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Sample records for format lithium ion

  1. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  2. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exceeding 500Wh/L | Department of Energy Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500Wh/L Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500Wh/L 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es127_kim_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Vehicle Technologies Office

  3. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  4. Direct Visualization of Solid Electrolyte Interphase Formation in Lithium-Ion Batteries with In Situ Electrochemical Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Sacci, Robert L; Adamczyk, Leslie A; Alsem, Daan Hein; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J; More, Karren Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Complex, electrochemically driven transport processes form the basis of electrochemical energy storage devices. The direct imaging of electrochemical processes at high spatial resolution and within their native liquid electrolyte would significantly enhance our understanding of device functionality, but has remained elusive. In this work we use a recently developed liquid cell for in situ electrochemical transmission electron microscopy to obtain insight into the electrolyte decomposition mechanisms and kinetics in lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries by characterizing the dynamics of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and evolution. Here we are able to visualize the detailed structure of the SEI that forms locally at the electrode/electrolyte interface during lithium intercalation into natural graphite from an organic Li-ion battery electrolyte. We quantify the SEI growth kinetics and observe the dynamic self-healing nature of the SEI with changes in cell potential.

  5. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  6. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  7. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  8. Patent: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries | DOEpatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Citation Details Title: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

  9. Patent: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries | DOEpatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Citation Details Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries

  10. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  11. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  12. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  13. 3D Thermal and Electrochemical Model for Spirally Wound Large Format Lithium-ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2010-10-14

    In many commercial cells, long tabs at both cell sides, leading to uniform potentials along the spiral direction of wound jelly rolls, are rarely seen because of their high manufacturing cost. More often, several metal strips are welded at discrete locations along both current collector foils. With this design, the difference of electrical potentials is easily built up along current collectors in the spiral direction. Hence, the design features of the tabs, such as number, location and size, can be crucial factors for spiral-shaped battery cells. This paper presents a Li-ion battery cell model having a 3-dimensional spiral mesh involving a wound jellyroll structure. Further results and analysis will be given regarding impacts of tab location, number, and size.

  14. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  15. Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu has developed a doping process for lithium ion battery electrode ...

  16. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  17. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  18. Three-Dimensional Thermal-Electrochemical Coupled Model for Spirally Wound Large-Format Lithium-Ion Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, K. J.; Smith K.; Kim, G. H.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses the behavior of spirally wound large-format Li-ion batteries with respect to their design. The objectives of the study include developing thermal and electrochemical models resolving 3-dimensional spirally wound structures of cylindrical cells, understanding the mechanisms and interactions between local electrochemical reactions and macroscopic heat and electron transfers, and developing a tool and methodology to support macroscopic designs of cylindrical Li-ion battery cells.

  19. The Energy Storage Frontier: Lithium-ion Batteries and Beyond...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Storage Frontier: Lithium-ion Batteries and Beyond Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Energy Storage Frontier: Lithium-ion Batteries and Beyond Authors:...

  20. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  1. Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: Improving Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: Improving Thermal Stability and Abuse Tolerance. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: ...

  2. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  3. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session...

  4. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand...

  5. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  6. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood,...

  7. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion...

  8. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is ...

  9. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  10. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  11. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  12. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium ...

  13. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  14. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher than NMC) and the DDB is useful for lithium ion cells with LFP cathodes (potential that is lower than NMC). A 4.5 V class redox shuttle provided by Argonne National Laboratory was evaluated which provides a few cycles of overcharge protection for lithium ion cells containing NMC cathodes but it is not stable enough for consideration. Thus, a redox shuttle with an appropriate redox potential and sufficient chemical and electrochemical stability for commercial use in larger format lithium ion cells with NMC cathodes was not found. Molecular imprinting of the redox shuttle molecule during solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formation likely contributes to the successful reduction of oxidized redox shuttle species at carbon anodes. This helps to understand how a carbon anode covered with an SEI layer, that is supposed to be electrically insulating, can reduce the oxidized form of a redox shuttle.

  15. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Brett L. Lucht Department of Chemistry University of Rhode Island 51 Lower College Rd. Kingston, RI 02881 Tel (401)874-5071 Fax (401) 874-5072 blucht@chm. uri. edu Final Report December 12th, 2014 Accomplishments While commercial lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) perform well for most home electronic applications, currently available LIB technology does not satisfy some of the performance goals for Plug- in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). In particular,

  16. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Development and Application of Processing and Process Control for Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Introduction In recent years, sales of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have increased and several automakers have also started to market plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Successful market penetration of PHEVs would signifcantly reduce automobile tailpipe emissions and help guard against oil price volatility. However, cost,

  17. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for lithium-ion battery performance under standard and potentially abusive conditions National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryDesign. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an expensive and time-intensive process. Testing costs the

  18. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  19. Exploring the interaction between lithium ion and defective graphene surface using dispersion corrected DFT studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2013-10-15

    To analyze the lithium ion interaction with realistic graphene surfaces, we carried out dispersion corrected DFT-D3 studies on graphene with common point defects and chemisorbed oxygen containing functional groups along with defect free graphene surface. Our study reveals that, the interaction between lithium ion (Li+) and graphene is mainly through the delocalized ? electron of pure graphene layer. However, the oxygen containing functional groups pose high adsorption energy for lithium ion due to the Li-O ionic bond formation. Similarly, the point defect groups interact with lithium ion through possible carbon dangling bonds and/or cation-? type interactions. Overall these defect sites render a preferential site for lithium ions compared with pure graphene layer. Based on these findings, the role of graphene surface defects in lithium battery performance were discussed.

  20. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  1. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  2. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  3. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  4. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  5. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  6. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  7. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore »charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  8. BIFUNCTIONAL ELECTROLYTES FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BIFUNCTIONAL ELECTROLYTES FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES BIFUNCTIONAL ELECTROLYTES FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es_41_srinivasan.pdf More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within the ABR Program, 2009 thru 2013

  9. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Report | Department of Energy Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. PDF icon report_out-beyond_lithium_ion_b.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report

  10. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  11. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  12. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  13. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by XALT Energy LLC at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about development of large format...

  15. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session Report | Department of Energy Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion Batteries Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Battery Workshop on July 26, 2012 held at the Doubletree OHare, Chicago, IL. PDF icon report_out-next-generation_li-ion_b.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion

  16. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es043_henderson_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes

  17. characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  18. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  19. Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion Batteries New Process to Modify the Surface of the Active Material Used in Lithium-Ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <em>Surface Modification Schematic </em> Surface Modification Schematic Technology Marketing Summary Argonne National Laboratory has developed a process to modify the surface of the active material used in lithium-ion

  20. Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Guoying Chen and Thomas J. Richardson have invented a new type of separator membrane that prevents dangerous overcharge and overdischarge conditions in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, i.e., exploding lithium ion batteries. This low cost separator, with electroactive polymers

  1. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, at the EERE QC Workshop held December 9-10, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Roll-to-Roll

  2. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), managing contractor of the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the Department of Energy, has developed new anodes for lithium-ion batteries

  3. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es148_cui_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Wiring up Silicon Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte | Department of Energy Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology - High Voltage Electrolyte Presentation given by Daikin America at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion battery technology - high

  5. Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award | Department of Energy Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium Ion Battery, Wins R&D 100 Award August 19, 2013 - 2:16pm Addthis Porous Power Technologies, partnered with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), developed SYMMETRIX HPX-F, a nanocomposite separator for improved lithium-ion battery technology. This breakthrough

  6. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries PDF icon nanocomposite_materials_li_ion.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE Materials, Manufacturing Process R&D, and ARRA Battery Manufacturing Grants Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Energy Storage R&D and ARRA

  7. Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, Randall T. Publication Date: ...

  8. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries High Energy Novel Cathode Alloy Automotive Cell Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal ...

  9. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a...

  10. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach Technology available for licensing: New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable...

  11. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for...

  12. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ... Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator EA 1713: Final Environmental Assessment

  13. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt009esrumierz2... Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator EA 1713: Final Environmental Assessment

  14. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab

  15. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast ...

  16. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Wiring up Silicon Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wiring Up...

  17. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress...

  18. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Henderson, Wesley 25 ENERGY STORAGE battery, electrolyte, solvation, ionic association battery, electrolyte,...

  19. Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu have developed an improved lithium ion battery electrolyte containing a solvent that remains liquid at typical operating temperatures but, ...

  20. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How Voltage Drops ...

  1. Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Additional ...

  2. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  3. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  4. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  5. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  6. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  7. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  8. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  9. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good as these batteries are, the need for energy storage in batteries is surpassing current technologies. In a lithium-ion battery, charge moves from the cathode to the anode, a critical component for storing energy. A team of Berkeley Lab scientists has designed a new kind of anode that absorbs eight times the lithium of

  10. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have invented highly conductive polymer binder materials that significantly improve the viability of using silicon as an electrode material in lithium ion batteries. They have also combined lithium metal with the Berkeley Lab

  11. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Issues | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Issues 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon pmp_05_gaines.pdf More Documents & Publications International Collaboration With a Case Study in Assessment of Worlds Supply of Lithium Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Energy Storage

  12. Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop 2012 2 2 screw eyes 2 No. 14 rubber bands 2 alligator clips 1 plastic gear font 2 steel axles 4 nylon spacers 2 Pitsco GT-R Wheels 2 Pitsco GT-F Wheels 2 balsa wood sheets 1 No. 280 motor Also: Parts List 3 Tools Required 1. Soldering iron 2. Hobby knife or coping saw 3. Glue gun 4. Needlenose pliers 5. 2 C-clamps 6. Ruler 4 1. Using a No. 2 pencil, draw Line A down the center of a balsa sheet. Making the Chassis 5 2. Turn over the balsa sheet and draw Line B

  13. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  14. Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt020_es_coy_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Facilities Recycling Hybrid and Elecectric Vehicle Batteries EA-1722: Final Environmental Assessment

  15. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  16. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt015_es_wise_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  17. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt015_es_wise_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  18. Better Lithium-Ion Batteries Are On The Way From Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Lithium-ion Battery on the Way Simulations Reveal How New Polymer Absorbs Eight Times the Lithium of Current Designs September 23, 2011 Paul Preuss,...

  19. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries | Argonne National Laboratory Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a negative electrode for nonaqueous lithium electrochemical cells and batteries Enhances stability at a reduced cost. Materials operate by lithium insertion, metal displacement reactions, or both. Materials have higher volumetric and gravimetric capacity, and improve battery

  20. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have

  1. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  2. Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protective shells may boost silicon lithium-ion batteries By Sarah Schlieder * August 5, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imagine a cell a phone that charges in less than an hour and lasts...

  3. Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries NREL Commercialization & Tech Transfer Webinar March 27, 2011 Gi-Heon Kim gi-heon.kim@nrel.gov John Ireland, Kyu-Jin Lee,...

  4. Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2008-05-01

    Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

  5. Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for Manufacturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processes - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for Manufacturing Processes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThe lithium ion battery found in electronics like cell phones uses liquid electrolytes associated with shorter battery life; this material is also a safety hazard if it is overheated or overcharged. Batteries with solid

  6. Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Surface Modification Agents for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A process to modify the surface of the active material used in an electrochemical device that increases safety and security of batteries Substantially reduces power fade and potential for explosions. Increases safety and life of batteries, as the surface modification prevents a catalytic reaction in lithium-ion cells that generates hydrogen gas. PDF icon surface_modification_agents

  7. Surface-Modified Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed a new fabrication technique for lithium ion battery electrodes that lowers binder cost without sacrificing performance and reliability. Description The innovative process evaporates a thin polymer coating on the active materials' particles and mixes these coated particles

  8. CUBICON Materials that Outperform Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search CUBICON Materials that Outperform Lithium-Ion Batteries Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Micrograph of CUBICON material. Micrograph of CUBICON material. Technology Marketing Summary The demand for batteries to meet high-power and high-energy system applications has resulted in substantial research and development activities. Lithium-ion batteries are a chief contender today, but

  9. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes Authors: Leenheer, Andrew J. ; Leung, Kevin Publication Date: 2015-05-14 OSTI Identifier: 1210545 DOE Contract Number: SC0001160

  10. In situ determination of lithium ion cathode/electrolyte interface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    thickness and composition as a function of charge. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: In situ determination of lithium ion cathode/electrolyte interface thickness and composition as a function of charge. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In situ determination of lithium ion cathode/electrolyte interface thickness and composition as a function of charge. Abstract not provided. Authors: Jungjohann, Katherine Leigh Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1140750

  11. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolyte Properties (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties The research objective of this proposal was to provide a detailed analysis of how solvent and anion structure govern the solvation state of Li+ cations in solvent-LiX mixtures and how this, in

  12. Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Approaches to Evaluating and Improving Lithium-Ion Battery Safety. Authors: Orendorff, Christopher ; Lamb, Joshua ; Fenton, Kyle R ; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie Publication Date: 2013-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1063410 Report Number(s): SAND2013-0610C DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference:

  13. Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrolyte Properties (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Progress Report for Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties The research objective of this proposal was to provide a detailed analysis of how solvent and anion structure govern the solvation state of Li+ cations in solvent-LiX mixtures and how this, in turn, dictates the

  14. Multilayer Graphene-Silicon Structures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Multilayer Graphene-Silicon Structures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Ji, L., Zheng, H., Ismach, A., Tan, Z., Xun, S., Lin, E., Battaglia, V., Srinivasan, V., Zhang, Y., "Graphene/Si multilayer structure anodes for advanced half and full lithium-ion cells," Nano Energy, August 27, 2011. (1,629 KB) PDF Document Publication Ji, L., Zhang, X.,

  15. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (ANL-09-034) - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery performance (ANL-09-034) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are a critical technology for many applications, including consumer electronics and electric vehicles. As the demand for hybrid and

  16. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers have developed a new technology to advance the life of lithium-ion batteries. A catechol-based polymer binder, developed at Berkeley Lab, interacting with the oxide layer on the surface of commercial silicon (Si), generates powerful adhesion strength and maintains electrode integrity during the drastic volume changes

  17. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Separator | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt009_es_rumierz_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator EA 1713: Final Environmental Assessment

  18. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Separator | Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esarravt009_rumierz_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator FY 2012 Annual Progress Report for Energy Storage R&D

  19. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Separator | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt009_es_rumierz_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator EA 1713: Final Environmental Assessment

  20. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  1. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  2. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  3. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Babinec

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component – the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program – even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials – specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge with this material will be to maintain proven performance when this composite is coated onto a thicker electrode; as well the high temperature storage must meet application requirements. One continuing program challenge was the lack of specific performance variables for this PV application and so the low power requirements of PHEV/EV transportation markets were again used.

  4. Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells Design of Safer High-Energy Density Materials for Lithium-Ion Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  5. Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream Title Beyond Lithium-ion is Part of the Dream Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2014 Journal Batteries International...

  6. JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion (Other) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Other: JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's...

  7. JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion (Other) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Other: JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR; http:...

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar

  9. Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood III, David L; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  10. Reciprocal Lithium-ion Cell with Novel Lithium-Free Cathode and Pre-Lithiated Carbonaceus Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravdel, Boris

    2010-05-19

    Phase I of this program was focused mostly on the testing of pre-lithiated carbonaceous negative-electrode material as the source of the active lithium in lithium-ion cells coupled with "lithium-free" positive-electrode material. The secondary objective was na attempt to determine the ways of developing such as inexpense, stable, and environmentally benign "lithium-free" high-energy cathode material.

  11. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  12. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  13. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es006_gardner_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse

  14. Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt006_es_pham_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities Dow/Kokam Cell/Battery

  15. Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery Production Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon arravt006_es_pham_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Dow/Kokam Cell/Battery Production Facilities Dow Kokam Lithium Ion Battery

  16. Formation of Large Polysulfide Complexes during the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bin; Alhassan, Saeed M.; Pantelides, Sokrates T

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur cathodes have much larger capacities than transition-metal-oxide cathodes used in commercial lithium-ion batteries but suffer from unsatisfactory capacity retention and long-term cyclability. Capacity degradation originates from soluble lithium polysulfides gradually diffusing into the electrolyte. Understanding of the formation and dynamics of soluble polysulfides during the discharging process at the atomic level remains elusive, which limits further development of lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. Here we report first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and density functional calculations, through which the discharging products of Li-S batteries are studied. We find that, in addition to simple Li2Sn (1 n 8) clusters generated from single cyclooctasulfur (S8) rings, large Li-S clusters form by collectively coupling several different rings to minimize the total energy. At high lithium concentration, a Li-S network forms at the sulfur surfaces. The results can explain the formation of the soluble Li-S complex, such as Li2S8, Li2S6, and Li2S4, and the insoluble Li2S2 and Li2S structures. In addition, we show that the presence of oxygen impurities in graphene, particularly oxygen atoms bonded to vacancies and edges, may stabilize the lithium polysulfides that may otherwise diffuse into the electrolyte.

  17. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  18. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Rohan, James F. (Cork City, IE); Foo, Conrad C. (Dedham, MA); Pasquariello, David M. (Pawtucket, RI)

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  19. Electrochemistry of KC{sub 8} in lithium-containing electrolytes and its use in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tossici, R.; Berrettoni, M.; Rosolen, M.; Marassi, R.; Scrosati, B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of KC{sub 8} in a lithium-containing ethylene carbonate-dimethylcarbonate electrolyte has been studied. The results show that upon oxidation KC{sub 8} irreversibly releases potassium ions and that during the following cathodic cycle, the residual graphite intercalates lithium reversibly and with fast rate up to a LiC{sub 6} composition. The results also show that a KC{sub 8} electrode can be used in lithium-ion cells in combination with partially lithiated or even with lithium-free cathodes. The maximum capacities (referred to the anode) that may be achieved are 372 and 279 mAh/g, respectively.

  20. USFOE: Extended Summary - Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Claus

    2014-01-01

    There is no one lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples at our disposal as shown in the previous talks, we have the opportunity to design battery cells specific for their applications. Such applications require optimization of voltage, state of charge utilization, lifetime needs, and safety considerations. Electrochemical couples allow for designing power and energy ratios and available energy for the application. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll to roll electrode manufacturing and active material utilization. Electrodes are coated on a current collector in a composite structure comprised of active material, binders, and conductive additives which requires careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. These added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can impede or enhance battery performance. Pathways are explored to bring batteries from currently commercially available 100Wh/kg and 200Wh/L at $500/kWh to 250Wh/kg and 400Wh/L at $125/kWh.

  1. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es063_whittingham_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes Nanostructured Materials as Anodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

  3. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  4. Three Dimensional Thermal Abuse Reaction Model for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-29

    Three dimensional computer models for simulating thermal runaway of lithium ion battery was developed. The three-dimensional model captures the shapes and dimensions of cell components and the spatial distributions of materials and temperatures, so we could consider the geometrical features, which are critical especially in large cells. An array of possible exothermic reactions, such as solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer decomposition, negative active/electrolyte reaction, and positive active/electrolyte reaction, were considered and formulated to fit experimental data frommore » accelerating rate calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. User subroutine code was written to implement NREL developed approach and to utilize a commercially available solver. The model is proposed to use for simulation a variety of lithium-ion battery safety events including thermal heating and short circuit.« less

  5. High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Technology Marketing SummaryGao Liu and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have

  6. Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es006_gardner_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Cathode Material Development for PHEV Lithium Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Novel Cathode / Alloy Automotive Cell

  7. John B. Goodenough, Cathode Materials, and Rechargeable Lithium-ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries John B. Goodenough, Cathode Materials, and Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries Resources with Additional Information * Awards * Patents John B. Goodenough Photo Credit: Courtesy of The University of Texas at Austin Cockrell School of Engineering On September 17, 2009, U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu named John B. Goodenough as a winner of the Enrico Fermi Award ' in recognition for his lasting contributions to materials science and technology, especially the science underlying

  8. Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries DOE Grant Recipients Arizona Technology Enterprises Contact Arizona Technology Enterprises About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAs mobile electronics continue to evolve, the need for high-output, long-lasting rechargeable batteries has grown tremendously. In the search for suitable materials from which to construct high energy density

  9. Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are electrochemical cells which store and supply electrical energy as a product of a chemical reaction. In their simplest conceptualization, batteries have two electrodes, one that supplies electrons by virtue of an

  10. Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAn approach developed by Robert Kostecki and Marek Marcinek of Berkeley Lab has given rise to a new generation of nanostructured carbon-tin films that can be produced quickly, efficiently, and inexpensively. These binderless carbon/tin thin-film anodes provide enhanced charge capacity and excellent cycleability in

  11. Nanotube Arrays for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanotube Arrays for Advanced Lithium-ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The development of high-power, high-energy, long-life, and low-cost rechargeable batteries is critical for the next-generation electric and hybrid electric vehicles. Among various battery

  12. Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes DOE Grant Recipients Arizona Technology Enterprises Contact Arizona Technology Enterprises About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAs mobile electronics continue to evolve, the need for high-output, long-lasting rechargeable batteries has grown tremendously. In the search for suitable materials from which to construct high energy density batteries, one of the principal obstacles

  13. Low Cost, Stable Switchable Mirrors: Lithium Ion Mirrors with Improved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability - Energy Innovation Portal Low Cost, Stable Switchable Mirrors: Lithium Ion Mirrors with Improved Stability Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummarySwitchable mirrors are a new generation of electrochromic windows that can alternate between a reflecting state and a transparent or absorbing state when a small voltage is applied. These energy saving devices have advantages over traditional absorbing electrochromics for

  14. Development of Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Brett Lucht University of Rhode Island Project ID # ES067 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information 2 2 * 04/01/2009 * 12/31/2014 * 85 Percent complete * Barriers addressed - (Calendar Life (40 o C for 15 years) - Cycle life (5000 cycles) - Abuse Tolerance -Survival Temp Range (-46 to 66 o C) - Performance - Increased Energy Density * Total project funding - DOE share $731 K * Funding received in

  15. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  16. NANOWIRE CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Olson, PhD

    2004-07-21

    This project involved the synthesis of nanowire -MnO2 and characterization as cathode material for high-power lithium-ion batteries for EV and HEV applications. The nanowire synthesis involved the edge site decoration nanowire synthesis developed by Dr. Reginald Penner at UC Irvine (a key collaborator in this project). Figure 1 is an SEM image showing -MnO2 nanowires electrodeposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrodes. This technique is unique to other nanowire template synthesis techniques in that it produces long (>500 um) nanowires which could reduce or eliminate the need for conductive additives due to intertwining of fibers. Nanowire cathode for lithium-ion batteries with surface areas 100 times greater than conventional materials can enable higher power batteries for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The synthesis of the -MnO2 nanowires was successfully achieved. However, it was not found possible to co-intercalate lithium directly in the nanowire synthesis. Based on input from proposal reviewers, the scope of the project was altered to attempt the conversion into spinel LiMn2O4 nanowire cathode material by solid state reaction of the -MnO2 nanowires with LiNO3 at elevated temperatures. Attempts to perform the conversion on the graphite template were unsuccessful due to degradation of the graphite apparently caused by oxidative attack by LiNO3. Emphasis then shifted to quantitative removal of the nanowires from the graphite, followed by the solid state reaction. Attempts to quantitatively remove the nanowires by several techniques were unsatisfactory due to co-removal of excess graphite or poor harvesting of nanowires. Intercalation of lithium into -MnO2 electrodeposited onto graphite was demonstrated, showing a partial demonstration of the -MnO2 material as a lithium-ion battery cathode material. Assuming the issues of nanowires removal can be solved, the technique does offer potential for creating high-power lithium-ion battery cathode needed for advanced EV and HEVs. Several technical advancements will still be required to meet this goal, and are likely topics for future SBIR feasibility studies.

