typical ionization levels and has difficulty satisfying core lifetime constraints. Purely hydrodynamic pictures have trouble accounting for the inefficiency of core formation and the detailed velocity structure of individual cores. A possible favorable scenario is a mixed model involving gravitational fragmentation of turbulent molecular clouds close to magnetic criticality. The evolution of the magnetic field and angular momentum in individual cloud cores after the onset of gravitational collapse is also discussed. In particular, we stress the importance of radiation-magnetohydrodynamical processes and resistive MHD effects during the protostellar phase. We also emphasize the role of the formation of the short-lived first (protostellar) core in providing a chance for sub-fragmentation into binary systems and triggering MHD outflows. Future submillimeter facilities such as Herschel and ALMA will soon provide major new observational constraints in this field. On the theoretical side, an important challenge for the future will be to link the formation of molecular clouds and prestellar cores in a coherent picture.

  19. Factors of paleosol formation in a Late Cretaceous eolian sand sheet paleoenvironment, Marlia Formation, Southeastern Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Formation, Southeastern Brazil Patrick Francisco Führ Dal' Bó a, , Giorgio Basilici a , Rômulo Simões), Brazil b IG ­ Universidade Federal do Pará, 66075-110, Belém (PA), Brazil a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i Late Cretaceous The Marília Formation, which crops out in southeastern Brazil, is interpreted as a Late

  20. Star formation bursts in isolated spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Clarke; D. Gittins

    2006-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the response of the gaseous component of a galactic disc to the time dependent potential generated by N-body simulations of a spiral galaxy. The results show significant variation of the spiral structure of the gas which might be expected to result in significant fluctuations in the Star Formation Rate (SFR). Pronounced local variations of the SFR are anticipated in all cases. Bursty histories for the global SFR, however, require that the mean surface density is much less (around an order of magnitude less) than the putative threshold for star formation. We thus suggest that bursty star formation histories, normally attributed to mergers and/or tidal interactions, may be a normal pattern for gas poor isolated spiral galaxies.

  1. In situ oxidation of subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Li, Busheng (Houston, TX); Shen, Chonghui (Calgary, CA)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation described herein include providing heat to a first portion of the formation from a plurality of heaters in the first portion, producing produced through one or more production wells in a second portion of the formation, reducing or turning off heat provided to the first portion after a selected time, providing an oxidizing fluid through one or more of the heater wells in the first portion, providing heat to the first portion and the second portion through oxidation of at least some hydrocarbons in the first portion, and producing fluids through at least one of the production wells in the second portion. The produced fluids may include at least some oxidized hydrocarbons produced in the first portion.

  2. Formation of double-$?$ hypernuclei at PANDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Gaitanos; A. B. Larionov; H. Lenske; U. Mosel

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the formation of single- and double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in antiproton-induced reactions relevant for the forthcoming PANDA experiment at FAIR. We use the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport model with relativistic mean-fields for the description of non-equilibrium dynamics and the statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) for fragment formation. This combined approach describes the dynamical properties of strangeness and fragments in low energy $\\bar{p}$-induced reactions fairly well. We then focus on the formation of double-$\\Lambda$ hypernuclei in high energy $\\bar{p}$-nucleus collisions on a primary target including the complementary $\\Xi$-induced reactions to a secondary one, as proposed by the PANDA collaboration. Our results show that a copious production of double-$\\Lambda$ hyperfragments is possible at PANDA. In particular, we provide first theoretical estimations on the double-$\\Lambda$ production cross section, which strongly rises with decreasing energy of the secondary $\\Xi$-beam.

  3. Unveiling the Formation of Massive Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2004-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive galaxies, such as nearby ellipticals, have relatively low number densities, yet they host the majority of the stellar mass in the universe. Understanding their origin is a central problem of galaxy formation. Age dating of stellar populations found in modern ellipticals, and observations of star formation in high redshift galaxies, allow us to determine roughly when these systems formed. These age diagnostics however do not tell us what triggered star formation, or how galaxies form as opposed to simply when. Recent analyses of the structures of z > 2 ultraviolet selected galaxies reveal that major galaxy mergers are a likely method for forming some massive galaxies. There are however galaxy populations at high redshift (z > 2), namely infrared and sub-millimeter bright systems, whose evolutionary relationship to modern ellipticals is still uncertain. An improved characterization of these and other high redshift galaxy populations is achievable with large infrared imaging and spectroscopic surveys.

  4. Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graziani, L; Schneider, R; Kawata, D; de Bennassuti, M; Maselli, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline which implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post process realistic outputs of a N-body simulation describing the redshift evolution of the forming galaxy. After introducing the GAMESH implementation and its features, we apply the code to a low-resolution N-body simulation of the Milky Way formation and we investigate the combined effects of self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback. Many physical properties, which can be directly compared with observations in the Galaxy and its surrounding satellites, are predicted by the code along the merger-tree assembly. The resulting redshift evolution of the Local Group star formation rates, reionisation and metal enrichment along with the predicted Metallicity Distribution Function of halo stars are critically compared with observations. We dis...

  5. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emanuele Ripamonti; Tom Abel

    2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In these lecture notes we review the current knowledge about the formation of the first luminous objects. We start from the cosmological context of hierarchical models of structure formation, and discuss the main physical processes which are believed to lead to primordial star formation, i.e. the cooling processes and the chemistry of molecules (especially H2) in a metal-free gas. We then describe the techniques and results of numerical simulations, which indicate that the masses of the first luminous objects are likely to be much larger than that of present-day stars. Finally, we discuss the scenario presented above, exposing some of the most interesting problems which are currently being investigated, such as that of the feedback effects of these objects.

  6. Formation of Cyanoformaldehyde in the interstellar space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip K; Saha, Rajdeep; Chakrabarti, Sonali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyanoformaldehyde (HCOCN) molecule has recently been suspected towards the Sagittarius B2(N) by the Green Bank telescope, though a confirmation of this observation has not yet been made. In and around a star forming region, this molecule could be formed by the exothermic reaction between two abundant interstellar species, H$_2$CO and CN. Till date, the reaction rate coefficient for the formation of this molecule is unknown. Educated guesses were used to explain the abundance of this molecule by chemical modeling. In this paper, we carried out quantum chemical calculations to find out empirical rate coefficients for the formation of HCOCN and different chemical properties during the formation of HCOCN molecules. Though HCOCN is stable against unimolecular decomposition, this gas phase molecule could be destroyed by many other means, like: ion-molecular reactions or by the effect of cosmic rays. Ion-molecular reaction rates are computed by using the capture theories. We have also included the obtained rate coef...

  7. STAR FORMATION IN TWO LUMINOUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Ashburn, Allison; Wright, Teresa [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Rubin, Vera C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Struve, Christian [ASTRON (Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO), Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991-PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examined star formation in two very luminous (M{sub V} = –22 to –23) Sc-type spiral galaxies, NGC 801 and UGC 2885, using ultra-deep H? images. We combine these H? images with UBV and Two-Micron All-Sky Survey JHK images and H I maps to explore the star formation characteristics of disk galaxies at high luminosity. H? traces star formation in these galaxies to 4-6 disk scale lengths, but the lack of detection of H? further out is likely due to the loss of Lyman continuum photons. Considering gravitational instabilities alone, we find that the gas and stars in the outer regions are marginally stable in an average sense, but considering dissipative gas and radial and azimuthal forcing, the outer regions are marginally unstable to forming spiral arms. Star formation is taking place in spiral arms, which are regions of locally higher gas densities. Furthermore, we have traced smooth exponential stellar disks over four magnitudes in V-band surface brightness and 4-6 disk scale lengths, in spite of a highly variable gravitational instability parameter. Thus, gravitational instability thresholds do not seem relevant to the stellar disk. One possibility for creating an exponential disk is that the molecular cloud densities and star formation rates have exponential profiles and this fact forces the stellar disk to build up such a profile. Another possibility is that the stellar disk is continuously adjusted to an exponential shape regardless of the star formation profile, for example, through global dynamical processes that scatter stars. However, such scattering processes are only known to operate in spiral systems, in which case they cannot explain the same dilemma of smooth exponential disks observed in dwarf irregular galaxies.

  8. The Efficiency of Globular Cluster Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean E. McLaughlin

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    (Abridged): The total populations of globular cluster systems (GCSs) are discussed in terms of their connection to the efficiency of globular cluster formation---the mass fraction of star-forming gas that was able to form bound stellar clusters rather than isolated stars or unbound associations---in galaxy halos. Observed variations in GCS specific frequencies (S_N=N_gc/L_gal), both as a function of galactocentric radius in individual systems and globally between entire galaxies, are reviewed in this light. It is argued that trends in S_N do not reflect any real variation in the underlying efficiency of cluster formation; rather, they result from ignoring the hot gas in many large ellipticals. This claim is checked and confirmed in each of M87, M49, and NGC 1399, for which existing data are combined to show that the volume density profile of globular clusters, rho_cl, is directly proportional to the sum of (rho_gas+rho_stars) at large radii. The constant of proportionality is the same in each case: epsilon=0.0026 +/- 0.0005 in the mean. This is identified with the globular cluster formation efficiency. The implication that epsilon might have had a universal value is supported by data on the GCSs of 97 early-type galaxies, on the GCS of the Milky Way, and on the ongoing formation of open clusters. These results have specific implications for some issues in GCS and galaxy formation, and they should serve as a strong constraint on more general theories of star and cluster formation.

  9. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  10. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  11. Induction heaters used to heat subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX); Bass, Ronald M. (Houston, TX)

    2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes an elongated electrical conductor located in the subsurface formation. The electrical conductor extends between at least a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact. A ferromagnetic conductor at least partially surrounds and at least partially extends lengthwise around the electrical conductor. The electrical conductor, when energized with time-varying electrical current, induces sufficient electrical current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor such that the ferromagnetic conductor resistively heats to a temperature of at least about 300.degree. C.

  12. Effects of photochemical formation of mercuric oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hoffman, J.S.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The photochemistry of elemental mercury and oxygen was examined using quartz flow reactors. Germicidal bulbs were used as the source of 253.7-nm ultraviolet radiation. The formation of mercuric oxide, as visually detected by yellow-brown stains on the quartz walls, was confirmed by both ICP-AES and SEM-EDX analyses. In addition, a high surface area calcium silicate sorbent was used to capture the mercuric oxide in one of the experiments. The implications of mercuric oxide formation with respect to analysis of gases for mercury content, atmospheric reactions, and direct ultraviolet irradiation of flue gas for mercury sequestration are discussed.

  13. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  14. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  15. On star formation rate and turbulent dissipation in galactic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. P. Kurbatov

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The models of star formation function and of dissipation of turbulent energy of interstellar medium are proposed. In star formation model the feedback of supernovae is taken into account. It is shown that hierarchical scenario of galaxy formation with proposed models is able to explain the observable star formation pause in the Galaxy.

  16. Power systems utilizing the heat of produced formation fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambirth, Gene Richard (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method includes treating a hydrocarbon containing formation. The method may include providing heat to the formation; producing heated fluid from the formation; and generating electricity from at least a portion of the heated fluid using a Kalina cycle.

  17. Varying heating in dawsonite zones in hydrocarbon containing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes assessing a dawsonite composition of one or more zones in the formation. Heat from one or more heaters is provided to the formation such that different amounts of heat are provided to zones with different dawsonite compositions. The provided heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation.

  18. Format: A4_20070715 Press Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    delivery, global warming. Over the 20 year history of INCOSE Systems Engineering has developed and matured and valued for projects of all sizes and at all levels of problem solving from providing integrated to enabling holistic solutions to global challenges. INCOSE has grown significantly since its formation

  19. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through viscous relaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur-313001 (India); Smolarkiewicz, P. K. [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading RG2 9AX (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    According to Parker's magnetostatic theorem, tangential discontinuities in magnetic field, or current sheets (CSs), are generally unavoidable in an equilibrium magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity and complex magnetic topology. These CSs are due to a failure of a magnetic field in achieving force-balance everywhere and preserving its topology while remaining in a spatially continuous state. A recent work [Kumar, Bhattacharyya, and Smolarkiewicz, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112903 (2013)] demonstrated this CS formation utilizing numerical simulations in terms of the vector magnetic field. The magnetohydrodynamic simulations presented here complement the above work by demonstrating CS formation by employing a novel approach of describing the magnetofluid evolution in terms of magnetic flux surfaces instead of the vector magnetic field. The magnetic flux surfaces being the possible sites on which CSs develop, this approach provides a direct visualization of the CS formation, helpful in understanding the governing dynamics. The simulations confirm development of tangential discontinuities through a favorable contortion of magnetic flux surfaces, as the magnetofluid undergoes a topology-preserving viscous relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state with twisted magnetic field. A crucial finding of this work is in its demonstration of CS formation at spatial locations away from the magnetic nulls.

  20. Dynamics of Primordial Black Hole Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer; K. Jedamzik

    1999-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical investigation of the gravitational collapse of horizon-size density fluctuations to primordial black holes (PBHs) during the radiation-dominated phase of the Early Universe. The collapse dynamics of three different families of initial perturbation shapes, imposed at the time of horizon crossing, is computed. The perturbation threshold for black hole formation, needed for estimations of the cosmological PBH mass function, is found to be $\\delta_{\\rm c} \\approx 0.7$ rather than the generally employed $\\delta_{\\rm c} \\approx 1/3$, if $\\delta$ is defined as $\\Delta M/\\mh$, the relative excess mass within the initial horizon volume. In order to study the accretion onto the newly formed black holes, we use a numerical scheme that allows us to follow the evolution for long times after formation of the event horizon. In general, small black holes (compared to the horizon mass at the onset of the collapse) give rise to a fluid bounce that effectively shuts off accretion onto the black hole, while large ones do not. In both cases, the growth of the black hole mass owing to accretion is insignificant. Furthermore, the scaling of black hole mass with distance from the formation threshold, known to occur in near-critical gravitational collapse, is demonstrated to apply to primordial black hole formation.

  1. Star Formation Histories in the Local Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Brown

    2004-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Deep color magnitude diagrams extending to the main sequence provide the most direct measure of the detailed star formation history in a stellar population. With large investments of observing time, HST can obtain such data for populations out to 1 Mpc, but its field of view is extremely small in comparison to the size of Local Group galaxies. This limitation severely constrains our understanding of galaxy formation. For example, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, Andromeda, offers an ideal laboratory for studying the formation of large spiral galaxies, but the galaxy shows substructure on a variety of scales, presumably due to its violent merger history. Within its remaining lifetime, HST can only sample a few sight-lines through this complex galaxy. In contrast, a wide field imager could provide a map of Andromeda's halo, outer disk, and tidal streams, revealing the spatially-dependent star formation history in each structure. The same data would enable many secondary studies, such as the age variation in Andromeda's globular cluster system, gigantic samples of variable stars, and microlensing tracers of the galaxy's dark matter distribution.

  2. Full Additivity of the Entanglement of Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardo A. Paz-Silva; John H. Reina

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general strategy that allows a more flexible method for the construction of fully additive multipartite entanglement monotones than the ones so far reported in the literature of axiomatic entanglement measures. Within this framework we give a proof of a conjecture of outstanding implications in information theory: the full additivity of the Entanglement of Formation.

