Sample records for formaldehyde gas appliances

  1. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Nasim A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35): 5661-67. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on PollutantO-. ! Natural Gas Appliances on PollutantA! =? >7! =::! Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant

  2. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validatingfor Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: A Validation ofs ability to predict combustion gas spillage events due to

  3. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT. "Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: A Validation of VENT

  4. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    related to natural gas combustion and air pollution wereemitted from natural gas combustion are predominately lessGas- fired Appliances," Proceedings: How Significant Are Residential Combustion

  5. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamentals of Gas Combustion. 2001: Washington, DC. 131Components A gas appliance combustion system accomplishestransfers energy from hot combustion gases to water or air

  6. Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

  7. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Apte, Michael G.; Black, Douglas R.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Lucas, Donald; Lunden, Melissa M.; Mirer, Anna G.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of liquefied natural gas on pollutant emissions was evaluated experimentally with used and new appliances in the laboratory and with appliances installed in residences, targeting information gaps from previous studies. Burner selection targeted available technologies that are projected to comprise the majority of installed appliances over the next decade. Experiments were conducted on 13 cooktop sets, 12 ovens, 5 broiler burners, 5 storage water heaters, 4 forced air furnaces, 1 wall furnace, and 6 tankless water heaters. Air-free concentrations and fuel-based emission factors were determined for carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and the number of (predominantly ultrafine) particles over complete burns?including transient effects (device warm-up and intermittent firing of burners) following ignition--and during more stable end-of-burn conditions. Formaldehyde was measured over multi-burn cycles. The baseline fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number (a measure of fuel energy delivery rate) of 1320-1340; test fuels had Wobbe numbers of roughly 1390 and 1420, and in some cases 1360. No ignition or operational problems were observed during test fuel use. Baseline emissions varied widely across and within burner groups and with burner operational mode. Statistically significant emissions changes were observed for some pollutants on some burners.

  8. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trade associations such as AHAM, GAMA, AHRI, and ApplianceAppliance Manufacturers (AHAM), Gas Appliance Manufacturersas Appliance Magazine and the AHAM Fact Book. In most cases,

  9. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders who incorporate energy efficiency into new construction. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment placed into new construction....

  10. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for energy efficient gas equipment. Builders can also receive whole house rebates for...

  11. Questar Gas- Home Builder Gas Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides incentives for home builders to construct energy efficient homes. Rebates are provided for both energy efficient gas equipment and whole home Energy Star certification. All...

  12. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  13. Creating and Implementing a Regularized Monitoring and Enforcement System for China's Mandatory Standards and Energy Information Label for Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM). Typically, the efficiency ofof Home Appliance Manufactures (AHAM); and the Gas Appliance

  14. PSNC Energy (Gas)- Energy-Efficient Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PSNC offers rebates to customers who purchase energy-efficient natural gas water heaters or natural gas furnaces. The rebate is available only when existing natural gas-fired water heating or...

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger 2009 APPLIANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ............................................................................................... 68 1603 Testing: All Appliances

  16. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which, in the case of home heating appliances, could resultHeaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, Mobile Home Furnaces,

  17. FORMALDEHYDE Formaldehyde Management Plan i

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    and Evaluation) Facilities Management Work Control Center (40)5-2222 (Repair of Facility Equipment DeficienciesFORMALDEHYDE MANAGEMENT PLAN #12;Formaldehyde Management Plan i Review and Approval Authority Formaldehyde Management Plan this page intentionally blank #12;Formaldehyde Management Plan iii Table

  18. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2009. American Gas Assocation. Natural Gas Glossary. http://River, NJ. White Paper on Natural Gas Interchangeability Andof Vaporized LNG and Natural Gas. Des Plaines, IL, Gas

  19. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  20. APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS GAS SPACE HEATERS WATER HEATERS PLUMBING FITTINGS FLUORESCENT LAMP BALLASTS LUMINAIRES GAS COOKING APPLIANCES AND GAS POOL HEATERS SEPTEMBER 1992 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS APPLIANCE) Gas space heaters, excluding the following types: (1) gravity type central furnaces; (2) heaters