  17. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Current Li-Ion Battery Improved Li-Ion Battery Novel Synthesis New Electrode Candidates Coin Cell Test Stability and Safety Full Cell Fabrication and Optimization Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries offer high energy and power density, making them popular in a variety of mobile applications from cellular telephones to electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries operate by migrating positively charged lithium ions through an electrolyte from one electrode to another,

  18. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Manis Kumar, E-mail: mkjha@nmlindia.org; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 ? (1 ? X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles i.e. 1 ? 3(1 ? X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 ? X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  19. Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fail Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-ion Batteries NREL Commercialization & Tech Transfer Webinar March 27, 2011 Gi-Heon Kim gi-heon.kim@nrel.gov John Ireland, Kyu-Jin Lee, Ahmad Pesaran Kandler Smith kandler.smith@nrel.gov Source: A123 Source: GM NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY Challenges for Large LIB Systems 2 * Li-ion batteries are flammable, require expensive manufacturing to reduce defects * Small-cell protection devices do not work for large systems * Difficult to detect

  20. Solar and Lithium Ion Car Race Winners Announced - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar and Lithium Ion Car Race Winners Announced May 18, 2013 Ninety-seven teams from 28 Colorado schools participated in today's car competitions hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The student teams raced solar and lithium ion powered vehicles they designed and built themselves. Trophies for the fastest lithium-ion powered model cars were given to Colorado students from University School, Greeley, "Lucky Charms," first place;

  1. Student Winners Announced in Solar, Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Fuel Cell Car

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Races - News Releases | NREL Student Winners Announced in Solar, Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Fuel Cell Car Races May 12, 2012 One hundred four teams from 23 Colorado schools participated in today's car competitions hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The student teams raced solar, lithium ion, or hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles they designed and built themselves. Trophies for the fastest lithium-ion powered model cars were given to Colorado

  2. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in

  3. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es136_carlson_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative Manufacturing

  4. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Operating Temperature Range | Department of Energy for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es026_smart_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating

  5. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Publications Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated...

  6. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  7. Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEV/EV Lithium-ion Battery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Advanced Electrolyte Additives for PHEVEV Lithium-ion Battery Development of Advanced Electrolytes and Electrolyte Additives Electrolytes - Advanced ...

  8. Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  9. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Innovative...

  10. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  11. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  12. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  13. High-Power Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) High-Power Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home 04.27.12 High-Power Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement For novel 3-D anodes made of sheets of carbon (graphene) and silicon nanoparticles, transport studies found much shorter lithium diffusion paths

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrodes having composite xLi2M'O3*(1-x)LiMO2 structures in which an electrochemically inactive Li2M'O3 component is integrated with an electrochemically active LiMO2 component to provide improved structural and electrochemical stability. Has superior cost features compared with current state-of-the-art LiCoO2 electrodes. Offers high rate of charge/discharge and structural

  16. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Cambria; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;"><em><font

  17. Prediction of Multi-Physics Behaviors of Large Lithium-Ion Batteries During Internal and External Short Circuit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chaney, L.; Smith, K.; Darcy, E.; Pesaran, A.; Darcy, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation describes the multi-physics behaviors of internal and external short circuits in large lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries Compatible with current battery technologies Provides overcharge protection, increased safety and long-term stability PDF icon redox_shuttles_overcharge

  19. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  20. Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres: Solvothermal synthesis and lithium ion storage performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zhen Wang, Qin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Fan, Fan; Wang, Chenyan; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Uniform hierarchical SnS microspheres via solvothermal reaction. The formation process was investigated in detail. The obtained hierarchical SnS microspheres exhibit superior capacity (1650 mAh g{sup ?1}) when used as lithium battery for the hierarchical microsphere structure. - Abstract: Hierarchical SnS microspheres have been successfully synthesized by a mild solvothermal process using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) as surfactant in this work. The morphology and composition of the microspheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of reaction parameters, such as sulfur sources, reaction temperature and the concentration of PVP, on the final morphology of the products are investigated. On the basis of time-dependent experiments, the growth mechanism has also been proposed. The specific surface area of the 3D hierarchitectured SnS microspheres were investigated by using nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms. Lithium ion storage performances of the synthesized materials as anodes for Lithium-ion battery were investigated in detail and it exhibits excellent electrochemical properties.

  1. Formation of lithium fluoride/metal nanocomposites for energy storage through solid state reduction of metal fluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amatucci, GG; Pereira, N; Badway, F; Sina, M; Cosandey, F; Ruotolo, M; Cao, C

    2011-12-01

    In order to utilize high energy metal fluoride electrode materials as direct replacement electrode materials for lithium ion batteries in the future, a methodology to prelithiate the cathode or anode must be developed. Herein, we introduce the use of a solid state Li(3)N route to achieve the lithiation and mechanoreduction of metal fluoride based nanocomposites. The resulting prelithiation was found to be effective with the formation of xLiF:Me structures of very fine nanodimensions analogous to what is found by electrochemical lithiation. Physical and electrochemical properties of these nanocomposites for the bismuth and iron lithium fluoride systems are reported. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  3. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  5. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  6. Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es140_kepler_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Lithium Source For High Performance Li-ion Cells Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials Design and Evaluation of Novel High Capacity Cathode Materials

  7. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2012) | Department of Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is funding research to develop longer-lifetime, lower-cost Li-ion batteries. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are investigating cost-effective electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as novel low-cost synthesis approaches for making highly efficient electrode

  8. Winners for NREL's 24th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Winners for NREL's 24th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races May 17, 2014 Indy-500-style checkered flags, high-tech neoprene rubber tracks, and of course, sponsor decals graced the site of today's Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium Ion Battery car competitions for Colorado's middle schoolers. Nearly 300 students on 74 teams from 21 Colorado schools converged on Dakota Ridge High School to vie for a spot in the final races using solar and lithium ion battery powered vehicles they designed and

  9. Winners for NREL's 25th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Winners for NREL's 25th Solar and Lithium Ion Car Races May 16, 2015 Sixty-three teams from 17 Colorado middle schools gathered at Dakota Ridge High School in Littleton today for the 25th Annual Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium Ion Battery car competitions. The day's event drew nearly 200 students eager to show and race the solar- and lithium ion-battery powered vehicles they designed and built. The trophy for fastest solar powered model car was given to students from Stargate School

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  11. Expanding U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing Expanding U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt003_es_kamischke_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Expanding U.S.-based Lithium-ion Battery Manufacturing EA-1710: Finding of No Significant Impact Recovery Act Expanding the First Significant U.S. … Based Manufacturing

  12. EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Production Facilities near Detroit, MI | Department of Energy 0: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery Production Facilities near Detroit, MI EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery Production Facilities near Detroit, MI April 1, 2010 EA-1690: Final Environmental Assessment For a Loan and Grant to A123 Systems, Inc., for Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Batteries April 20, 2010 EA-1690: Finding of No

  13. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  14. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  15. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  16. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lithium-Ion Battery Production and Recycling Materials Issues

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about lithium-ion...

  18. EA-1690: A123 Systems, Inc., Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to A123 Systems, Inc., for Vertically Integrated Mass Production of Automotive-Class Lithium-Ion Batteries April 20, 2010 EA-1690: Finding of No Significant Impact A123 Systems,...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Daikin Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technology – High Voltage Electrolyte

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Daikin America at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about Daikin advanced lithium ion...

  20. In the OSTI Collections: Lithium-ion Batteries | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium-ion batteries have high energy per unit of volume and mass, and other chemical reactions that compete with their current-generating reactions are minimal, so they don't ...

  1. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center report is intended to provide credible, objective analysis regarding the regional competitiveness contexts of manufacturing lithium-­ion batteries ...

  2. Chemical and Electrochemical Lithiation of LiVOPO4 Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Katharine L; Bridges, Craig A; Segre, C; VernadoJr, C Daniel; Applestone, Danielle; Bielawski, Christopher W; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical capacity of LiVOPO4 could be increased from 159 to 318 mAh/g with the insertion of a second Li+ ion into the lattice to form Li2VOPO4, significantly enhancing the energy density of lithium-ion batteries. The changes accompanying the second Li+ insertion into -LiVOPO4 and -LiVOPO4 are presented here at various degrees of lithiation, employing both electrochemical and chemical lithiation. Inductively coupled plasma, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform spectroscopy measurements indicate that a composition of Li2VOPO4 could be realized with an oxidation state of V3+ by the chemical lithiation process. The accompanying structural changes are evidenced by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction. Spectroscopic and diffraction data collected with the chemically lithiated samples as well as diffraction data on the electrochemically lithiated samples reveal that significant amount of lithium can be inserted into -LiVOPO4 before a more dramatic structural change occurs. In contrast, lithiation of -LiVOPO4 is more consistent with the formation of a two-phase mixture throughout most of the lithiation range. The phases observed with the ambient-temperature lithiation processes presented here are significantly different from those reported in the literature.

  3. Porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells with enhanced anodic performance in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hui; Wu, Ping, E-mail: zjuwuping@njnu.edu.cn; Shi, Huimin; Lou, Feijian; Tang, Yawen; Zhou, Tongge; Zhou, Yiming, E-mail: zhouyiming@njnu.edu.cn; Lu, Tianhong

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: In situ magnesiothermic reduction route for the formation of porous Si@C spheres. Unique microstructural characteristics of both porous sphere and carbon matrix. Enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability for lithium-ion batteries. - Abstract: A novel type of porous SiC micro/nano-hybrids, i.e., porous Si spheres encapsulated in carbon shells (porous Si@C spheres), has been constructed through the pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and subsequent magnesiothermic reduction methodology by using SiO{sub 2} spheres as precursors. The as-synthesized porous Si@C spheres have been applied as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), and exhibit enhanced anodic performance in term of cycling stability compared with bare Si spheres. For example, the porous Si@C spheres are able to exhibit a high reversible capacity of 900.0 mA h g{sup ?1} after 20 cycles at a current density of 0.05 C (1 C = 4200 mA g{sup ?1}), which is much higher than that of bare Si spheres (430.7 mA h g{sup ?1})

  4. Students to race their innovative solar, hydrogen and lithium ion battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model cars Saturday - News Releases | NREL Students to race their innovative solar, hydrogen and lithium ion battery model cars Saturday May 10, 2012 Middle school students from around the state will participate in the Junior Solar Sprint, Hydrogen Fuel Cell, and Lithium Ion Battery car competitions on Saturday, May 12, at Dakota Ridge High School in Littleton. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the competitions give students the

  5. Argonne OutLoud: JCESR Goes Beyond the Lithium Ion Frontier (Nov. 14, 2013)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne National Laboratory JCESR Goes Beyond the Lithium Ion Frontier (Nov. 14, 2013) Share At the end of November 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy announced that Argonne's Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR) proposal - a consortium of 14 institutions including national labs, universities and private companies - was selected for a five-year, $120 million Energy Innovation Hub to develop next-generation batteries beyond lithium ion. This award opens a new horizon of energy

  6. Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryBerkeley Lab scientists have invented nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. The electrolytes have high ionic conductivity, high mechanical strength, and they

  7. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    North Carolina | Department of Energy Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina July 26, 2011 - 3:15pm Addthis Secretary Chu joins local officials and dignitaries for Celgard's ribbon-cutting. | Photo courtesy of Celgard Secretary Chu joins local officials and dignitaries for Celgard's ribbon-cutting. | Photo courtesy of Celgard Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs

  8. Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Battery Electrode and Electrolyte (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Imaging of Lithium Ion Distribution During In Situ Operation of Battery Electrode and Electrolyte Authors: Holtz, Megan E. ; Yu, Yingchao ; Gunceler, Deniz ; Gao, Jie ; Sundararaman, Ravishankar ; Schwarz, Kathleen A. ; Arias, T. A. ; Abruña, Héctor D. ; Muller,

  9. Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: Improving Thermal Stability and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Abuse Tolerance. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: Improving Thermal Stability and Abuse Tolerance. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polyester Separators for Lithium-ion Cells: Improving Thermal Stability and Abuse Tolerance. Authors: Orendorff, Christopher ; Lambert, Timothy N. ; Chavez, Carlos A. ; Bencomo, Marlene ; Fenton, Kyle R Publication Date: 2012-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1067617 Report Number(s): SAND2012-3022J Journal ID: ISSN

  10. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Principles Molecular Dynamics (Conference) | SciTech Connect Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Lordi, V ; Draeger, E W ; Pask, J E Publication Date: 2014-11-05 OSTI Identifier: 1178391 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-663811 DOE Contract Number:

  11. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Authors: Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; Draeger, E W ; van Duin, A ; Lordi, V ; Pask, J E

  12. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect.

  13. Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Authors: Hu, Yan-Yan ; Liu, Zigeng ; Nam, Kyung-Wan ; Borkiewicz, Olaf ; Cheng, Jun ; Hua, Xiao ; Dunstan, Matthew ; Yu, Xiqian ; Wiaderek, Kamila ; Du, Lin-Shu ; Chapman, Karena W. ; Chupas, Peter J. ; Yang, Xiao-Qing ;

  14. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ihlefeld, Jon F. ; Clem, Paul Gilbert ; Doyle, Barney Lee ;

  15. Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion Battery

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of Molecular Clusters in Simulations of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes. Abstract not provided. Authors: Tenney, Craig M ; Cygan, Randall T. Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1079143 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3865J 452727 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type: Journal

  16. Using SiO Anodes for High Capacity, High Rate Electrodes for Lithium Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal Using SiO Anodes for High Capacity, High Rate Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab developed an elegant and inexpensive fabrication method for high performance electrodes with unmatched specific / areal capacities and good capacity retention for application in lithium ion batteries. Description A team of Berkeley Lab researchers led by Gao Liu

  17. Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Approach | Argonne National Laboratory Electrode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries: A New Synthetic Approach Technology available for licensing: New high-energy cathode materials for use in rechargeable lithium-ion cells and batteries synthesized by using a novel alternative approach Lowers battery pack cost. Layered cathode material contains low-cost manganese, which operates at high rate and high voltage and results in a high-energy-density battery with improved stability.

  18. Lithium-Ion Battery with Higher Charge Capacity - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Battery with Higher Charge Capacity University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Zirconate Based Cathode Material Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) typically use a cobalt compound as the cathode material. Cobalt oxides are relatively expensive and scarce. An innovative zirconate-based cathode material developed at the University of Minnesota has the potential

  19. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range | Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es_37_srinivasan.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating

  20. Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Model for the Fabrication of Tailored Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Safe, stable and high-capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries using a unique materials gradient. A process technology that yields high-capacity batteries. Unique method creates nickel-rich particles on the inside for a high-capacity battery, and a manganese-rich exterior surface for increased safety and stability. PDF icon

  1. Flexible low-cost packaging for lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansen, A. N.; Amine, K.; Chaiko, D. J.; Henriksen, G. L.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ({approx}50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.

  2. Quantification of Lithium-ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is known about lithium-ion cell thermal runaway energetics has been measured and extrapolated from data acquired on relatively small cells (< 3 Ah). This work is aimed at understanding the effects of cell size on thermal runaway energetics on cells from 3 to 50 Ah of both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) chemistries. Results show that for both LFP and NCA cells, the normalized heating rate (W/Ah) increases roughly linearly for cells from 3-38 Ah while the normalized total heat released (kJ/Ah) is relatively constant over that cell size range. The magnitude of the normalized heating rate is on the order of 2x greater for NCA relative to LFP chemistries for 2-3 Ah cells, while that difference is on the order of 10x for 30-40 Ah cells. The total normalized heat release is ~ 15-20% greater for NCA relative to LFP cells across the entire size range studied 3-38 Ah.

  3. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  4. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.; White, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells performance.

  5. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module. Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.

  6. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; Spangler, Scott W.

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  7. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trulove, Paul C; Foley, Matthew P

    2013-03-14

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-????salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  8. Evaluation Study for Large Prismatic Lithium-Ion Cell Designs Using Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional Battery Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

    2009-05-01

    Addresses battery requirements for electric vehicles using a model that evaluates physical-chemical processes in lithium-ion batteries, from atomic variations to vehicle interface controls.

  9. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the water exchange reactions are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium, and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium. LXD was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  10. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  11. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; et al

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  12. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laserassisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materialslayered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  13. Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F) as cathode materials for lithium ion battery from atomistic simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sanghun Park, Sung Soo

    2013-08-15

    Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) have been investigated from atomistic simulation. In order to predict the characteristics of these materials as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, structural property, defect chemistry, and Li{sup +} ion transportation property are characterized. The coreshell model with empirical force fields is employed to reproduce the unit-cell parameters of crystal structure, which are in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the formation energies of intrinsic defects (Frenkel and antisite) are determined by energetics calculation. From migration energy calculations, it is found that these flurophosphates have a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network forecasting good Li{sup +} ion conducting performances. Accordingly, we expect that this study provides an atomic scale insight as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}CoPO{sub 4}F and Li{sub 2}NiPO{sub 4}F). Display Omitted - Highlights: Lithium transition metal fluorophosphates (Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F, M: Co and Ni) are investigated from classical atomistic simulation. The unit-cell parameters from experimental studies are reproduced by the coreshell model. Li{sup +} ion conducting Li{sub 2}MPO{sub 4}F has a 3D Li{sup +} ion diffusion network. It is predicted that Li/Co or Li/Ni antisite defects are well-formed at a substantial concentration level.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Lithium Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB) for Lithium Ion Battery Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Han, Kee Sung; Baggetto, Loic; Hillesheim, Daniel A; Custelcean, Radu; Lee, Dr. Eun-Sung; Guo, Bingkun; Bi, Zhonghe; Jiang, Deen; Veith, Gabriel M; Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W; Brown, Gilbert M; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Manthiram, Arumugam; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2014-01-01

    A new orthochelated salt, lithium bis(monofluoromalonato)borate (LiBFMB), has been synthesized and purified for the first time for application in lithium ion batteries. The presence of fluorine in the borate anion of LiBFMB increases its oxidation potential and also facilitates ion dissociation, as reflected by the ratio of ionic conductivity measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy ( exp) and that by ion diffusivity coefficients obtained using pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) technique ( NMR). Half-cell tests using 5.0 V lithium nickel manganese oxide (LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4) as a cathode and EC/DMC/DEC as a solvent reveals that the impedance of the LiBFMB cell is much larger than those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based cells, which results in lower capacity and poor cycling performance of the former. XPS spectra of the cycled cathode electrode suggest that because of the stability of the LiBFMB salt, the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the cathode surface is significantly different from those of LiPF6 and LiBOB based electrolytes, resulting in more solvent decomposition and thicker SEI layer. Initial results also indicate that using high dielectric constant solvent PC alters the surface chemistry, reduces the interfacial impedance, and enhances the performance of LiBFMB based 5.0V cell.

  15. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-21

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  16. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  17. Ceramic-Metal Composites for Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ceramic-Metal Composites for Electrodes of Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryLithium's high energy density makes it desirable for use in rechargeable batteries, but its tendency to form dendrites has limited its use to primary batteries. This limitation can be addressed by using

  18. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  19. Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling the Performance and Cost of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric-Drive Vehicles - SECOND EDITION × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information

  20. Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy Secretary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Poneman | Department of Energy Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Poneman Missouri Lithium-Ion Battery Company Hosts Tour With U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Poneman February 9, 2012 - 4:25pm Addthis Washington, D.C. - Today, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman toured Dow Kokam's new global battery research and development center, located in Lee's Summit, Missouri, outside of Kansas City, to highlight America's

  1. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ;

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  2. Morphological effects on the electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes, prepared by electrospinning technique, for lithium-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ji Won; Kalathil, Abdul Kareem; Yim, Chul Jin; Im, Won Bin

    2014-06-01

    Li-rich Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.17}Co{sub 0.17}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cathode materials were synthesized by electrospinning technique with different polymers, and their structural, morphological, and electrochemical performances were investigated. It was found that the electrospinning process leads to the formation of a fiber and flower-like morphology, by using different polymers and heat treatment conditions. The nanostructured morphology provided these materials with high initial discharge capacity. The cycling stability was improved with agglomerated nano-particles, as compared with porous materials. - Highlights: Fiber and flower-like Li-rich cathode was synthesized by simple electrospinning. Polymer dependent morphology and electrochemical performance was investigated. Well-organized porous structure facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions. Technique could be applicable to other cathode materials as well.

  3. Lithium Balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Balance Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Product: Lithium ion battery developer. References: Lithium Balance1 This article is a stub....

  4. Computer-Aided Optimization of Macroscopic Design Factors for Lithium-Ion Cell Performance and Life (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Kim, G. H.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric-drive vehicles enabled by power- and energy-dense batteries promise to improve vehicle efficiency and help reduce society's dependence on fossil fuels. Next generation plug-in hybrid vehicles and battery electric vehicles may also enable vehicles to be powered by electricity generated from clean, renewable resources; however, to increase the commercial viability of such vehicles, the cost, performance and life of the vehicles batteries must be further improved. This work illustrates a virtual design process to optimize the performance and life of large-format lithium ion batteries. Beginning with material-level kinetic and transport properties, the performance and life of multiple large-format cell designs are evaluated, demonstrating the impact of macroscopic design parameters such as foil thickness, tab location, and cell size and shape under various cycling conditions. Challenges for computer-aided engineering of large-format battery cells, such as competing requirements and objectives, are discussed.

  5. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  6. Developments in lithium-ion battery technology in the Peoples Republic of China.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patil, P. G.; Energy Systems

    2008-02-28

    Argonne National Laboratory prepared this report, under the sponsorship of the Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, for the Vehicles Technologies Team. The information in the report is based on the author's visit to Beijing; Tianjin; and Shanghai, China, to meet with representatives from several organizations (listed in Appendix A) developing and manufacturing lithium-ion battery technology for cell phones and electronics, electric bikes, and electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The purpose of the visit was to assess the status of lithium-ion battery technology in China and to determine if lithium-ion batteries produced in China are available for benchmarking in the United States. With benchmarking, DOE and the U.S. battery development industry would be able to understand the status of the battery technology, which would enable the industry to formulate a long-term research and development program. This report also describes the state of lithium-ion battery technology in the United States, provides information on joint ventures, and includes information on government incentives and policies in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC).

  7. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neudecker, Bernd J. (Knoxville, TN); Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  8. The energy dependence of lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldeland, Einar; Hole, Eli Olaug; Sagstuen, Einar; Malinen, Eirik

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To perform a systematic investigation of the energy dependence of alanine and lilthium formate EPR dosimeters for medium energy x rays. Methods: Lithium formate and alanine EPR dosimeters were exposed to eight different x-ray beam qualities, with nominal potentials ranging from 50 to 200 kV. Following ionometry based on standards of absorbed dose to water, the dosimeters were given two different doses of approximately 3 and 6 Gy for each radiation quality, with three dosimeters for each dose. A reference series was also irradiated to three different dose levels at a {sup 60}Co unit. The dose to water energy response, that is, the dosimeter reading per absorbed dose to water relative to that for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays, was estimated for each beam quality. In addition, the energy response was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations and compared to the experimental energy response. Results: The experimental energy response estimates ranged from 0.89 to 0.94 and from 0.68 to 0.90 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. The uncertainties in the experimental energy response estimates were typically 3%. The relative effectiveness, that is, the ratio of the experimental energy response to that following Monte Carlo simulations was, on average, 0.96 and 0.94 for lithium formate and alanine, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that lithium formate dosimeters are less dependent on x-ray energy than alanine. Furthermore, as the relative effectiveness for both lithium formate and alanine were systematically less than unity, the yield of radiation-induced radicals is decreased following x-irradiation compared to irradiation with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays.