  3. Facult de Sant Publique Formation continue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesterov, Yurii

    Faculté de Santé Publique Formation continue en management des institutions de soins Programme 2011, management stratégique (UCL, ULB) CIPS p.16 > Certificat interuniversitaire en management de la qualité dans) p.19 > Certificat interuniversitaire en management médical (ULB, UCL) CIMM p.19 > Certificat

  4. MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan D. Kalyon S. Kovenklioglu Stevens Picatinny Arsenal's process for making alumina coated nanoparticles of aluminum involves the conversion of gaseous aluminum, in the presence of helium carrier gas, to solid nanoparticles and their subsequent

  5. IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leschine, Susan

    2009-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms. This research is aimed at advancing understanding of biofilm formation and other complex processes involved in the degradation of the abundant cellulosic biomass, and the biology of the microbes involved. Information obtained from these studies is invaluable in the development of practical applications, such as the single-step bioconversion of cellulose-containing residues to fuels and other bioproducts. Our results have clearly shown that cellulose-decomposing microbes rapidly colonize cellulose and form complex structures typical of biofilms. Furthermore, our observations suggest that, as cells multiply on nutritive surfaces during biofilms formation, dramatic cell morphological changes occur. We speculated that morphological changes, which involve a transition from rod-shaped cells to more rounded forms, might be more apparent in a filamentous microbe. In order to test this hypothesis, we included in our research a study of biofilm formation by T. fusca, a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete commonly found in compost. The cellulase system of T. fusca has been extensively detailed through the work of David Wilson and colleagues at Cornell, and also, genome sequence of a T. fusca strain has been determine by the DOE Joint Genome Institute. Thus, T. fusca is an excellent subject for studies of biofilm development and its potential impacts on cellulose degradation. We also completed a study of the chitinase system of C. uda. This work provided essential background information for understanding how C. uda colonizes and degrades insoluble substrates. Major accomplishments of the project include: • Development of media containing dialysis tubing (described by the manufacturer as “regenerated cellulose”) as sole carbon and energy source and a nutritive surface for the growth of cellulolytic bacteria, and development of various microscopic methods to image biofilms on dialysis tubing. • Demonstration that cultures of C. phytofermentans, an obligate anaerobe, C. uda, a facultative aerobe, and T. fusca, a filamentous aerobe, formed microbial communities on the surface of dialysis tubing, which possessed architectural features and functional characteristics typical of biofilms. • Demonstration that biofilm formation on the nutritive surface, cellulose, involves a complex developmental processes, including colonization of dialysis tubing, formation of cell clusters attached to the nutritive surface, cell morphological changes, formation of complex structures embedded in extracellular polymeric matrices, and dispersal of biofilm communities as the nutritive surface is degraded. • Determination of surface specificity and regulatory aspects of biofilm formation by C. phytofermentans, C. uda, and T. fusca. • Demonstration that biofilm formation by T. fusca forms an integral part of the life cycle of this filamentous cellulolytic bacterium, including studies on the role of mycelial pellet formation in the T. fusca life cycle and a comparison of mycelial pellets to surface-attached T. fusca biofilms. • Characterization of T. fusca biofilm EPS, including demonstration of a functional role for EPS constituents. • Correlation of T. fusca developmental life cycle and cellulase gene expression.

  6. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  7. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  8. Stratified chaos in a sand pile formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ate Poortinga; Jan G. Wesseling; Coen J. Ritsema

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Sand pile formation is often used to describe stratified chaos in dynamic systems due to self-emergent and scale invariant behaviour. Cellular automata (Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model) are often used to describe chaotic behaviour, as simulating physical interactions between individual particles is computationally demanding. In this study, we use a state-of-the-art parallel implementation of the discrete element method on the graphical processing unit to simulate sand pile formation. Interactions between individual grains were simulated using a contact model in an Euler integration scheme. Results show non-linear self-emergent behaviour which is in good agreement with experimental results, theoretical work and self organized criticality (SOC) approaches. Moreover, it was found that the fully deterministic model, where the position and forces on every individual particle can be determined every iteration has a brown noise signal in the x and y direction, where the signal is the z direction is closer to a white noise spectrum.

  9. K-Basin gel formation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, M.A.

    1998-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A key part of the proposed waste treatment for K Basin sludge is the elimination of reactive uranium metal by dissolution in nitric acid (Fkirnent, 1998). It has been found (Delegard, 1998a) that upon nitric acid dissolution of the sludge, a gel sometimes forms. Gels are known to sometimes impair solid/liquid separation and/or material transfer. The purpose of the work reported here is to determine the cause(s) of the gel formation and to determine operating parameters for the sludge dissolution that avoid formation of gel. This work and related work were planned in (Fkunent, 1998), (Jewett, 1998) and (Beck, 1998a). This report describes the results of the tests in (Beck, 1998a) with non-radioactive surrogates.

  10. Reconstructing the Star Formation Histories of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uta Fritze; Thomas Lilly

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a methodological study to find out how far back and to what precision star formation histories of galaxies can be reconstructed from CMDs, from integrated spectra and Lick indices, and from integrated multi-band photometry. Our evolutionary synthesis models GALEV allow to describe the evolution of galaxies in terms of all three approaches and we have assumed typical observational uncertainties for each of them and then investigated to what extent and accuracy different star formation histories can be discriminated. For a field in the LMC bar region with both a deep CMD from HST observations and a trailing slit spectrum across exactly the same field of view we could test our modelling results against real data.

  11. Drill-in fluids control formation damage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halliday, W.S. (Baker Hughes Inteq, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several factors led to development, oil company interest in, and use of payzone drilling fluids, including operator concern about maximizing well production, increasing acceptance of horizontal drilling and openhole completion popularity. This article discusses water-base drill-in'' fluid systems and applications. Payzone damage, including fine solids migration, clay swelling and solids invasion, reduces effective formation permeability, which results in lower production rates. Formation damage is often caused by invasion of normal drilling fluids that contain barite or bentonite. Drill-in systems are designed with special bridging agents to minimize invasion. Several bridging materials designed to form effective filter cake for instantaneous leak-off control can be used. Bridging materials are also designed to minimize stages and time required to clean up wells before production. Fluids with easy-to-remove bridging agents reduce completion costs. Drill-in fluid bridging particles can often be removed more thoroughly than those in standard fluids.

  12. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1987-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile. 2 figs.

  13. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  14. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  15. Bubble formation in Rangely Field, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, J. W

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tc Determine the Effect of Times Of. Standing on Time &equired for Bubble Formation at 67 psi Supersaturaticns. Page 20 Tests to Determine Bubble Frequency. Average Bubble Frequency Data. 23 27 The data reported in this thesis deal... if present, or would tend to form one. However, as the pressure on the saturated oil declines, the oil becomes supersatur- ated, except as bubbles may form and diffusion take place tc eliminate the supersaturation. This research is devoted to a study...

  16. Dynamical Constraints on Disk Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stacy McGaugh

    1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The rotation curves of disk galaxies exhibit a number of striking regularities. The amplitude of the rotation is correlated with luminosity (Tully-Fisher), the shape of the rotation curve is well predicted by the luminous mass distribution, and the magnitude of the mass discrepancy increases systematically with decreasing centripetal acceleration. These properties indicate a tight connection between light and mass, and impose strong constraints on theories of galaxy formation.

  17. Physical regimes for feedback in galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Monaco

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new (semi-)analytic model for feedback in galaxy formation. The ISM is modeled as a two-phase medium in pressure equilibrium. The remnants of exploding type II SNe percolate into super-bubbles (SBs) that sweep the ISM, heating the hot phase (if the SB is adiabatic) or cooling it (in the snowplow stage, when the interior gas of the SB has cooled). The resulting feedback regimes occur in well-defined regions of the space defined by vertical scale-length and surface density of the structure. When SBs blow out in the adiabatic regime, the efficiency of SNe in heating the ISM is ~5 per cent, with \\~80 per cent of the energy budget injected into the external halo, and the outcoming ISM is self-regulated to a state similar to that found in the Milky Way. Feedback is most efficient when SBs are pressure-confined in the adiabatic regime. In some significant regions of the parameter space confinement takes place in the snowplow stage; then the hot phase has a lower temperature and star formation is quicker. In some critical cases, the hot phase is strongly depleted and the cold phase percolates the whole volume, giving rise to a sudden burst of star formation. Strong galactic winds are predicted to happen only in critical cases. This model provides a starting point for constructing a realistic grid of feedback solutions to be used in galaxy formation codes. The predictive power of this model extends to many properties of the ISM, so that most parameters can be constrained by reproducing the main properties of the Milky Way. (Abridged)

  18. Carboxylic acid accelerated formation of diesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tustin, G.C.; Dickson, T.J.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to accelerating the rate of formation of 1,1-dicarboxylic esters from the reaction of an aldehyde with a carboxylic acid anhydride or a ketene in the presence of a non-iodide containing a strong Bronsted acid catalyst by the addition of a carboxylic acid at about one bar pressure and between about 0 and 80 C in the substantial absence of a hydrogenation or carbonylation catalyst.

  19. Galactosynthesis: Halo Histories, Star Formation, and Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Buchalter; Raul Jimenez; Marc Kamionkowski

    2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of a variety of ingredients that must enter into a realistic model for disk-galaxy formation, focusing primarily on the Tully-Fisher (TF) relation and its scatter in several wavebands. Our main findings are: (a) the slope, normalization, and scatter of the TF relation across various wavebands is determined {\\em both} by halo properties and star formation in the disk; (b) TF scatter owes primarily to the spread in formation redshifts. The scatter can be measurably reduced by chemical evolution, and also in some cases by the weak anti-correlation between peak height and spin; (c) multi-wavelength constraints can be important in distinguishing between models which appear to fit the TF relation in I or K; (d) successful models seem to require that the bulk of disk formation cannot occur too early (z>2) or too late (z<0.5), and are inconsistent with high values of $\\Omega_0$; (e) a realistic model with the above ingredients can reasonably reproduce the observed z=0 TF relation in {\\em all} bands (B, R, I, and K). It can also account for the z=1 B-band TF relation and yield rough agreement with the local B and K luminosity functions and B-band surface-brightness--magnitude relation. The remarkable agreement with observations suggests that the amount of gas that is expelled or poured into a disk galaxy must be small, and that the specific angular momentum of the baryons must roughly equal that of the halo; there is little room for angular momentum transfer. In an appendix we present analytic fits to stellar-population synthesis models.

  20. Dissipation, noise and DCC domain formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. K. Chaudhuri

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of friction on domain formation in disoriented chiral condensate. We solve the equation of motion of the linear sigma model, in the Hartree approximation, including a friction and a white noise term. For quenched initial condition, we find that even in presence of noise and dissipation domain like structure emerges after a few fermi of evolution. Domain size as large as 5 fm can be formed.

  1. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegrist, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. (Bundesgesundheitsamt (BGA), Langen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. (Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Aas (Norway). Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Magnetic phase formation in irradiated austenitic alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gussev, Maxim N [ORNL] [ORNL; Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL] [ORNL; Tan, Lizhen [ORNL] [ORNL; Garner, Francis A. [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA] [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austenitic alloys are often observed to develop magnetic properties during irradiation, possibly associated with radiation-induced acceleration of the ferrite phase. Some of the parametric sensitivities of this phenomenon have been addressed using a series of alloys irradiated in the BOR-60 reactor at 593K. The rate of development of magnetic phase appears to be sensitive to alloy composition. To the first order, the largest sensitivities to accelerate ferrite formation, as explored in this experiment, are associated with silicon, carbon and manganese and chromium. Si, C, and Mn are thought to influence diffusion rates of point defects while Cr plays a prominent role in defining the chromium equivalent and therefore the amount of ferrite at equilibrium. Pre-irradiation cold working was found to accelerate ferrite formation, but it can play many roles including an effect on diffusion, but on the basis of these results the dominant role or roles of cold-work cannot be identified. Based on the data available, ferrite formation is most probably associated with diffusion.

  3. Predictions from star formation in the multiverse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousso, Raphael; Leichenauer, Stefan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720-8162 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10x10{sup 9} years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central 2{sigma} of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within 3{sigma}. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  4. Predictions from Star Formation in the Multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Bousso; Stefan Leichenauer

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute trivariate probability distributions in the landscape, scanning simultaneously over the cosmological constant, the primordial density contrast, and spatial curvature. We consider two different measures for regulating the divergences of eternal inflation, and three different models for observers. In one model, observers are assumed to arise in proportion to the entropy produced by stars; in the others, they arise at a fixed time (5 or 10 billion years) after star formation. The star formation rate, which underlies all our observer models, depends sensitively on the three scanning parameters. We employ a recently developed model of star formation in the multiverse, a considerable refinement over previous treatments of the astrophysical and cosmological properties of different pocket universes. For each combination of observer model and measure, we display all single and bivariate probability distributions, both with the remaining parameter(s) held fixed, and marginalized. Our results depend only weakly on the observer model but more strongly on the measure. Using the causal diamond measure, the observed parameter values (or bounds) lie within the central $2\\sigma$ of nearly all probability distributions we compute, and always within $3\\sigma$. This success is encouraging and rather nontrivial, considering the large size and dimension of the parameter space. The causal patch measure gives similar results as long as curvature is negligible. If curvature dominates, the causal patch leads to a novel runaway: it prefers a negative value of the cosmological constant, with the smallest magnitude available in the landscape.

  5. Black hole formation in the early universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latif, M A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supermassive black holes with up to a $\\rm 10^{9}~M_{\\odot}$ dwell in the centers of present-day galaxies, and their presence has been confirmed at z $\\geq$ 6. Their formation at such early epochs is still an enigma. Different pathways have been suggested to assemble supermassive black holes in the first billion years after the Big Bang. Direct collapse has emerged as a highly plausible scenario to form black holes as it provides seed masses of $\\rm 10^{5}-10^{6}~M_{\\odot}$. Gravitational collapse in atomic cooling haloes with virial temperatures T$_{vir} \\geq 10^{4}$~K may lead to the formation of massive seed black holes in the presence of an intense background UV flux. Turbulence plays a central role in regulating accretion and transporting angular momentum. We present here the highest resolution cosmological large-eddy simulations to date which track the evolution of high-density regions on scales of $0.25$~AU beyond the formation of the first peak, and study the impact of subgrid-scale turbulence. The pe...

  6. The Formation History of Globular Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean E. McLaughlin

    2000-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of old globular cluster systems in galaxy halos are used to infer quantitative constraints on aspects of generic star (cluster) formation. First, the spatial distribution of globulars in three large galaxies, together with trends in total cluster population vs. galaxy luminosity for 97 early-type systems plus the halo of the Milky Way, imply that bound stellar clusters formed with a universal efficiency throughout early protogalaxies: by mass, always 0.26% of star-forming gas was converted into globulars rather than halo field stars. That this fraction is so robust in the face of extreme variations in local and global galaxy environment suggests that any parcel of gas needs primarily to exceed a relative density threshold in order to form a bound cluster of stars. Second, it is shown that a strict, empirical scaling of total binding energy with luminosity and Galactocentric position is a defining equation for a fundamental plane of Galactic globular clusters. The characteristics of this plane, which subsumes all other observable correlations between the structural parameters of globulars, provide a small but complete set of facts that must be explained by theories of cluster formation and evolution in the Milky Way. It is suggested that the E_b(L,r_{\\rm gc}) relation specifically resulted from star formation efficiencies having been systematically higher inside more massive protoglobular gas clumps.

  7. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T.

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify, and to confirm or determine rate constants for, the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize soot and fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics. Stable and radical species profiles in the aromatics oxidation study are measured using molecular beam sampling with on-line mass spectrometry. The rate of soot formation measured by conventional optical techniques is found to support the hypotheses that particle inception occurs through reactive coagulation of high molecular weight PAH in competition with destruction by OHattack, and that the subsequent growth of the soot mass occurs through addition reactions of PAH and C[sub 2]H[sub 2] with the soot particles. During the first year of this reporting period, fullerenes C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] in substantial quantities were found in the flames being studied. The fullerenes were recovered, purified and spectroscopically identified. The yields of C[sub 60] and C[sub 70] were then determined over ranges of conditions in low-pressure premixed flames of benzene and oxygen.

  8. Black holes, cuspy atmospheres, and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo-heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark halos expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.

  9. Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at nano-crystalline ZrO2SiO2Si Interfaces . Defect- and Strain-enhanced Cavity Formation and Au Precipitation at...

  10. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis Conditions on CuSiO2. Simultaneous MS-IR Studies of Surface Formate Reactivity Under Methanol Synthesis...