  1. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Interchangeability of Vaporized LNG and Natural Gas. Deswith Domestic Natural Gas. LNG and the Changing U.S. NaturalInterchangeability, and LNG Utilization in the United

  2. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Nasim A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used to power your water heater? a. Natural Gas b. Propaneranges, furnaces and water heaters. The most common gasof gas heaters or water heaters within the home (indicating

  3. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Furnace (2) Heater (35) Water Heater (32) ~ Space u.. c:Emissionsfrom Gas-fired Water Heaters, Report No. 1507,gas furnaces and water heaters," JAPCA 31:1268 (1981). Table

  4. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Nasim A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space b Points for gas storage water heater per number ofappliances. The gas storage water heater was outside of theuse in your home. A storage water heater is the most common

  5. Novel Routes to Ethylene Glycol Synthesis via Acid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Formaldehyde and Dimethoxymethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celik, Fuat Emin

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scheme for producing MEG from syngas via formaldehyde or DMMScheme for producing MEG from syngas via formaldehyde or DMMto generate synthesis gas (syngas), a reactive mixture of

  6. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mullen, Nasim A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be combined with storage WH) N N N Propane Don't know/blan kstorage water heater) __ Other (describe) K.2 Is this water heater powered by natural gas, electricity or propane? [Propane __ Electric! Skip to §L K.3 Do you have more than one storage

  7. The ultra-violet spectrum of formaldehyde vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Sidney Edward

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    but with an auxilliary heating coil controlled independently to provide higher local temperatures for generating the formaldehyde gas. Gas pressures near one atmosphere were obtained by a continuous flow process in which formaldehyde was passed through the absorption... the manometer hot. This was necessary to prevent polymer condensation inside the mano? meter. Since formaldehyde gas seems to dissolve in mercury to some extent, it was necessary to calibrate the manometer before and after each experiment. When nitrogen...

  8. Arnold Schwarzenegger 2010 APPLIANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, pool heaters, pool pumps, electric spas, pool pump motors, plumbing fittings, plumbing fixtures, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan

  9. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Horiba PG?250  combustion gas analyzer was used for its 250) were measured by the combustion gas analyzer sampling Analytical  602P combustion gas analyzer (O 2 , CO 2 , CO), 

  10. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heater.  Gas Quality and LNG Research Study.  Southern device performance impacts of LNG use in California.    5.02005): FVIR  Water Heater.  LNG Gas Acceptability Research 

  11. Appliance Standards Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The federal government, and some states, have established minimum efficiency standards for certain appliances and equipment, such as refrigerators and clothes washers.

  12. Residential appliances technology atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential appliance technology and efficiency opportunities for refrigerators and freezers, cooking appliances, clothes washers and dryers, dishwashers, and some often-ignored household devices such as spas, pool pumps, waterbed heaters, televisions, and home computers are thoroughly covered in this Atlas. The US appliance market, fuel shares, efficiency standards, labeling, and advances in home automation, design for recycling, and CFC issues are also discussed. The resource section contains lists of appliance manufacturers and distributors, and trade, professional, and governmental organizations, a summary of key resources for further information, and an index.

  13. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, and  the number of (liquefied natural gas, nitrogen  dioxide, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, particle  number,  and 

  14. Global residential appliance standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turiel, I.; McMahon, J.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lebot, B. (Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l'Energie, Valbonne (France))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most countries, residential electricity consumption typically ranges from 20% to 40% of total electricity consumption. This energy is used for heating, cooling, refrigeration and other end-uses. Significant energy savings are possible if new appliance purchases are for models with higher efficiency than that of existing models. There are several ways to ensure or encourage such an outcome, for example, appliance rebates, innovative procurement, and minimum efficiency standards. This paper focuses on the latter approach. At the present time, the US is the only country with comprehensive appliance energy efficiency standards. However, many other countries, such as Australia, Canada, the European Community (EC), Japan and Korea, are considering enacting standards. The greatest potential impact of minimum efficiency standards for appliances is in the developing countries (e.g., China and India), where saturations of household appliances are relatively low but growing rapidly. This paper discusses the potential savings that could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also could be achieved from global appliance efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. It also discusses the impediments to establishing common standards for certain appliance types, such as differing test procedures, characteristics, and fuel prices. A methodology for establishing global efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers is described.