  9. Lithium and lithium ion batteries towards micro-applications: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuxing; Liu, Bo; Li, Qiuyan; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Ferrara, Seth A.; Deng, Zhiqun; Xiao, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Batteries employing lithium chemistry have been intensively investigated because of their high energy attributes which may be deployed for vehicle electrification and large-scale energy storage applications. Another important direction of battery research for micro-electronics, however, is relatively less discussed in the field but growing fast in recent years. This paper reviews chemistry and electrochemistry in different microbatteries along with their cell designs to meet the goals of their various applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge and recent progress of microbatteries for emerging micro-electronic devices may shed light on the future development of microbatteries towards high energy density and flexible design.

  10. Modeling the performance and cost of lithium-ion batteries for electric-drive vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A. Gallagher, K. G. Bloom, I. Dees, D. W.

    2011-10-20

    This report details the Battery Performance and Cost model (BatPaC) developed at Argonne National Laboratory for lithium-ion battery packs used in automotive transportation. The model designs the battery for a specified power, energy, and type of vehicle battery. The cost of the designed battery is then calculated by accounting for every step in the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process. The assumed annual production level directly affects each process step. The total cost to the original equipment manufacturer calculated by the model includes the materials, manufacturing, and warranty costs for a battery produced in the year 2020 (in 2010 US$). At the time this report is written, this calculation is the only publically available model that performs a bottom-up lithium-ion battery design and cost calculation. Both the model and the report have been publically peer-reviewed by battery experts assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This report and accompanying model include changes made in response to the comments received during the peer-review. The purpose of the report is to document the equations and assumptions from which the model has been created. A user of the model will be able to recreate the calculations and perhaps more importantly, understand the driving forces for the results. Instructions for use and an illustration of model results are also presented. Almost every variable in the calculation may be changed by the user to represent a system different from the default values pre-entered into the program. The distinct advantage of using a bottom-up cost and design model is that the entire power-to-energy space may be traversed to examine the correlation between performance and cost. The BatPaC model accounts for the physical limitations of the electrochemical processes within the battery. Thus, unrealistic designs are penalized in energy density and cost, unlike cost models based on linear extrapolations. Additionally, the consequences on cost and energy density from changes in cell capacity, parallel cell groups, and manufacturing capabilities are easily assessed with the model. New proposed materials may also be examined to translate bench-scale values to the design of full-scale battery packs providing realistic energy densities and prices to the original equipment manufacturer. The model will be openly distributed to the public in the year 2011. Currently, the calculations are based in a Microsoft{reg_sign} Office Excel spreadsheet. Instructions are provided for use; however, the format is admittedly not user-friendly. A parallel development effort has created an alternate version based on a graphical user-interface that will be more intuitive to some users. The version that is more user-friendly should allow for wider adoption of the model.

  11. Synthesis of rock-salt type lithium borohydride and its peculiar Li{sup +} ion conduction properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyazaki, R.; Maekawa, H.; Takamura, H.

    2014-05-01

    The high energy density and excellent cycle performance of lithium ion batteries makes them superior to all other secondary batteries and explains why they are widely used in portable devices. However, because organic liquid electrolytes have a higher operating voltage than aqueous solution, they are used in lithium ion batteries. This comes with the risk of fire due to their flammability. Solid electrolytes are being investigated to find an alternative to organic liquid. However, the nature of the solid-solid point contact at the interface between the electrolyte and electrode or between the electrolyte grains is such that high power density has proven difficult to attain. We develop a new method for the fabrication of a solid electrolyte using LiBH{sub 4,} known for its super Li{sup +} ion conduction without any grain boundary contribution. The modifications to the conduction pathway achieved by stabilizing the high pressure form of this material provided a new structure with some LiBH{sub 4}, more suitable to the high rate condition. We synthesized the H.P. form of LiBH{sub 4} under ambient pressure by doping LiBH{sub 4} with the KI lattice by sintering. The formation of a KI - LiBH{sub 4} solid solution was confirmed both macroscopically and microscopically. The obtained sample was shown to be a pure Li{sup +} conductor despite its small Li{sup +} content. This conduction mechanism, where the light doping cation played a major role in ion conduction, was termed the Parasitic Conduction Mechanism. This mechanism made it possible to synthesize a new ion conductor and is expected to have enormous potential in the search for new battery materials.

  12. Fluorinated Phosphazene Co-solvents for Improved Thermal and Safety Performance in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry W. Rollins; Mason K. Harrup; Eric J. Dufek; David K. Jamison; Sergiy V. Sazhin; Kevin L. Gering; Dayna L. Daubaras

    2014-10-01

    The safety of lithium-ion batteries is coming under increased scrutiny as they are being adopted for large format applications especially in the vehicle transportation industry and for grid-scale energy storage. The primary short-comings of lithium-ion batteries are the flammability of the liquid electrolyte and sensitivity to high voltage and elevated temperatures. We have synthesized a series of non-flammable fluorinated phosphazene liquids and blended them with conventional carbonate solvents. While the use of these phosphazenes as standalone electrolytes is highly desirable, they simply do not satisfy all of the many requirements that must be met such as high LiPF6 solubility and low viscosity, thus we have used them as additives and co-solvents in blends with typical carbonates. The physical and electrochemical properties of the electrolyte blends were characterized, and then the blends were used to build 2032-type coin cells which were evaluated at constant current cycling rates from C/10 to C/1. We have evaluated the performance of the electrolytes by determining the conductivity, viscosity, flash point, vapor pressure, thermal stability, electrochemical window, cell cycling data, and the ability to form solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) films. This paper presents our results on a series of chemically similar fluorinated cyclic phosphazene trimers, the FM series, which has exhibited numerous beneficial effects on battery performance, lifetimes, and safety aspects.

  13. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer ?-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719?mAh?g{sup ?1}/2032?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, much greater than the values of ?372?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?818?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, ?1117?mAh?g{sup ?1}/?1589?mAh?cm{sup ?3}, and ?744?mAh?g{sup ?1} for graphite, graphynes, and ?-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer ?-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  14. Multiscale modeling and characterization for performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pannala, Sreekanth; Turner, John A; Allu, Srikanth; Elwasif, Wael R; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Simunovic, Srdjan; Kumar, Abhishek; Billings, Jay Jay; Wang, Hsin; Nanda, Jagjit

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are highly complex electrochemical systems whose performance and safety are governed by coupled nonlinear electrochemical-electrical-thermal-mechanical processes over a range of spatiotemporal scales. In this paper we describe a new, open source computational framework for Lithium-ion battery simulations that is designed to support a variety of model types and formulations. This framework has been used to create three-dimensional cell and battery pack models that explicitly simulate all the battery components (current collectors, electrodes, and separator). The models are used to predict battery performance under normal operations and to study thermal and mechanical safety aspects under adverse conditions. The model development and validation are supported by experimental methods such as IR-imaging, X-ray tomography and micro-Raman mapping.

  15. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  16. High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium Batteries and Fuel Cells Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Cross-linked comb-branch structure.The molecular structures are infinitely variable in order to provide optimum properties for both bulk membranes and

  17. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting, as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  18. Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Correlation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance with Structural and Chemical Transformations Wednesday, April 30, 2014 Chemical evolution and structural transformations in a material directly influence characteristics relevant to a wide range of prominent applications including rechargeable batteries for energy storage. Structural and/or chemical rearrangements at surfaces determine the way a material interacts with its environment,

  19. Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication NREL Internal Short Circuit (ISC) Fact Sheet (321 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Energy storage cells (also referred to herein as "cells" or "batteries") sold for

  20. Iron and Manganese Pyrophosphates as Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hui; Upreti, Shailesh; Chernova, Natasha A.; Hautier, Geoffroy; Ceder, Gerbrand; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2015-10-15

    The mixed-metal phases, (Li{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, 0 {le} y {le} 1), were synthesized using a 'wet method', and found to form a solid solution in the P2{sub 1}/a space group. Both thermogravimetric analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements confirm the 2+ oxidation state for both the Mn and Fe. The electrochemical capacity improves as the Fe concentration increases, as do the intensities of the redox peaks of the cyclic voltammogram, indicating higher lithium-ion diffusivity in the iron phase. The two Li{sup +} ions in the three-dimensional tunnel structure of the pyrophosphate phase allows for the cycling of more than one lithium per redox center. Cyclic voltammograms show a second oxidation peak at 5 V and 5.3 V, indicative of the extraction of the second lithium ion, in agreement with ab initio computation predictions. Thus, electrochemical capacities exceeding 200 Ah/kg may be achieved if a stable electrolyte is found.

  1. Fail-Safe Design for Large Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Ireland, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-07-15

    A fault leading to a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery is believed to grow over time from a latent defect. Significant efforts have been made to detect lithium-ion battery safety faults to proactively facilitate actions minimizing subsequent losses. Scaling up a battery greatly changes the thermal and electrical signals of a system developing a defect and its consequent behaviors during fault evolution. In a large-capacity system such as a battery for an electric vehicle, detecting a fault signal and confining the fault locally in the system are extremely challenging. This paper introduces a fail-safe design methodology for large-capacity lithium-ion battery systems. Analysis using an internal short circuit response model for multi-cell packs is presented that demonstrates the viability of the proposed concept for various design parameters and operating conditions. Locating a faulty cell in a multiple-cell module and determining the status of the fault's evolution can be achieved using signals easily measured from the electric terminals of the module. A methodology is introduced for electrical isolation of a faulty cell from the healthy cells in a system to prevent further electrical energy feed into the fault. Experimental demonstration is presented supporting the model results.

  2. Advanced Surface and Microstructural Characterization of Natural Graphite Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Meyer III, Harry M; Howe, Jane Y; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Payzant, E Andrew; Lance, Michael J; Yoon, Steve; Denlinger, Matthew; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Natural graphite powders were subjected to a series of thermal treatments in order to improve the anode irreversible capacity loss (ICL) and capacity retention during long-term cycling of lithium ion batteries. A baseline thermal treatment in inert Ar or N2 atmosphere was compared to cases with a proprietary additive to the furnace gas environment. This additive substantially altered the surface chemistry of the natural graphite powders and resulted in significantly improved long-term cycling performance of the lithium ion batteries over the commercial natural graphite baseline. Different heat-treatment temperatures were investigated ranging from 950-2900 C with the intent of achieving the desired long-term cycling performance with as low of a maximum temperature and thermal budget as possible. A detailed summary of the characterization data is also presented, which includes X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy, and temperature-programed desorption mass spectroscopy (TPD-MS). This characterization data was correlated to the observed capacity fade improvements over the course of long-term cycling at high charge-discharge rates in full lithium-ion coin cells. It is believed that the long-term performance improvements are a result of forming a more stable solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer on the anode graphite surfaces, which is directly related to the surface chemistry modifications imparted by the proprietary gas environment during thermal treatment.

  3. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this high-voltage (i.e. 5 V) cathode material was the focus of the project. ORNL had also shown in prior work that photonic annealing can be used to anneal conventionally coated cathode metal oxide structures into the active crystalline phase. Planar Energy Devices also had demonstrated SPEED with solid electrolyte layers consisting of LiGaAlSPO4 prior to the start of the project.

  4. Integrated Lithium-Ion Battery Model Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Scales: An Integrated Computer Simulation Tool for Design and Development of EDV Batteries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.; Lee, K. J.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses the physics of lithium-ion battery systems in different length scales, from atomic scale to system scale.

  5. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record no Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Send to ...

  6. Highly featured amorphous silicon nanorod arrays for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soleimani-Amiri, Samaneh; Safiabadi Tali, Seied Ali; Azimi, Soheil; Sanaee, Zeinab; Mohajerzadeh, Shamsoddin

    2014-11-10

    High aspect-ratio vertical structures of amorphous silicon have been realized using hydrogen-assisted low-density plasma reactive ion etching. Amorphous silicon layers with the thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 10??m were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Standard photolithography and nanosphere colloidal lithography were employed to realize ultra-small features of the amorphous silicon. The performance of the patterned amorphous silicon structures as a lithium-ion battery electrode was investigated using galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The patterned structures showed a superior Li-ion battery performance compared to planar amorphous silicon. Such structures are suitable for high current Li-ion battery applications such as electric vehicles.

  7. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, James D.

    2008-12-18

    The development of advanced lithium-ion batteries is key to the success of many technologies, and in particular, hybrid electric vehicles. In addition to finding materials with higher energy and power densities, improvements in other factors such as cost, toxicity, lifetime, and safety are also required. Lithium transition metal oxide and LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials offer several distinct advantages in achieving many of these goals and are the focus of this report. Two series of layered lithium transition metal oxides, namely LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (M=Al, Co, Fe, Ti) and LiNi{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2-y}M{sub y}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub 2} (M = Al, Co, Fe), have been synthesized. The effect of substitution on the crystal structure is related to shifts in transport properties and ultimately to the electrochemical performance. Partial aluminum substitution creates a high-rate positive electrode material capable of delivering twice the discharge capacity of unsubstituted materials. Iron substituted materials suffer from limited electrochemical performance and poor cycling stability due to the degradation of the layered structure. Titanium substitution creates a very high rate positive electrode material due to a decrease in the anti-site defect concentration. LiFePO{sub 4} is a very promising electrode material but suffers from poor electronic and ionic conductivity. To overcome this, two new techniques have been developed to synthesize high performance LiFePO{sub 4}/C composite materials. The use of graphitization catalysts in conjunction with pyromellitic acid leads to a highly graphitic carbon coating on the surface of LiFePO{sub 4} particles. Under the proper conditions, the room temperature electronic conductivity can be improved by nearly five orders of magnitude over untreated materials. Using Raman spectroscopy, the improvement in conductivity and rate performance of such materials has been related to the underlying structure of the carbon films. The combustion synthesis of LiFePO4 materials allows for the formation of nanoscale active material particles with high-quality carbon coatings in a quick and inexpensive fashion. The carbon coating is formed during the initial combustion process at temperatures that exceed the thermal stability limit of LiFePO{sub 4}. The olivine structure is then formed after a brief calcination at lower temperatures in a controlled environment. The carbon coating produced in this manner has an improved graphitic character and results in superior electrochemical performance. The potential co-synthesis of conductive carbon entities, such as carbon nanotubes and fibers, is also briefly discussed.

  8. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-Ion porous electrode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, D. W.; Kawauchi, S.; Abraham, D. P.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2009-04-01

    Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) experiments were conducted to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}, used as the active material in a lithium-ion battery porous composite positive electrode. An electrochemical model, based on concentrated solution porous electrode theory, was developed to analyze the GITT experimental results and compare to the original GITT analytical theory. The GITT experimental studies on the oxide active material were conducted between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs. lithium, with the maximum lithium diffusion coefficient value being 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at 3.85 V. The lithium diffusion coefficient values obtained from this study agree favorably with the values obtained from an earlier electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study.

  9. Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.

    2013-08-28

    The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

  10. Electrodeposited porous metal oxide films with interconnected nanoparticles applied as anode of lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Highly porous NiO film is prepared by a co-electrodeposition method. Porous NiO film is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Porous structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. Porous NiO film shows good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Controllable synthesis of porous metal oxide films is highly desirable for high-performance electrochemical devices. In this work, a highly porous NiO film composed of interconnected nanoparticles is prepared by a simple co-electrodeposition method. The nanoparticles in the NiO film have a size ranging from 30 to 100 nm and construct large-quantity pores of 20120 nm. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the highly porous NiO film electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 700 mA h g{sup ?1} at 0.2 C, as well as good high-rate performance. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, a specific capacitance of 517 mA h g{sup ?1} is attained. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the interconnected porous structure, which facilitates the diffusion of ion and electron, and provides large reaction surface area leading to improved performance.

  11. American Lithium Energy Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lithium Energy Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Lithium Energy Corp Place: San Marcos, California Zip: 92069 Product: California-based developer of lithium ion...

  12. In-situ Mass Spectrometric Determination of Molecular Structural Evolution at the Solid Electrolyte Interphase in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Yufan; Yan, Pengfei; Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Xu, Wu; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Xuelin; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-08-19

    Dynamic molecular evolution at solid/liquid electrolyte interface is always a mystery for a rechargeable battery due to the challenge to directly probe/observe the solid/liquid interface under reaction conditions, which in essence appears to be similarly true for all the fields involving solid/liquid phases, such as electrocatalysis, electrodeposition, biofuel conversion, biofilm, and biomineralization, We use in-situ liquid secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for the first time to directly observe the molecular structural evolution at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface for a lithium (Li)-ion battery under dynamic operating conditions. We have discovered that the deposition of Li metal on copper electrode leads to the condensation of solvent molecules around the electrode. Chemically, this layer of solvent condensate tends to deplete the salt anion and with low concentration of Li+ ions, which essentially leads to the formation of a lean electrolyte layer adjacent to the electrode and therefore contributes to the overpotential of the cell. This unprecedented molecular level dynamic observation at the solid electrode/liquid electrolyte interface provides vital chemical information that is needed for designing of better battery chemistry for enhanced performance, and ultimately opens new avenues for using liquid SIMS to probe molecular evolution at solid/liquid interface in general.

  13. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wongchang

    2014-05-13

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn.sub.2-y-zLi.sub.yM.sub.zO.sub.4 oxide with NH.sub.4HF.sub.2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  14. Anodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Anodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <span style="font-family: &quot;Cambria&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language:

  15. Silicon-Nanowire Based Lithium Ion Batteries for Vehicles With Double the Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan, Ionel; Cohen, Yehonathan

    2015-03-31

    Amprius researched and developed silicon nanowire anodes. Amprius then built and delivered high-energy lithium-ion cells that met the projects specific energy goal and exceeded the projects energy density goal. But Amprius cells did not meet the projects cycle life goal, suggesting additional manufacturing process development is required. With DOE support, Amprius developed a new anode material, silicon, and a new anode structure, nanowire. During the project, Amprius also began to develop a new multi-step manufacturing process that does not involve traditional anode production processes (e.g. mixing, drying and calendaring).

  16. Diagnostic examination of Generation 2 lithium-ion cells and assessment ofperformance degradation mechanisms.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dees, D. W.; Knuth, J.; Reynolds, E.; Gerald, R.; Hyung,Y.-E.; Belharouak, I.; Stoll, M.; Sammann, E.; MacLaren, S.; Haasch, R.; Twesten,R.; Sardela, M.; Battaglia, V.; Cairns, E.; Kerr, J.; Kerlau, M.; Kostecki, R.; Lei,J.; McCarthy, K.; McLarnon, F.; Reimer, J.; Richardson, T.; Ross, P.; Sloop,S.; Song, X.; Zhuang, V.; Balasubramanian, M.; McBreen, J.; Chung, K.-Y.; Yang, X.Q.; Yoon, W.-S.; Norin, L.

    2005-07-15

    The Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program is a multilaboratory effort to assist industrial developers of high-power lithium-ion batteries overcome the barriers of cost, calendar life, abuse tolerance, and low-temperature performance so that this technology may be rendered practical for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Included in the ATD Program is a comprehensive diagnostics effort conducted by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The goals of this effort are to identify and characterize processes that limit lithium-ion battery performance and calendar life, and ultimately to describe the specific mechanisms that cause performance degradation. This report is a compilation of the diagnostics effort conducted since spring 2001 to characterize Generation 2 ATD cells and cell components. The report is divided into a main body and appendices. Information on the diagnostic approach, details from individual diagnostic techniques, and details on the phenomenological model used to link the diagnostic data to the loss of 18650-cell electrochemical performance are included in the appendices. The main body of the report includes an overview of the 18650-cell test data, summarizes diagnostic data and modeling information contained in the appendices, and provides an assessment of the various mechanisms that have been postulated to explain performance degradation of the 18650 cells during accelerated aging. This report is intended to serve as a ready reference on ATD Generation 2 18650-cell performance and provide information on the tools for diagnostic examination and relevance of the acquired data. A comprehensive account of our experimental procedures and resulting data may be obtained by consulting the various references listed in the text. We hope that this report will serve as a roadmap for the diagnostic analyses of other lithium-ion technologies being evaluated for HEV applications. It is our hope that the information contained in this report will lead to the development of new lithium-ion cell chemistries and designs that will meet the 15-year cell calendar-life goal established by DOE's FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership.

  17. Approach to make macroporous metal sheets as current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Canfield, Nathan L.; Wang, Deyu; Xiao, Jie; Nie, Zimin; Li, Xiaohong S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2010-05-05

    A new approach and simple method is described to produce macroporous metal sheet as current collector for anode in lithium ion battery. This method, based on slurry blending, tape casting, sintering, and reducing of metal oxides, produces a uniform, macroporous metal sheet. Silicon film sputter-coated on such porous copper substrate shows much higher capacity and longer cycle life than on smooth Cu foil. This methodology produces very limited wastes and is also adaptable to many other materials. It is easy for industrial scale production.

  18. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  19. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaines, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using leadacid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling and ensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.

  20. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaines, Linda

    2014-12-01

    This paper looks ahead, beyond the projected large-scale market penetration of vehicles containing advanced batteries, to the time when the spent batteries will be ready for final disposition. It describes a working system for recycling, using leadacid battery recycling as a model. Recycling of automotive lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is more complicated and not yet established because few end-of-life batteries will need recycling for another decade. There is thus the opportunity now to obviate some of the technical, economic, and institutional roadblocks that might arise. The paper considers what actions can be started now to avoid the impediments to recycling andmoreensure that economical and sustainable options are available at the end of the batteries' useful life.less

  1. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Zhangxiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Chemistry Department and The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zhao, Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ?2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  2. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Behavior of lithium ions in the turbulent near-wall tokamak plasma under heating of ions and electrons of the main plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shurygin, R. V., E-mail: regulxx@rambler.ru; Morozov, D. Kh. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    Turbulent dynamics of the near-wall tokamak plasma is simulated by numerically solving the nonlinear reduced Braginskii magnetohydrodynamic equations with allowance for a lithium ion admixture. The effects of turbulence and radiation of the admixture are analyzed in the framework of a self-consistent approach. The radial distributions of the radiative loss power and the density of Li{sup 0} atoms and Li{sup +1} ions are obtained as functions of the electron and ion temperatures of the main plasma in the near-wall layer. The results of numerical simulations show that supply of lithium ions into the low-temperature near-wall plasma substantially depends on whether the additional power is deposited into the electron or ion component of the main plasma. If the electron temperature in the layer increases (ECR heating), then the ion density drops. At the same time, an increase in the temperature of the main ions (ICR heating) leads to an increase in the density of Li{sup +1} ions. The results of numerical simulations are explained by the different influence of the electron and ion temperatures on the atomic processes governing the accumulation and loss of particles in the balance equations for neutral Li{sup 0} atoms and Li{sup +1} ions in the admixture. The radial profile of the electron temperature and the corresponding distribution of the radiative loss power for different densities of neutral Li{sup 0} atoms on the wall are obtained. The calculations show that the presence of Li{sup +1} ions affects turbulent transport of the main ions. In this case, the electron heat flux increases by 2030% with increasing Li{sup +1} density, whereas the flux of the main ions drops by nearly the same amount. The radial profile of the turbulent flux of lithium ions is obtained. It is demonstrated that the appearance of the pinch effect is related to the positive density gradient of lithium ions across the calculation layer. For the parameters of the T-10 tokamak, the effect of radiative cooling of the near-wall plasma layer becomes appreciable when the near-wall density of neutral lithium atoms exceeds 7 10{sup 11} cm{sup ?3}. In this case, the density of radiative loss power in the center of the layer is estimated to be about 500600 kW/m{sup 3}.