  11. allograft neointima formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bykowski; Johnny Huard, Ph.D.; Lee E. Weiss, Ph.D.; Joseph E. Losee; Phil G. Campbell, Ph.D. 26 Ateliers de formation > FORMATION EN PHOTOGRAPHIE Chemistry Websites Summary: ....

  12. Extended correlations of porosity, permeability, and formation resistivity factor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellis, Keith Wade

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    obtained through a literature search, and the remainder were obtained through donations by Shell and Tenneco. The complete data set consists of permeability, porosity and formation factor measurements for twenty formations. Of the twenty data sets, seven...

  13. First-principles characterization of formate and carboxyl adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    formate and carboxyl adsorption on the stoichiometric CeO2(111) and CeO2(110) surfaces. First-principles characterization of formate and carboxyl adsorption on the stoichiometric...

  14. FORMATION OF SEPIOLITE-PALYGORSKITE AND RELATED MINERALS FROM SOLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    FORMATION OF SEPIOLITE-PALYGORSKITE AND RELATED MINERALS FROM SOLUTION REZAN BIRSOY* Dokuz Eylu's sepiolite-palygorskite precipitates in lacustrine and perimarine environments. Although these minerals can transform from precursor minerals, the most common formation mechanism involves crystallization from

  15. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

  16. FORMAT PED PHENO Software Documentation Version 1.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Soma

    Box 357232 Seattle, WA 98195-7232 email: tathornt@u.washington.edu 2 #12;Contents 1 Overview of FORMAT

  17. RESEARCH PAPER Phase transition induced formation of hollow structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    such as stabilized nano- particles and an oxidation species are usually required to participate in the void formationRESEARCH PAPER Phase transition induced formation of hollow structures in colloidal lanthanide 2009 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Formation of colloidal hollow structures

  18. In-situ combustion in hydrocarbon-bearing formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garthoffner, E.H.

    1986-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method of simulating production in a formation bearing heavy oil or tar, comprising injecting into the formation colloidal particles of metallic magnesium and causing the magnesium to be ignited, thereafter to be exothermally reacted with water in-situ, whereby exothermally to produce magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas in the formation.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Diatom assemblages promote ice formation in large lakes NA D'souza1,3 , Y evidence for the directed formation of ice by planktonic communities dominated by filamentous diatoms sampled from the ice-covered Laurentian Great Lakes. We hypothesize that ice formation promotes attachment

  20. Mineralogical constraints on the paleoenvironments of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ganqing

    Mineralogical constraints on the paleoenvironments of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation Thomas F. In this paper, the clay mineralogy of the Doushan- tuo Formation in South China is documented, providing document the clay mineralogy of the Dou- shantuo Formation with the aim of providing information about

  1. DEFORMATION OF THE HURRICANE MOUNTAIN FORMATION MELANGE ALONG TOMHEGAN AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beane, Rachel J.

    central Maine. The Hurricane Mountain Formation is a melange with a grey sulfidic slate- to gneiss- matrix by the Dead River Formation, a silvery green slate and phyllite, and overlies the Jim Pond Formation, a dark Pond Quadrangles). Along Tomhegan Stream, northeastern foliation is observed in the grey slate matrix

  2. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  3. STAR FORMATION NEAR BERKELEY 59: EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosvick, J. M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Thompson Rivers University, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC V2C 0C8 (Canada); Majaess, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of suspected protostars in a dark cloud northwest of the young (?2 Myr) cluster Berkeley 59 and two sources in a pillar south of the cluster have been studied in order to determine their evolutionary stages and ascertain whether their formation was triggered by Berkeley 59. Narrowband near-infrared observations from the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic, {sup 12}CO (J = 3-2) and SCUBA-2 (450 and 850 ?m) observations from the JCMT, 2MASS, and WISE images, and data extracted from the IPHAS survey catalog were used. Of 12 sources studied, two are Class I objects, while three others are flat/Class II, one of which is a T Tauri candidate. A weak CO outflow and two potential starless cores are present in the cloud, while the pillar possesses substructure at different velocities, with no outflows present. The CO spectra of both regions show peaks in the range v {sub LSR} = –15 to –17 km s{sup –1}, which agrees with the velocity adopted for Berkeley 59 (–15.7 km s{sup –1}), while spectral energy distribution models yield an average interstellar extinction A{sub V} and distance of 15 ± 2 mag and 830 ± 120 pc, respectively, for the cloud, and 6.9 mag and 912 pc for the pillar, indicating that the regions are in the same vicinity as Berkeley 59. The formation of the pillar source appears to have been triggered by Berkeley 59. It is unclear whether Berkeley 59 triggered the association's formation.

  4. Formation of Compact Stellar Clusters by High-Redshift Galaxy Outflows I: Nonequillibrium Coolant Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, William J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We use high-resolution three-dimensional adaptive mesh refinement simulations to investigate the interaction of high-redshift galaxy outflows with low-mass virialized clouds of primordial composition. While atomic cooling allows star formation in objects with virial temperatures above $10^4$ K, "minihaloes" below this threshold are generally unable to form stars by themselves. However, these objects are highly susceptible to triggered star formation, induced by outflows from neighboring high-redshift starburst galaxies. Here we conduct a study of these interactions, focusing on cooling through non-equilibrium molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) and hydrogen deuteride (HD) formation. Tracking the non-equilibrium chemistry and cooling of 14 species and including the presence of a dissociating background, we show that shock interactions can transform minihaloes into extremely compact clusters of coeval stars. Furthermore, these clusters are all less than $\\approx 10^6 M_\\odot,$ and they are ejected from their parent dark...

  5. Globular Cluster Formation in M82

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. Lipscy; P. Plavchan

    2003-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high resolution mid-infrared (mid-IR; 11.7 and 17.65 micron) maps of the central 400 pc region of the starburst galaxy M82. Seven star forming clusters are identified which together provide ~ 15% of the total mid-IR luminosity of the galaxy. Combining the mid-IR data with thermal radio measurements and near- and mid-IR line emission, we find that these young stellar clusters have inferred masses and sizes comparable to globular clusters. At least 20% of the star formation in M82 is found to occur in super-star clusters.

  6. Proportional structural effects of formative indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franke, George R.; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Rigdon, Ed E.

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    : an application to the motion picture industry. J Acad Mark Sci 2006;34(Fall):559–75. Howell RD, Breivik E, Wilcox JB. Is formative measurement really mea- surement? Reply to Bollen (2007) and Bagozzi (2007). Psychol Methods 2007;12(December):238–45. Jarvis CB... and Winklhofer, 2001; Edwards and Bagozzi, 2000; Jarvis et al., 2003; Petter et al., 2007). Some criteria deal with constructs and indicators in isolation from other constructs. For example, reflective indicators of a unidimensional construct manifest the same...

  7. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    simple system consisting of only two elements, several intermetallic compounds can exist, each with their own crystal structure (face-centered cubic, body-centered, etc), and the system gets much more complicated when the number of constituents... of Alloys and Compounds, Vol 431, Q.S. Zhang, W. Zhang, G.Q. Xie, K.S. Nakayama, H. Kimura and A. Inoue, Formation of bulk metallic glass in situ composites in Cu50Zr45Ti5 alloy, Pages 236-240, Copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. 16 Fig. 9...

  8. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David D.; Cousins, Peter John

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline materiat layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  9. Solar cell contact formation using laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harley, Gabriel; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of solar cell contacts using a laser is described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming a poly-crystalline material layer above a single-crystalline substrate. The method also includes forming a dielectric material stack above the poly-crystalline material layer. The method also includes forming, by laser ablation, a plurality of contacts holes in the dielectric material stack, each of the contact holes exposing a portion of the poly-crystalline material layer; and forming conductive contacts in the plurality of contact holes.

  10. Dimensionality effects in Turing pattern formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teemu Leppanen; Mikko Karttunen; Kimmo Kaski; Rafael A. Barrio

    2003-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of morphogenesis and Turing instability are revisited from the point of view of dimensionality effects. First the linear analysis of a generic Turing model is elaborated to the case of multiple stationary states, which may lead the system to bistability. The difference between two- and three-dimensional pattern formation with respect to pattern selection and robustness is discussed. Preliminary results concerning the transition between quasi-two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures are presented and their relation to experimental results are addressed.

  11. Bistatic SAR: Signal Processing and Image Formation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Daniel E.; Yocky, David A.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the significant processing steps that were used to take the raw recorded digitized signals from the bistatic synthetic aperture RADAR (SAR) hardware built for the NCNS Bistatic SAR project to a final bistatic SAR image. In general, the process steps herein are applicable to bistatic SAR signals that include the direct-path signal and the reflected signal. The steps include preprocessing steps, data extraction to for a phase history, and finally, image format. Various plots and values will be shown at most steps to illustrate the processing for a bistatic COSMO SkyMed collection gathered on June 10, 2013 on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

  12. Communication n 219 Atelier 21 : Formation au mtier du soin En quoi l'universitarisation de la formation infirmire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    infirmier basé sur le développement des compétences. Nous avons choisi de mettre en exergue une pratique référentiels d'activités, de compétences et de formation infirmière. Mots clés : infirmier(ère), formation conduisant au diplôme d'état d'infirmier. Le référentiel de formation a comme enjeu une autre définition du

  13. Geologic Study of the Coso Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Kamola; J. D. Walker

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been great advances in the last 20 years in understanding the volcanic, structural, geophysical, and petrologic development of the Coso Range and Coso geothermal field. These studies have provided a wealth of knowledge concerning the geology of the area, including general structural characteristics and kinematic history. One element missing from this dataset was an understanding of the sedimentology and stratigraphy of well-exposed Cenozoic sedimentary strata - the Coso Formation. A detailed sedimentation and tectonics study of the Coso Formation was undertaken to provide a more complete picture of the development of the Basin and Range province in this area. Detailed mapping and depositional analysis distinguishes separate northern and southern depocenters, each with its own accommodation and depositional history. While strata in both depocenters is disrupted by faults, these faults show modest displacement, and the intensity and magnitude of faulting does no t record significant extension. For this reason, the extension between the Sierran and Coso blocks is interpreted as minor in comparison to range bounding faults in adjacent areas of the Basin and Range.

  14. Colloid Formation at Waste Plume Fronts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Saiz, Eduardo; Larsen, Joern T.; Zheng, Zuoping; Couture, Rex A.

    2004-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Highly saline and caustic tank waste solutions containing radionuclides and toxic metals have leaked into sediments at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities such as the Hanford Site (Washington State). Colloid transport is frequently invoked to explain migration of radionuclides and metals in the subsurface. To understand colloid formation during interactions between highly reactive fluids and sediments and its impact on contaminant transport, we simulated tank waste solution (TWS) leakage processes in laboratory columns at ambient and elevated (70 C) temperatures. We found that maximum formation of mobile colloids occurred at the plume fronts (hundreds to thousands times higher than within the plume bodies or during later leaching). Concentrations of suspended solids were as high as 3 mass%, and their particle-sizes ranged from tens of nm to a few {micro}m. Colloid chemical composition and mineralogy depended on temperature. During infiltration of the leaked high Na{sup +} waste solution, rapid and completed Na{sup +} replacement of exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} from the sediment caused accumulation of these divalent cations at the moving plume front. Precipitation of supersaturated Ca{sup 2+}/Mg{sup 2+}-bearing minerals caused dramatic pH reduction at the plume front. In turn, the reduced pH caused precipitation of other minerals. This understanding can help predict the behavior of contaminant trace elements carried by the tank waste solutions, and could not have been obtained through conventional batch studies.

  15. Kinetics and morphology of erbium silicide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Wu, C.S.; Lau, S.S.

    1985-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth kinetics and surface morphology of erbium silicide formation from Er layers on Si(100) substrates are examined using both fast e-beam annealing and furnace annealing. Very smooth erbium silicide layers have been grown using a line-source e beam to heat and react the Er overlayers with the substrate. This contrasts to the severe pitting observed when Er layers are reacted with Si in conventional furnace annealing. The pitting phenomenon can be explained by a thin contaminant layer at the interface between Er and Si. Our results suggest the contamination barrier is not due to oxygen, as usually assumed, but may be related to the presence of carbon. Rapid e-beam heating to reaction temperatures of approx.1200 K permits dispersion of the barrier layer before substantial silicide growth can occur, allowing smooth silicide growth. Heating to shorter times to just disperse the interface barrier allows uniform layer growth by subsequent furnace annealing and has permitted measurement of the kinetics of erbium silicide formation on crystalline Si. The reaction obeys (time)/sup 1//sup ///sup 2/ kinetics but is shown to be not totally diffusion limited by the ability to sustain multiple interface growth from a single Si source. The growth rates are nearly an order of magnitude slower for the Er/Si(100) interface than for the Er/amorphous-Si, but with a similar activation energy near 1.75 eV in both cases.

  16. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory imbibition tests show about 61% oil recovery in the case of Alf-38 and 37% in the case of DTAB. A numerical model has been developed that fits the rate of imbibition of the laboratory experiment. Field-scale fracture block simulation shows that as the fracture spacing increases, so does the time of recovery. Plans for the next quarter include simulation studies.

  17. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the best hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (35-62% OOIP) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Core-scale simulation results match those of the experiments. Initial capillarity-driven imbibition gives way to a final gravity-driven process. As the matrix block height increases, surfactant alters wettability to a lesser degree, or permeability decreases, oil production rate decreases. The scale-up to field scale will be further studied in the next quarter.

  18. Pattern formation and propagation during microwave breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhury, Bhaskar [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Boeuf, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhu, Guo Qiang [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie (LAPLACE), INPT, UPS, Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Northwestern Polytechnique University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure, a sharp plasma front forms and propagates toward the microwave source at high velocities. Experiments show that the plasma front may exhibit a complex dynamical structure or pattern composed of plasma filaments aligned with the wave electric field and apparently moving toward the source. In this paper, we present a model of the pattern formation and propagation under conditions close to recent experiments. Maxwell's equations are solved together with plasma fluid equations in two dimensions to describe the space and time evolution of the wave field and plasma density. The simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental observations. The model provides a physical interpretation of the pattern formation and dynamics in terms of ionization-diffusion and absorption-reflection mechanisms. The simulations allow a good qualitative and quantitative understanding of different features such as plasma front velocity, spacing between filaments, maximum plasma density in the filaments, and influence of the discharge parameters on the development of well-defined filamentary plasma arrays or more diffuse plasma fronts.

  19. On water ice formation in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaud Papoular

    2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A model is proposed for the formation of water ice mantles on grains in interstellar clouds. This occurs by direct accretion of monomers from the gas, be they formed by gas or surface reactions. The model predicts the existence of a threshold in interstellar light extinction, A(v), which is mainly determined by the adsorption energy of water molecules on the grain material; for hydrocarbon material, chemical simulation places this energy between 0.5 and 2 kcal/mole, which sets the visible exctinction threshold at a few magnitudes, as observed. Once the threshold is crossed, all available water molecules in the gas are quickly adsorbed, forming an ice mantle, because the grain cools down and the adsorption energy on ice is higher than on bare grain. The model also predicts that the thickness of the mantle, and, hence, the optical thickness at 3 mu, grow linearly with A(v), as observed, with a slope which depends upon the total amount of water in the gas. Chemical simulation was also used to determine the adsorption sites and energies of O and OH on hydrocarbons, and study the dynamics of formation of water molecules by surface reactions with gaseous H atoms, as well as their chances of sticking in situ.