  15. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary Reports for Storage Water Heaters This appendix is Summary Reports for Tankless Water Heaters This appendix is A?4: Legacy Residential  Water Heater.  Gas Quality and LNG 

  16. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepa from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porsity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity.

  17. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepared from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porosity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity. 3 figs.

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Larry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM), 1978–2001 AssociationHome Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM), 1978–2001. Directory ofAppliance Manufacturers (AHAM) certified directory where

  19. Electricity and Natural Gas Efficiency Improvements for Residential Gas Furnaces in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James E.; McNeil, Michael; Lutz, Jim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by natural gas. Electricity consumption by a furnace blowerto the annual electricity consumption of a major appliance.not account for the electricity consumption of the appliance

  20. CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methodology and results report that includes energy consumption tables from the conditional demand analysis Energy Consumption and Appliance Saturation Summaries. Results from the Conditional Demand Analysis (CDA conditioning is the primary driver of peak energy demand in California and the saturation of central air

  1. Streamlining ENERGY STAR Appliance Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To save taxpayer dollars and help lower the costs of innovative energy-efficient technologies, the Energy Department is streamlining ENERGY STAR testing for appliances.

  2. Energy Efficiency Standards for Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '' Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  3. Appliance and Equipment Efficiency Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '' Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  4. 2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY Volume 1 and administered a Residential Appliance Saturation Study that serves as an update to the 2003 RASS, with the same residential enduses and appliance saturations for households. These consumption estimates were developed

  5. 2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY Executive and administered a Residential Appliance Saturation Study that serves as an update to the 2003 RASS, with the same residential enduses and appliance saturations for households. These consumption estimates were developed

  6. Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneous Equipment Electricity Use in New Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Richard E.; Rittelman, William; Parker, Danny; Homan, Gregory

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    62440 Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneousof California. Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, anduses (appliances, lighting, electronics, and miscellaneous

  7. Modeling diffusion of electrical appliances in the residential sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2009-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a methodology for modeling residential appliance uptake as a function of root macroeconomic drivers. The analysis concentrates on four major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, washing machines, televisions and air conditioners. The model employs linear regression analysis to parameterize appliance ownership in terms of household income, urbanization and electrification rates according to a standard binary choice (logistic) function. The underlying household appliance ownership data are gathered from a variety of sources including energy consumption and more general standard of living surveys. These data span a wide range of countries, including many developing countries for which appliance ownership is currently low, but likely to grow significantly over the next decades as a result of economic development. The result is a 'global' parameterization of appliance ownership rates as a function of widely available macroeconomic variables for the four appliances studied, which provides a reliable basis for interpolation where data are not available, and forecasting of ownership rates on a global scale. The main value of this method is to form the foundation of bottom-up energy demand forecasts, project energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, and allow for the construction of detailed emissions mitigation scenarios.

  8. Remote repair appliance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs.

  9. Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde column measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Constraining global isoprene emissions with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) formaldehyde emission estimates are highly uncertain because of a lack of direct observations. Formaldehyde (HCHO the observation of this trace gas to help constrain isoprene emissions. We use HCHO column observations from

  10. Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Star® Appliances 1 Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service ENERGY STAR® Appliances ENERGY STAR®-labeled appliances save you money by using less electricity and water than other appliances. Better appliance energy efficiency comes from quality materials and technologically advanced materials. Although energy efficient

  11. Citizens Gas- Residential Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to its residential customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances. Rebates are generally available for residential homes...

  12. Nebraska Appliance Rebate Program opens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 500 people lined up outside of Omaha's Nebraska Furniture Mart on July 6, waiting to get ENERGY STAR washing machines, dishwashers and refrigerators on the first day of Nebraska's Appliance Rebate Program.