  4. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds via a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.

  5. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Apurva; Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource; Doeff, Marca M.; Chen, Guoying; Cabana, Jordi; Richardson, Thomas J.; Mehta, Apurva; Shirpour, Mona; Duncan, Hugues; Kim, Chunjoong; Kam, Kinson C.; Conry, Thomas

    2013-04-30

    We describe the use of synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to probe details of intercalation/deintercalation processes in electrode materials for Li ion and Na ion batteries. Both in situ and ex situ experiments are used to understand structural behavior relevant to the operation of devices.

  6. Dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite mixed former glasses: Correlation between the characteristic length scales of mobile ions and glass network structural units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, A.; Ghosh, A., E-mail: sspag@iacs.res.in [Department of Solid State Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-10-28

    We have studied the mixed network former effect on the dynamics of lithium ions in borotellurite glasses in wide composition and temperature ranges. The length scales of ion dynamics, such as characteristic mean square displacement and spatial extent of sub-diffusive motion of lithium ions have been determined from the ac conductivity and dielectric spectra, respectively, in the framework of linear response theory. The relative concentrations of different network structural units have been determined from the deconvolution of the FTIR spectra. A direct correlation between the ion dynamics and the characteristic length scales and the relative concentration of BO{sub 4} units has been established for different compositions of the borotellurite glasses.

  7. Conversion Reaction Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries: Study of the Binary Metal Fluoride Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Robert, Rosa; Chernova, Natasha A.; Pereira, Nathalie; Omenya, Fredrick; Badway, Fadwa; Hua, Xiao; Ruotolo, Michael; Zhang, Ruigang; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Su, Dong; Key, Baris; Whittingham, M. Stanley; Grey, Clare P.; Amatucci, Glenn G.; Zhu, Yimei; Graetz, Jason

    2015-10-15

    Materials that undergo a conversion reaction with lithium (e.g., metal fluorides MF{sub 2}: M = Fe, Cu, ...) often accommodate more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation, and are promising candidates for high-capacity cathodes for lithium ion batteries. However, little is known about the mechanisms involved in the conversion process, the origins of the large polarization during electrochemical cycling, and why some materials are reversible (e.g., FeF{sub 2}) while others are not (e.g., CuF{sub 2}). In this study, we investigated the conversion reaction of binary metal fluorides, FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2}, using a series of local and bulk probes to better understand the mechanisms underlying their contrasting electrochemical behavior. X-ray pair-distribution-function and magnetization measurements were used to determine changes in short-range ordering, particle size and microstructure, while high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to measure the atomic-level structure of individual particles and map the phase distribution in the initial and fully lithiated electrodes. Both FeF{sub 2} and CuF{sub 2} react with lithium via a direct conversion process with no intercalation step, but there are differences in the conversion process and final phase distribution. During the reaction of Li{sup +} with FeF{sub 2}, small metallic iron nanoparticles (<5 nm in diameter) nucleate in close proximity to the converted LiF phase, as a result of the low diffusivity of iron. The iron nanoparticles are interconnected and form a bicontinuous network, which provides a pathway for local electron transport through the insulating LiF phase. In addition, the massive interface formed between nanoscale solid phases provides a pathway for ionic transport during the conversion process. These results offer the first experimental evidence explaining the origins of the high lithium reversibility in FeF{sub 2}. In contrast to FeF{sub 2}, no continuous Cu network was observed in the lithiated CuF{sub 2}; rather, the converted Cu segregates to large particles (5-12 nm in diameter) during the first discharge, which may be partially responsible for the lack of reversibility in the CuF{sub 2} electrode.

  8. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  9. Multiscale Multiphysics Lithium-Ion Battery Model with Multidomain Modular Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) powering recent wave of personal ubiquitous electronics are also believed to be a key enabler of electrification of vehicle powertrain on the path toward sustainable transportation future. Over the past several years, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed the Multi-Scale Multi-Domain (MSMD) model framework, which is an expandable platform and a generic modularized flexible framework resolving interactions among multiple physics occurring in varied length and time scales in LIB[1]. NREL has continued to enhance the functionality of the framework and to develop constituent models in the context of the MSMD framework responding to U.S. Department of Energy's CAEBAT program objectives. This talk will introduce recent advancements in NREL's LIB modeling research in regards of scale-bridging, multi-physics integration, and numerical scheme developments.

  10. Cation-substituted spinel oxide and oxyfluoride cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Choi, Wonchang

    2010-05-18

    The present invention includes compositions and methods of making cation-substituted and fluorine-substituted spinel cathode compositions by firing a LiMn2-y-zLiyMzO4 oxide with NH4HF2 at low temperatures of between about 300 and 700.degree. C. for 2 to 8 hours and a .eta. of more than 0 and less than about 0.50, mixed two-phase compositions consisting of a spinel cathode and a layered oxide cathode, and coupling them with unmodified or surface modified graphite anodes in lithium ion cells.

  11. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model hasmore » to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.« less

  12. Simulation of Electrolyte Composition Effects on High Energy Lithium-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Gering

    2014-09-01

    An important feature of the DUALFOIL model for simulation of lithium-ion cells [1,2] is rigorous accounting for non-ideal electrolyte properties. Unfortunately, data are available on only a few electrolytes [3,4]. However, K. Gering has developed a model for estimation of electrolyte properties [5] and recently generated complete property sets (density, conductivity, activity coefficient, diffusivity, transport number) as a function of temperature and salt concentration. Here we use these properties in an enhanced version of the DUALFOIL model called DISTNP, available in Battery Design Studio [6], to examine the effect of different electrolytes on cell performance. Specifically, the behavior of a high energy LiCoO2/graphite 18650-size cell is simulated. The ability of Battery Design Studio to si

  13. Electrochemical Thermal Network Model for Multi-Cell Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-28

    Increasing the numbers and size of cells in a battery pack complicates electrical and thermal control of the system. In addition to keeping a battery pack in the optimal temperature range, maintaining temperature uniformity among all cells in a pack is important to prolong life and enhance safety. Electrical, electrochemical, and thermal responses of a lithium ion battery are closely coupled through macroscopic design factors of the cells and module or pack. The model has to resolve complex interaction between cell characteristics, pack design, and load conditions. Safe and durable battery pack design requires a battery thermal model that can be coupled with a battery performance more and/or safety model with good accuracy and simulation time. The model is proposed to be used for various technical purposes: Design optimization for safety and/or performance, On-board control.

  14. Six Thousand Electrochemical Cycles of Double-Walled Silicon Nanotube Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, H

    2011-08-18

    Despite remarkable progress, lithium ion batteries still need higher energy density and better cycle life for consumer electronics, electric drive vehicles and large-scale renewable energy storage applications. Silicon has recently been explored as a promising anode material for high energy batteries; however, attaining long cycle life remains a significant challenge due to materials pulverization during cycling and an unstable solid-electrolyte interphase. Here, we report double-walled silicon nanotube electrodes that can cycle over 6000 times while retaining more than 85% of the initial capacity. This excellent performance is due to the unique double-walled structure in which the outer silicon oxide wall confines the inner silicon wall to expand only inward during lithiation, resulting in a stable solid-electrolyte interphase. This structural concept is general and could be extended to other battery materials that undergo large volume changes.

  15. Advanced Lithium Power Inc ALP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lithium Power Inc ALP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Lithium Power Inc (ALP) Place: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Product: They develop lithium ion and advanced...

  16. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gaps in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAhcm2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 m-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.

  17. A three-dimensional carbon nano-network for high performance lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Miao; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Jungjohann, Katherine L.; Thomas Harris, C.; Lee, Yung -Cheng; Yang, Ronggui

    2014-11-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been envisioned as a superior architecture for lithium ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which enhances both ion and electron transport to significantly improve battery performance. Herein, a 3D carbon nano-network is fabricated through chemical vapor deposition of carbon on a scalably manufactured 3D porous anodic alumina (PAA) template. As a demonstration on the applicability of 3D carbon nano-network for LIB electrodes, the low conductivity active material, TiO2, is then uniformly coated on the 3D carbon nano-network using atomic layer deposition. High power performance is demonstrated in the 3D C/TiO2 electrodes, where the parallel tubes and gapsmore »in the 3D carbon nano-network facilitates fast Li ion transport. A large areal capacity of ~0.37 mAh·cm–2 is achieved due to the large TiO2 mass loading in the 60 µm-thick 3D C/TiO2 electrodes. At a test rate of C/5, the 3D C/TiO2 electrode with 18 nm-thick TiO2 delivers a high gravimetric capacity of ~240 mAh g–1, calculated with the mass of the whole electrode. A long cycle life of over 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 91% is demonstrated at 1C. In this study, the effects of the electrical conductivity of carbon nano-network, ion diffusion, and the electrolyte permeability on the rate performance of these 3D C/TiO2 electrodes are systematically studied.« less

  18. Coupling of Mechanical Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells to Electrochemical-Thermal Models for Battery Crush; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, Ahmad; Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Sahraei, Elham; Wierzbiki, Tom

    2015-06-15

    Propagation of failure in lithium-ion batteries during field events or under abuse is a strong function of the mechanical response of the different components in the battery. Whereas thermal and electrochemical models that capture the abuse response of batteries have been developed and matured over the years, the interaction between the mechanical behavior and the thermal response of these batteries is not very well understood. With support from the Department of Energy, NREL has made progress in coupling mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical lithium-ion models to predict the initiation and propagation of short circuits under external crush in a cell. The challenge with a cell crush simulation is to estimate the magnitude and location of the short. To address this, the model includes an explicit representation of each individual component such as the active material, current collector, separator, etc., and predicts their mechanical deformation under different crush scenarios. Initial results show reasonable agreement with experiments. In this presentation, the versatility of the approach for use with different design factors, cell formats and chemistries is explored using examples.

  19. Surface-Coating Regulated Lithiation Kinetics and Degradation in Silicon Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Langli; Yang, Hui; Yan, Pengfei; Travis, Jonathan J.; Lee, Younghee; Liu, Nian; Piper, Daniela M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Zhao, Peng; George, Steven M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Zhang, Sulin; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-05-26

    Silicon (Si)-based materials hold promise as the next-generation anodes for high-energy lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Enormous research efforts have been undertaken to mitigate the chemo-mechanical failure due to the large volume changes of Si during lithiation and delithiation cycles. It has been found nanostructured Si coated with carbon or other functional materials can lead to significantly improved cyclability. However, the underlying mechanism and comparative performance of different coatings remain poorly understood. Herein, using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) through a nanoscale half-cell battery, in combination with chemo-mechanical simulation, we explored the effect of thin (~5 nm) alucone and Al2O3 coatings on the lithiation kinetics of Si nanowires (SiNWs). We observed that the alucone coating leads to a V-shaped lithiation front of the SiNWs , while the Al2O3 coating yields an H-shaped lithiation front. These observations indicate that the difference between the Li surface diffusivity and bulk diffusivity of the coatings dictates lithiation induced morphological evolution in the nanowires. Our experiments also indicate that the reaction rate in the coating layer can be the limiting step for lithiation and therefore critically influences the rate performance of the battery. Further, the failure mechanism of the Al2O3 coated SiNWs was also explored. Our studies shed light on the design of high capacity, high rate and long cycle life Li-ion batteries.

  20. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Pei-Jun; Liu, Jun N.; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Wang, W. J.; Lei, Ming; Tang, Shasha; Yang, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, because of the short lithium ion diffusion path and unique 2D carrier pathways, become a new research focus of the lithium storages. Some "graphene-like" binary compounds, such as, MnO2, MoS2 and VO2 ultrathin nanosheets, have been synthesized by a peeling method, which also exhibit enhanced lithium storage performances. However, it still remains a great challenge to synthesize widely-used lithium-containing ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures, because the lithium-containing ternary oxides, unlike ternary layered double hydroxides (LDH), are very hard to be directly peeled. Herein, we successfully synthesized ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbons with a thickness of about 3 nm by transformation from ultrathin V2O5xH2O nanoribbons, moreover, we achieved the preparation of ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbon@graphene sandwich-like nanostructures (LVO/G) through a layer-by-layer assembly method. The unique sandwich-like nanostructures shows not only a high specific reversible capacitance (up to 452.5 mA hg-1 after 200 cycles) but also an excellent cycling performance (with more than 299.2 mA hg-1 of the capacity at 10 C after 1000 cycles) as well as very high rate capability. Such template strategy, using "graphene-like" binary inorganic nanosheets as templates to synthesize lithium-containing ternary oxide nanosheets, may be extended to prepare other ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures

  1. Sheath formation criterion in magnetized electronegative plasmas with thermal ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatami, M. M. [Physics Department of K N Toosi University of Technology, 15418-49611 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Taking into account the effect of collisions and positive ion temperatures, the sheath formation criterion is investigated in a weakly magnetized electronegative plasma consisting of electrons, negative and positive ions by using the hydrodynamics equations. It is assumed that the electron and negative ion density distributions are the Boltzmann distribution with two different temperatures. Also, it is assumed that the velocity of positive ions at the sheath edge is not normal to the wall (oblique entrance). Our results show that a sheath region will be formed when the initial velocity of positive ions or the ion Mach number M lies in a specific interval with particular upper and lower limits. Also, it is shown that the presence of the magnetic field affects both of these limits. Moreover, as an practical application, the density distribution of charged particles in the sheath region is studied for an allowable value of M, and it is seen that monotonically reduction of the positive ion density distribution leading to the sheath formation occurs only when M lies between two above mentioned limits.

  2. Innovative Manufacturing and Materials for Low-Cost Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nnovative M anufacturing and M aterials for Low -Cost Lithium -I on Batteries This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information...

  3. Heavy-ion irradiation induced diamond formation in carbonaceous materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daulton, T. L.

    1999-01-08

    The basic mechanisms of metastable phase formation produced under highly non-equilibrium thermodynamic conditions within high-energy particle tracks are investigated. In particular, the possible formation of diamond by heavy-ion irradiation of graphite at ambient temperature is examined. This work was motivated, in part, by earlier studies which discovered nanometer-grain polycrystalline diamond aggregates of submicron-size in uranium-rich carbonaceous mineral assemblages of Precambrian age. It was proposed that the radioactive decay of uranium formed diamond in the fission particle tracks produced in the carbonaceous minerals. To test the hypothesis that nanodiamonds can form by ion irradiation, fine-grain polycrystalline graphite sheets were irradiated with 400 MeV Kr ions. The ion irradiated graphite (and unirradiated graphite control) were then subjected to acid dissolution treatments to remove the graphite and isolate any diamonds that were produced. The acid residues were then characterized by analytical and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The acid residues of the ion-irradiated graphite were found to contain ppm concentrations of nanodiamonds, suggesting that ion irradiation of bulk graphite at ambient temperature can produce diamond.

  4. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds viamore » a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.« less

  5. Lithium Energy Japan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Japan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Energy Japan Place: Kyoto, Japan Zip: 6018520 Product: Kyoto-based developer, manufacturer and seller of large lithium-ion...

  6. Studies of ionic liquids in lithium-ion battery test systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Prausnitz, John M.; Newman, John

    2006-06-01

    In this work, thermal and electrochemical properties of neat and mixed ionic liquid - lithium salt systems have been studied. The presence of a lithium salt causes both thermal and phase-behavior changes. Differential scanning calorimeter DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis TGA were used for thermal analysis for several imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, trifluoromethansulfonate, BF{sub 4}, and PF{sub 6} systems. Conductivities and diffusion coefficient have been measured for some selected systems. Chemical reactions in electrode - ionic liquid electrolyte interfaces were studied by interfacial impedance measurements. Lithium-lithium and lithium-carbon cells were studied at open circuit and a charged system. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazolium systems that are already known to be electrochemically unstable in the presence of lithium metal. In this work the development of interfacial resistance is shown in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell as well as results from some cycling experiments. As the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode the interfacial resistance increases. The results show the magnitude of reactivity due to reduction of the ionic liquid electrolyte that eventually has a detrimental effect on battery performance.

  7. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks’ size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electron–lattice coupling.

  8. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte.more » By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+–solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.« less

  9. Identifying surface structural changes in layered Li-excess nickel manganese oxides in high voltage lithium ion batteries: A joint experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Bo; Fell, Christopher R.; Chi, Miaofang; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2011-09-06

    High voltage cathode materials Li-excess layered oxide compounds Li[Ni{sub x}Li{sub 1/3-2x/3}Mn{sub 2/3-x/3}]O{sub 2} (0 < x < 1/2) are investigated in a joint study combining both computational and experimental methods. The bulk and surface structures of pristine and cycled samples of Li[Ni{sub 1/5}Li{sub 1/5}Mn{sub 3/5}]O{sub 2} are characterized by synchrotron X-Ray diffraction together with aberration corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (a-S/TEM). Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) is carried out to investigate the surface changes of the samples before/after electrochemical cycling. Combining first principles computational investigation with our experimental observations, a detailed lithium de-intercalation mechanism is proposed for this family of Li-excess layered oxides. The most striking characteristics in these high voltage high energy density cathode materials are (1) formation of tetrahedral lithium ions at voltage less than 4.45 V and (2) the transition metal (TM) ions migration leading to phase transformation on the surface of the materials. We show clear evidence of a new spinel-like solid phase formed on the surface of the electrode materials after high-voltage cycling. It is proposed that such surface phase transformation is one of the factors contributing to the first cycle irreversible capacity and the main reason for the intrinsic poor rate capability of these materials.

  10. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  11. Porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jinxue; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Xiao Chen, Haoxin

    2014-05-01

    In this manuscript, porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are prepared through a two-step approach which is composed of hydrothermal process and heating treatment as high performance anode for lithium-ion battery. Benefiting from the porous structure and 1-dimensional features, the product becomes robust and exhibits high reversible capability, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. - Graphical abstract: 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure as anode for lithium-ion battery with excellent electrochemical performance. - Highlights: A two-step route has been applied to prepare 1D porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanostructure. Its porous feature facilitates the fast transport of electron and lithium ion. Its porous structure endows it with capacities higher than its theoretical capacity. 1D nanostructure can tolerate volume changes during lithation/delithiation cycles. It exhibits high capacity, good cyclability and excellent rate performance.

  12. Localization of vacancies and mobility of lithium ions in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} as obtained by {sup 6,7}Li NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baklanova, Ya. V., E-mail: baklanovay@ihim.uran.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 91 Pervomaiskaya str., 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Arapova, I. Yu.; Buzlukov, A.L.; Gerashenko, A.P.; Verkhovskii, S.V.; Mikhalev, K.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 18 Kovalevskaya str., 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Denisova, T.A.; Shein, I.R.; Maksimova, L.G. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 91 Pervomaiskaya str., 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The {sup 6,7}Li NMR spectra and the {sup 7}Li spinlattice relaxation rate were measured on polycrystalline samples of Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}, synthesized at 1050 K and 1300 K. The {sup 7}Li NMR lines were attributed to corresponding structural positions of lithium Li1 and Li2 by comparing the EFG components with those obtained in the first-principles calculations of the charge density in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. For both samples the line width of the central {sup 7}Li transition and the spinlattice relaxation time decrease abruptly at the temperature increasing above ?500 K, whereas the EFG parameters are averaged (??{sub Q}?=42 (5) kHz) owing to thermally activated diffusion of lithium ions. - Graphical abstract: Path of lithium ion hopping in lithium zirconate Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. - Highlights: Polycrystalline samples Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} with monoclinic crystal structure synthesized at different temperatures were investigated by {sup 6,7}Li NMR spectroscopy. Two {sup 6,7}Li NMR lines were attributed to the specific structural positions Li1 and Li2. The distribution of vacancies was clarified for both lithium sites. The activation energy and pathways of lithium diffusion in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} were defined.

  13. Observations of Oxygen Ion Behavior in the Lithium-Based Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li; Brenda E. Serrano-Rodriguez

    2009-09-01

    Parametric studies were performed on a lithium-based electrolytic reduction process at bench-scale to investigate the behavior of oxygen ions in the reduction of uranium oxide for various electrochemical cell configurations. Specifically, a series of eight electrolytic reduction runs was performed in a common salt bath of LiCl 1 wt% Li2O. The variable parameters included fuel basket containment material (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh and sintered stainless steel) and applied electrical charge (i.e., 75 150% of the theoretical charge for complete reduction of uranium oxide in a basket to uranium metal). Samples of the molten salt electrolyte were taken at regular intervals throughout each run and analyzed to produce a time plot of Li2O concentrations in the bulk salt over the course of the runs. Following each run, the fuel basket was sectioned and the fuel was removed. Samples of the fuel were analyzed for the extent of uranium oxide reduction to metal and for the concentration of salt constituents, i.e., LiCl and Li2O. Extents of uranium oxide reduction ranged from 43 70% in stainless steel wire mesh baskets and 8 33 % in sintered stainless steel baskets. The concentrations of Li2O in the salt phase of the fuel product from the stainless steel wire mesh baskets ranged from 6.2 9.2 wt%, while those for the sintered stainless steel baskets ranged from 26 46 wt%. Another series of tests was performed to investigate the dissolution of Li2O in LiCl at 650 C across various cathode containment materials (i.e., stainless steel wire mesh, sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia) and configurations (i.e., stationary and rotating cylindrical baskets). Dissolution of identical loadings of Li2O particulate reached equilibrium within one hour for stationary stainless steel wire mesh baskets, while the same took several hours for sintered stainless steel and porous magnesia baskets. Rotation of an annular cylindrical basket of stainless steel wire mesh accelerated the Li2O dissolution rate by more than a factor of six.

  14. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures as cathode materials for flexible lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Y.H., E-mail: yhding@xtu.edu.cn [College of Chemical Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Ren, H.M. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Huang, Y.Y. [BTR New Energy Materials Inc., Shenzhen 518000 (China); Chang, F.H.; Zhang, P. [Institute of Rheology Mechanics, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} composites as a high-performance cathode material for flexible lithium-ion batteries have been prepared by using a co-precipitation method to synthesize graphene/LiFePO4 powders as precursors and then followed by a solvent evaporation process. - Highlights: Flexible LiFePO{sub 4}/graphene films were prepared first time by a solvent evaporation process. The flexible electrode exhibited a high discharge capacity without conductive additives. Graphene network offers the electrode adequate strength to withstand repeated flexing. - Abstract: Three-dimensional graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures for flexible lithium-ion batteries were successfully prepared by solvent evaporation method. Structural characteristics of flexible electrodes were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrochemical performance of graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} was examined by a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The graphene/LiFePO{sub 4} nanostructures showed high electrochemical properties and significant flexibility. The composites with low graphene content exhibited a high capacity of 163.7 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.1 C and 114 mAh g{sup ?1} at 5 C without further incorporation of conductive agents.