  20. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  1. The Formation of Primordial Luminous Objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripamonti, Emanuele; /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scientific belief that the universe evolves in time is one of the legacies of the theory of the Big Bang. The concept that the universe has an history started to attract the interest of cosmologists soon after the first formulation of the theory: already Gamow (1948; 1949) investigated how and when galaxies could have been formed in the context of the expanding Universe. However, the specific topic of the formation (and of the fate) of the first objects dates to two decades later, when no objects with metallicities as low as those predicted by primordial nucleosynthesis (Z {approx}< 10{sup -10} {approx} 10{sup -8}Z{sub {circle_dot}}) were found. Such concerns were addressed in two seminal papers by Peebles & Dicke (1968; hereafter PD68) and by Doroshkevich, Zel'Dovich & Novikov (1967; hereafter DZN67), introducing the idea that some objects could have formed before the stars we presently observe. (1) Both PD68 and DZN67 suggest a mass of {approx} 10{sup 5} M{sub {circle_dot}} for the first generation of bound systems, based on the considerations on the cosmological Jeans length (Gamow 1948; Peebles 1965) and the possible shape of the power spectrum. (2) They point out the role of thermal instabilities in the formation of the proto-galactic bound object, and of the cooling of the gas inside it; in particular, PD68 introduces H{sub 2} cooling and chemistry in the calculations about the contraction of the gas. (3) Even if they do not specifically address the occurrence of fragmentation, these papers make two very different assumptions: PD68 assumes that the gas will fragment into ''normal'' stars to form globular clusters, while DZN67 assumes that fragmentation does not occur, and that a single ''super-star'' forms. (4) Finally, some feedback effects as considered (e.g. Peebles & Dicke considered the effects of supernovae). Today most of the research focuses on the issues when fragmentation may occur, what objects are formed and how they influence subsequent structure formation. In these notes we will leave the discussion of feedback to lecture notes by Ferrara & Salvaterra and by Madau & Haardt in this same book and focus only on the aspects of the formation of the first objects. The advent of cosmological numerical hydrodynamics in particular allow a fresh new look at these questions. Hence, these notes will touch on aspects of theoretical cosmology to chemistry, computer science, hydrodynamics and atomic physics. For further reading and more references on the subject we refer the reader to other relevant reviews such as Barkana & Loeb 2001, and more recently Ciardi & Ferrara 2004, Glover 2004 and Bromm & Larson 2004. In these notes, we try to give a brief introduction to only the most relevant aspects. We will start with a brief overview of the relevant cosmological concepts in section 2, followed by a discussion of the properties of primordial material (with particular emphasis to its cooling and its chemistry) in section 3. We will then review the technique and the results of numerical simulations in sections 4 and 5: the former will deal with detailed 3D simulations of the formation of gaseous clouds which are likely to transform into luminous objects, while the latter will examine results (mostly from 1D codes) about the modalities of such transformation. Finally, in section 6 we will critically discuss the results of the previous sections, examining their consequences and comparing them to our present knowledge of the universe.

  2. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both up-flow and down-flow of fluid at rates that range between 0.5 to 214 cm/yr and 2-162 cm/yr, respectively. The fluid flow system at the mound and background sites are coupled having opposite polarities that oscillate episodically between 14 days to {approx}4 months. Stability calculations suggest that despite bottom water temperature fluctuations, of up to {approx}3 C, the Bush Hill gas hydrate mound is presently stable, as also corroborated by the time-lapse video camera images that did not detect change in the gas hydrate mound. As long as methane (and other hydrocarbon) continues advecting at the observed rates the mound would remain stable. The {_}{sup 13}C-DIC data suggest that crude oil instead of methane serves as the primary electron-donor and metabolic substrate for anaerobic sulfate reduction. The oil-dominated environment at Bush Hill shields some of the methane bubbles from being oxidized both anaerobically in the sediment and aerobically in the water column. Consequently, the methane flux across the seafloor is higher at Bush hill than at non-oil rich seafloor gas hydrate regions, such as at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia. The methane flux across the ocean/atmosphere interface is as well higher. Modeling the methane flux across this interface at three bubble plumes provides values that range from 180-2000 {_}mol/m{sup 2} day; extrapolating it over the Gulf of Mexico basin utilizing satellite data is in progress.

  3. Geochemistry of formation waters from the Lower Silurian Clinton Formation (Albion Sandstone), eastern Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, L.L. (Illinois Univ., Chicago (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waters of the petroleum-bearing Clinton formation (Albion Sandstone) of eastern Ohio are highly concentrated brines with average total dissolved solids (TDS) of 250,000 ppm. Sodium, calcium, and chloride account for 97% of the TDS. Distribution of divalent metal chlorides (MCl{sub 2}) allows inference of an up-dip paleoflow direction, although present-day flow is probably down-dip paleoflow direction, although present-day flow is probably down-dip. Solute distribution may have been emplaced during early basin development; it thus provides a snapshot of paleoflow. Formation structure alone can not explain MCl{sub 2} trends; they probably also are controlled by regional variation in salt thickness. Major constituent data do not indicate that membrane filtration affected the waters. High bromide content (mean = 1,860 ppm) of the water indicates that they originated from evaporating seawater. They probably are related genetically to the Salina evaporite group. Calculations show that several subsequent diagenetic reactions can account for the observed major ion composition. Recrystallization of aragonite and dolomitization of calcite probably occurred as the waters moved through the big Lime and/or the Packer Shell carbonates. Cation exchange and chlorite formation probably altered water composition during interaction with shales of the Cabot Head formation and within the Clinton. Minor constituents of the waters appear to be controlled by reactions with clays.

  4. Mental Representations Formed From Educational Website Formats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizabeth T. Cady; Kimberly R. Raddatz; Tuan Q. Tran; Bernardo de la Garza; Peter D. Elgin

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing popularity of web-based distance education places high demand on distance educators to format web pages to facilitate learning. However, limited guidelines exist regarding appropriate writing styles for web-based distance education. This study investigated the effect of four different writing styles on reader’s mental representation of hypertext. Participants studied hypertext written in one of four web-writing styles (e.g., concise, scannable, objective, and combined) and were then administered a cued association task intended to measure their mental representations of the hypertext. It is hypothesized that the scannable and combined styles will bias readers to scan rather than elaborately read, which may result in less dense mental representations (as identified through Pathfinder analysis) relative to the objective and concise writing styles. Further, the use of more descriptors in the objective writing style will lead to better integration of ideas and more dense mental representations than the concise writing style.

  5. The Star Formation Density at z=7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Mannucci

    2006-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-infrared VLT data of the GOODS-South area were used to look for galaxies at z=7 down to a limiting magnitude of (J+Ks)AB=25.5. No high-redshift candidates were detected, and this provides clear evidence for a strong evolution of the luminosity function between z=6 and z=7, i.e. over a time interval of only 170 Myr. Our constraints provide evidence of a significant decline in the total star formation rate at z=7, which must be less than 40% of that at z=3 and 40-80% of that at z=6. The resulting upper limit to the ionizing flux at z=7 is only marginally consistent with what is required to completely ionize the Universe.

  6. The (Unstable) Threshold of Black Hole Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. W. Choptuik

    1998-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years it has become apparent that intriguing phenomenology exists at the threshold of black hole formation in a large class of general relativistic collapse models. This phenomenology, which includes scaling, self-similarity and universality, is largely analogous to statistical mechanical critical behaviour, a fact which was first noted empirically, and subsequently clarified by perturbative calculations which borrow on ideas and techniques from dynamical systems theory and renormalization group theory. This contribution, which closely parallels my talk at the conference, consists of an overview of the considerable ``zoo''' of critical solutions which have been discovered thus far, along with a brief discussion of how we currently understand the nature of these solutions from the point of view of perturbation theory.

  7. Formation of nanofilament field emission devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Lake Oswego, OR); Musket, Ronald G. (Danville, CA); Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for fabricating a nanofilament field emission device. The process enables the formation of high aspect ratio, electroplated nanofilament structure devices for field emission displays wherein a via is formed in a dielectric layer and is self-aligned to a via in the gate metal structure on top of the dielectric layer. The desired diameter of the via in the dielectric layer is on the order of 50-200 nm, with an aspect ratio of 5-10. In one embodiment, after forming the via in the dielectric layer, the gate metal is passivated, after which a plating enhancement layer is deposited in the bottom of the via, where necessary. The nanofilament is then electroplated in the via, followed by removal of the gate passification layer, etch back of the dielectric, and sharpening of the nanofilament. A hard mask layer may be deposited on top of the gate metal and removed following electroplating of the nanofilament.

  8. Abundance ratios in hierarchical galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1999-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical enrichment and stellar abundance ratios of galaxies which form in a hierarchical clustering scheme are calculated. For this purpose I adopt the star formation histories (SFH) as they are delivered by semi-analytic models in Kauffmann (1996}. It turns out that the average SFH of cluster ellipticals does not yield globally alpha-enhanced stellar populations. The star burst that occurs when the elliptical forms in the major merger plays therefore a crucial role in producing alpha-enhancement. Only under the assumption that the IMF is significantly flattened with respect to the Salpeter value during the burst, a Mg/Fe overabundant population can be obtained. In particular for the interpretation of radial gradients in metallicity and alpha-enhancement, the mixing of global and burst populations are of great importance. The model predicts bright field galaxies to be less alpha-enhanced than their counterparts in clusters.

  9. Star-Formation Knots in IRAS Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. B. Hutchings

    1995-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of IRAS galaxies with a range of IR properties are examined for bright knots, both within and outside the galaxy. These are found almost exclusively in galaxies with steep IR spectra, but over a wide range of IR luminosity, and usually without strong nuclear activity. In most cases, the knots are likely to be star-formation induced by tidal interactions, and are seen in the early stages of such interactions. Detailed photometry is presented of knots in six representative galaxies. The knots appear to have a wide range of colour and luminosity, but it is argued that many are heavily reddened. Knots formed outside the parent galaxy may be a new generation of what later become globular clusters, but they appear to have a wide range of luminosities.

  10. Lenticular Galaxy Formation - Possible Luminosity Dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhanshu Barway; Ajit Kembhavi; Yogesh Wadadekar; C. D. Ravikumar; Y. D. Mayya

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the correlation between the bulge effective radius (r_e) and disk scale length (r_d), in the near-infrared K band for lenticular galaxies in the field and in clusters. We find markedly different relations between the two parameters as a function of luminosity. Lenticulars with total absolute magnitude fainter than M_T = -24.5 show a positive correlation, in line with predictions of secular formation processes for the pseudo bulges of late-type disk galaxies. But brighter lenticulars with M_T < -24.5 show an anti-correlation, indicating that they formed through a different mechanism. The available data are insufficient to reliably determine the effect of galaxy environment on this correlation.

  11. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  12. Local and Global Radiative Feedback from Population III Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Shea, Brian W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of recent work that focuses on understanding the radiative feedback processes that are potentially important during Population III star formation. Specifically, we examine the effect of the Lyman-Werner (photodissociating) background on the early stages of primordial star formation, which serves to delay the onset of star formation in a given halo but never suppresses it entirely. We also examine the effect that both photodissociating and ionizing radiation in I-fronts from nearby stellar systems have on the formation of primordial protostellar clouds. Depending on the strength of the incoming radiation field and the central density of the halos, Pop III star formation can be suppressed, unaffected, or even enhanced. Understanding these and other effects is crucial to modeling Population III star formation and to building the earliest generations of galaxies in the Universe.

  13. FOURNET, M. & BEDIN, V. (1998). L'ingnierie de formation entre traditionalisme et modernisme ; les nouvelles formes de formation continue vues par des dirigeants de PME-PMI. Formation Emploi, n 63, 43-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; les nouvelles formes de formation continue vues par des dirigeants de PME-PMI. Formation Emploi, n° 63 modernisme Les nouvelles formes de formation continue vues par des dirigeants de PME-PMI Michel Fournet et

  14. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  15. Method and apparatus for vibrating a substrate during material formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeffrey A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Roger, Johnson N. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; John, Munley T. (Benton City, WA) [Benton City, WA; Walter, Park R. (Benton City, WA) [Benton City, WA

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for affecting the properties of a material include vibrating the material during its formation (i.e., "surface sifting"). The method includes the steps of providing a material formation device and applying a plurality of vibrations to the material during formation, which vibrations are oscillations having dissimilar, non-harmonic frequencies and at least two different directions. The apparatus includes a plurality of vibration sources that impart vibrations to the material.

  16. Control of Formation and Cellular Detachment from Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Cellular Detachment from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms by Cyclic di-GMP. Control of Formation and Cellular Detachment from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Biofilms by...

  17. aggregation rosette formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    formed from an ensemble of charged proteins. The model predicts the formation of multi-fractal structures with the geometry of the growth determined by the electrostatic...

  18. Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENAC/ Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment David G Research, Microbiology of Interfaces, Magdeburg (Germany) EDCE 2011 / From activated sludge flocs

  19. (U) modulator to provide a continuous stepped frequency signal format

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, Glenn A. (Escondido, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A modulator provides a continuous signal format composed of discrete freqcy steps and is designed to eliminate frequency overlap or smearing normally associated with filter ringing.

  20. COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    COLD BUBBLE FORMATION DURING TOKAMAK DENSITY LIMIT DISRUPTIONS J. HOWARD, M. PERSSON* Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra

  1. Recovery Act: Site Characterization of Promising Geologic Formations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Geologic Formations for CO2 Storage A Report on the The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program within the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE's) Coal Program...

  2. Biogenic formation of photoactive arsenic-sulfide nanotubes by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    strain HN-41 . Abstract: Microorganisms facilitate the formation of a wide range of minerals that have unique physical and chemical properties as well as morphologies that are...

  3. aberration formation interaction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Committee: Dr. Christopher C. Mathewson The U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site lies in the heart of the Columbia Plateau. The basalt formations beneath the Hanford...

  4. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of Methanol and Ethanol. Formation of Supercooled Liquid Solutions from Nanoscale Amorphous Solid Films of...

  5. aerosol particle formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Introduction 2 Current models tend to under-predict secondary organic aerosol (SOA Weber, Rodney 3 Modeling particle formation during low-pressure silane oxidation: Detailed...

  6. Atomistic Simulation of Track Formation by Energetic Recoils...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and nuclear waste immobilization. Citation: Moreira PA, R Devanathan, and WJ Weber.2010."Atomistic Simulation of Track Formation by Energetic Recoils in Zircon."Journal...

  7. abscess gas formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of these two wells enables angular ... Miller, Douglas E. 69 Characterizing water-in-oil emulsions with application to gas hydrate formation. Open Access Theses and...

  8. Formation enthalpies by mixing GGA and GGA + U calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Anubhav

    Standard approximations to the density functional theory exchange-correlation functional have been extraordinary successful, but calculating formation enthalpies of reactions involving compounds with both localized and ...

  9. Uncovering Fundamental Ash-Formation Mechanisms and Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport Key Parameters Affecting DPF Performance Degradation and Impact on Lifetime Fuel Economy Non-Destructive X-ray Measurement of Soot, Ash,...

  10. authigenic carbonate formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov 2005-02-08 6 Carbon nanotube initiated formation of carbon nanoscrolls Zhao Zhang1 Materials Science Websites Summary: Carbon nanotube initiated...

  11. Step- vs. kink-formation energies on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FEIBELMAN,PETER J.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ab-initio kink-formation energies are about 0.25 and 0.18 eV on the (100)- and (111)-microfacet steps of Pt(111), while the sum of the step-formation energies is 0.75 eV/atom. These results imply a specific ratio of formation energies for the two step types, namely 1.14, in excellent agreement with experiment. If kink-formation costs the same energy on the two step types, an inference recently drawn from scanning probe observations of step wandering, this ratio ought to be 1.

  12. "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Road Princeton, NJ 08540-6649 "A New Paradigm for Secondary Eyewall Formation in Tropical Cyclones", Chun-Chieh Wu (National Taiwan University) Contact Information Website: Website...

  13. Histamine Formation and Honeycombing During Decomposition of Skipjack Tuna,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Histamine Formation and Honeycombing During Decomposition of Skipjack Tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis pelamis, caught in Hawaiian waters. Fresh skipjack tuna tis- sue was practically devoid of histamine

  14. ampx anisn format: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unusual places such as the debris of colliding galaxies expelled into the intergalactic medium. Determining whether star-formation proceeds in the latter environment, far from...

  15. ascaris suum formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unusual places such as the debris of colliding galaxies expelled into the intergalactic medium. Determining whether star-formation proceeds in the latter environment, far from...

  16. argillaceous formations reactivite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    unusual places such as the debris of colliding galaxies expelled into the intergalactic medium. Determining whether star-formation proceeds in the latter environment, far from...