  13. Midea Washing Appliance: Order (2011-CE-1903)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Midea Washing Appliance Mfg. Co., Ltd. to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Midea Washing Appliance had failed to certify that certain models of dishwashers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. MC Appliance: Order (2014-CE-20002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered MC Appliance Corporation to pay a $16,000 civil penalty after finding MC Appliance had failed to certify that certain models of residential clothes washers and residential clothes dryers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Committee provides advice and recommendations related to the following: * Development of minimum efficiency standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment, *...

  16. Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of the National Energy Laboratories Buildings Home About Emerging Technologies Residential Buildings Commercial Buildings Appliance & Equipment Standards Building Energy Codes...

  17. Modeling of GE Appliances: Final Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the final in a series of three reports funded by U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) in collaboration with GE Appliances’ through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to describe the potential of GE Appliances’ DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid.

  18. Efficiency of appliance models on the market before and after DOE standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, Stephen

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficiency standards for appliances mandate that appliance manufacturers not manufacture or import models that have a test energy efficiency below a specified level after the standard effective date. Thus, appliance standards set a floor for energy efficiency. But do they also induce more significant changes in the efficiencies that manufacturers offer after the standard becomes effective? To address this question, we undertook an examination of before-standard and after-standard efficiency of models on the market for three products: (1) Refrigerators (1990, 1993, and 2001 standards); (2) Room air conditioners (1990 and 2000 standards); and (3) Gas furnaces (1992 standard).

  19. Status of European appliance standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turiel, I. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Lebot, B. (Agence de L'Environnement et de la Maitrise de L'Energie, Valbonne (France))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Community (EC) recently commissioned a study of the impact of potential appliance standards on electricity consumption in the twelve EC nations. This study looks at refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The impact of minimum efficiency standards on electricity use over the time period from 1995--2010 is estimated. The results of this study were presented to the EC in September of 1991. Revisions were made to the draft report and final copies sent to all interested parties. The member nations of the EC will soon consider whether they wish to implement uniform energy efficiency standards that would take effect in 1995. The results of the study described above will be presented and the political considerations will be discussed. In addition, data describing the appliance market in Europe will be presented.

  20. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Larry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the higher the product cost and retail price. Table 3.change and appliance price Room air conditioners Small (price data to clarify price

  1. Earthjustice, Appliance Standards Awareness Project, Natural...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Council - Comments in response to DOE solicitation of views on the implementation of test procedure waivers for large capacity clothes washers Earthjustice, Appliance Standards...

  2. Catalog of DC Appliances and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance Efficient DC compatible replacement technology variable-speed compressor and fans run by brushless DC motor in place of single-speed compressors

  3. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2: Definition of Energy Efficiency-Based Market Segments/Minimum & ENERGY STAR Standards Market Segment Descriptiondrops. The markets for large energy consuming appliances are

  4. Distinctive Appliances: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23020)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Distinctive Appliances Distributing Inc. failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    benefits and difficulties associated with smart grid appliances. The presenter discusses demand response and load management and how users of smart grid can benefit renewable...

  6. Appliance and Equipment Energy Efficiency Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '' Note: The federal government has imposed and updated appliance efficiency standards through several legislative acts,* and now has standards in place or under development for 30 classes of...

  7. Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issuance Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group; Notice of Open Meetings...

  8. Appliance remanufacturing and life cycle energy and economic savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boustani, Avid

    In this paper we evaluate the energy and economic consequences of appliance remanufacturing relative to purchasing new. The appliances presented in this report constitute major residential appliances: refrigerator, dishwasher, ...

  9. State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP) American...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000119 State Energy Efficient Appliance...

  10. Four-County EMC- Residential Energy Efficiency Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Four-County EMC offers its customers $50 rebates for purchasing certain Energy Star appliances. Eligible appliances include refrigerators, dishwashers, clothes washers and freezers. The rebates are...

  11. Sales Tax Holiday for Energy-Efficient Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In November 2007, Maryland enacted legislation creating a sales and use tax "holiday" for certain energy-efficient appliances, beginning in 2011. Under the law, qualifying appliances purchased...