  16. Optimal Charging Profiles with Minimal Intercalation-Induced Stresses for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Reformulated Pseudo 2-Dimensional Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Northrop, PWC; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-07-30

    This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery by restricting the intercalation-induced stresses to a pre-determined limit estimated using a pseudo 2-dimensional (P2D). model. This paper focuses on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting capacity fade due to intercalation-induced stresses. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage or CC-CV) are not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms, which are not only inefficient in terms of life-time usage of the batteries but are also slower by not taking into account the changing dynamics of the system. (C) The Author(s) 2014. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives 4.0 License (CC BY-NC-ND, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is not changed in any way and is properly cited. For permission for commercial reuse, please email: oa@electrochem.org. All rights reserved.

  17. Tuning charge–discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during charge–discharge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of M–M bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking M–O as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials.more » The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  18. NREL/NASA Internal Short-Circuit Instigator in Lithium Ion Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Dirk; Ireland, John; Pesaran, Ahmad; Darcy, Eric; Shoesmith, Mark; McCarthy, Ben

    2013-11-14

    NREL has developed a device to test one of the most challenging failure mechanisms of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries -- a battery internal short circuit. Many members of the technical community believe that this type of failure is caused by a latent flaw that results in a short circuit between electrodes during use. As electric car manufacturers turn to Li-ion batteries for energy storage, solving the short circuit problem becomes more important. To date, no reliable and practical method exists to create on-demand internal shorts in Li-ion cells that produce a response that is relevant to the ones produced by field failures. NREL and NASA have worked to establish an improved ISC cell-level test method that simulates an emergent internal short circuit, is capable of triggering the four types of cell internal shorts, and produces consistent and reproducible results. Internal short circuit device design is small, low-profile and implantable into Li-ion cells, preferably during assembly. The key component is an electrolyte-compatible phase change material (PCM). The ISC is triggered by heating the cell above PCM melting temperature (presently 40 degrees C 60 degrees C). In laboratory testing, the activated device can handle currents in excess of 300 A to simulate hard shorts (< 2 mohms). Phase change from non-conducting to conducting has been 100% successful during trigger tests.

  19. Predictive modeling of synergistic effects in nanoscale ion track formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Xue, Haizhou; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-08-05

    Molecular dynamics techniques and the inelastic thermal spike model are used to study the coupled effects of inelastic energy loss due to 21 MeV Ni ion irradiation and pre-existing defects in SrTiO3. We determine the dependence on pre-existing defect concentration of nanoscale track formation occurring from the synergy between the inelastic energy loss and the pre-existing atomic defects. We show that the nanoscale ion tracks size can be controlled by the concentration of pre-existing disorder. This work identifies a major gap in fundamental understanding concerning the role played by defects in electronic energy dissipation and electronlattice coupling.

  20. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  1. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, F.M.; Even, W.R. Jr.; Sylwester, A.P.; Wang, J.C.F.; Zifer, T.

    1995-06-20

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc. 6 figs.

  2. Structural micro-porous carbon anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Delnick, Frank M. (Albuquerque, NM); Even, Jr., William R. (Livermore, CA); Sylwester, Alan P. (Washington, DC); Wang, James C. F. (Livermore, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A secondary battery having a rechargeable lithium-containing anode, a cathode and a separator positioned between the cathode and anode with an organic electrolyte solution absorbed therein is provided. The anode comprises three-dimensional microporous carbon structures synthesized from polymeric high internal phase emulsions or materials derived from this emulsion source, i.e., granules, powders, etc.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of lithium manganese nickel oxide sputtered thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggetto, Loic; Unocic, Raymond R; Dudney, Nancy J; Veith, Gabriel M

    2012-01-01

    Li-rich and stoichiometric Li1Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) cathode films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Sputtering from a Li stoichiometric target yields Li-rich films composed of spinel, layered and monoclinic phases. Films obtained from a Li deficient target are mostly made of a spinel phase and little layered material. The resulting cathode thin films have good capacity retention and very high rate capability. The reaction mechanism has been investigated by XRD and HRTEM and evidences the reversible formation of a spinel phase, as is also found for the powder samples. The film geometry enables to understand the effect of coatings (ZnO or LiPON). Coating high voltage cathodes reduces the coulombic losses but at the price of rate performance. Nonetheless, these coated sputtered electrode thin films offer a higher rate capability than other LMNO thin films obtained by other physical vapor deposition techniques.

  4. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Solid-state lithium battery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid-state lithium battery The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate

  5. ESTABLISHING SUSTAINABLE US HEV/PHEV MANUFACTURING BASE: STABILIZED LITHIUM METAL POWDER, ENABLING MATERIAL AND REVOLUTIONARY TECHNOLOGY FOR HIGH ENERGY LI-ION BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakovleva, Marina

    2012-12-31

    FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety, cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.

  6. Material and Energy Flows in the Materials Production, Assembly, and End-of-Life Stages of the Automotive Lithium-Ion Battery Life Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Jennifer B.; Gaines, Linda; Barnes, Matthew; Sullivan, John L.; Wang, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn₂O₄). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn₂O₄ as the cathode material using Argonne’s Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  7. Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J.

    2012-06-21

    This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

  8. Effect of entropy of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas A; Williford, Ralph E; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes (ΔS) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO2 has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNixCoyMnzO2 and LiFePO4, while lithium titanate based anode has lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. Reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat.

  9. Lithium-ion battery cell-level control using constrained model predictive control and equivalent circuit models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xavier, MA; Trimboli, MS

    2015-07-01

    This paper introduces a novel application of model predictive control (MPC) to cell-level charging of a lithium-ion battery utilizing an equivalent circuit model of battery dynamics. The approach employs a modified form of the MPC algorithm that caters for direct feed-though signals in order to model near-instantaneous battery ohmic resistance. The implementation utilizes a 2nd-order equivalent circuit discrete-time state-space model based on actual cell parameters; the control methodology is used to compute a fast charging profile that respects input, output, and state constraints. Results show that MPC is well-suited to the dynamics of the battery control problem and further suggest significant performance improvements might be achieved by extending the result to electrochemical models. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  11. Efficient simulation and model reformulation of two-dimensional electrochemical thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Northrop, Paul W. C.; Pathak, Manan; Rife, Derek; De, Sumitava; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2015-03-09

    Lithium-ion batteries are an important technology to facilitate efficient energy storage and enable a shift from petroleum based energy to more environmentally benign sources. Such systems can be utilized most efficiently if good understanding of performance can be achieved for a range of operating conditions. Mathematical models can be useful to predict battery behavior to allow for optimization of design and control. An analytical solution is ideally preferred to solve the equations of a mathematical model, as it eliminates the error that arises when using numerical techniques and is usually computationally cheap. An analytical solution provides insight into the behaviormore » of the system and also explicitly shows the effects of different parameters on the behavior. However, most engineering models, including the majority of battery models, cannot be solved analytically due to non-linearities in the equations and state dependent transport and kinetic parameters. The numerical method used to solve the system of equations describing a battery operation can have a significant impact on the computational cost of the simulation. In this paper, a model reformulation of the porous electrode pseudo three dimensional (P3D) which significantly reduces the computational cost of lithium ion battery simulation, while maintaining high accuracy, is discussed. This reformulation enables the use of the P3D model into applications that would otherwise be too computationally expensive to justify its use, such as online control, optimization, and parameter estimation. Furthermore, the P3D model has proven to be robust enough to allow for the inclusion of additional physical phenomena as understanding improves. In this study, the reformulated model is used to allow for more complicated physical phenomena to be considered for study, including thermal effects.« less

  12. Mesoscale Phase-Field Modeling of Charge Transport in Nanocomposite Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sushko, Maria L.

    2013-01-10

    A phase-field model is developed to investigate the influence of microstructure, thermodynamic and kinetic properties, and charging conditions on charged particle transport in nanocomposite electrodes. Two sets of field variables are used to describe the microstructure. One is comprised of the order parameters describing size, orientation and spatial distributions of nanoparticles, and the other is comprised of the concentrations of mobile species. A porous nanoparticle microstructure filled with electrolyte is taken as a model system to test the phase-field model. Inhomogeneous and anisotropic dielectric constants and mobilities of charged particles, and stresses associated with lattice deformation due to Li-ion insertion/extraction are considered in the model. Iteration methods are used to find the elastic and electric fields in an elastically and electrically inhomogeneous medium. The results demonstrate that the model is capable of predicting charge separation associated with the formation of a double layer at the electrochemical interface between solid and electrolyte, and the effect of microstructure, inhomogeneous and anisotropic thermodynamic and kinetic properties, charge rates, and stresses on voltage versus current density and capacity during charging and discharging.

  13. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3–xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnation–reduction–oxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize themore » particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.« less

  14. Three-dimensional hollow-structured binary oxide particles as an advanced anode material for high-rate and long cycle life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Deli; Wang, Jie; He, Huan; Han, Lili; Lin, Ruoqian; Xin, Huolin L.; Wu, Zexing; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-12-30

    Transition metal oxides are among the most promising anode candidates for next-generation lithium-ion batteries for their high theoretical capacity. However, the large volume expansion and low lithium ion diffusivity leading to a poor charging/discharging performance. In this study, we developed a surfactant and template-free strategy for the synthesis of a composite of CoxFe3xO4 hollow spheres supported by carbon nanotubes via an impregnationreductionoxidation process. The synergy of the composite, as well as the hollow structures in the electrode materials, not only facilitate Li ion and electron transport, but also accommodate large volume expansion. Using state-of-the-art electron tomography, we directly visualize the particles in 3-D, where the voids in the hollow structures serve to buffer the volume expansion of the material. These improvements result in a high reversible capacity as well as an outstanding rate performance for lithium-ion battery applications. As a result, this study sheds light on large-scale production of hollow structured metal oxides for commercial applications in energy storage and conversion.

  15. Tailored Recovery of Carbons from Waste Tires for Enhanced Performance as Anodes in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naskar, Amit K; Bi,; Saha, Dipendu; Chi, Miaofang; Bridges, Craig A; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2014-01-01

    Morphologically tailored pyrolysis-recovered carbon black is utilized in lithium-ion batteries as a potential solution for adding value to waste tire-rubber-derived materials. Micronized tire rubber was digested in a hot oleum bath to yield a sulfonated rubber slurry that was then filtered, washed, and compressed into a solid cake. Carbon was recovered from the modified rubber cake by pyrolysis in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical pretreatment of rubber produced a carbon monolith with higher yield than that from the control (a fluffy tire-rubber-derived carbon black). The carbon monolith showed a very small volume fraction of pores of widths 3 4 nm, reduced specific surface area, and an ordered assembly of graphitic domains. Electrochemical studies on the recovered-carbon-based anode revealed an improved Li-ion battery performance with higher reversible capacity than that of commercial carbon materials. Anodes made with a sulfonated tire-rubber-derived carbon and a control tire-rubber-derived carbon, respectively, exhibited an initial coulombic efficiency of 80% and 45%, respectively. The reversible capacity of the cell with the sulfonated carbon as anode was 400 mAh/g after 100 cycles, with nearly 100% coulombic efficiency. Our success in producing higher performance carbon material from waste tire rubber for potential use in energy storage applications adds a new avenue to tire rubber recycling.

  16. Evidence of covalent synergy in siliconsulfurgraphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte to the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.

  17. Evidence of covalent synergy in silicon–sulfur–graphene yielding highly efficient and long-life lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hassan, Fathy M.; Batmaz, Rasim; Li, Jingde; Wang, Xiaolei; Xiao, Xingcheng; Yu, Aiping; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-10-26

    Silicon has the potential to revolutionize the energy storage capacities of lithium-ion batteries to meet the ever increasing power demands of next generation technologies. To avoid the operational stability problems of silicon-based anodes, we propose synergistic physicochemical alteration of electrode structures during their design. This capitalizes on covalent interaction of Si nanoparticles with sulfur-doped graphene and with cyclized polyacrylonitrile to provide a robust nanoarchitecture. This hierarchical structure stabilized the solid electrolyte interphase leading to superior reversible capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 for 2,275 cycles at 2 A g-1. Furthermore, the nanoarchitectured design lowered the contact of the electrolyte tomore » the electrode leading to not only high coulombic efficiency of 99.9% but also maintaining high stability even with high electrode loading associated with 3.4 mAh cm-2. As a result, the excellent performance combined with the simplistic, scalable and non-hazardous approach render the process as a very promising candidate for Li-ion battery technology.« less

  18. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion...

  19. Synthesis of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) for lithium ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Chuanqi; Ma Jun; Li Hua; Zeng Rong; Guo Zaiping; Liu Huakun

    2009-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a rheological phase reaction method for preparing MoS{sub 2} nanoflakes. The characterization by powder X-ray diffraction indicated that MoS{sub 2} had been formed. High resolution electron microscopy observation revealed that the as-prepared MoS{sub 2} nanoflakes had started to curve and partly form MoS{sub 2} nanotubes. The lithium intercalation/de-intercalation behavior of as-prepared MoS{sub 2} nanoflake electrode was also investigated. It was found that the MoS{sub 2} nanoflake electrode exhibited higher specific capacity, with very high cycling stability, compared to MoS{sub 2} nanoparticle electrode. The possible reasons for the high electrochemical performance of the nanoflakes electrodes are also discussed. The outstanding electrochemical properties of MoS{sub 2} nanoflakes obtained by this method make it possible for MoS{sub 2} to be used as a promising anode material.

  20. Lithium-Ion Ultracapacitors integrated with Wind Turbines Power Conversion Systems to Extend Operating Life and Improve Output Power Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adel Nasiri

    2012-05-23

    In this project we designed and modeled a system for a full conversion wind turbine and built a scaled down model which utilizes Lithium-Ion Capacitors on the DC bus. One of the objectives is to reduce the mechanical stress on the gearbox and drivetrain of the wind turbine by adjusting the torque on generator side according to incoming wind power. Another objective is to provide short-term support for wind energy to be more ???¢????????grid friendly???¢??????? in order to ultimately increase wind energy penetration. These supports include power smoothing, power ramp rate limitation, low voltage ride through, and frequency (inertia) support. This research shows how energy storage in small scale and in an economical fashion can make a significant impact on performance of wind turbines. Gearbox and drivetrain premature failures are among high cost maintenance items for wind turbines. Since the capacitors are directly applied on the turbine DC bus and their integration does not require addition hardware, the cost of the additional system can be reasonable for the wind turbine manufacturers and utility companies.

  1. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  2. Photoluminescence properties of Ho{sup 3+} ion in lithium-fluoroborate glass containing different modifier oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakrishna, A. Rajesh, D. Ratnakaram, Y. C.

    2014-04-24

    Trivalent holmium (0.5 mol%) doped lithium fluoro-borate glasses with the chemical compositions 49.5Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}20BaF{sub 2?}10NaF?20MO (where M=Mg, Ca, Cd and Pb), 49.5Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}20BaF{sub 2?}10NaF?10MgO?10CaO and 49.5Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7?}20BaF{sub 2?}10NaF?10CdO?10PbO were synthesized and investigated their photoluminescence properties. The variation in chemical composition by varying modifier oxides causes changes in the structural spectroscopic behavior of Ho{sup 3+} ions. These changes are examined by UV-VIS- NIR and luminescence spectroscopic techniques. The visible luminescence spectra were obtained by exciting samples at 409 nm radiation.

  3. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Yang; Piper, Daniela M.; Gu, Meng; Travis, Jonathan J.; George, Steven M.; Lee, Se-Hee; Genc, Arda; Pullan, Lee; Liu, Jun; Mao, Scott X.; Zhang, Jiguang; Ban, Chunmei; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-11-25

    Surface modification of silicon nanoparticle via molecular layer deposition (MLD) has been recently proved to be an effective way for dramatically enhancing the cyclic performance in lithium ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism as how this thin layer of coating function is not known, which is even complicated by the inevitable presence of native oxide of several nanometers on the silicon nanoparticle. Using in-situ TEM, we probed in detail the structural and chemical evolution of both uncoated and coated silicon particles upon cyclic lithiation/delithation. We discovered that upon initial lithiation, the native oxide layer converts to crystalline Li2O islands, which essentially increases the impedance on the particle, resulting in ineffective lithiation/delithiation, and therefore low coulombic efficiency. In contrast, the alucone MLD coated particles show extremely fast, thorough and highly reversible lithiation behaviors, which are clarified to be associated with the mechanical flexibility and fast Li+/e- conductivity of the alucone coating. Surprisingly, the alucone MLD coating process chemically changes the silicon surface, essentially removing the native oxide layer and therefore mitigates side reaction and detrimental effects of the native oxide. This study provides a vivid picture of how the MLD coating works to enhance the coulombic efficiency and preserve capacity and clarifies the role of the native oxide on silicon nanoparticles during cyclic lithiation and delithiation. More broadly, this work also demonstrated that the effect of the subtle chemical modification of the surface during the coating process may be of equal importance as the coating layer itself.

  4. Formation of TiO{sub 2} nanorods by ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, X. D.; Ren, F., E-mail: fren@whu.edu.cn; Cai, G. X.; Hong, M. Q.; Xiao, X. H.; Wu, W.; Liu, Y. C.; Li, W. Q.; Ying, J. J.; Jiang, C. Z. [School of Physics and Technology, Center for Ion Beam Application and Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-05-14

    Ion beam irradiation is a powerful method to fabricate and tailor the nanostructured surface of materials. Nanorods on the surface of single crystal rutile TiO{sub 2} were formed by N{sup +} ion irradiation. The dependence of nanorod morphology on ion fluence and energy was elaborated. With increasing ion fluence, nanopores grow in one direction perpendicular to the surface and burst finally to form nanorods. The length of nanorods increases with increasing ion energy under same fluence. The development of the nanorod structure is originated from the formation of the nanopores while N{sub 2} bubbles and aggregation of vacancies were responsible for the formation of nanopores and nanorods. Combining C{sup +} ion irradiation and post-irradiation annealing experiments, two qualitative models are proposed to explain the formation mechanism of these nanorods.

  5. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Degradation Mechanisms and Lifetime Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries -- A Control Perspective: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Kandler; Shi, Ying; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2015-07-29

    Predictive models of Li-ion battery lifetime must consider a multiplicity of electrochemical, thermal, and mechanical degradation modes experienced by batteries in application environments. To complicate matters, Li-ion batteries can experience different degradation trajectories that depend on storage and cycling history of the application environment. Rates of degradation are controlled by factors such as temperature history, electrochemical operating window, and charge/discharge rate. We present a generalized battery life prognostic model framework for battery systems design and control. The model framework consists of trial functions that are statistically regressed to Li-ion cell life datasets wherein the cells have been aged under different levels of stress. Degradation mechanisms and rate laws dependent on temperature, storage, and cycling condition are regressed to the data, with multiple model hypotheses evaluated and the best model down-selected based on statistics. The resulting life prognostic model, implemented in state variable form, is extensible to arbitrary real-world scenarios. The model is applicable in real-time control algorithms to maximize battery life and performance. We discuss efforts to reduce lifetime prediction error and accommodate its inevitable impact in controller design.

  10. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2015-12-22

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicate that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.

  12. Internal configuration of prismatic lithium-ion cells at the onset of mechanically induced short circuit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hsin; Simunovic, Srdjan; Maleki, Hosein; Howard, Jason N.; Hallmark, Jerald A.

    2015-12-22

    The response of Li-ion cells to mechanically induced internal electrical shorts is an important safety performance metric design. We assume that the battery internal configuration at the onset of electrical short influences the subsequent response and can be used to gauge the safety risk. We subjected a series of prismatic Li-ion cells to lateral pinching using 0.25", 0.5", 1", 2" and 3" diameter steel balls until the onset of internal short. The external aluminum enclosure froze the internal cell configuration at the onset of short and enabled us to cross-section the cells, and take the cross-section images. The images indicatemore » that an internal electric short is preceded by extensive strain partitioning in the cells, fracturing and tearing of the current collectors, and cracking and slipping of the electrode layers with multiple fault lines across multiple layers. These observations are at odds with a common notion of homogeneous deformation across the layers and strain hardening of electrodes that eventually punch through the separator and short the cell. The faults are akin to tectonic movements of multiple layers that are characteristic of granular materials and bonded aggregates. As a result, the short circuits occur after extensive internal faulting, which implies significant stretching and tearing of separators.« less

  13. Pseudocapacitive Lithium-Ion Storage in Oriented Anatase TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, K.; Wang, Q.; Kim, J. H.; Pesaran, A. A.; Frank, A. J.

    2012-06-07

    We report on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of oriented anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube (NT) arrays as electrodes for Li-ion batteries. The TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes displayed both pseudocapacitive Li{sup +} storage associated with the NT surface and the Li{sup +} storage within the bulk material. The relative contribution of the pseudocapacitive and bulk storages depends strongly on the scan rate. While the charges are stored primarily in the bulk at low scan rates (<< 1 mV/s), the surface storage dominates the total storage capacity at higher scan rates (>1 mV/s). The storage capacity of the NT electrodes as a function of charge/discharge rates showed no dependence on the NT film thickness, suggesting that the Li{sup +} insertion/extraction processes occur homogeneously across the entire length of NT arrays. These results indicated that the electron conduction along the NT walls and the ion conduction within the electrolyte do not cause significant hindering of the charge/discharge kinetics for NT electrode architectures. As a result of the surface pseudocapacitive storage, the reversible Li{sup +} storage capacities for TiO{sub 2} NT electrodes were higher than the theoretical storage capacity for bulk anatase TiO{sub 2} materials.

  14. Performance and degradation evaluation of five different commercial lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Striebel, Kathryn A.; Shim, Joongpyo

    2004-04-20

    The initial performance of five different types of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, from Quallion Corp, UltraLife Battery and Toshiba, was measured and compared. Cell characterization included variable-rate constant-current cycling, various USDOE pulse-test protocols and full-spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Changes in impedance and capacity were monitored during electrochemical cycling under various conditions, including constant-current cycling over 100 percent DOD at a range of temperature and pulse profile cycling over a very narrow range of DOD at room temperature. All cells were found to maintain more than 80 percent of their rated capacity for more than 400 constant current 100 percent DOD cycles. The power fade (or impedance rise) of the cells varied considerably. New methods for interpreting the pulse resistance data were evaluated for their usefulness in interpreting performance mechanism as a function of test protocol and cell design.

  15. Graphene Modified LiFePO4 Cathode Materials for High Power Lithium ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, X.; Wang, F.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, Z.

    2011-01-24

    Graphene-modified LiFePO{sub 4} composite has been developed as a Li-ion battery cathode material with excellent high-rate capability and cycling stability. The composite was prepared with LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene oxide nanosheets by spray-drying and annealing processes. The LiFePO{sub 4} primary nanoparticles embedded in micro-sized spherical secondary particles were wrapped homogeneously and loosely with a graphene 3D network. Such a special nanostructure facilitated electron migration throughout the secondary particles, while the presence of abundant voids between the LiFePO{sub 4} nanoparticles and graphene sheets was beneficial for Li{sup +} diffusion. The composite cathode material could deliver a capacity of 70 mAh g{sup -1} at 60C discharge rate and showed a capacity decay rate of <15% when cycled under 10C charging and 20C discharging for 1000 times.