  17. accelerate thrombus formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as a function of time as structure formation proceeds, which mimics the effect of "dark energy" with negative pressure. Hence, the "acceleration" may be merely a mirage. We...

  18. aromatic hydrocarbon formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Iron Formation, Hamersley Group, and were collected in mines near Tom Price mature gas condensates. The aromatic fraction predominantly consists of unsubstituted two and...

  19. Frost formation and ice adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varanasi, Kripa K.

    We study frost formation and its impact on icephobic properties of superhydrophobic surfaces. Using an environmental scanning electron microscope, we show that frost nucleation occurs indiscriminately on superhydrophobic ...

  20. A hybrid genetic algorithm for manufacturing cell formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José F. Gonçalves

    ... in cellular manufacturing is the formation of product families and machine cells. ... Computational experience with the algorithm on a set of group technology ...

  1. The Toolbox provides an operations manual for the formative assessment process, including procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullins, Dyche

    decide whether to use RDS or TLS for the survey. Contents Formative assessment operations manualFormative assessment IBBS Toolbox The Toolbox provides an operations manual for the formative............................................................... 191 #12;#12;Formative assessment operations manual Formative assessment #12;Formative assessment

  2. ON STAR FORMATION RATES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES OUT TO z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Poglitsch, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Altieri, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, ESAC, Villanueva de la Canada, 28691 Madrid (Spain); Andreani, Paola [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d'Astrophysique, Bat.709, CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovanni, Angel; Cepa, Jordi; Garcia, Ana Perez [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna (Spain); Cimatti, Andrea [Departamento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maiolino, Roberto [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, 00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); McGrath, Elizabeth J. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare multi-wavelength star formation rate (SFR) indicators out to z {approx} 3 in the GOODS-South field. Our analysis uniquely combines U to 8 {mu}m photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24 {mu}m and PACS 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m photometry from the PEP, and H{alpha} spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24 {mu}m to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of L{sub IR} that are in the median consistent with the L{sub IR} derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low-to-intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV} ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR{sub UV+IR} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) and redshifts (z {approx}> 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that H{alpha}-based SFRs at 1.5 < z < 2.6 are consistent with SFR{sub SED} and SFR{sub UV+IR} provided extra attenuation toward H II regions is taken into account (A{sub V,neb} = A{sub V,continuum}/0.44). With the cross-calibrated SFR indicators in hand, we perform a consistency check on the star formation histories inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We compare the observed SFR-M relations and mass functions at a range of redshifts to equivalents that are computed by evolving lower redshift galaxies backward in time. We find evidence for underestimated stellar ages when no stringent constraints on formation epoch are applied in SED modeling. We demonstrate how resolved SED modeling, or alternatively deep UV data, may help to overcome this bias. The age bias is most severe for galaxies with young stellar populations and reduces toward older systems. Finally, our analysis suggests that SFHs typically vary on timescales that are long (at least several 100 Myr) compared to the galaxies' dynamical time.

  3. Paleoenvironment of Fort Union Formation, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrum, C.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rocks of Paleocene age are represented in the Cave Hills of northwestern South Dakota by the Ludlow, Cannonball, and Tongue River members of the Fort Union Formation. The Cave Hills are situated within the southern margin of the Williston basin, 80 mi (130 km) north of the Black Hills, South Dakota. Numerous fine-grained, fining-upward sedimentary sequences comprise the Ludlow Member and are attributed to meandering streams occupying a low-gradient lower alluvial to upper deltaic plain. The Cannonball Member is 130 ft (40 m) thick in the North Cave Hills and is represented by two fine-grained, coarsening-upward sandstone mudstone sequences. A distinct vertical succession of sedimentary facies occur within each sequence representing offshore/lower shoreface through upper shoreface/foreshore depositional environment. A north to northeast depositional strike for the Cannonball shoreline is inferred from ripple crest and cross-bed orientations. The basal part of the Tongue River consists of approximately 40 to 50 ft (12 to 15 m) of lenticular sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, thin-bedded lignite, and kaolinite beds representing thin broad channels, point-bar, levee, overbank, and nearshore swamp depositional environments. Massive fluvial channel sandstones measuring several tens of ft in thickness overlie the fine-grained basal Tongue River lithologies. These channel sandstones represent the continued progradation of continental/fluvial/coastal plain depositional environments eastward over the marine sandstones of the Cannonball Member.

  4. The Formation of Population III Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazuya Saigo; Tomoaki Matsumoto; Masayuki Umemura

    2004-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the possibility for the formation of Population III binaries. The collapse of a rotating cylinder is simulated with a three-dimensional, high-resolution nested grid, assuming the thermal history of primordial gas. The simulations are done with dimensionless units, and the results are applicable to low-mass as well as massive systems by scaling with the initial density. We find that if the initial angular momentum is as small as $\\beta \\approx 0.1$, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of centrifugal force to pressure force, then the runaway collapse of the cloud stops to form a rotationally-supported disk. After the accretion of the envelope, the disk undergoes a ring instability, eventually fragmenting into a binary. If the initial angular momentum is relatively large, a bar-type instability arises, resulting in the collapse into a single star through rapid angular momentum transfer. The present results show that a significant fraction of Pop III stars are expected to form in binary systems, even if they are quite massive or less massive. The cosmological implications of Population III binaries are briefly discussed.

  5. The Formation of Population III Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saigo, K; Umemura, M; Saigo, Kazuya; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Umemura, Masayuki

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the possibility for the formation of Population III binaries. The collapse of a rotating cylinder is simulated with a three-dimensional, high-resolution nested grid, assuming the thermal history of primordial gas. The simulations are done with dimensionless units, and the results are applicable to low-mass as well as massive systems by scaling with the initial density. We find that if the initial angular momentum is as small as $\\beta \\approx 0.1$, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of centrifugal force to pressure force, then the runaway collapse of the cloud stops to form a rotationally-supported disk. After the accretion of the envelope, the disk undergoes a ring instability, eventually fragmenting into a binary. If the initial angular momentum is relatively large, a bar-type instability arises, resulting in the collapse into a single star through rapid angular momentum transfer. The present results show that a significant fraction of Pop III stars are expected to form in binary systems, even if they ar...

  6. Halo Formation in Warm Dark Matter Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Bode; Jeremiah P. Ostriker; Neil Turok

    2001-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Discrepancies have emerged between the predictions of standard cold dark matter (CDM) theory and observations of clustering on sub-galactic scales. Warm dark matter (WDM) is a simple modification of CDM in which the dark matter particles have initial velocities due either to their having decoupled as thermal relics, or having been formed via non-equilibrium decay. We investigate the nonlinear gravitational clustering of WDM with a high resolution N-body code, and identify a number of distinctive observational signatures. Relative to CDM, halo concentrations and core densities are lowered, core radii are increased, and large halos emerge with far fewer low mass satellites. The number of small halos is suppressed, and those present are formed by `top down' fragmentation of caustics, as part of a `cosmic web' connecting massive halos. Few small halos form outside this web. If we identify small halos with dwarf galaxies, their number, spatial distribution, and formation epoch appear in better agreement with the observations for WDM than they are for CDM.

  7. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  8. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  9. On the formation of massive stellar clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Silich, S A; Medina-Tanco, G A; Muñoz-Tunón, C; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Palous, Jan; Silich, Sergiy; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo A.; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we model a star forming factory in which the continuous creation of stars results in a highly concentrated, massive (globular cluster-like) stellar system. We show that under very general conditions a large-scale gravitational instability in the ISM, which triggers the collapse of a massive cloud, leads with the aid of a spontaneous first generation of massive stars, to a standing, small-radius, cold and dense shell. Eventually, as more of the collapsing matter is processed and incorporated, the shell becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment, allowing the formation of new stars, while keeping its location. This is due to a detailed balance established between the ram pressure from the collapsing cloud which, together with the gravitational force exerted on the shell by the forming cluster, acts against the mechanical energy deposited by the collection of new stars. We analyze the mass spectrum of fragments that result from the continuous fragmentation of the standing shell and show that it...

  10. Graphite formation in the Hiroshima fire storm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, D.E.; Crenshaw, M.; Yalcintas, M.G.; Strehlow, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Cole, L.L. (Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to investigate what might be the composition and optical properties of particles that could lead to a nuclear winter, a search has been made for particles that had been generated in urban fire storms. Deposits containing small amounts of graphite have been found on an artifact from the Hiroshima fire storm. The fire storm was initiated on August 6, 1945, by the atomic bomb detonation. The particles were rained out of the atmosphere in the black rain that commenced following the urban fire storm. Initial studies using electron microscopy have revealed that the particles consist of a mixture of clay and amorphous sooty carbon. Scanning electron photomicrographs have suggested the presence of graphite. Its presence has been confirmed using laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS), surface ionization mass spectroscopy (SIMS), and electron scattering for chemical analysis (ESCA). Significant amounts of the sooty material consist of clay, and the graphite is probably present as short-range ordered structure in sooty microspheres. The results of this study are presented with a discussion of conditions that may lead to graphite formation.

  11. The Parameter Space of Galaxy Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bower, R G; Goldstein, M; Benson, A J; Lacey, C G; Baugh, C M; Cole, S; Frenk, C S; .,

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-analytic models are a powerful tool for studying the formation of galaxies. However, these models inevitably involve a significant number of poorly constrained parameters that must be adjusted to provide an acceptable match to the observed universe. In this paper, we set out to quantify the degree to which observational data-sets can constrain the model parameters. By revealing degeneracies in the parameter space we can hope to better understand the key physical processes probed by the data. We use novel mathematical techniques to explore the parameter space of the GALFORM semi-analytic model. We base our investigation on the Bower et al. 2006 version of GALFORM, adopting the same methodology of selecting model parameters based on an acceptable match to the local bJ and K luminosity functions. The model contains 16 parameters that are poorly constrained, and we investigate this parameter space using the Model Emulator technique, constructing a Bayesian approximation to the GALFORM model that can be rapid...

  12. PAPER FORMATTING GUIDELINES FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE COURSES. VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    PAPER FORMATTING GUIDELINES FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE COURSES. VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY (For 2012; longer quotations or extracts should be indented from the left margin and require no quotation marks to the following format: (Please note that the entries are indented after the first line. Word will do

  13. PAPER FORMATTING GUIDELINES FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE COURSES. VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenstein, Seth

    PAPER FORMATTING GUIDELINES FOR POLITICAL SCIENCE COURSES. VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY (For 2012 or extracts should be indented from the left margin and require no quotation marks. Changes and additions that the entries are indented after the first line. Word will do this automatically if you click on "Format

  14. Ring current formation influenced by solar wind substorm conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    Click Here for Full Article Ring current formation influenced by solar wind substorm conditions M outflows during an internally driven substorm. We show that the energization of the ions is not correlated with the time that the ions leave the ionosphere; instead energization is correlated with the formation

  15. antihydrogen formation dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    antihydrogen formation dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Antihydrogen formation...

  16. Video Digests: A Browsable, Skimmable Format for Informational Lecture Videos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Video Digests: A Browsable, Skimmable Format for Informational Lecture Videos Amy Pavel, Colorado- ing current timeline-based video players. Video digests are a new format for informational videos authors create such digests using transcript-based interactions. With our tools, authors can manually

  17. Regeneration and pattern formation -an interview with Susan Bryant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuong, Cheng-Ming

    Regeneration and pattern formation - an interview with Susan Bryant MICHAEL K. RICHARDSON*,1 Susan Bryant is one of the leading researchers in regeneration and pattern formation. Born in England, are seen by Susan Bryant as central to patterning. She argues that fibroblasts express positional values

  18. Past and future conditions for polar stratospheric cloud formation simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    . In the future, radiative cooling in the Arctic winter due to climate change is more than compensated by an inPast and future conditions for polar stratospheric cloud formation simulated by the Canadian Middle Chemistry and Physics Past and future conditions for polar stratospheric cloud formation simulated

  19. Micro-Electromagnetic Formation Flight of Satellite Systems Aya Sakaguchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to maintain a satellite's relative position in a formation. Thus far, high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire has been considered the enabling technology and the concept has been sized for aggressive as well as HTS EMFF and shown to be advantageous in close proximity formations. Because the forces

  20. VISCOSITY OF CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS: INFLUENCE OF CLUSTER FORMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 VISCOSITY OF CONCENTRATED SUSPENSIONS: INFLUENCE OF CLUSTER FORMATION V.Starov1 , V.Zhdanov1 , M and these forces determine both structure and size of clusters. We assume that viscosity of concentrated suspension of viscosity on a concentration of dispersed particles taking into account cluster formation, is deduced. Under

  1. Quasi Light Fields: A Model of Coherent Image Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wornell, Gregory W.

    Quasi Light Fields: A Model of Coherent Image Formation Anthony Accardi and Gregory Wornell formation that strikes a balance between the simplicity of the light field and the comprehensive predictive power of Maxwell's equations, by extending the light field to coherent radiation. © 2009 Optical Society

  2. FORMATION OF ROLL WAVES IN LAMINAR SHEET FLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    with the wave kinematic viscosity of water distance downslope critical distance at which roll waves are formedFORMATION OF ROLL WAVES IN LAMINAR SHEET FLOW by Pierre Y. Julien and David M. Hartley January 1985 required for the formation of roll waves . . . . 5 2.3.1 Celerityofrollwaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

  3. Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prentiss, Mara

    Microfluidics Formation of Bubbles in a Multisection Flow-Focusing Junction Michinao Hashimoto the stable formation of trains of mono-, bi-, and tri-disperse bubbles in microfluidic flow- focusing (FF-assembly through the patterns of flow created by the bubbles. 1.1 Bubbles and Droplets in Microfluidics

  4. Nonequilibrium symmetry breaking and pattern formation in magnetic films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deutsch, Josh

    films. ­ p. 7/6 #12;Applications of Ferromagnetism Doodle Pads Refrigerator Magnets NonequilibriumNonequilibrium symmetry breaking and pattern formation in magnetic films Josh Deutsch University of California Santa Cruz Nonequilibrium symmetry breaking and pattern formation in magnetic films. ­ p. 1/6 #12

  5. UFO (UnFold Operator) default data format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Marking, T.R. (Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The default format for the storage of x,y data for use with the UFO code is described. The format assumes that the data stored in a file is a matrix of values; two columns of this matrix are selected to define a function of the form y = f(x). This format is specifically designed to allow for easy importation of data obtained from other sources, or easy entry of data using a text editor, with a minimum of reformatting. This format is flexible and extensible through the use of inline directives stored in the optional header of the file. A special extension of the format implements encoded data which significantly reduces the storage required as compared wth the unencoded form. UFO supports several extensions to the file specification that implement execute-time operations, such as, transformation of the x and/or y values, selection of specific columns of the matrix for association with the x and y values, input of data directly from other formats (e.g., DAMP and PFF), and a simple type of library-structured file format. Several examples of the use of the format are given.

  6. Modelling new particle formation events in the South African savannah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Buekes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction of these systems with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, called aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scales, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study, measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There already are some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first detailed simulation that includes all the main processes relevant to particle formation. The results show that both of the particle formation mechanisms investigated overestimated the dependency of the formation rates on sulphuric acid. From the two particle formation mechanisms tested in this work, the approach that included low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events than the approach that did not. To obtain a reliable estimate of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa. This work is the first step in developing a more comprehensive new particle formation model applicable to the unique environment in southern Africa. Such a model will assist in better understanding and predicting new particle formation – knowledge which could ultimately be used to mitigate impacts of climate change and air quality.

  7. A Flexible Proof Format for SMT: Frederic Besson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Flexible Proof Format for SMT: a Proposal Fr´ed´eric Besson INRIA Rennes ­ Bretagne Atlantique The standard input format for Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solvers has now reached its second version and integrates many of the features useful for users to interact with their favourite SMT solver. However

  8. Formation and distribution of benzene on Titan V. Vuitton,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yelle, Roger V.