  12. Vectren Energy Delivery of Indiana (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vectren Energy Delivery offers its residential natural gas customers in Indiana rebates for the installation of certain high efficiency natural gas appliances and insulation measures. Rebates are...

  13. Vectren Energy Delivery of Ohio (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vectren Energy Delivery offers residential natural gas customers in Ohio rebates for the installation of certain high efficiency natural gas appliances and building insulation. Rebates are...

  14. Florida City Gas- Residential Energy Smart Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida City Gas (FCG) encourages residential customers to become more energy efficient by offering various rebates for the purchase and installation of efficient natural gas appliances. Rebate...

  15. Appliance Standards and Building Codes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment ofEnergy NaturalEnergy 7Appliance Rebates:APPENDIXBuildings

  16. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  17. Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

  18. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  19. Questar Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides rebates for energy efficient appliances and heating equipment, and certain weatherization measures through the ThermWise program. This equipment includes clothes washers,...

  20. Questar Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides rebates for residential customers who make their homes more energy efficient by installing certain energy saving appliances, efficient heating equipment, and certain...

  1. GE Appliances: Order (2012-SE-1403) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject: Guidance for natural gas as a feedstockAppliances: Order

  2. MC Appliance: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-20002)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that MC Appliance Corporation failed to certify residential clothes washers and residential clothes dryers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Equator Appliance: ENERGY STAR Referral (EZ 3720)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE referred Equator Appliance clothes washer EZ 3720 to EPA, brand manager of the ENERGY STAR program, for appropriate action after DOE testing revealed that the model does not meet ENERGY STAR requirements.

  4. Energy-Efficient Appliance Manufacturing Tax Credit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    '''''Note: This tax credit expired at the end of 2011. The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 retroactively renewed this tax credit for certain appliances manufactured in 2012 and 2013. '''''

  5. West Virginia Consumers Have Appliance Rebate 'Trifecta'

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginians didn’t waste any time in taking advantage of the Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program. Only three months in, and almost half of the available $1.7 million is already spoken for.

  6. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, G.W.; Kern, E.C. Jr.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each. 9 figs.

  7. State Appliance Standards (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State appliance standards have existed for decades, starting with Californias enforcement of minimum efficiency requirements for refrigerators and several other products in 1979. In 1987, recognizing that different efficiency standards for the same products in different states could create problems for manufacturers, Congress enacted the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA), which initially covered 12 products. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT92), EPACT2005, and EISA2007 added additional residential and commercial products to the 12 products originally specified under NAECA.

  8. Non-intrusive appliance monitor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, George W. (Natick, MA); Kern, Jr., Edward C. (Lincoln, MA); Schweppe, Fred C. (Carlisle, MA)

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive monitor of energy consumption of residential appliances is described in which sensors, coupled to the power circuits entering a residence, supply analog voltage and current signals which are converted to digital format and processed to detect changes in certain residential load parameters, i.e., admittance. Cluster analysis techniques are employed to group change measurements into certain categories, and logic is applied to identify individual appliances and the energy consumed by each.

  9. Ohio Valley Gas Corporation- Residential and Small Commercial Natural Gas Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ohio Valley Gas Corporation (OVG) offers rebates to its residential and small commercial customers for the purchase of energy efficient equipment and appliances. The program's rebate offering...

  10. Citizens Gas- Commercial Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Citizens Gas of Indiana offers rebates to commercial customers for the installation of several types of efficient natural gas appliances, as well as certain equipment upgrades and tune-up services....

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliances (excluding motors, transformers, and air compressors)appliances (excluding motors, transformers, and air compressors)

  12. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliances (excluding motors, transformers, and air compressors)appliances (excluding motors, transformers, and air compressors)

  13. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monoxide and nitrogen dioxide from gas appliances;health, indoor air quality, nitrogen dioxide, radon The workin residen- (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NOz), formaldehyde (

  14. THE IMPACT OF REDUCED VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, James V.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide fron gas appliances;quality, infiltration, nitrogen dioxide, radon, ventilation.carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (N02)• formaldehyde (

  15. Energy Efficient Appliance Sales Soar in North Carolina | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Efficient Appliance Sales Soar in North Carolina Energy Efficient Appliance Sales Soar in North Carolina July 23, 2010 - 11:00am Addthis Joshua DeLung What does this mean...