  16. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  17. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquid cell.

  18. Nickel/carbon core/shell nanotubes: Lanthanum nickel alloy catalyzed synthesis, characterization and studies on their ferromagnetic and lithium-ion storage properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthuvan Rajesh, John; Pandurangan, Arumugam; Senthil, Chenrayan; Sasidharan, Manickam

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Ni/CNTs core/shell structure was synthesized using LaNi{sub 5} alloy catalyst by CVD. The magnetic and lithium-ion storage properties of Ni/CNTs structure were studied. The specific Ni/CNTs structure shows strong ferromagnetic property with large coercivity value of 446.42 Oe. Ni/CNTs structure shows enhanced electrochemical performance in terms of stable capacity and better rate capability. - Abstract: A method was developed to synthesize ferromagnetic nickel core/carbon shell nanotubes (Ni/CNTs) by chemical vapor deposition using Pauli paramagnetic lanthanum nickel (LaNi{sub 5}) alloy both as a catalyst and as a source for the Ni-core. The Ni-core was obtained through oxidative dissociation followed by hydrogen reduction during the catalytic growth of the CNTs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses reveal that the Ni-core exists as a face centered cubic single crystal. The magnetic hysteresis loop of Ni/CNTs particle shows increased coercivity (446.42 Oe) than bulk Ni at room temperature. Furthermore, the Ni/CNTs core/shell particles were investigated as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries. The Ni/CNTs electrode delivered a high discharge capacity of 309 mA h g{sup ?1} at 0.2 C, and a stable cycle-life, which is attributed to high structural stability of Ni/CNTs electrode during electrochemical lithium-ion insertion and de-insertion redox reactions.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of LiBF 4 in propylene carbonate. A model lithium ion battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jacob W.; Lam, Royce K.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Shih, Orion; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Borodin, Oleg; Harris, Stephen J.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-08-20

    Since their introduction into the commercial marketplace in 1991, lithium ion batteries have become increasingly ubiquitous in portable technology. Nevertheless, improvements to existing battery technology are necessary to expand their utility for larger-scale applications, such as electric vehicles. Advances may be realized from improvements to the liquid electrolyte; however, current understanding of the liquid structure and properties remains incomplete. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of solutions of LiBF4 in propylene carbonate (PC), interpreted using first-principles electronic structure calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approximation, yields new insight into the solvation structure of the Li+ ion in this model electrolyte. By generating linear combinations of the computed spectra of Li+-associating and free PC molecules and comparing to the experimental spectrum, we find a Li+solvent interaction number of 4.5. This result suggests that computational models of lithium ion battery electrolytes should move beyond tetrahedral coordination structures.

  20. Efficient Reformulation of Solid Phase Diffusion in Electrochemical-Mechanical Coupled Models for Lithium-Ion Batteries: Effect of Intercalation Induced Stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De, S; Suthar, B; Rife, D; Sikha, G; Subramanian, VR

    2013-07-23

    Lithium-ion batteries are typically modeled using porous electrode theory coupled with various transport and reaction mechanisms with an appropriate discretization or approximation for the solid phase diffusion within the electrode particle. One of the major difficulties in simulating Li-ion battery models is the need for simulating solid-phase diffusion in the second radial dimension r within the particle. It increases the complexity of the model as well as the computation time/cost to a great extent. This is Particularly true for the inclusion of pressure induced diffusion inside particles experiencing volume change. A computationally efficient representation for solid-phase diffusion is discussed in this paper. The operating condition has a significant effect on the validity, accuracy, and efficiency of various approximations for the solid-phase transport governed by pressure induced diffusion. This paper introduces efficient methods for solid phase reformulation - (1) parabolic profile approach and (2) a mixed order finite difference method for approximating/representing solid-phase concentration variations within the active materials of porous electrodes for macroscopic models for lithium-ion batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  1. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites") form on the surface of the lithium electrode and spread across the electrolyte until they reach

  2. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites")

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  4. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations (Presentation), Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CMAC), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automo&ve Lithium---ion Ba1ery (LIB) Supply Chain and U.S. Compe&&veness Considera&ons Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, S hriram Santhanagopalan, CEMAC With contribu,ons from experts at the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne Na,onal Laboratory, the Na,onal Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Industry Partners June 2, 2015 NREL/PR---6A50---63354 Contract No. DE---AC36---08GO28308 June 2015 CEMAC ▪ Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center ▪ ManufacturingCleanEnergy.org DISCLAIMER

  5. Automotive Lithium-ion Battery Supply Chain and U.S. Competitiveness Considerations (Presentation), Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CMAC), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Automo&ve Lithium---ion Ba1ery (LIB) Supply Chain and U.S. Compe&&veness Considera&ons Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, S hriram Santhanagopalan, CEMAC With contribu,ons from experts at the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne Na,onal Laboratory, the Na,onal Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Industry Partners June 2, 2015 NREL/PR---6A50---63354 Contract No. DE---AC36---08GO28308 June 2015 CEMAC ▪ Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center ▪ ManufacturingCleanEnergy.org DISCLAIMER

  6. Synthesis and characterization of substituted garnet and perovskite-based lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu-Sepúlveda, Maria; Huq, Ashfia; Dhital, Chetan; Dominique E. Williams; Li, Yunchao; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Zaghib, Karim; Manivannan, A.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, titanium, tantalum-substituted Li7La3Zr2-xAxO12 (LLZO, A = Ta, Ti) garnets, and chromium-substituted La(2/3)-xLi3xTi1-yCryO3 (LLTO) perovskites were prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction and the Pechini processes. The desired crystal phases were obtained by varying the calcination temperature and time, as well as the substitution concentration. All samples indicated decomposition of the precursors when heated above 750 °C and formation of the desired phase after heat treatment at higher temperatures. Neutron diffraction data shows the formation of a predominant cubic phase in the case of Ta-LLZO, and monoclinic phase with minor impurity phases for Cr-LLTO. Ionic conductivity for Ti-LLZOmore » (Li7La3Zr1.4Ti0.6O12), Ta-LLZO (Li6.03La3Zr1.533Ta0.46O12), and Cr-LLTO (La(2/3)-xLi3xTi0.9Cr0.1O3) at room temperature were found to be 5.21 × 10–6, 1.01 ×10–6, and 1.2 × 10–4 S cm–1, respectively. The activation energies of the compounds were determined from the Arrhenius plot and were 0.44 eV (Ti0.6-LLZO), 0.54 eV (Ta0.5-LLZO), and 0.20 eV (Cr0.1-LLTO).« less

  7. Combustion synthesized nanocrystalline Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathode for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathiya, K.; Bhuvaneswari, D.; Gangulibabu; Kalaiselvi, N.

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Nanocrystalline Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C compound has been synthesized using a novel corn assisted combustion (CAC) method, wherein the composite prepared at 850 C is found to exhibit superior physical and electrochemical properties than the one synthesized at 800 C (Fig. 1). Despite the charge disproportionation of V{sup 4+} and a possible solid solution behavior of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} cathode upon insertion and de-insertion of Li{sup +} ions, the structural stability of the same is appreciable, even with the extraction of third lithium at 4.6 V (Fig. 2). An appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g{sup ?1} with an excellent columbic efficiency (99%) and better capacity retention upon high rate applications have been exhibited by Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathode, thus demonstrating the feasibility of CAC method in preparing the title compound to best suit with the needs of lithium battery applications. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Novel corn assisted combustion method has been used to synthesize Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C. ? Corn is a cheap and eco benign combustible fuel to facilitate CAC synthesis. ? Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C exhibits an appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g{sup ?1} (C/10 rate). ? Currently observed columbic efficiency of 99% is better than the reported behavior. ? Suitability of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathode up to 10C rate is demonstrated. -- Abstract: Nanocrystalline Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite synthesized using a novel corn assisted combustion method at 850 C exhibits superior physical and electrochemical properties than the one synthesized at 800 C. Despite the charge disproportionation of V{sup 4+} and a possible solid solution behavior of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} cathode upon insertion and extraction of Li{sup +} ions, the structural stability of the same is appreciable, even with the extraction of third lithium at 4.6 V. An appreciable specific capacity of 174 mAh g{sup ?1} and better capacity retention upon high rate applications have been exhibited by Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C cathode, thus demonstrating the suitability of the same for lithium-ion battery applications.

  8. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H{sup ?} formation at ion source relevant parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3?Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5?cm at 0.3?Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5?cm sample distance and 0.3?Pa, linearly decreasing with decreasing distance to 7% at 1.5?cm. Thus, tantalum and tungsten do not significantly affect the negative ion density. First measurements conducted with LaB{sub 6} as well as with two types of diamond like carbon (DLC) n{sub H{sup ?}} /n{sub e} of about 15% at 1?Pa were measured, which is comparable to the density ratio obtained for the stainless steel reference sample. At HOMER a surface induced enhancement of n{sub H{sup ?}} is only observed when it exceeds the volume formation of H{sup ?} which is also realistic for negative hydrogen ion sources.

  9. Nanoscale imaging of fundamental Li battery chemistry: solid-electrolyte interphase formation and preferential growth of lithium metal nanoclusters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sacci, Robert L; Black, Jennifer M; Wisinger, Nina Balke; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Unocic, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The performance characteristics of Li-ion batteries are intrinsically linked to evolving nanoscale interfacial electrochemical reactions. To probe the mechanisms of solid electrolyte interphase formation and Li electrodeposition from a standard battery electrolyte, we use in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy for controlled potential sweep-hold electrochemical measurements with simultaneous BF and ADF STEM image acquisition. Through a combined quantitative electrochemical measurement and quantitative STEM imaging approach, based upon electron scattering theory, we show that chemically sensitive ADF STEM imaging can be used to estimate the density of evolving SEI constituents and distinguish contrast mechanisms of Li-bearing components in the liquidmore » cell.« less

  10. Final Report: Mechanisms of sputter ripple formation: coupling among energetic ions, surface kinetics, stress and composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chason, Eric; Shenoy, Vivek

    2013-01-22

    Self-organized pattern formation enables the creation of nanoscale surface structures over large areas based on fundamental physical processes rather than an applied template. Low energy ion bombardment is one such method that induces the spontaneous formation of a wide variety of interesting morphological features (e.g., sputter ripples and/or quantum dots). This program focused on the processes controlling sputter ripple formation and the kinetics controlling the evolution of surfaces and nanostructures in high flux environments. This was done by using systematic, quantitative experiments to measure ripple formation under a variety of processing conditions coupled with modeling to interpret the results.

  11. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internal combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.

  12. Understanding the structure and structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage lithium-ion battery cathode oxides. A review of materials diagnostics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Nagpure, Shrikant C; Wood, III, David L; Daniel, Claus

    2015-12-21

    Materials diagnostic techniques are the principal tools used in the development of low-cost, high-performance electrodes for next-generation lithium-based energy storage technologies. Also, this review highlights the importance of materials diagnostic techniques in unraveling the structure and the structural degradation mechanisms in high-voltage, high-capacity oxides that have the potential to be implemented in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries for transportation that can use renewable energy and is less-polluting than today. The rise in CO2 concentration in the earth’s atmosphere due to the use of petroleum products in vehicles and the dramatic increase in the cost of gasoline demand the replacement of current internalmore » combustion engines in our vehicles with environmentally friendly, carbon free systems. Therefore, vehicles powered fully/partially by electricity are being introduced into today’s transportation fleet. As power requirements in all-electric vehicles become more demanding, lithium-ion battery (LiB) technology is now the potential candidate to provide higher energy density. Moreover, discovery of layered high-voltage lithium-manganese–rich (HV-LMR) oxides has provided a new direction toward developing high-energy-density LiBs because of their ability to deliver high capacity (~250 mA h/g) and to be operated at high operating voltage (~4.7 V). Unfortunately, practical use of HV-LMR electrodes is not viable because of structural changes in the host oxide during operation that can lead to fundamental and practical issues. This article provides the current understanding on the structure and structural degradation pathways in HV-LMR oxides, and manifests the importance of different materials diagnostic tools to unraveling the key mechanism(s). Furthermore, the fundamental insights reported, might become the tools to manipulate the chemical and/or structural aspects of HV-LMR oxides for low cost, high-energy-density LiB applications.« less

  13. Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gen3Ž Electrode Materials: Final Summary | Department of Energy Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using Gen3Ž Electrode Materials: Final Summary Statistical Design of Experiment for Li-ion Cell Formation Parameters using Gen3Ž Electrode Materials: Final Summary 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon esp_03_gering.pdf More Documents &

  14. Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  15. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijayakumar, M.; Govind, Niranjan; Walter, Eric D.; Burton, Sarah D.; Shukla, Anil K.; Devaraj, Arun; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.; Karim, Ayman M.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-01-01

    Ability to predict the solubility and stability of lithium polysulfide is vital in realizing longer lasting lithium-sulfur batteries. Herein we report a combined computational and experimental spectroscopic analysis to understand the dissolution mechanism of lithium polysulfide species in an aprotic solvent medium. Multinuclear NMR and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) analysis reveals that the lithium exchange between polysulfide species and solvent molecule constitutes the first step in the dissolution process. Lithium exchange leads to de-lithiated polysulfide ions which subsequently forms highly reactive free radicals through disproportion reaction. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility. The energy required for the disproportion and possible dimer formation reactions of the polysulfide species are analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We validate our calculations with variable temperature electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. Based on these findings, we discuss approaches to optimize the electrolyte in order to control the polysulfide solubility.

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  17. Electrochemical performance of polyaniline coated LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode active material for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahan, Halil Dokan, Fatma K?l?c Ayd?n, Abdlhamit zdemir, Burcu zdemir, Nazl? Patat, ?aban

    2013-12-16

    LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound are synthesized by combustion method using glycine as a fuel at temperature (T), 800C which was coated by a polyaniline. The goal of this procedure is to promote better electronic conductivity of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles in order to improve their electrochemical performance for their application as cathodes in secondary lithium ion batteries. The structures of prepared products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To investigate the effect of polyaniline coating galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling (148 mA g{sup ?1}) studies are made in the voltage range of 3.5-4.5 V vs. Li at room temperature. Electrochemical performance of the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} was significantly improved by the polaniline coating.

  18. Electrochemical state and internal variables estimation using a reduced-order physics-based model of a lithium-ion cell and an extended Kalman filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stetzel, KD; Aldrich, LL; Trimboli, MS; Plett, GL

    2015-03-15

    This paper addresses the problem of estimating the present value of electrochemical internal variables in a lithium-ion cell in real time, using readily available measurements of cell voltage, current, and temperature. The variables that can be estimated include any desired set of reaction flux and solid and electrolyte potentials and concentrations at any set of one-dimensional spatial locations, in addition to more standard quantities such as state of charge. The method uses an extended Kalman filter along with a one-dimensional physics-based reduced-order model of cell dynamics. Simulations show excellent and robust predictions having dependable error bounds for most internal variables. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  20. Re-entrant Lithium Local Environments and Defect Driven Electrochemist...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Re-entrant Lithium Local Environments and Defect Driven Electrochemistry of Li- and Mn-Rich Li-Ion Battery Cathodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Re-entrant Lithium ...

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cell employing zinc oxide aggregates grown in the presence of lithium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-10-15

    Provided are a novel ZnO dye-sensitized solar cell and method of fabricating the same. In one embodiment, deliberately added lithium ions are used to mediate the growth of ZnO aggregates. The use of lithium provides ZnO aggregates that have advantageous microstructure, morphology, crystallinity, and operational characteristics. Employing lithium during aggregate synthesis results in a polydisperse collection of ZnO aggregates favorable for porosity and light scattering. The resulting nanocrystallites forming the aggregates have improved crystallinity and more favorable facets for dye molecule absorption. The lithium synthesis improves the surface stability of ZnO in acidic dyes. The procedures developed and disclosed herein also help ensure the formation of an aggregate film that has a high homogeneity of thickness, a high packing density, a high specific surface area, and good electrical contact between the film and the fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode and among the aggregate particles.

  2. In situ determination of lithium ion cathode/electrolyte thickness and composition as a function of charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggetto, Loic; Browning, Jim; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Keum, Jong Kahk; Wood III, David L; Veith, Gabriel M

    2014-01-01

    In this work we report the first experimental in situ determination of the thickness and estimated composition of a condensed electrode/electrolyte interface at various states of charge for the high voltage Li-ion cathode LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4 by exploiting the power of neutron reflectometry.1 Understanding the electrode/electrolyte interface is critical to developing an understanding of interfacial reactions needed to model transport phenomena and predict more stable electrolytes for electrochemical cells.2,3 However, developing the ability to control interfacial reactions in electrochemical cells is arguably one of the most critical challenges confronting researchers focused on energy storage and conversion reactions as well as liquid phase reactions such as photocatalysts and biomass conversion.2 For example, in electrochemical energy storage systems, such as batteries, the reactions between a solid electrode and a liquid electrolyte can lead to the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), which directly mediates the stability, durability and safety of the cell. Controlling these interfacial reactions is essential to developing new, durable, and higher energy storage systems needed in the future.

  3. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  4. Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Intercalation Kinetics and Ion Mobility in Electrode Materials for Advanced Lithium Ion ... Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials Composite ...

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  6. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more tetravalent ion. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  7. Effects of synthesis temperature on the electrochemical characteristics of pyrolytic carbon for anodes of lithium-ion secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Y.S.; Yu, J.S.; Park, G.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    1999-11-01

    The electrochemical properties of new disordered carbon materials obtained by a gas-phase reaction of LPG (liquid propane gas) have been studied. Pyrolysis of LPG was performed in the temperature range 900 to 1,200 C. The lithium storage mechanism in these disordered carbons has been investigated by the charge-discharge tester, cyclic voltammeter, X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state {sup 7}Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). As the synthesis temperature decreases, the reversible capacity of the disordered carbons increases and exceeds that of graphite (372 mAh/g) in the case of those synthesized below 1,100 C. A large hysteresis in the charge-discharge potential profiles is observed, but it disappears with an increase of the synthesis temperature. Cyclic voltammetric curves show that the charging current peak near 0 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and the discharging current peak at ca. 1.1 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} increase gradually with a decrease of the synthesis temperature, these peaks correspond to the plateaus observed in the charge-discharge potential profiles. Micropores are observed in the disordered carbon synthesized below 1,000 C by HRTEM. The size of the micropores increases from 0.5 to 1 nm as the synthesis temperature decreases. XRD patterns and NMR spectra suggest that the high capacity and large hysteresis of these disordered carbons are due to the storage of lithium in the micropores.

  8. High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H-beam formation and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Roderich [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper lays out the fundamental working principles of a variety of high-current ion sources for accelerators in a tutorial manner, and gives examples of specific source types such as d. c. discharge- and rf-driven multicusp sources. Penning-type and ECR-based sources while discussing those principles, pointing out general performance limits as well as the performance parameters of specific sources. Laser-based, two-chamber-. and surface-ionization sources are briefly mentioned. Main aspects of this review are particle feed. ionization mechanism, beam formation and beam transport. Issues seen with beam formation and low-energy transport of negative hydrogen-ion beams are treated in detail.

  9. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  10. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  11. Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information The Department of Energy's 'Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed high-performance thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high energy densities, can be recharged thousands of times, and are only 10 microns thick. They can be made in essentially any size

  12. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a...

  13. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Overcoming...

  14. Numerical Study of Field-reversed Configurations: The Formation and Ion Spin-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; M. Yamada; C.D. Cothran; M.R. Brown; M.J. Schaffer

    2005-06-06

    Results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are presented. Emphasis of this work is on the nonlinear evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in kinetic FRCs, and the new FRC formation method by counter-helicity spheromak merging. Kinetic simulations show nonlinear saturation of the n = 1 tilt mode, where n is the toroidal mode number. The n = 2 and n = 3 rotational modes are observed to grow during the nonlinear phase of the tilt instability due to the ion spin-up in the toroidal direction. The ion toroidal spin-up is shown to be related to the resistive decay of the internal flux, and the resulting loss of particle confinement. Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging and FRC formation show good qualitative agreement with results from the SSX-FRC experiment. The simulations show formation of an FRC in about 20-30 Alfven times for typical experimental parameters. The growth rate of the n = 1 tilt mode is shown to be significantly reduced compared to the MHD growth rate due to the large plasma viscosity and field-line-tying effects.

  15. Evolution of collectivity as a signal of quark gluon plasma formation in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Payal; Alam, Jan-e; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2011-08-15

    A measurement for studying the mass dependence of dilepton interferometry in relativistic heavy-ion collision experiments as a tool to characterize the quark gluon phase is proposed. In calculations involving dileptons, we show that the mass dependence of radii extracted from the virtual photon (dilepton) interferometry provide access to the development of collective flow with time. It is argued that the nonmonotonic variation of Hanbury Brown-Twiss radii with invariant mass of the lepton pairs signals the formation of quark gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions. Our proposal of experimentally measuring the ratio, R{sub out}/R{sub side} for dileptons can be used to estimate the average lifetimes of the partonic as well as the hadronic phases.

  16. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 150 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrodesurface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the electric double layer (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We propose that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the lithium cohesive energy-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.

  17. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in Thin Films on Battery Electrodes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leung, Kevin; Leenheer, Andrew Jay

    2015-04-09

    Battery electrode surfaces are generally coated with electronically insulating solid films of thickness 1–50 nm. Both electrons and Li+ can move at the electrode–surface film interface in response to the voltage, which adds complexity to the “electric double layer” (EDL). We also apply Density Functional Theory (DFT) to investigate how the applied voltage is manifested as changes in the EDL at atomic length scales, including charge separation and interfacial dipole moments. Illustrating examples include Li3PO4, Li2CO3, and LixMn2O4 thin films on Au(111) surfaces under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Adsorbed organic solvent molecules can strongly reduce voltages predicted in vacuum. We proposemore » that manipulating surface dipoles, seldom discussed in battery studies, may be a viable strategy to improve electrode passivation. We also distinguish the computed potential governing electrons, which is the actual or instantaneous voltage, and the “lithium cohesive energy”-based voltage governing Li content widely reported in DFT calculations, which is a slower-responding self-consistency criterion at interfaces. Furthermore, this distinction is critical for a comprehensive description of electrochemical activities on electrode surfaces, including Li+ insertion dynamics, parasitic electrolyte decomposition, and electrodeposition at overpotentials.« less

  18. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  19. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  20. Utilizing environmental friendly iron as a substitution element in spinel structured cathode materials for safer high energy lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong -Min; Liu, Yijin; Liu, Jue; Yu, Xiqian; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Khalifah, Peter; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-03

    Suppressing oxygen release from lithium ion battery cathodes during heating is a critical issue for the improvement of the battery safety characteristics because oxygen can exothermically react with the flammable electrolyte and cause thermal runaway. Previous studies have shown that oxygen release can be reduced by the migration of transition metal cations from octahedral sites to tetrahedral sites during heating. Such site-preferred migration is determined by the electronic structure of cations. In addition, taking advantage of the unique electronic structure of the environmental friendly Fe, this is selected as substitution element in a high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to improve the thermal stability. The optimized LiNi0.33Mn1.33Fe0.33O4 material shows significantly improved thermal stability compared with the unsubstituted one, demonstrated by no observed oxygen release at temperatures as high as 500C. Due to the electrochemical contribution of Fe, the high energy density feature of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is well preserved.