    Formation and distribution of benzene on Titan V. Vuitton,1 R. V. Yelle,1 and J. Cui1 Received 29 a study of the formation and distribution of benzene (C6H6) on Titan. Analysis of the Cassini Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements of benzene densities on 12 Titan passes shows that the benzene signal exhibits

  9. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  10. Multiblock Grid Generation for Simulations in Geological Formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanjay Kumar Khattri

    2006-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulating fluid flow in geological formations requires mesh generation, lithology mapping to the cells, and computing geometric properties such as normal vectors and volume of cells. The purpose of this research work is to compute and process the geometrical information required for performing numerical simulations in geological formations. We present algebraic techniques, named Transfinite Interpolation, for mesh generation. Various transfinite interpolation techniques are derived from 1D projection operators. Many geological formations such as the Utsira formation (Torp and Gale, 2004; Khattri, Hellevang, Fladmark and Kvamme, 2006) and the Snohvit gas field (Maldal and Tappel, 2004) can be divided into layers or blocks based on the geometrical or lithological properties of the layers. We present the concept of block structured mesh generation for handling such formations.

  11. On the formation of massive stellar clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillermo Tenorio-Tagle; Jan Palous; Sergiy Silich; Gustavo A. Medina-Tanco; Casiana Munoz-Tunon

    2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we model a star forming factory in which the continuous creation of stars results in a highly concentrated, massive (globular cluster-like) stellar system. We show that under very general conditions a large-scale gravitational instability in the ISM, which triggers the collapse of a massive cloud, leads with the aid of a spontaneous first generation of massive stars, to a standing, small-radius, cold and dense shell. Eventually, as more of the collapsing matter is processed and incorporated, the shell becomes gravitationally unstable and begins to fragment, allowing the formation of new stars, while keeping its location. This is due to a detailed balance established between the ram pressure from the collapsing cloud which, together with the gravitational force exerted on the shell by the forming cluster, acts against the mechanical energy deposited by the collection of new stars. We analyze the mass spectrum of fragments that result from the continuous fragmentation of the standing shell and show that its shape is well approximated at the high mass end by a power law with slope -2.25, very close to the value that fits the universal IMF. The self-contamination resultant from the continuous generation of stars is shown to lead to a large metal spread in massive ($\\sim$ 10$^6$ M$_\\odot$) clusters, while clusters with a mass similar to 10$^5$ M$_\\odot$ or smaller, simply reflect the initial metalicity of the collapsing cloud. This is in good agreement with the data available for globular clusters in the Galaxy.

  12. Monolithic or hierarchical star formation? A new statistical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marios Kampakoglou; Roberto Trotta; Joe Silk

    2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider an analytic model of cosmic star formation which incorporates supernova feedback, gas accretion and enriched outflows, reproducing the history of cosmic star formation, metallicity, supernovae type II rates and the fraction of baryons allocated to structures. We present a new statistical treatment of the available observational data on the star formation rate and metallicity that accounts for the presence of possible systematics. We then employ a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to compare the predictions of our model with observations and derive constraints on the 7 free parameters of the model. We find that the dust correction scheme one chooses to adopt for the star formation data is critical in determining which scenario is favoured between a hierarchical star formation model, where star formation is prolonged by accretion, infall and merging, and a monolithic scenario, where star formation is rapid and efficient. We distinguish between these modes by defining a characteristic minimum mass, M > 10^{11} M_solar, in our fiducial model, for early type galaxies where star formation occurs efficiently. Our results indicate that the hierarchical star formation model can achieve better agreement with the data, but that this requires a high efficiency of supernova-driven outflows. In a monolithic model, our analysis points to the need for a mechanism that drives metal-poor winds, perhaps in the form of supermassive black hole-induced outflows. Furthermore, the relative absence of star formation beyond z ~ 5 in the monolithic scenario requires an alternative mechanism to dwarf galaxies for reionizing the universe at z ~ 11, as required by observations of the microwave background. While the monolithic scenario is less favoured in terms of its quality-of-fit, it cannot yet be excluded.

  13. HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURE FORMATION AND MODES OF STAR FORMATION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUP 31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Durrell, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Elmegreen, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); English, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN R3T 2N2 (Canada); Charlton, J. C.; Gronwall, C.; Young, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Tzanavaris, P.; Hornschemeier, A. E. [Laboratory for X-ray Astrophysics, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Johnson, K. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica, e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Whitmore, B.; Maybhate, Aparna [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States); Zabludoff, Ann [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)], E-mail: sgalla4@uwo.ca

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The handful of low-mass, late-type galaxies that comprise Hickson Compact Group 31 (HCG 31) is in the midst of complex, ongoing gravitational interactions, evocative of the process of hierarchical structure formation at higher redshifts. With sensitive, multicolor Hubble Space Telescope imaging, we characterize the large population of < 10 Myr old star clusters (SCs) that suffuse the system. From the colors and luminosities of the young SCs, we find that the galaxies in HCG 31 follow the same universal scaling relations as actively star-forming galaxies in the local universe despite the unusual compact group environment. Furthermore, the specific frequency of the globular cluster system is consistent with the low end of galaxies of comparable masses locally. This, combined with the large mass of neutral hydrogen and tight constraints on the amount of intragroup light, indicate that the group is undergoing its first epoch of interaction-induced star formation. In both the main galaxies and the tidal-dwarf candidate, F, stellar complexes, which are sensitive to the magnitude of disk turbulence, have both sizes and masses more characteristic of z = 1-2 galaxies. After subtracting the light from compact sources, we find no evidence for an underlying old stellar population in F-it appears to be a truly new structure. The low-velocity dispersion of the system components, available reservoir of H I, and current star formation rate of {approx}10 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} indicate that HCG 31 is likely to both exhaust its cold gas supply and merge within {approx}1 Gyr. We conclude that the end product will be an isolated, X-ray-faint, low-mass elliptical.

  14. Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols in our Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Einat, Aharonov

    Sources and Formation of OrganicSources and Formation of Organic Aerosols in our AtmosphereAerosols Department of Chemical Engineering University of Patras, Greece #12;Sources of Organic AerosolSources of Organic Aerosol Primary Secondary Anthropogenic ·Gasoline ·Diesel ·Biomass burning ·Meat Cooking Biogenic

  15. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  16. Interdisciplinary research Sl.No Areas of Research Eligible Degree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Anurag

    ) Nuclear waste management (iii) Carbon dioxide sequestration (iv) Aerosol science Undergraduate and post

  17. Programming S.L. Graham, R.L. Rivest*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Ronald L.

    an encryption key does not thereby reveal the corresponding decryption key. This has two important consequences, or the entire work requires specific permission as does republication, or systematic or multiple reproduction

  18. NlSlInstitute of tandards and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................................... 73 Intelligent Manufacturing Industrial Control Systems & Network Standards ........................ 76 Intelligent Manufacturing Robotics and Automation Interoperability Standards................... 82 Measurement Science for Intelligent Manufacturing Robotics and Automation................... 89 Manufacturing

  19. EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CERN SL DIVISION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keil, Eberhard

    that occupies about 12 m. Hence, the additional heat load due to the muon decay products, calculated above in the Re-Circulating Linear Accelerators The ELFE design report [1] describes the heat loads assumed-circulating muon linear accelerators. ELFE is designed for a heat load of 670 W at 4.5 K for one module

  20. Lyapunov exponents at anomalies of SL(2,R)-actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermann Schulz-Baldes

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Anomalies are known to appear in the perturbation theory for the one-dimensional Anderson model. A systematic approach to anomalies at critical points of products of random matrices is developed, classifying and analysing their possible types. The associated invariant measure is calculated formally. For an anomaly of so-called second degree, it is given by the groundstate of a certain Fokker-Planck equation on the unit circle. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated to lowest order in perturbation theory with rigorous control of the error terms.

  1. TOTAL SES SL EJ//EK EN IV EN III

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronic Input Options Gary L. Hirsch SNLMay 20102 | NationalThis1QA: N/AEJ/EKSL

  2. SL/ST Performance Management Training | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSARDevelopmental Assignment |SHEPHERDS FLATSL/ST Performance

  3. Producciones Energ ticas Asturianas SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergyInformation toPowerPrinceton PublicTODO:Produccion

  4. SL/ST Performance Management Training | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, anEnergyDepartment ofNoneORDER NO.BiodieselOverviewSITEWIDEThis

  5. Northeolic Sierra de Bodenaya SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorth America Drilling FluidsNorthAssociation JumpNortheolic

  6. Suntrack P4Q Electronics SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co Ltd Place: Wuxi, Jiangsu Province,Suntrack P4Q

  7. BeCCo Fuels SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomass Conversions IncBay County, Florida: Energy7384317°,Baywood,May 2010

  8. Ra Solar Systems Solutions SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I GeothermalPotentialBiopowerSolidGenerationMethodInformationeNevada <RECServices,RYPOS Inc Jump to:Ra

  9. Gas Natural Corporacion Eolica SL | Open Energy Information

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  10. Grupo Sitec Solar Iniciativas Tecnologicas SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating AGeothermal/ExplorationGoods |Grundy Electric Coop,Grupo OlhoGrupoSitec Solar

  11. DAVID Fuel Cell Components SL | Open Energy Information

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  12. FRV formerly Fotowatio Energia Solar SL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BV Jump to:FASFMI-HDFRED Type Term Title Author

  13. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  14. Spontaneous formation of highly regular superlattice structure in InGaN epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Z. H. [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Graduate School of Engineering, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kawai, Y.; Honda, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Fang, Y.-Y.; Chen, C. Q. [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Kondo, H.; Hori, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this letter, we have investigated the structural properties of thick InGaN layers grown on GaN by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, using two growth rates of 1.0 and 3.6 A/s. A highly regular superlattice (SL) structure is found to be spontaneously formed in the film grown at 3.6 A/s but not in the film grown at 1.0 A/s. The faster grown film also exhibits superior structural quality, which could be due to the surface roughness suppression caused by kinetic limitation, and the inhibition of the Frank-Read dislocation generation mechanism within the spontaneously formed SL structure.

  15. Cloud and Star Formation in Disk Galaxy Models with Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahul Shetty; Eve C. Ostriker

    2008-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We include feedback in global hydrodynamic simulations in order to study the star formation properties, and gas structure and dynamics, in models of galactic disks. We extend previous models by implementing feedback in gravitationally bound clouds: momentum is injected at a rate proportional to the star formation rate. This mechanical energy disperses cloud gas back into the surrounding ISM, truncating star formation in a given cloud, and raising the overall level of ambient turbulence. Propagating star formation can however occur as expanding shells collide, enhancing the density and triggering new cloud and star formation. By controlling the momentum injection per massive star and the specific star formation rate in dense gas, we find that the negative effects of high turbulence outweigh the positive ones, and in net feedback reduces the fraction of dense gas and thus the overall star formation rate. The properties of the large clouds that form are not, however, very sensitive to feedback, with cutoff masses of a few million solar masses, similar to observations. We find a relationship between the star formation rate surface density and the gas surface density with a power law index ~2 for our models with the largest dynamic range, consistent with theoretical expectations for our model of disk flaring. We point out that the value of the "Kennicutt-Schmidt" index depends on the thickness of the disk. With our simple feedback prescription (a single combined star formation event per cloud), we find that global spiral patterns are not sustained; less correlated feedback and smaller scale turbulence appear to be necessary for spiral patterns to persist.

  16. Negative feedback effects on star formation history and cosmic reionization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Wang; Jirong Mao; Shouping Xiang; Ye-Fei Yuan

    2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    After considering the effects of negative feedback on the process of star formation, we explore the relationship between star formation process and the associated feedback, by investigating how the mechanical feedback from supernovae(SNe) and radiative feedback from luminous objects regulate the star formation rate and therefore affect the cosmic reionization.Based on our present knowledge of the negative feedback theory and some numerical simulations, we construct an analytic model in the framework of the Lambda cold dark matter model. In certain parameter regions, our model can explain some observational results properly. In large halos(T_vir>10000 K), both mechanical and radiative feedback have a similar behavior: the relative strength of negative feedback reduces as the redshift decreases. In contrast, in small halos (T_virfeedback gets stronger when the redshift decreases. And the star formation rate in these small halos depends very weakly on the star-formation efficiency. Our results show that the radiative feedback is important for the early generation stars. It can suppress the star formation rate considerably. But the mechanical feedback from the SNe explosions is not able to affect the early star formation significantly. The early star formation in small-halo objects is likely to be self-regulated. The radiative and mechanical feedback dominates the star formation rate of the PopII/I stars all along. The feedback from first generation stars is very strong and should not be neglected. However, their effects on the cosmic reionization are not significant, which results in a small contribution to the optical depth of Thomson scattering.

  17. Method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hampikian, Janet M (Decatur, GA); Hunt, Eden M (Atlanta, GA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for ion implantation induced embedded particle formation via reduction with the steps of ion implantation with an ion/element that will chemically reduce the chosen substrate material, implantation of the ion/element to a sufficient concentration and at a sufficient energy for particle formation, and control of the temperature of the substrate during implantation. A preferred embodiment includes the formation of particles which are nano-dimensional (<100 m-n in size). The phase of the particles may be affected by control of the substrate temperature during and/or after the ion implantation process.

  18. PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Chakhmakhchyan; D. Shepelyansky

    2013-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks, generated by the intermittency map and the typical Chirikov map. The Ulam networks generated by these maps have certain similarities with such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW), showing an algebraic decay of the PageRank probability. We find that the opinion formation process on Ulam networks have certain similarities but also distinct features comparing to the WWW. We attribute these distinctions to internal differences in network structure of the Ulam and WWW networks. We also analyze the process of opinion formation in the frame of generalized Sznajd model which protects opinion of small communities.

  19. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  20. Testing Disk Instability Models for Giant Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan P. Boss

    2007-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disk instability is an attractive yet controversial means for the rapid formation of giant planets in our solar system and elsewhere. Recent concerns regarding the first adiabatic exponent of molecular hydrogen gas are addressed and shown not to lead to spurious clump formation in the author's disk instability models. A number of disk instability models have been calculated in order to further test the robustness of the mechanism, exploring the effects of changing the pressure equation of state, the vertical temperature profile, and other parameters affecting the temperature distribution. Possible reasons for differences in results obtained by other workers are discussed. Disk instability remains as a plausible formation mechanism for giant planets.

  1. Formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ling Li; Giulio Manico; Emanuele Congiu; Joe Roser; Sol Swords; Hagai B. Perets; Adina Lederhendler; Ofer Biham; John Robert Brucato; Valerio Pirronello; Gianfranco Vidali

    2007-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results on the formation of molecular hydrogen on amorphous silicate surfaces are presented and analyzed using a rate equation model. The energy barriers for the relevant diffusion and desorption processes are obtained. They turn out to be significantly higher than those obtained for polycrystalline silicates, demonstrating the importance of grain morphology. Using these barriers we evaluate the efficiency of molecular hydrogen formation on amorphous silicate grains under interstellar conditions. It is found that unlike polycrystalline silicates, amorphous silicate grains are efficient catalysts of H_2 formation in diffuse interstellar clouds.

  2. Lane formation in a system of dipolar microswimmers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florian Kogler; Sabine H. L. Klapp

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Using Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations we investigate the non-equilibrium structure formation of a two-dimensional (2D) binary system of dipolar colloids propelling in opposite directions. Despite of a pronounced tendency for chain formation, the system displays a transition towards a laned state reminiscent of lane formation in systems with isotropic repulsive interactions. However, the anisotropic dipolar interactions induce novel features: First, the lanes have themselves a complex internal structure characterized by chains or clusters. Second, laning occurs only in a window of interaction strengths. We interprete our findings by a phase separation process and simple force balance arguments.

  3. Benzene formation in the inner regions of protostellar disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul M. Woods; Karen Willacy

    2006-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Benzene (c-C6H6) formation in the inner 3 AU of a protostellar disk can be efficient, resulting in high abundances of benzene in the midplane region. The formation mechanism is different to that found in interstellar clouds and in protoplanetary nebulae, and proceeds mainly through the reaction between allene (C3H4) and its ion. This has implications for PAH formation, in that some fraction of PAHs seen in the solar system could be native rather than inherited from the interstellar medium.