  16. Fort Collins Utilities- Residential and Small Commercial Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fort Collins Utilities offers a number of appliance and recycling rebates to residential and small commercial customers. The appliance rebate program offers a $50 rebate for Energy Star rated...

  17. Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in EnergyFaceoff Round 4? Microwave vs. Electric Kettle: Which Appliance Is in Hot Water in EnergyFaceoff Round 4?...

  18. 2012 APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS Edmund G. Brown Jr., Governor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Appliance Efficiency Regulations, appliance standards, refrigerators, air conditioners, space heaters, water heaters, pool heaters, pool pumps, electric spas, pool pump motors, plumbing fittings, plumbing fixtures, showerheads, spray valves, faucets, tub spout diverters, water closets, urinals, ceiling fans, ceiling fan

  19. Reading Municipal Light Department- Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers rebates to residential customers who install Energy Star appliances in eligible homes. The offer is limited to one rebate per appliance or a maximum...

  20. Laclede Gas Company- Residential High Efficiency Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Laclede Gas Company offers various rebates to residential customers for investing in energy efficient equipment and appliances. Residential customers can qualify for rebates on boilers, furnaces,...

  1. Black Hills Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Black Hills Energy (BHE) offers a variety of rebates for residential Colorado customers who purchase and install energy efficient natural gas appliances, heating equipment and insulation materials....

  2. Questar Gas- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs (Idaho)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Questar Gas provides rebates for energy efficient appliances and heating equipment, and certain weatherization measures through the ThermWise program. This equipment includes clothes washers, water...

  3. Louisville Gas and Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisville Gas and Electric's Home Energy Rebate program provides incentives for residential customers to upgrade to energy efficiency home appliances and heat and air conditioning equipment. ...

  4. Columbia Gas of Kentucky- Home Savings Rebate Program (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Gas of Kentucky offers rebates to residential customers for the purchase and installation of energy efficient appliances and equipment. Water heaters, furnaces and space heating equipment...

  5. FEMP Designated Product Assessment for Commercial Gas Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the CFR as being storage water heaters, instantaneous watersupply boilers. Storage water heater means a water heaterAppliance Gas storage water heaters Definition a water

  6. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  7. The 4000 A absorption system of formaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, James Ralph

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE $000 A ABSORPTION SYSTEM OF FORMALDEHYDE JAMES RALPH HENDERSON A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May i 1957 Ma]or Subject: Physics THE 4000 A ABSORPTION SYSTEM OF FORMALDEHYDE A Thesis JAMES RALPH HENDERSON Approved as to style and content bye rlllan 0 OIllK e e ea o epar men May, l957 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. Introduction...

  8. Form ElectApp11 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp11 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 14.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted amplifiers electrical heaters cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted cooking

  9. Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp13 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with the Agreement Terms and Conditions clause to the Residence. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld systems amplifiers electrical heaters cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note

  10. Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    Form ElectApp12 ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES In accordance with Residence Regulation 15.2 (see Section Two. Permission to bring personal electrical items will not be unreasonably withheld, but will not be granted · amplifiers · electrical heaters · cooking equipment such as deep fat fryers. (Please note that permitted

  11. Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards: Guidance

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless orA BRIEF HISTORYAgencyLocal|Annual Uncosted.Appliance

  12. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moudrakovski, Igor L.; Ratcliffe, C I.; Ripmeester, J A.; Wang, Li Q.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Baumann, T; Satcher, J H.