  1. Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites: Towards cost-effective and high performance binder free lithium ion batteries anode materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, G. Z.; Wang, Y.; Wong, J. I.; Shi, Y. M.; Huang, Z. X.; Yang, H. Y.; Li, S.

    2014-10-06

    Hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile thermal annealing method on Cu foils. Compared to pristine CuO and SnO{sub 2} nanostructures, hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibit the enhanced electrochemical performances as the anode material of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) with high specific capacity and excellent rate capability. The binder free CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites deliver a specific capacity of 718 mA h g{sup ?1} at a current density of 500?mA g{sup ?1} even after 200 cycles. The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect between SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles and CuO nanoarchitectures. Such hybrid CuO/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites could open up a new route for the development of next-generation high-performance and cost-effective binder free anode material of LIBs for mass production.

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of PureLiFePO4and Nanocomposite C-LiFePO4Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and carbon-coatedLiFePO4(C-LiFePO4) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating onLiFePO4particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C-LiFePO4at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms ofLiFePO4and C-LiFePO4showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13?mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively forLiFePO4where as in case of C-LiFePO4that were 163, 144,more118, and 70?mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pureLiFePO4was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C-LiFePO4was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.less

  3. Utilizing environmental friendly iron as a substitution element in spinel structured cathode materials for safer high energy lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seong -Min; Liu, Yijin; Liu, Jue; Yu, Xiqian; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Zhou, Jigang; Khalifah, Peter; Ariyoshi, Kingo; Nam, Kyung -Wan; et al

    2015-12-03

    Suppressing oxygen release from lithium ion battery cathodes during heating is a critical issue for the improvement of the battery safety characteristics because oxygen can exothermically react with the flammable electrolyte and cause thermal runaway. Previous studies have shown that oxygen release can be reduced by the migration of transition metal cations from octahedral sites to tetrahedral sites during heating. Such site-preferred migration is determined by the electronic structure of cations. In addition, taking advantage of the unique electronic structure of the environmental friendly Fe, this is selected as substitution element in a high energy density material LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 to improvemore » the thermal stability. The optimized LiNi0.33Mn1.33Fe0.33O4 material shows significantly improved thermal stability compared with the unsubstituted one, demonstrated by no observed oxygen release at temperatures as high as 500°C. Due to the electrochemical contribution of Fe, the high energy density feature of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 is well preserved.« less

  4. One-pot synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite in ionic liquid-based solution and its application for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Changdong, E-mail: cdgu@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite. Synthesis performed in a choline chloride-based ionic liquid. The composite shows an enhanced cycling stability as anode for Li-ion batteries. 4 nm SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: A facile and low-temperature method is developed for SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite which involves an ultrasonic-assistant oxidationreduction reaction between Sn{sup 2+} and graphene oxide in a choline chlorideethylene glycol based ionic liquid under ambient conditions. The reaction solution is non-corrosive and environmental-friendly. Moreover, the proposed technique does not require complicated infrastructures and heat treatment. The SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite consists of about 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with cassiterite structure mono-dispersed on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. As anode for lithium-ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/graphene composite shows a satisfying cycling stability (535 mAh g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles @100 mA g{sup ?1}), which is significantly prior to the bare 4 nm sized SnO{sub 2} nanocrsytals. The graphene sheets in the hybrid nanostructure could provide a segmentation effect to alleviate the volume expansion of the SnO{sub 2} and restrain the small and active Sn-based particles aggregating into larger and inactive clusters during cycling.

  5. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  6. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Mn2Sb vs lithium cell showing excellent overall capacity and capacity retention. Mn2Sb vs lithium cell showing excellent overall capacity and capacity retention. Technology Marketing Summary To help improve the stability and safety of lithium-ion batteries, Argonne researchers have

  7. Electron emission and defect formation in the interaction of slow,highly charged ions with diamond surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Shrivastava, S.; Rebuli, D.B.; Persaud, A.; Schneider, D.H.; Schenkel, T.

    2006-05-31

    We report on electron emission and defect formation in theinteraction between slow (v~;0.3 vBohr) highly charged ions (SHCI) withinsulating (type IIa) and semiconducting (type IIb) diamonds. Electronemission induced by 31Pq+ (q=5 to 13), and 136Xeq+ (q=34 to 44) withkinetic energies of 9 kVxq increase linearly with the ion charge states,reaching over 100 electrons per ion for high xenon charge states withoutsurface passivation of the diamond with hydrogen. Yields from bothdiamond types are up to a factor of two higher then from reference metalsurfaces. Crater like defects with diameters of 25 to 40 nm are formed bythe impact of single Xe44+ ions. High secondary electron yields andsingle ion induced defects enable the formation of single dopant arrayson diamond surfaces.

  8. California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    26 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage Systems and CALiB Power. US production of this advanced Very Large Format (400Ah+)

  9. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  10. Investigation of the mechanism of impurity assisted nanoripple formation on Si induced by low energy ion beam erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyiloth Vayalil, Sarathlal; Gupta, Ajay; Roth, Stephan V.; Ganesan, V.

    2015-01-14

    A detailed mechanism of the nanoripple pattern formation on Si substrates generated by the simultaneous incorporation of pure Fe impurities at low energy (1 keV) ion beam erosion has been studied. To understand and clarify the mechanism of the pattern formation, a comparative analysis of the samples prepared for various ion fluence values using two complimentary methods for nanostructure analysis, atomic force microscopy, and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering has been done. We observed that phase separation of the metal silicide formed during the erosion does not precede the ripple formation. It rather concurrently develops along with the ripple structure. Our work is able to differentiate among various models existing in the literature and provides an insight into the mechanism of pattern formation under ion beam erosion with impurity incorporation.

  11. Lithium uptake data of lithium imprinted polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-12-04

    Batch tests of lithium imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium from synthetic brines at T=45C. Initial selectivity data are included

  12. Determination of ion track radii in amorphous matrices via formation of nano-clusters by ion-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, M.; Karlusic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Jaksic, M.; Radic, N.; Salamon, K.; Bernstorff, S.

    2012-09-03

    We report on a method for the determination of ion track radii, formed in amorphous materials by ion-beam irradiation. The method is based on the addition to an amorphous matrix of a small amount of foreign atoms, which easily diffuse and form clusters when the temperature is sufficiently increased. The irradiation causes clustering of these atoms, and the final separations of the formed clusters are dependent on the parameters of the ion-beam. Comparison of the separations between the clusters that are formed by ions with different properties in the same type of material enables the determination of ion-track radii.

  13. Modification of carbon nanotubes by CuO-doped NiO nanocomposite for use as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustansar Abbas, Syed; Tajammul Hussain, Syed; Ali, Saqib; Ahmad, Nisar; Ali, Nisar; Abbas, Saghir; Ali, Zulfiqar

    2013-06-15

    CuO-doped NiO (CuNiO) with porous hexagonal morphology is fabricated via a modified in-situ co-precipitation method and its nanocomposite is prepared with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electrochemical properties of CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic chargedischarge tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Since Cu can both act as conductor and a catalyst, the CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite exhibits higher initial coulombic efficiency (82.7% of the 2nd cycle) and better capacity retention (78.6% on 50th cycle) than bare CuNiO (78.9% of the 2nd cycle), CuO/CNT (76.8% of the 2nd cycle) and NiO/CNT (77.7% of the 2nd cycle) at the current density of 100 mA /g. This high capacity and good cycling ability is attributed to the partial substitution of Cu{sup +2} for Ni{sup +2}, resulting in an increase of holes concentration, and therefore improved p-type conductivity along with an intimate interaction with CNTs providing large surface area, excellent conduction, mechanical strength and chemical stability. - Graphical abstract: The porous CuNiO/CNT nanocomposite synthesized via a modified co-precipitation method in combination with subsequent calcination was applied in the negative electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibited high electrochemical performance. - Highlights: CuO doped NiO/CNTs nano composite is achieved via a simple co-precipitation method. Monodispersity, shape and sizes of sample particles is specifically controlled. Good quality adhesion between CNTs and CuNiO is visible from TEM image. High electrochemical performance is achieved. Discharge capacity of 686 mA h/g after 50 cycles with coulombic efficiency (82.5%)

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Manufacturability Study and Scale-Up for Large Format Lithium Ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  15. Effects of lithium salt concentration on graphited carbon microbead anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Kun; Li, Shu-Dan

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Lithium aggregates usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. Therefore, as important as the problem of SEI, the content of lithium salt and the interaction between Li{sup +} and ILs anions should be taken into consideration in the optimization of ILs-based electrolytes for Li-ion batteries. - Highlights: Lithium aggregates in piperidinium-based electrolytes are evidenced by IR and NMR. High LiPF{sub 6} content could decrease Li{sup +} mobility due to ionic aggregates. Lithium salt concentration is an important factor affecting graphite performances. - Abstract: The variations in LiPF{sub 6} concentration lead to the very different electrochemical performances of carbon microbeads anodes in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes. The two peaks behaviors of lithium plating observed in cyclic voltammetry tests, and some detailed changes in infrared spectra and nuclear magnetic resonance indicates that the formation of ionic aggregates related to lithium ions. Therefore, the excessive lithium salts in the piperidinium-based hybrid electrolytes, usually cause a significant decrease in Li{sup +} mobility and transfer efficiency. The main behaviors are that, when LiPF{sub 6} concentrations increased from 0.2 to 1.2 mol kg{sup ?1}, the apparent migration energies (E{sub a}) increase largely from 8.83 to 21.16 kJ mol{sup ?1}, while the lithium transference numbers (t{sub Li{sup +}}) drop markedly from 0.538 to 0.292.

  16. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  17. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  18. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  19. A Lithium Getter Pump System ---- nventors Richard Majeski, Eugene Kearns,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and John Schmitt | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Lithium Getter Pump System ---- nventors Richard Majeski, Eugene Kearns, and John Schmitt This invention is a device to pump volatile gases that bond to lithium in a high vacuum environment. Typically, a crust is formed on lithium getters under the high temperatures and vacuum conditions of fusion experiments. In this invention, electromagnetic stirring of the liquid metal prevents the formation of the crust. Without stirring, the lithium must

  20. Formation of an anisotropic electron velocity distribution function and production of multicharged ions in the micropinch discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolgov, A. N.; Zemchenkova, N. V.; Klyachin, N. A.; Prokhorovich, D. E.

    2011-01-15

    Analysis of the results of polarimetric measurements of X-ray line radiation of multicharged ions in a Z-pinch discharge indicates that the formation of an anisotropic electron velocity distribution in the neck of the current channel and the generation of highly charged ions are separated in time. The generation of a fast electron beam in the longitudinal ohmic electric field in the stage of plasma compression in the neck results in the polarization of X-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. In the stage of expansion of the hot dense micropinch plasma, the radial electric field prevails, due to which X-ray line radiation of multicharged ions becomes linearly polarized.

  1. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  2. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0ion with an average trivalent oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  3. Development of Production-Intent Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Using Advanced Lithium-Ion Battery Packs with Deployment to a Demonstration Fleet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was to speed the development of one of the first commercially available, OEM-produced plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). The performance of the PHEV was expected to double the fuel economy of the conventional hybrid version. This vehicle program incorporated a number of advanced technologies, including advanced lithium-ion battery packs and an E85-capable flex-fuel engine. The project developed, fully integrated, and validated plug-in specific systems and controls by using GMs Global Vehicle Development Process (GVDP) for production vehicles. Engineering Development related activities included the build of mule vehicles and integration vehicles for Phases I & II of the project. Performance data for these vehicles was shared with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The deployment of many of these vehicles was restricted to internal use at GM sites or restricted to assigned GM drivers. Phase III of the project captured the first half or Alpha phase of the Engineering tasks for the development of a new thermal management design for a second generation battery module. The project spanned five years. It included six on-site technical reviews with representatives from the DOE. One unique aspect of the GM/DOE collaborative project was the involvement of the DOE throughout the OEM vehicle development process. The DOE gained an understanding of how an OEM develops vehicle efficiency and FE performance, while balancing many other vehicle performance attributes to provide customers well balanced and fuel efficient vehicles that are exciting to drive. Many vehicle content and performance trade-offs were encountered throughout the vehicle development process to achieve product cost and performance targets for both the OEM and end customer. The project team completed two sets of PHEV development vehicles with fully integrated PHEV systems. Over 50 development vehicles were built and operated for over 180,000 development miles. The team also completed four GM engineering development Buy-Off rides/milestones. The project included numerous engineering vehicle and systems development trips including extreme hot, cold and altitude exposure. The final fuel economy performance demonstrated met the objectives of the PHEV collaborative GM/DOE project. Charge depletion fuel economy of twice that of the non-PHEV model was demonstrated. The project team also designed, developed and tested a high voltage battery module concept that appears to be feasible from a manufacturability, cost and performance standpoint. The project provided important product development and knowledge as well as technological learnings and advancements that include multiple U.S. patent applications.

  4. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  5. Laser annealing of ion implanted CZ silicon for solar cell junction formation. Quarterly report No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katzeff, J. S.

    1980-07-01

    A project to evaluate the merits of large spot size pulsed laser annealing of ion implanted silicon wafers for junction formation on solar cells is described. A Q-switched Nd:Glass laser system is used operating in the 1064 (regular) and 532 (with frequency doubler) nm wavelengths. The laser output is in excess of 30 joules with a 20 to 50 ns pulse duration. Material used in this investigation is 3-inch diameter CZ silicon, P-type 0.014 inches thick, 10..cap omega..-cm resistivity, <100> orientation. Three wafer surface conditions are being evaluated in this pulse annealing investigation: chem-polished, texture etched, and flash etched. Annealing was performed with and without beam homogenization. Both modes showed excellent lattice recovery from the implant-induced damage as analyzed using Rutherford backscattering techniques. Homogenization of the beam was performed using a fused silica rod configured with a 90/sup 0/ bend. The unhomogenized annealing was performed using a plano-concave lens. Fabrication of laser annealed cells using both modes is forthcoming.

  6. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  7. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Wednesday, 27 February 2013 00:00 Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile

  8. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryRechargeable lithium batteries are superior to other rechargeable batteries due to their ability to store more energy per unit size and weight and to operate at higher voltages. The performance of lithium ion batteries available today, however, has been compromised by their tendency to overheat during operation. This

  9. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es032_abraham_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Mitigating Performance Degradation of High-Energy Lithium-Ion Cells Diagnostic studies on Li-battery cells and cell components Cell Fabrication Facility Team Production

  10. Formation of long-range ordered quantum dots arrays in amorphous matrix by ion beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buljan, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Karlusic, M.; Desnica, U. V.; Radic, N.; Dubcek, P.; Drazic, G.; Salamon, K.; Bernstorff, S.; Holy, V.

    2009-08-10

    We demonstrate the production of a well ordered three-dimensional array of Ge quantum dots in amorphous silica matrix. The ordering is achieved by ion beam irradiation and annealing of a multilayer film. Structural analysis shows that quantum dots nucleate along the direction of the ion beam used for irradiation, while the mutual distance of the quantum dots is determined by the diffusion properties of the multilayer material rather than the distances between traces of ions that are used for irradiation.

  11. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  13. Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zheng; Chernova, Natasha A.; Feng, Jijun; Upreti, Shailesh; Omenya, Fredrick; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2015-10-15

    The structures, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of Al-substituted lithium-excess oxides, Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.16} Mn{sub 0.56}Co{sub 0.08-y}Al{sub y}O{sub 2} (y = 0, 0.024, 0.048, 0.08), are reported, and compared to the stoichiometric compounds, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2}. A solid solution was found up to at least y = 0.06. Aluminum substitution improves the poor thermal stability while preserving the high energy density of lithium-excess oxides. However, these high manganese compositions are inferior to the lithium stoichiometric materials, LiNi{sub z}Mn{sub z}Co{sub 1-2z}O{sub 2} (z = 0.333, 0.4), in terms of both power and thermal stability.

  14. Anion Coordination Interactions in Solvates with the Lithium Salts LiDCTA and LiTDI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McOwen, Dennis W.; Delp, Samuel A.; Paillard, Elie; Herriot, Cristelle; Han, Sang D.; Boyle, Paul D.; Sommer, Roger D.; Henderson, Wesley A.

    2014-04-17

    Lithium 4,5-dicyano-1,2,3-triazolate (LiDCTA) and lithium 2-trifluoromethyl-4,5-dicyanoimidazole (LiTDI) are two salts proposed for lithium battery electrolyte applications, but little is known about the manner in which the DCTA- and TDI- anions coordinate Li+ cations. To explore this in-depth, crystal structures are reported here for two solvates with LiDCTA: (G2)1:LiDCTA and (G1)1:LiDCTA with diglyme and monoglyme, respectively, and seven solvates with LiTDI: (G1)2:LiTDI, (G2)2:LiTDI, (G3)1:LiTDI, (THF)1:LiTDI, (EC)1:LiTDI, (PC)1:LiTDI and (DMC)1/2:LiTDI with monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, tetrahydrofuran, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, respectively. These latter solvate structures are compared with the previously reported acetonitrile (AN)2:LiTDI structure. The solvates indicate that the LiTDI salt is much less associated than the LiDCTA salt and that the ions in LiTDI, when aggregated in solvates, have a very similar TDI-...Li+ cation mode of coordination through both the anion ring and cyano nitrogen atoms. Such coordination facilitates the formation of polymeric ion aggregates, instead of dimers. Insight into such ion speciation is instrumental for understanding the electrolyte properties of aprotic solvent mixtures with these salts.

  15. New Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes New Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es146_gogotsi_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications New Layered Nanolaminates for Use in Lithium Battery Anodes 2012 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Acronyms Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode

  16. Large Area Microcorrals and Cavity Formation on Cantilevers using a Focused Ion Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Britt, David W.

    2011-09-14

    We utilize focused ion beam (FIB) to explore various sputtering parameters to form large area microcorrals and cavities on cantilevers. Microcorrals were rapidly created by modifying ion beam blur and overlaps. Modification in FIB sputtering parameters affects the periodicity and shape of corral microstructure. Cantilever deflections show ion beam amorphization effects as a function of sputtered area and cantilever base cavities with or without side walls. The FIB sputtering parameters address a method for rapid creation of a cantilever tensiometer with integrated fluid storage and delivery.

  17. Insertion of lithium into electrochromic devices after completion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Frey, Jonathan Mack; Barrett, Kathryn Suzanne; DuPont, Paul Damon; Schaller, Ronald William

    2015-12-22

    The present disclosure describes methods of inserting lithium into an electrochromic device after completion. In the disclosed methods, an ideal amount of lithium can be added post-fabrication to maximize or tailor the free lithium ion density of a layer or the coloration range of a device. Embodiments are directed towards a method to insert lithium into the main device layers of an electrochromic device as a post-processing step after the device has been manufactured. In an embodiment, the methods described are designed to maximize the coloration range while compensating for blind charge loss.

  18. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  19. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Springfield, VA at www.ntis.gov. The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced...

  20. Combustion synthesis of MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite as a high-performance negative electrode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rai, Alok Kumar; Thi, Trang Vu; Gim, Jihyeon; Kim, Jaekook

    2014-09-15

    We present a facile and cost-effective urea-assisted auto-combustion method for synthesizing pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle and MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite samples followed by annealing at 600 C for 5 h under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the single phase formation for both samples. The obtained morphology of the nanocomposite sample shows that the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are highly dispersed on conductive graphene nanosheets with particle size in the range of 50100 nm. When applied as an anode material, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite electrode shows a high reversible charge capacity of 764.4 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.04 C over 60 charge/discharge cycles and in spite of that it also retained a capacity of 219.9 mAh g{sup ?1} at high current rate of 4.2 C. The obtained result is much better than the synthesized pure MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticle electrode. The excellent electrochemical performance of the MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite electrode can be attributed to the strong favorable synergistic interaction between MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and reduced graphene nanosheets, which supplied a large number of accessible active sites for Li{sup +}-ion insertion and short diffusion length for both Li{sup +} ions and electrons. In addition, the graphene nanosheets in the nanocomposite electrode provide high conductivity and accommodate the large volume expansion/contraction during cycling, resulting in high capacity and long cycling stability. - Highlights: MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/graphene nanocomposite was synthesized by facile urea-assisted method. Such well-designed structure results in fine and strong interfacial interaction. Nanocomposite anode shows high rate capability and long cycling stability. Better performance is due to synergistic effect between MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and graphene. Simple, low cost and fast synthesis is attractive for large scale applications.

  1. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  2. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  3. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  4. Coreshell TiO? microsphere with enhanced photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Hong; Tian, Dongxue; Liu, Lixiang; Wang, Yapeng; Guo, Yuan; Yang, Xiangjun

    2013-05-01

    Inorganic hollow coreshell spheres have attracted considerable interest due to their singular properties and wide range of potential applications. Herein a novel facile generic strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare corevoidshell anatase TiO? nanoparticle aggregates with an excellent photocatalytic activity, and enhanced lithium storage in large quantities. Amorphous carbon can be loaded on the TiO? nanoparticles uniformly under a suitably formulated ethanol/water system in the solvothermal alcoholysis process, and the subsequent calcination results of the formation of coreshellshell anatase TiO? nanoparticle aggregates. The intrinsic corevoidshell nature as well as high porosity of the unique nanostructures contributes greatly to the superior photocatalytic activity and improved performance as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. - Graphical abstract: A novel strategy of combining template assisted and solvothermal alcoholysis is employed to prepare unique corevoidshell anatase TiO? nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage. Highlights: TiO? mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. It is corevoidshell structure and the thickness of shell is estimated to 80 nm. It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity and improved lithium storage.

  5. Numerical Study of the Formation, Ion Spin-up and Nonlinear Stability Properties of Field-reversed Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.V. Belova; R.C. Davidson; H. Ji; M. Yamada; C.D. Cothran; M.R. Brown; M.J. Schaffer

    2004-11-12

    Results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of field-reversed configurations (FRCs) are presented. Emphasis of this work is on the nonlinear evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in kinetic FRCs and the new FRC formation method by the counter-helicity spheromak merging. Kinetic simulations show nonlinear saturation of the n = 1 tilt mode, where n is the toroidal mode number. The n = 2 and n = 3 rotational modes are observed to grow during the nonlinear phase of the tilt instability due to the ion spin-up in the toroidal direction. The ion toroidal spin-up is shown to be related to the resistive decay of the internal flux, and the resulting loss of particle confinement. Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging and FRC formation show good agreement with results from the SSX-FRC experiment. Simulations show formation of an FRC in about 30 Alfven times for typical experimental parameters. The growth rate of the n = 1 tilt mode is shown to be significantly reduced compared to the MHD growth rate due to the large plasma viscosity and field-line-tying effects.

  6. Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Fei; Xu, Wu; Graff, Gordon L.; Zhang, Jian; Sushko, Maria L.; Chen, Xilin; Shao, Yuyan; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Xingjiang; Sushko, P. V.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-02-28

    Lithium metal batteries are called the holy grail of energy storage systems. However, lithium dendrite growth in these batteries has prevented their practical applications in the last 40 years. Here we show a novel mechanism which can fundamentally change the dendritic morphology of lithium deposition. A low concentration of the second cations (including ions of cesium, rubidium, potassium, and strontium) exhibits an effective reduction potential lower than the standard reduction potential of lithium ions when the chemical activities of these second cations are much lower than that of lithium ions. During lithium deposition, these second cations will form a self-healing electrostatic shield around the initial tip of lithium whenever it is formed. This shield will repel the incoming lithium ions and force them to deposit in the smoother region of the anode so a dendrite-free film is obtained. This mechanism is effective on dendrite prevention in both lithium metal and lithium ion batteries. They may also prevent dendrite growth in other metal batteries and have transformational impact on the smooth deposition in general electrodeposition processes.