  4. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces, and this reduction can be scaled by the gravitational dimensionless time. Mechanistic simulation of core-scale surfactant brine imbibition matches the experimentally observed imbibition data. In-situ distributions observed through simulation indicate that surfactant diffusion (which depends on temperature and molecular weight) is the rate limiting step. Most of the oil is recovered through gravitational forces. Oil left behind at the end of this process is at its residual oil saturation. The capillary and Bond numbers are not large enough to affect the residual oil saturation. At the field-scale, 50% of the recoverable oil is produced in about 3 years if the fracture spacing is 1 m and 25% if 10 m, in the example simulated. Decreasing fracture spacing and height, increasing permeability, and increasing the extent of wettability alteration increase the rate of oil recovery from surfactant-aided gravity drainage. This dilute surfactant aided gravity-drainage process is relatively cheap. The chemical cost for a barrel of oil produced is expected to be less than $1.

  5. The Recent Cluster Formation Histories of NGC 5253 and NGC 3077: Environmental Impact on Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Harris; D. Calzetti; J. S. Gallagher III; D. A. Smith; C. J. Conselice

    2003-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present multicolor photometry of bright star cluster candidates in the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 3077 and NGC 5253, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in both broadband (F300W, F547M and F814W) and narrowband (F487N and F656N) filters. By comparing the photometry with theoretical population synthesis models, we estimate the age and mass of each star cluster, which provides constraints on the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies. We compare the star cluster populations in these dwarf starburst galaxies to those of the nuclear starburst in the barred spiral M 83, and discuss implications for our understanding of the nature and evolution of starburst events.

  6. The Recent Cluster Formation Histories of NGC 5253 and NGC 3077: Environmental Impact on Star Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, J; Smith, D A; Conselice, C J

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present multicolor photometry of bright star cluster candidates in the nearby starburst galaxies NGC 3077 and NGC 5253, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in both broadband (F300W, F547M and F814W) and narrowband (F487N and F656N) filters. By comparing the photometry with theoretical population synthesis models, we estimate the age and mass of each star cluster, which provides constraints on the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies. We compare the star cluster populations in these dwarf starburst galaxies to those of the nuclear starburst in the barred spiral M 83, and discuss implications for our understanding of the nature and evolution of starburst events.

  7. Clarifying the Dominant Sources and Mechanisms of Cirrus Cloud Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cziczo, Daniel James

    Formation of cirrus clouds depends on the availability of ice nuclei to begin condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Although it is known that only a small fraction of atmospheric aerosols are efficient ice nuclei, the ...

  8. acidizing subterranean formations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in controlling (more) Barwary, Znar 2014-01-01 39 LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN GOUT AND THE INCORPORATION OF ISOTOPIC FORMATE INTO URIC ACID CiteSeer Summary: Certain...

  9. abscisic acid formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    me the idea for my project... Tjhen, Kien Hoa 2012-06-07 32 LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN GOUT AND THE INCORPORATION OF ISOTOPIC FORMATE INTO URIC ACID CiteSeer Summary: Certain...

  10. acetohydroxamic acid formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frdrique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M 2009-01-01 12 LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN GOUT AND THE INCORPORATION OF ISOTOPIC FORMATE INTO URIC ACID CiteSeer Summary: Certain...

  11. acid estolide formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frdrique; Jaffrezo, J L; Legrand, M 2009-01-01 13 LACK OF CORRELATION BETWEEN GOUT AND THE INCORPORATION OF ISOTOPIC FORMATE INTO URIC ACID CiteSeer Summary: Certain...

  12. Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Stockem, A. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Narayan, R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Silva, L. O. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.

  13. Network Formation: Neighborhood Structures, Establishment Costs, and Distributed Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    1 Network Formation: Neighborhood Structures, Establishment Costs, and Distributed Learning desirable properties such as connectivity, bounded-hop diameter and efficiency (i.e., minimum number several issues related to energy conservation, information and computational complexity. Thus, recent

  14. Wakate-Initiative Seminar Memory formation in the fly brain!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ejiri, Shinji

    Wakate-Initiative Seminar Memory formation in the fly brain! Dr. Hiromu Tanimoto Head is synthesized in ~280 neurons in the fly brain and involved also in other brain functions, it is important

  15. DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE TEMPORAL RESPONSE OF MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DYNAMIC SIMULATION OF THE TEMPORAL RESPONSE OF MICROSTRUCTURE FORMATION IN MAGNETORHEOLOGICAL in that the dielectric response of an ER fluid is studied in response to an electrical stimulus. These studies of MR

  16. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

  17. Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries. Formation Of The Spinel Phase In The Layered Composite Cathode Used In Li-Ion Batteries. Abstract:...

  18. Radial and Spiral Stream Formation in Proteus mirabilis Colonies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Chuan

    The enteric bacterium Proteus mirabilis, which is a pathogen that forms biofilms in vivo, can swarm over hard surfaces and form a variety of spatial patterns in colonies. Colony formation involves two distinct cell types: ...

  19. Formation lengths of hadrons in lepto-production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levon Grigoryan

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The average formation lengths of the hadrons produced during the deep inelastic scattering (DIS) of leptons on protons are studied in the framework of the symmetric Lund model. It is shown that these formation lengths essentially depend on the electric charges of the hadron. For electro-production and charged current (CC) neutrino-production, the average formation lengths of positively charged particles are larger than those of negatively charged antiparticles. This situation is reversed for CC antineutrino-production. In all the mentioned cases, the main mechanism is the direct production of hadrons. The additional mechanism of hadron production, through the decay of resonances, is essential only for pions and leads to a decrease in the average formation lengths.

  20. Mode spectrum and temporal soliton formation in optical microresonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, T; Jost, J D; Mirgorodskiy, I; Lihachev, G; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of temporal dissipative solitons in optical microresonators enables compact, high repetition rate sources of ultra-short pulses as well as low noise, broadband optical frequency combs with smooth spectral envelopes. Here we study the influence of the resonator mode spectrum on temporal soliton formation. Using frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy, the measured mode structure of crystalline MgF2 resonators are correlated with temporal soliton formation. While an overal general anomalous dispersion is required, it is found that higher order dispersion can be tolerated as long as it does not dominate the resonator's mode structure. Mode coupling induced avoided crossings in the resonator mode spectrum are found to prevent soliton formation, when affecting resonator modes close to the pump laser. The experimental observations are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on the nonlinear coupled mode equations, which reveal the rich interplay of mode crossings and soliton f...

  1. CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC DUITSCHLAND FORMATION, SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    CHEMOSTRATIGRAPHY OF THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC DUITSCHLAND FORMATION, SOUTH AFRICA: IMPLICATIONS the only unequivocal glacial unit of this era in the Transvaal Basin, South Africa. Lithologic evidence Park 2006, Johannesburg, South Africa. [American Journal of Science, Vol. 301, March, 2001, P. 261

  2. Optimal Formation Flight Control Using Coupled Inter-Spacecraft Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Alvar Saenz-Otero October 2009 SSL # 10-09 #12;#12;Optimal Formation Flight Control Using Coupled Inter-Spacecraft Dynamics Martin Azkarate Vecilla, Alvar Saenz-Otero October 2009 SSL # 10-09 This work is based

  3. CONSENSUS SEEKING, FORMATION KEEPING, AND TRAJECTORY TRACKING IN MULTIPLE VEHICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Wei

    to mobile robots, unmanned air vehicles, autonomous underwater vehicles, satellites, aircraft, spacecraft controllers for fixed wing unmanned air vehicles and nonholonomic mobile robots with velocity and heading rateCONSENSUS SEEKING, FORMATION KEEPING, AND TRAJECTORY TRACKING IN MULTIPLE VEHICLE COOPERATIVE

  4. Estimating A Shear Modulus Of A Transversely Isotropic Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellefsen, K. J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to estimate c[subscript 66], which is a shear modulus of a transversely isotropic formation (with its symmetry axis parallel to the borehole), is developed and tested. The inversion for c[subscript 66] is based ...

  5. Androgen Receptor Formation in Prenatally Endocrine Disrupted Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Conor David

    2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and we are hypothesizing that this androgen receptor malformation may decrease physical activity after birth. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between endocrine disruptors given prenatally, androgen receptor formation...

  6. Energetics of [alpha]-helix formation in peptides and proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubert, Christian Reinhold

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the energetics of !-helix formation in peptides and proteins. The [alpha]-helix is the most prevalent type of secondary structure found in proteins, and has arguably dominated our thinking about ...

  7. EXFOR systems manual: Nuclear reaction data exchange format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLane, V. [ed.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes EXFOR, the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. In addition to storing the data and its bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. The exchange format, as outlined, is designed to allow a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine).

  8. Photogeneration of an active formate-decomposition catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, A.D. Jr.; King, R.B.; Sailers, E.L. III

    1981-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Some preliminary observations on the decomposition of an active formate species in the reaction of the group 6 metal carbonyl catalyzed water gas shift process were made using a photolytically-generated W(CO)/sub 5/ intermediate. H/sub 2/ production from the aqueous solutions containing Na format and W(CO)/sub 6/ was much more rapid for illuminated solutions than for non-illuminated. However, no measurable hydrogen was produced from either illuminated or non-illuminated solutions when Na formate was replaced by KOH. Essentially the same results were noted for the photolytically-catalyzed production of H/sub 2/ when solutions of tetrahydrofuran were used. It is thus concluded that the H/sub 2/ and CO must result from decomposition of the formate ion in the reaction mixture and that the W(CO)/sub 6/ is a precursor of the catalytically active W(CO)/sub 5/. (BLM)

  9. Mechanism of vacancy formation induced by hydrogen in tungsten

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yi-Nan [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China) [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China); Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 (Finland); Ahlgren, T.; Bukonte, L.; Nordlund, K. [Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 (Finland)] [Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 (Finland); Shu, Xiaolin; Yu, Yi; Lu, Guang-Hong, E-mail: LGH@buaa.edu.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)] [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China); Li, Xiao-Chun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a hydrogen induced vacancy formation mechanism in tungsten based on classical molecular dynamics simulations. We demonstrate the vacancy formation in tungsten due to the presence of hydrogen associated directly with a stable hexagonal self-interstitial cluster as well as a linear crowdion. The stability of different self-interstitial structures has been further studied and it is particularly shown that hydrogen plays a crucial role in determining the configuration of SIAs, in which the hexagonal cluster structure is preferred. Energetic analysis has been carried out to prove that the formation of SIA clusters facilitates the formation of vacancies. Such a mechanism contributes to the understanding of the early stage of the hydrogen blistering in tungsten under a fusion reactor environment.

  10. Numerical investigation of the threshold for primordial black hole formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Niemeyer

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    First results of a numerical investigation of primordial black hole formation in the radiation dominated phase of the Early Universe are presented. The simulations follow the gravitational collapse of three different families of high-amplitude density fluctuations imposed at the time of horizon crossing. The threshold for black hole formation, \\delta_{c} \\approx 0.7, is found to be nearly identical for all perturbation families if the control parameter, \\delta, is chosen as the total excess mass within the initial horizon volume. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the scaling of black hole mass with distance from the formation threshold, known to occur in near-critical gravitational collapse, applies to primordial black hole formation.

  11. Star formation histories in early-type galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Thomas

    1998-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the formation of alpha-enhanced metal-rich stellar populations in the nuclei of luminous ellipticals. Based on hierarchical clustering, different galaxy formation scenarios, which imply different star formation histories, are considered. In contrast to the fast clumpy collapse mode, the late merger of two spiral galaxies fails to reproduce significantly $\\alpha$-enhanced abundance ratios, unless the IMF is flattened. Following the star formation history predicted by semi-analytic models of hierarchical clustering for the average elliptical, solar abundance ratios are obtained with Salpeter IMF. According to the models, bright ellipticals in the field are expected to have significantly lower Mg/Fe ratios than their counterparts in a cluster.

  12. Androgen Receptor Formation in Prenatally Endocrine Disrupted Mice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irwin, Conor David

    2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    contributing to physical activity suggests that androgen receptors are key mediators in activity regulation (3,4). Current literature suggests that certain chemicals, like Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), disrupts androgen receptor formation prenatally (5, 6...

  13. Quasi Light Fields: A Model of Coherent Image Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi, Anthony J.

    We develop a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the simplicity of the light field and the comprehensive predictive power of Maxwell's equations, by extending the light field to coherent radiation.

  14. PRODUCT REPRESENTATION IN LIGHTWEIGHT FORMATS FOR PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    PRODUCT REPRESENTATION IN LIGHTWEIGHT FORMATS FOR PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT (PLM) Lian Ding environments and the entire product lifecycle. There are new requirements for product representations, including: platform/application independence, support for the product lifecycle, rapidly sharing information

  15. DOE Manual Studies 11 Major CO2 Geologic Storage Formations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A comprehensive study of 11 geologic formations suitable for permanent underground carbon dioxide (CO2) storage is contained in a new manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. The Complexity of Rationalizing Network Formation Shankar Kalyanaraman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umans, Chris

    and the Inequality-SAT (I-SAT) problem. Finally and most significantly, we prove that an approximation version. Keywords-network formation games, rationalization, Jackson- Wolinsky model, Inequality-SAT, hardness

  17. Network Formation in the Presence of Contagious Risk Larry Blume

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinberg, Robert D.

    Network Formation in the Presence of Contagious Risk Larry Blume David Easley Jon Kleinberg-linking" in networks with contagious risk can have strong consequences for the welfare of the participants. 1

  18. Pb nanowire formation on Al/lead zirconate titanate surfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pattering of the Al film. Citation: Alvine KJ, V Shutthanandan, BW Arey, CM Wang, WD Bennett, and SG Pitman.2012."Pb nanowire formation on Allead zirconate titanate surfaces in...

  19. Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Processes: Will They Work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, T.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Bernardo, M.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. Results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formation of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve (see Figure 1).

  20. Star Formation in Mergers and Interacting Galaxies: Gathering the Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis Struck

    2006-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected results from recent studies of star formation in galaxies at different stages of interaction are reviewed. Recent results from the Spitzer Space Telescope are highlighted. Ideas on how large-scale driving of star formation in interacting galaxies might mesh with our understanding of star formation in isolated galaxies and small scale mechanisms within galaxies are considered. In particular, there is evidence that on small scales star formation is determined by the same thermal and turbulent processes in cool compressed clouds as in isolated galaxies. If so, this affirms the notion that the primary role of large-scale dynamics is to gather and compress the gas fuel. In gas-rich interactions this is generally done with increasing efficiency through the merger process.

  1. als promote formation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Spinning dark matter halos promote bar formation CERN Preprints Summary: Stellar bars are the most common...

  2. THE ERA OF STAR FORMATION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brodwin, M.

    We analyze the star formation properties of 16 infrared-selected, spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 from the Spitzer/IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS). We present new spectroscopic confirmation ...

  3. Star Formation in the Era of the Three Great Observatories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott J. Wolk; Norbert Schulz; John Stauffer; Nancy Evans; Leisa Townsley; Tom Megeath; Dave Huenemoerder; Claus Leitherer; Ray Jayawardana

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes contributions and suggestions as presented at the Chandra Workshop Star Formation in the Era of Three Great Observatories conducted in July 2005. One of the declared goals of the workshop was to raise recognition within the star formation research community about the sensible future utilization of the space observatories Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra in their remaining years of operation to tackle imminent questions of our understanding of stellar formation and the early evolution of stars. A white paper was generated to support the continuous and simultaneous usage of observatory time for star formation research. The contents of this paper have been presented and discussed at several other meetings during the course of 2005 and January 2006.

  4. Polymorphism control and the formation of organic molecular nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Xiaochuan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of organic molecular nanocrystals is a topic of great interest in the pharmaceutical industry because of the potential increase in dissolution rate and solubility of organic crystals below 1 ptm and their ...