    2005-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we report a detailed study of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels prepared under different processing conditions, [resorcinol]/[catalyst] (R/C) ratios in the starting sol-gel solutions, using continuous flow hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR in combination with solid-state 13C and two-dimensional wide-line separation (2D-WISE) NMR techniques. The degree of polymerization and the mobility of the cross-linking functional groups in RF aerogels are examined and correlated with the R/C ratios. The origin of different adsorption regions is evaluated using both co-adsorption of chloroform and 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. A hierarchical set of Xe exchange processes in RF aerogels is found using 2D EXSY 129Xe NMR. The exchange of Xe gas follows the sequence (from fastest to slowest): mesopores with free gas, gas in meso- and micro-pores, free gas with micropores, and, finally, among micropore sites. The volume-to-surface-area (Vg/S) ratios for aerogels are measured for the first time without the use of geometric models. The Vg/S parameter, which is related both to the geometry and the interconnectivity of the pore space, has been found to correlate strongly with the R/C ratio and exhibits an unusually large span: an increase in the R/C ratio from 50 to 500 results in about a 5-fold rise in Vg/S.

  13. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  14. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appliance_standards/residential/water_ pool_heaters_prelim_Star (2008). Energy star residential water heaters: Finalefficiency improvements for residential gas furnaces in the

  15. Appliance Standards Program Schedule - CCE Overview and Update...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Meeting CCE Overview and Update Presenation, dated April 13, 2011 NEMA Distribution Transformers, CCE Overview and Update presentation, dated 05242011 Appliance Standards Program...

  16. T-588: HP Virtual SAN Appliance Stack Overflow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A vulnerability has been reported in HP StorageWorks P4000 Virtual SAN Appliance Software, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a vulnerable system.

  17. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities Case study details the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force...

  18. appliance efficiency program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: 2002. Commercial Cooking Appliance Technology Assessment.technology costs reported in Table 1 are not included in these plots...

  19. 2014-08-19 Issuance Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2014-08-19 Issuance Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Central Air Conditioner Regional Standards Enforcement Working Group; Notice of Open...

  20. Reminder: Personal Appliance Use at Jefferson Lab | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Lab provides refrigerators, microwave ovens, and coffee makers in common use space of buildings. Personal household appliances are not authorized. For your reference, a copy of...

  1. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities: Best Management Practice Case Study 11: Commercial Kitchen Equipment (Brochure), Federal Energy...

  2. Orange and Rockland Utilities (Electric)- Residential Appliance Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Orange and Rockland Utilities provides rebates for residential customers for recycling older, inefficient refrigerators and freezers. All appliances must meet the program requirements listed on the...

  3. Buying an Appliance this Holiday Season? ENERGY STAR Products...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Freezers Room air conditioners Televisions Clothes washers Dishwashers Battery chargers Water heaters Fluorescent lamp ballasts Incandescent reflector lamps If your appliance has...

  4. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, J.; Bohac, D.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  5. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - activator appliances Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of appliance operation to take advantage... be standalone or embedded either in the smart meter or in appliances. At the same time, customers may Source: Snyder, Larry -...

  7. International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Awards for Appliance Manufacturers and Retailers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM),2012, “AHAM Programs. ” http://www.aham.org/industry/ht/d/on market surveillance AHAM – Association of Home Appliance

  8. 8th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 8th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  9. 2nd Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 2nd Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance...

  10. 5th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 5th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance...

  11. 6th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 6th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  12. 16th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 16th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  13. 9th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 9th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  14. 4th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 4th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance...

  15. 10th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 10th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  16. 12th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 12th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  17. 3rd Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 3rd Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance...

  18. 14th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 14th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  19. 15th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 15th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  20. 1st Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy-Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 1st Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance...

  1. 7th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 7th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy...

  2. 17TH SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS ON APPLIANCE ENERGY EFFICIENCY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    TO CONGRESS ON APPLIANCE ENERGY EFFICIENCY RULEMAKINGS - IMPLEMENTATION REPORT: ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS ACTIVITIES 17TH SEMI-ANNUAL REPORT TO CONGRESS ON APPLIANCE ENERGY...

  3. U-247: EMC Cloud Tiering Appliance Flaw Lets Remote Users Bypass...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7: EMC Cloud Tiering Appliance Flaw Lets Remote Users Bypass Authentication and Gain Administrative Access U-247: EMC Cloud Tiering Appliance Flaw Lets Remote Users Bypass...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliance ownership survey Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roomba Is Rambo": Intimate Home Appliances Ja-Young Sung, Lan Guo, Rebecca E. Grinter... psychology literature which emphasizes 12;"My Roomba Is Rambo": Intimate Home Appliances...