  7. "Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotopes and Ions" Leonid E. Zakharov and Charles Gentile | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen Isotopes and Ions" Leonid E. Zakharov and Charles Gentile The system is comprised of a stationary closed loop for liquid lithium flow between the lithium supply vessel, vacuum chamber, and the collector vessel. The flow is driven by argon gas pressure and by gravity and controlled by freeze valves. The system does not

  8. Fission and quasifission modes in heavy-ion-induced reactions leading to the formation of Hs{sup *}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itkis, I. M.; Kozulin, E. M.; Itkis, M. G.; Knyazheva, G. N.; Bogachev, A. A.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Krupa, L.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rusanov, A. Ya.; Goennenwein, F.; Dorvaux, O.; Stuttge, L.; Hanappe, F.; Vardaci, E.; Goes Brennand, E. de

    2011-06-15

    Mass and energy distributions of binary reaction products obtained in the reactions {sup 22}Ne+{sup 249}Cf,{sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, and {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb have been measured. All reactions lead to Hs isotopes. At energies below the Coulomb barrier the bimodal fission of Hs{sup *}, formed in the reaction {sup 26}Mg+{sup 248}Cm, is observed. In the reaction {sup 36}S+{sup 238}U, leading to the formation of a similar compound nucleus, the main part of the symmetric fragments arises from the quasifission process. At energies above the Coulomb barrier fusion-fission is the main process leading to the formation of symmetric fragments for both reactions with Mg and S ions. In the case of the {sup 58}Fe+{sup 208}Pb reaction the quasifission process dominates at all measured energies.

  9. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  10. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water, and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

  11. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Inexpensive, electrochemically active phosphate compounds with high functionality for high-power and high-energy lithium batteries Suite of inexpensively manufactured lithium iron composite materials that can reduce manufacturing costs by 50%. Simple compound preparation that uses inexpensive precursors. Eliminates need for carbon coating. PDF icon lithium_composites

  12. Fact #603: December 28, 2009 Where Does Lithium Come From? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 3: December 28, 2009 Where Does Lithium Come From? Fact #603: December 28, 2009 Where Does Lithium Come From? Lithium ion batteries will be used in many of the upcoming plug-in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles because they are lighter and more powerful than the nickel-metal hydride batteries used in current hybrid vehicles. Global lithium production reached 22,800 tons in 2008. Lithium reserves are a topic of debate, with estimates ranging from 4 million tons to 20 million tons.

  13. Experimental evidence of ion acoustic soliton chain formation and validation of nonlinear fluid theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakad, Amar; Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410-218 ; Omura, Yoshiharu; Kakad, Bharati

    2013-06-15

    We perform one-dimensional fluid simulation of ion acoustic (IA) solitons propagating parallel to the magnetic field in electron-ion plasmas by assuming a large system length. To model the initial density perturbations (IDP), we employ a KdV soliton type solution. Our simulation demonstrates that the generation mechanism of IA solitons depends on the wavelength of the IDP. The short wavelength IDP evolve into two oppositely propagating identical IA solitons, whereas the long wavelength IDP develop into two indistinguishable chains of multiple IA solitons through a wave breaking process. The wave breaking occurs close to the time when electrostatic energy exceeds half of the kinetic energy of the electron fluid. The wave breaking amplitude and time of its initiation are found to be dependent on characteristics of the IDP. The strength of the IDP controls the number of IA solitons in the solitary chains. The speed, width, and amplitude of IA solitons estimated during their stable propagation in the simulation are in good agreement with the nonlinear fluid theory. This fluid simulation is the first to confirm the validity of the general nonlinear fluid theory, which is widely used in the study of solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.

  14. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi, Beata L.; Qian, Jiangfeng; Nasybulin, Eduard; Welch, David A.; Park, Chiwoo; Faller, Roland; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Evans, James E.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-07-27

    Lithium (Li)-ion batteries are currently used for a wide variety of portable electronic devices, electric vehicles and renewable energy applications. In addition, extensive worldwide research efforts are now being devoted to more advanced beyond Li-ion battery chemistries - such as lithium-sulfur (Li-S) and lithium-air (Li-O2) - in which the carbon anode is replaced with Li metal. However, the practical application of Li metal anode systems has been highly problematic. The main challenges involve controlling the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer and the suppression of Li dendrite growth during the charge/discharge process (achieving dendrite-free cycling). The SEI layer formation continuously consumes the electrolyte components creating highly resistive layer, which leads to the rapid decrease of cycling performance and degradation of the Li anode. The growth of Li metal dendrites at the anode contributes to rapid capacity fading (the presence of dead Li created during the discharge leads to an increased overpotential) and, in the case of continuous growth, leads to internal short circuits and extreme safety issues. Here we demonstrate the application of an operando electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (ec-(S)TEM) cell to study the SEI layer formation and the initial stages of Li dendrite growth - the goal is to develop a mechanism for mitigating the degradation processes and increasing safety. Bright field (BF) STEM images in Figure 1 A-C show Li metal deposition and dissolution processes at the interface between the Pt working electrode and the lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) electrolyte during three charge/discharge cycles. A contrast reversal caused by Li metal being lighter/less dense than surrounding electrolyte (Li appears brighter than the background in BF STEM images) allows Li to be uniquely identified from the other components in the system - the only solid material that is less dense than the electrolyte is Li metal. Using these images, we can precisely quantify the total volume of Li deposition, the thickness of the SEI layer (observed as a ring of positive contrast around the electrode) and alloy formation due to Li+ ion insertion during each cycle. Furthermore, at the end of each discharge cycle we can quantify the presence of dead Li detached from the Pt electrode, thereby demonstrating the degree of irreversibility (and degradation of Pt electrode) associated with insertion/removal of Li+during this process with direct correlation to electrochemical performance. Such analyses provide significant insights into Li metal dendrite growth, which is critical to understand the complex interfacial reactions needed to be controlled for future Li-based and next generation energy storage systems.

  15. Fabrication of free-standing NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoarrays via a facile modified hydrothermal synthesis method and their applications for lithium ion batteries and high-rate alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Qingyun Zhang, Xiangyang; Shen, Youming

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal-synthesized NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays exhibit porous structure and high capacity as well as good cycling life for lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. - Highlights: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays are prepared by a hydrothermal method. NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show high capacity and good cycling life. Porous nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. - Abstract: Self-supported NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays on nickel foam are prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflakes with thicknesses of ?25 nm grow vertically to the nickel foam substrate and form an interconnected porous network with pore diameters of 50500 nm. As anode material of LIBs, the NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoflake arrays show a high initial coulombic efficiency of 76%, as well as good cycling stability with a capacity of 880 mAh g{sup ?1} at 0.5 A g{sup ?1}, and 523 mAh g{sup ?1} at 1.5 A g{sup ?1} after 50 cycles. As the cathode of alkaline batteries, a high capacity of 95 mAh g{sup ?1} is achieved at 2 A g{sup ?1} and 94% retention is maintained after 10,000 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance is mainly due to the unique nanoflake arrays structure with large surface area and shorter diffusion length for mass and charge transport.

  16. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  17. Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gin, Stephane; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-12-01

    Ion exchange is recognized as an integral, if underrepresented, mechanism influencing glass corrosion. However, due to the formation of various alteration layers in the presence of water, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the mechanisms of ion exchange from other processes occurring simultaneously during corrosion. In this work, an operationally inert non-aqueous solution was used as an alkali source material to isolate ion exchange and study the solid-state diffusion of lithium. Specifically, the experiments involved contacting glass coupons relevant to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste, SON68 and CJ-6, which contained Li in natural isotope abundance, with a non-aqueous solution of 6LiCl dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90 C for various time periods. The depth profiles of major elements in the glass coupons were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lithium interdiffusion coefficients, DLi, were then calculated based on the measured depth profiles. The results indicate that the penetration of 6Li is rapid in both glasses with the simplified CJ-6 glass (D6Li ? 4.0-8.0 10-21 m2/s) exhibiting faster exchange than the more complex SON68 glass (DLi ? 2.0-4.0 10-21 m2/s). Additionally, sodium ions present in the glass were observed to participate in ion exchange reactions; however, different diffusion coefficients were necessary to fit the diffusion profiles of the two alkali ions. Implications of the diffusion coefficients obtained in the absence of alteration layers to the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a geological repository system are also discussed.

  18. Lithium Salts for Advanced Lithium Batteries: Li-metal, Li-O2, and Li-S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younesi, Reza; Veith, Gabriel M; Johansson, Patrik; Edstrom, Kristina; Vegge, Tejs

    2015-01-01

    Presently lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) is the dominant Li-salt used in commercial rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) based on a graphite anode and a 3-4 V cathode material. While LiPF6 is not the ideal Li-salt for every important electrolyte property, it has a uniquely suitable combination of properties (temperature range, passivation, conductivity, etc.) rendering it the overall best Li-salt for LIBs. However, this may not necessarily be true for other types of Li-based batteries. Indeed, next generation batteries, for example lithium-metal (Li-metal), lithium-oxygen (Li-O2), and lithium sulphur (Li-S), require a re-evaluation of Li-salts due to the different electrochemical and chemical reactions and conditions within such cells. This review explores the critical role Li-salts play in ensuring in these batteries viability.

  19. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Lithium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid cars. What may not be so...

  20. Lithium purification technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  1. Lithium purification technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  2. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Babineau, D.; Elvington, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Teprovich, J.; Vaquer, A.

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  3. High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es113_amine_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Voltage Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fluorinated Electrolyte for 5-V Li-Ion Chemistry High Voltage Electrolytes for Li-ion Batteries

  4. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  5. New Electrode Manufacturing Process Equipment: Novel High Energy Density Lithium-Ion Cell Designs via Innovative Manufacturing Process Modules for Cathode and Integrated Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: Applied Materials is developing new tools for manufacturing Li-Ion batteries that could dramatically increase their performance. Traditionally, the positive and negative terminals of Li-Ion batteries are mixed with glue-like materials called binders, pressed onto electrodes, and then physically kept apart by winding a polymer mesh material between them called a separator. With the Applied Materials system, many of these manually intensive processes will be replaced by next generation coating technology to apply each component. This process will improve product reliability and performance of the cells at a fraction of the current cost. These novel manufacturing techniques will also increase the energy density of the battery and reduce the size of several of the batterys components to free up more space within the cell for storage.

  6. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  7. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  8. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  9. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply intertwined with battery technologies that have enabled a mobile revolution powering cell phones, laptops, medical devices, and cars. As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, new technologies are emerging to address the long-term energy-storage improvements needed for mobile systems, electric vehicles in particular. Battery performance depends on the dynamics of

  10. High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication High-Rate, High-Capacity Binder-Free Electrode for fast-charging Lithium Ion Batteries, Accelerating Innovation Webinar Presentation (6,604 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Portable electronic applications

  11. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Esters (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Solvate crystal structures serve as useful models for the molecular-level interactions within the diverse solvates present in liquid electrolytes. Although acyclic carbonate solvents are widely used for Li-ion battery electrolytes, only

  12. Li ion Motors Corp formerly EV Innovations Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vegas, Nevada Zip: 89110 Sector: Vehicles Product: Las Vegas - based manufacturer of lithium-powered plug-in vehicles. References: Li-ion Motors Corp (formerly EV Innovations...

  13. The Impact Of Lithium Wall Coatings On NSTX Discharges And The Engineering Of The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski, H. Kugel and R. Kaita

    2010-03-18

    Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both Land H- mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500 - 600 oC to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.

  14. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution of activation energies (DAE) to calculate the corresponding conductivity and relaxation rates as a function of temperature and frequency?

  15. High Cyclability of Ionic Liquid-Produced TiO2 Nanotube Arrays As an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Huaqing; Martha, Surendra K; Unocic, Raymond R; Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Qu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs) are considered as a potential SEI-free anode material for Li-ion batteries to offer enhanced safety. Organic solutions, dominatingly ethylene glycol (EG)-based, have widely been used for synthesizing TiO{sub 2} NTs via anodization because of their ability to generate long tubes and well-aligned structures. However, it has been revealed that the EG-produced NTs are composited with carbonaceous decomposition products of EG, release of which during the tube crystallization process inevitably causes nano-scale porosity and cracks. These microstructural defects significantly deteriorate the NTs charge transport efficiency and mechanical strength/toughness. Here we report using ionic liquids (ILs) to anodize titanium to grow low-defect TiO{sub 2} NTs by reducing the electrolyte decomposition rate (less IR drop due to higher electrical conductivity) as well as the chance of the decomposition products mixing into the TiO{sub 2} matrix (organic cations repelled away). Promising electrochemical results have been achieved when using the IL-produced TiO{sub 2} NTs as an anode for Li-ion batteries. The ILNTs demonstrated excellent capacity retention without microstructural damage for nearly 1200 cycles of charge-discharge, while the NTs grown in a conventional EG solution totally pulverized in cycling, resulting in significant capacity fade.

  16. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  17. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  18. Dynamics of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair formation in K(14p,20p)-SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 4} collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C. H.; Kelley, M.; Buathong, S.; Dunning, F. B.

    2014-06-21

    The dynamics of formation of heavy-Rydberg ion-pair states through electron transfer in K(np)-SF{sub 6}, CCl{sub 4} collisions is examined by measuring the velocity, angular, and binding energy distributions of the product ion pairs. The results are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models both the initial electron capture and the subsequent evolution of the ion pairs. The model simulations are in good agreement with the experimental data and highlight the factors such as Rydberg atom size, the kinetic energy of relative motion of the Rydberg atom and target particle, and (in the case of attaching targets that dissociate) the energetics of dissociation that can be used to control the properties of the product ion-pair states.

  19. Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bicontinuous Cubic Architecture and High Room-temparature Ion Conductivity - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous, Bicontinuous Cubic Architecture and High Room-temparature Ion Conductivity University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryLi ion batteries have high energy density, high power delivery,

  20. LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEDL-TME 78-15 uc-20 LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS Hanf ord Engineering Development Laboratory -~ - - , . .. . D.W. Jeppson J.L. Ballif W.W. Yuan B.E. Chou - - - . - . - -- r - N O T l C E n ~ h u mpon w prepared as an account of work iponrored by the United States Government. Neither the Unitcd States nor the United Stater Department of Energy. nor any of their employees, nor any of then contractor^, subcontractors. or their employees, maker any warranty,

  1. Lithium | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Subscribe to RSS - Lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid cars. What may not be so well known is the fact that researchers hoping to harness the energy released in fusion reactions also have used lithium to coat the walls of donut-shaped tokamak reactors. Lithium, it turns out, may help the plasmas fueling fusion reactions to retain heat for longer periods of time. This could

  2. Structural and Electrochemical Characterization of Pure LiFePO 4 and Nanocomposite C- LiFePO 4 Cathodes for Lithium Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Arun; Thomas, R.; Karan, N. K.; Saavedra-Arias, J. J.; Singh, M. K.; Majumder, S. B.; Tomar, M. S.; Katiyar, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pure limore » thium iron phosphate ( LiFePO 4 ) and carbon-coated LiFePO 4 (C- LiFePO 4 ) cathode materials were synthesized for Li-ion batteries. Structural and electrochemical properties of these materials were compared. X-ray diffraction revealed orthorhombic olivine structure. Micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates amorphous carbon, and TEM micrographs show carbon coating on LiFePO 4 particles. Ex situ Raman spectrum of C- LiFePO 4 at various stages of charging and discharging showed reversibility upon electrochemical cycling. The cyclic voltammograms of LiFePO 4 and C- LiFePO 4 showed only a pair of peaks corresponding to the anodic and cathodic reactions. The first discharge capacities were 63, 43, and 13 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, and C/2, respectively for LiFePO 4 where as in case of C- LiFePO 4 that were 163, 144, 118, and 70 mAh/g for C/5, C/3, C/2, and 1C, respectively. The capacity retention of pure LiFePO 4 was 69% after 25 cycles where as that of C- LiFePO 4 was around 97% after 50 cycles. These results indicate that the capacity and the rate capability improved significantly upon carbon coating.« less

  3. High Performance Batteries Based on Hybrid Magnesium and Lithium Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yingwen; Shao, Yuyan; Zhang, Jiguang; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun; Li, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and lithium (Mg/Li) hybrid batteries that combine Mg and Li electrochemistry, consisting of a Mg anode, a lithium-intercalation cathode and a dual-salt electrolyte with both Mg2+ and Li+ ions, were constructed and examined in this work. Our results show that hybrid (Mg/Li) batteries were able to combine the advantages of Li-ion and Mg batteries, and delivered outstanding rate performance (83% for capacities at 15C and 0.1C) and superior cyclic stability (~5% fade after 3000 cycles).

  4. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phukan, Ananya, E-mail: ananya.phukan26@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Kamrup (M), Assam 782402 (India)

    2014-08-15

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (?{sub D})

  5. Lithium As Plasma Facing Component for Magnetic Fusion Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masayuki Ono

    2012-09-10

    The use of lithium in magnetic fusion confinement experiments started in the 1990's in order to improve tokamak plasma performance as a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). Lithium is the lightest alkali metal and it is highly chemically reactive with relevant ion species in fusion plasmas including hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, carbon, and oxygen. Because of the reactive properties, lithium can provide strong pumping for those ions. It was indeed a spectacular success in TFTR where a very small amount (~ 0.02 gram) of lithium coating of the PFCs resulted in the fusion power output to improve by nearly a factor of two. The plasma confinement also improved by a factor of two. This success was attributed to the reduced recycling of cold gas surrounding the fusion plasma due to highly reactive lithium on the wall. The plasma confinement and performance improvements have since been confirmed in a large number of fusion devices with various magnetic configurations including CDX-U/LTX (US), CPD (Japan), HT-7 (China), EAST (China), FTU (Italy), NSTX (US), T-10, T-11M (Russia), TJ-II (Spain), and RFX (Italy). Additionally, lithium was shown to broaden the plasma pressure profile in NSTX, which is advantageous in achieving high performance H-mode operation for tokamak reactors. It is also noted that even with significant applications (up to 1,000 grams in NSTX) of lithium on PFCs, very little contamination (< 0.1%) of lithium fraction in main fusion plasma core was observed even during high confinement modes. The lithium therefore appears to be a highly desirable material to be used as a plasma PFC material from the magnetic fusion plasma performance and operational point of view. An exciting development in recent years is the growing realization of lithium as a potential solution to solve the exceptionally challenging need to handle the fusion reactor divertor heat flux, which could reach 60 MW/m2 . By placing the liquid lithium (LL) surface in the path of the main divertor heat flux (divertor strike point), the lithium is evaporated from the surface. The evaporated lithium is quickly ionized by the plasma and the ionized lithium ions can provide a strongly radiative layer of plasma ("radiative mantle"), thus could significantly reduce the heat flux to the divertor strike point surfaces, thus protecting the divertor surface. The protective effects of LL have been observed in many experiments and test stands. As a possible reactor divertor candidate, a closed LL divertor system is described. Finally, it is noted that the lithium applications as a PFC can be quite flexible and broad. The lithium application should be quite compatible with various divertor configurations, and it can be also applied to protecting the presently envisioned tungsten based solid PFC surfaces such as the ones for ITER. Lithium based PFCs therefore have the exciting prospect of providing a cost effective flexible means to improve the fusion reactor performance, while providing a practical solution to the highly challenging divertor heat handling issue confronting the steadystate magnetic fusion reactors.

  6. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  7. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  8. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  9. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Conference) | SciTech Connect Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Authors: Lordi, V ; Ong, M T ; Verners, O ; van Duin, A ; Draeger, E W ; Pask, J E Publication Date: 2014-11-03 OSTI Identifier: 1178394 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-663739 DOE Contract Number:

  10. Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Conference) | SciTech Connect Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Structure and Ion Transport near Electrode-Electrolyte Interfaces in Lithium-Ion Batteries × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a

  11. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Baklanov, A. V.; Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P.

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup ?1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  12. Production, formation, and transport of high-brightness atomic hydrogen beam studies for the relativistic heavy ion collider polarized source upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolmogorov, A. Stupishin, N.; Atoian, G.; Ritter, J.; Zelenski, A.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk

    2014-02-15

    The RHIC polarized H{sup ?} ion source had been successfully upgraded to higher intensity and polarization by using a very high brightness fast atomic beam source developed at BINP, Novosibirsk. In this source the proton beam is extracted by a four-grid multi-aperture ion optical system and neutralized in the H{sub 2} gas cell downstream from the grids. The proton beam is extracted from plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of ?0.2 eV which is formed by plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. The multi-hole grids are spherically shaped to produce geometrical beam focusing. Proton beam formation and transport of atomic beam were experimentally studied at test bench.

  13. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  14. Lithium-Air Battery: High Performance Cathodes for Lithium-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-01

    BEEST Project: Researchers at Missouri S&T are developing an affordable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery that could enable an EV to travel up to 350 miles on a single charge. Todays EVs run on Li-Ion batteries, which are expensive and suffer from low energy density compared with gasoline. This new Li-Air battery could perform as well as gasoline and store 3 times more energy than current Li-Ion batteries. A Li-Air battery uses an air cathode to breathe oxygen into the battery from the surrounding air, like a human lung. The oxygen and lithium react in the battery to produce electricity. Current Li-Air batteries are limited by the rate at which they can draw oxygen from the air. The team is designing a battery using hierarchical electrode structures to enhance air breathing and effective catalysts to accelerate electricity production.

  15. Phostech Lithium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phostech Lithium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phostech Lithium Place: St-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec, Canada Zip: J3V 6B7 Sector: Hydro Product: String representation...

  16. Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Development of High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cells for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Sion Power is developing a lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery, a potentially cost-effective alternative to the Li-Ion battery that could store 400% more energy per pound. All batteries have 3 key partsa positive and negative electrode and an electrolytethat exchange ions to store and release electricity. Using different materials for these components changes a batterys chemistry and its ability to power a vehicle. Traditional Li-S batteries experience adverse reactions between the electrolyte and lithium-based negative electrode that ultimately limit the battery to less than 50 charge cycles. Sion Power will sandwich the lithium- and sulfur-based electrode films around a separator that protects the negative electrode and increases the number of charges the battery can complete in its lifetime. The design could eventually allow for a battery with 400% greater storage capacity per pound than Li-Ion batteries and the ability to complete more than 500 recharge cycles.

  17. Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es011_yakovleva_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Energy Storage R&D Annual Progress Report Modular Process Equipment for Low Cost Manufacturing

  18. Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  20. JCESR: Moving Beyond Lithium-Ion

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zavadil, Kevin; Crabtree, George; Gallagher, Kevin; Trahey, Lynn; Srinivasan, Venkat; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chamberlain, Jeff

    2014-11-18

    The Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR; http://www.jcesr.org/) is a major research partnership that integrates government, academic, and industrial researchers from many disciplines. JCESR's vision is to transform transportation and the electricity grid with high-performance, low cost energy storage.