  5. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    the amount of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere. However, a better understanding of the chemical and physical interactions between CO2, water, and formation rock is necessary before sequestration. These interactions can be evaluated by the change in mineral...

  6. Substructure: Clues to the Formation of Clusters of Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael J. West; Christine Jones; William Forman

    1995-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We have examined the spatial distribution of substructure in clusters of galaxies using Einstein X-ray observations. Subclusters are found to have a markedly anisotropic distribution that reflects the surrounding matter distribution on supercluster scales. Our results suggest a picture in which cluster formation proceeds by mergers of subclusters along large-scale filaments. The implications of such an anisotropic formation process for the shapes, orientations and kinematics of clusters are discussed briefly.

  7. STAR FORMATION IN NUCLEAR RINGS OF BARRED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Woo-Young; Kim, Woong-Tae, E-mail: seowy@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: wkim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear rings in barred galaxies are sites of active star formation. We use hydrodynamic simulations to study the temporal and spatial behavior of star formation occurring in nuclear rings of barred galaxies where radial gas inflows are triggered solely by a bar potential. The star formation recipes include a density threshold, an efficiency, conversion of gas to star particles, and delayed momentum feedback via supernova explosions. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) in a nuclear ring is roughly equal to the mass inflow rate to the ring, while it has a weak dependence on the total gas mass in the ring. The SFR typically exhibits a strong primary burst followed by weak secondary bursts before declining to very small values. The primary burst is associated with the rapid gas infall to the ring due to the bar growth, while the secondary bursts are caused by re-infall of the ejected gas from the primary burst. While star formation in observed rings persists episodically over a few Gyr, the duration of active star formation in our models lasts for only about half of the bar growth time, suggesting that the bar potential alone is unlikely to be responsible for gas supply to the rings. When the SFR is low, most star formation occurs at the contact points between the ring and the dust lanes, leading to an azimuthal age gradient of young star clusters. When the SFR is large, on the other hand, star formation is randomly distributed over the whole circumference of the ring, resulting in no apparent azimuthal age gradient. Since the ring shrinks in size with time, star clusters also exhibit a radial age gradient, with younger clusters found closer to the ring. The cluster mass function is well described by a power law, with a slope depending on the SFR. Giant gas clouds in the rings have supersonic internal velocity dispersions and are gravitationally bound.

  8. Formation, regeneration and fusion of protoplasts from Gliocladium spp.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seh, Monica Leigh

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FORMATION, REGENERATION AND FUSION OF PROTOPLASTS FROM GLIOCLADIUM SPP. A Thesis by MONICA LEIGH SEH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1987 Major Subject: Plant Pathology FORMATION, REGENERATION AND FUSION OF PROTOPLASTS FROM GLIOCLADIUM SPP. A Thesis MONICA LEIGH SEH Approved as to style and content by: Charles M. X nerle (Chairperson of Committee) ic ael D. Thomas...

  9. Quantum Black Hole Formation in the BFSS Matrix Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinya Aoki; Masanori Hanada; Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the various head-on collisions of two bunches of D0-branes and their real-time evolution in the BFSS matrix model in classical limit. For a various matrix size N respecting the 't Hooft scaling, we find quantitative evidence for the formation of a single bound state of D0-branes at late time, which is matrix model thermalization and dual to the formation of a larger black hole.

  10. Constraining Galaxy Formation Models with Dwarf Ellipticals in Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher J. Conselice

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations demonstrate that dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies in clusters, despite their faintness, are likely a critical galaxy type for understanding the processes behind galaxy formation. Dwarf ellipticals are the most common galaxy type, and are particularly abundant in rich galaxy clusters. The dwarf to giant ratio is in fact highest in rich clusters of galaxies, suggesting that cluster dEs do not form in groups that later merge to form clusters. Dwarf ellipticals are potentially the only galaxy type whose formation is sensitive to global, rather than local, environment. The dominant idea for explaining the formation of these systems, through Cold Dark Matter models, is that dEs form early and within their present environments. Recent results suggest that some dwarfs appear in clusters after the bulk of massive galaxies form, a scenario not predicted in standard hierarchical structure formation models. Many dEs have younger and more metal rich stellar populations than dwarfs in lower density environments, suggesting processes induced by rich clusters play an important role in dE formation. Several general galaxy cluster observations, including steep luminosity functions, and the origin of intracluster light, are natural outcomes of this delayed formation.

  11. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: COKE FORMATION PREDICTABILITY MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; A. Troy Pauli; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersed particle solution model of petroleum residua structure was used to develop predictors for pyrolytic coke formation. Coking Indexes were developed in prior years that measure how near a pyrolysis system is to coke formation during the coke formation induction period. These have been demonstrated to be universally applicable for residua regardless of the source of the material. Coking onset is coincidental with the destruction of the ordered structure and the formation of a multiphase system. The amount of coke initially formed appears to be a function of the free solvent volume of the original residua. In the current work, three-dimensional coke make predictability maps were developed at 400 C, 450 C, and 500 C (752 F, 842 F, and 932 F). These relate residence time and free solvent volume to the amount of coke formed at a particular pyrolysis temperature. Activation energies for two apparent types of zero-order coke formation reactions were estimated. The results provide a new tool for ranking residua, gauging proximity to coke formation, and predicting initial coke make tendencies.

  12. Rock Physics Characterization of Organic-Rich Shale Formations to Predict Organic Properties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, Brandon

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale formations has significantly increased since the advent of sophisticated recovery techniques which allow for economical production from such formations. The primary formation properties that operators...

  13. Molecular Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2(110). Molecular Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2(110). Abstract: Understanding hydrogen formation on TiO2...

  14. Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geochemical evidence for possible natural migration of Marcellus Formation brine to shallow possible migration of Marcellus brine through naturally occurring pathways. The occurrences of saline water, because of natural hydraulic connections to deeper formations. formation water isotopes Marcellus Shale

  15. Pre-feasibility power generation study for the Magadi Soda Company, Magadi, Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to: (a) review the extensive published and unpublished literature on the geochemistry, hydrology and geology of Lake Magadi, Kenya, and its associated hot springs; (b) based on this review of field visits, estimate the temperature in the geothermal reservoir beneath the lake; and (c) from this, develop a plan to determine the potential for the development of geothermal electric power at Lake Magadi. 6 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Strengthening of the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent in the SODA Reanalysis: Mechanisms, Ocean Dynamics, and Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karnauskas, Kristopher B.

    Several recent studies utilizing global climate models predict that the Pacific Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) will strengthen over the twenty-first century. Here, historical changes in the tropical Pacific are investigated ...

  17. EXPLOITATION OF DISTRIBUTED SOLAR RADIATION DATABASES THROUGH A SMART NETWORK: THE PROJECT SODA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    ) , Christian REISE(11) , Jan REMUND(8) , Aniko RIMOCZI-PAAL(10) , Lucien WALD(1) , and Ann WEBB(9) (1) Groupe

  18. Ocean heat transport in a Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA): structure, mechanisms, and impacts on climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yangxing

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) is primarily controled by the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), particularly in the Atlantic Ocean. The role of variation of temperature on variability of meridional OHT increases in the northern North Atlantic Ocean. Results iv... circulation in the mid-latitude Atlantic reinforces the MOCs, which contribute to a positive trend of OHT. Finaly, in the northern North Atlantic Ocean, a smal increase in meridional OHT and a slight weakening of MOC are detected. The weakening...

  19. arsenic-rich soda lakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 189 Preliminary Evaluation of a Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Bioenergetics Model Charles whitefish...

  20. Flow Test At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergy Information RooseveltFlow Test

  1. Pressure Temperature Log At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to: navigation,Power RentalAreas-|

  2. Dataset: Soda Lake Well Lithology Data and Geologic Cross-Sections | DOE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 Clean Energy5655994DP-1513 .AssessmentData

  3. Reflection Survey At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRedSeismic Imaging, Majer,Area (DOE

  4. Development Wells At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE Facility DatabaseMichigan: EnergyKansas:DetroitOpen Energy1987) |Jump4 wells

  5. Compound and Elemental Analysis At Soda Lake Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia,2005) | Open(Thompson,2006) | Open2009)

  6. Travertine Deposits of Soda Dam, New Mexico, and Their Implications for the

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, Indiana (Utility Company)LibraryDatasetsElectric Coop, Inc (NorthAge

  7. Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Soda Lake Area (Combs 2006) | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open Energy Information At1986) | OpenEnergy

  8. T:\\ClearanceEMEUConsumption\\cbecs\\pubuse89\\txt\\layouts&formats...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    128 XXSUPL. Hot water supplied HWSUPL4 130- 130 XXSUPL. PROGRAM TO CREATE FORMAT LIBRARY FOR THE 1989 CBECS DATA PROC FORMAT LIBRARYSASLIB; file:T|ClearanceEMEUConsumpti...

  9. On the star formation history of IZw 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Legrand

    1999-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that a continuous low star formation rate has been the dominant regime in IZw 18 and in dwarf galaxies for the lifetime of these objects (Legrand et al. 1999). Here, we discuss and model various star-forming histories for IZw 18. Particularly, we show that if the metallicity observed in IZw 18 results from starburst events only, the observed colors constrain the fraction of the metals ejected from the galaxy to be less than 50-70 %. We demonstrate that the continuous star formation scenario reproduces the observed parameters of IZw 18. A continuous star formation rate (SFR) of about 10E-4 Msol/yr during 14 Gyr reproduces precisely the observed abundances. This SFR is comparable with the lowest SFR observed in low surface brightness galaxies (van Zee et al. 1997). Generalized to all galaxies, the low continuous SFR scenario accounts for various facts: the presence of star formation in quiescent dwarfs and LSBG, the metallicity increase with time in the most underabundant DLA systems, and the metal content extrapolations to the outskirts of spiral galaxies. Also the apparent absence of galaxies with a metallicity lower than IZw 18, the apparent absence of HI clouds without optical counterparts, and the homogeneity of abundances in dwarfs galaxies are natural outcomes of the scenario. This implies that, even if starbursts are strong and important events in the life of galaxies, their more subdued but continuous star formation regime cannot be ignored when accounting for their chemical evolution.

  10. Modelling New Particle Formation Events in the South African Savannah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gierens, Rosa; Laakso, Lauri; Mogensen, Ditte; Vakkari, Ville; Beukes, J. P.; Van Zyl, Pieter; Hakola, H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Pienaar, J. J.; Boy, Michael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Africa is one of the less studied continents with respect to atmospheric aerosols. Savannahs are complex dynamic systems sensitive to climate and land-use changes, but the interaction with the atmosphere is not well understood. Atmospheric particles, aka aerosols, affect the climate on regional and global scale, and are an important factor in air quality. In this study measurements from a relatively clean savannah environment in South Africa were used to model new particle formation and growth. There are already some combined long-term measurements of trace gas concentrations together with aerosol and meteorological variables available, but to our knowledge this is the first time detailed simulations, that include all the main processes relevant to particle formation, were done. The results show that both investigated particle formation mechanisms overestimated the formation rates dependency on sulphuric acid. The approach including low volatile organic compounds to the particle formation process was more accurate in describing the nucleation events. To get reliable estimation of aerosol concentration in simulations for larger scales, nucleation mechanisms would need to include organic compounds, at least in southern Africa.

  11. Microchannel formation in seaice as habitat for microalgae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Morawetz; S. Thoms; B. Kutschan

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of saline brine channels in seaice is described by two coupled order parameters, the tetrahedricity as structure of ice and the salinity. Their evolution equations follow from a Ginzburg-Landau-functional in the form of a phase-field theory conserving salinity. The stability analysis provides the phase diagram in terms of two parameters, one describing the velocity of the freezing process and the other one characterizing the velocity of structure formation. In thermodynamics these parameters determine the supercooling or superheating region and the specific heat respectively. In contrast to the Turing model the diffusivity does not enter this phase diagram but determines only the structure size. The numerical solution shows a microstructure formation of brine inclusions in agreement with the measured samples dependent on the salinity and temperature.

  12. Cooling, Gravity and Geometry: Flow-driven Massive Core Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabian Heitsch; Lee Hartmann; Adrianne D. Slyz; Julien E. G. Devriendt; Andreas Burkert

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study numerically the formation of molecular clouds in large-scale colliding flows including self-gravity. The models emphasize the competition between the effects of gravity on global and local scales in an isolated cloud. Global gravity builds up large-scale filaments, while local gravity -- triggered by a combination of strong thermal and dynamical instabilities -- causes cores to form. The dynamical instabilities give rise to a local focusing of the colliding flows, facilitating the rapid formation of massive protostellar cores of a few 100 M$_\\odot$. The forming clouds do not reach an equilibrium state, though the motions within the clouds appear comparable to ``virial''. The self-similar core mass distributions derived from models with and without self-gravity indicate that the core mass distribution is set very early on during the cloud formation process, predominantly by a combination of thermal and dynamical instabilities rather than by self-gravity.

  13. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  14. The Formation of a Bubble from a Submerged Orifice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jonathan A; Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a single bubble from an orifice in a solid surface, submerged in an in- compressible, viscous Newtonian liquid, is simulated. The finite element method is used to capture the multiscale physics associated with the problem and to track the evolution of the free surface explicitly. The results are compared to a recent experimental analysis and then used to obtain the global characteristics of the process, the formation time and volume of the bubble, for a range of orifice radii; Ohnesorge numbers, which combine the material parameters of the liquid; and volumetric gas flow rates. These benchmark calculations, for the parameter space of interest, are then utilised to validate a selection of scaling laws found in the literature for two regimes of bubble formation, the regimes of low and high gas flow rates.

  15. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  16. Formation mechanisms of spatially-directed zincblende gallium nitride nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A. W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Collino, R. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Cardozo, B. L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Naab, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Wang, Y. Q. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Lab, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Goldman, R. S. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the spatially selective formation of GaN nanocrystals embedded in GaAs. Broad-area N{sup +} implantation followed by rapid thermal annealing leads to the formation of nanocrystals at the depth of maximum ion damage. With additional irradiation using a Ga{sup +} focused ion beam, selective lateral positioning of the nanocrystals within the GaAs matrix is observed in isolated regions of increased vacancy concentration. Following rapid thermal annealing, the formation of zincblende GaN is observed in the regions of highest vacancy concentration. The nucleation of zincblende nanocrystals over the wurtzite phase of bulk GaN is consistent with the predictions of a thermodynamic model for the nanoscale size-dependence of GaN nucleation.

  17. Rapid Gas Hydrate Formation Processes: Will They Work?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bernardo, Mark P.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at DOE’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have been investigating the formation of synthetic gas hydrates, with an emphasis on rapid and continuous hydrate formation techniques. The investigations focused on unconventional methods to reduce dissolution, induction, nucleation and crystallization times associated with natural and synthetic hydrates studies conducted in the laboratory. Numerous experiments were conducted with various high-pressure cells equipped with instrumentation to study rapid and continuous hydrate formation. The cells ranged in size from 100 mL for screening studies to proof-of-concept studies with NETL’s 15-Liter Hydrate Cell. Results from this work demonstrate that the rapid and continuous formationmore »of methane hydrate is possible at predetermined temperatures and pressures within the stability zone of a Methane Hydrate Stability Curve.« less

  18. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  19. Exploitation and Optimization of Reservoir Performance in Hunton Formation, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelkar, Mohan

    2001-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil and ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on long data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time.

  20. Feedback Processes [in Massive Star Formation]: A Theoretical Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordecai-Mark Mac Low

    2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    I review the evidence for the importance of feedback from massive stars at small and large scales. The feedback mechanisms include accretion luminosity, ionizing radiation, collimated outflows, and stellar winds. The good news is that feedback doesn't entirely prevent the formation of massive stars, while the bad news is that we don't know what does limit their masses. Feedback from massive stars also influences their surroundings. I argue that this does not produce a triggering efficiency above unity, nor does it prevent lots of prompt star formation in GMCs, though it may preserve massive remnants of the clouds for many dynamical times.