  5. Tungsten-dependent formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: Reaction mechanism from quantum chemical calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Rongzhen

    Tungsten-dependent formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase: Reaction mechanism from quantum chemical theory Enzyme catalysis Formaldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase from Pyrococcus furiosus is a tungsten the formaldehyde substrate binds directly to the tungsten ion. WVI =O then performs a nucleophilic attack

  6. Non-thermal Plasma - Nanometer TiO2 Photocatalysis for Formaldehyde Decomposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Q.; Feng, G.; Guang, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , followed by pumping in a mixture of formaldehyde and air. The purifier was then turned on to carry on the static state experiment of decomposing formaldehyde. The INTERSCAN4160 analysis instrument was adapted to analyze the variety of the formaldehyde...

  7. Hydrogen Generator Appliance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Groundto ApplyRoadmap HydrogenHydrogenGenerator Appliance

  8. Appliance Equipment Standards Northwest Impact Study

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmes LaboratoryAntonyaAppeals4Appendix TFIELD-2014Appliance

  9. Smart Meter Deployment Optimization for Efficient Electrical Appliance State Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongcai

    Smart Meter Deployment Optimization for Efficient Electrical Appliance State Monitoring Xiaohong approaches generally require large-scale smart sensor/meter networks, and thus suffer from the high to optimize the smart meter deployments to track the on/off states of the massive electrical appliances

  10. Utility Rebates for ENERGY STAR Appliances: Are They Effective?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility Rebates for ENERGY STAR Appliances: Are They Effective? Souvik Datta Sumeet Gulati CEPE;UTILITY REBATES FOR ENERGY STAR APPLIANCES: ARE THEY EFFECTIVE? SOUVIK DATTA ETH Z¨urich SUMEET GULATI by utility companies. To estimate the impact of these incentives we use the variation in timing and size

  11. Performance Evaluation of Virtual Appliances Zhaoqian Chen and David Kaeli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaeli, David R.

    Performance Evaluation of Virtual Appliances Zhaoqian Chen and David Kaeli Electrical and Computer for virtu- alized appliances. We are using the XenServer virtual machine system and evaluate its performance in many computing environments. Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) are now using virtual machines

  12. appliance energy testing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    appliance energy testing First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Energy Star Appliances 1 Texas...

  13. Energy efficiency choice in the purchase of residential appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruderman, H.; Levine, M.D.; McMahon, J.E.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a quantitative analysis of the behavior of the market for the purchase of energy efficiency in residential appliances and heating and cooling equipment. We examine the historical efficiency choices over the period 1972 to 1980 for eight consumer products: gas central space heaters, oil central space heaters, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, electric water heaters, gas water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. We characterize the behavior of the market for these products by an aggregate market discount rate. Except for air conditioners, the observed discount rates are much higher than real interest rates or the discount rates commonly used in life-cycle cost analysis of consumer choice. They appear to be relatively constant, even though fuel prices escalated rapidly over the time period. We conclude from these results that the market for energy efficiency is not performing well. Several explanations of the under investment in efficiency are proposed: (1) lack of information about the costs and benefits of energy efficiency; (2) prevalence of third party purchasers; (3) unavailability of highly efficient equipment without other features; (4) long manufacturing lead times; and (5) other marketing strategies.

  14. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  15. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliff, Jr., Paul L. (Bloomingdale, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The devise comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a cover plate hingedly attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate and the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position.

  16. Safety lock-out device for electrical appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cliff, P.L. Jr.

    1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety lock-out device prevents the insertion of an electrical power cord into an electrical power cord receptacle of an electrical appliance. The device comprises a mounting plate fastened to the appliance and a hinged cover plate attached to the appliance. The cover plate is movable between a first position and a second position such that, in the first position, the cover plate covers and prevents insertion of a power cord into the appliance receptacle. In said second position, the appliance receptacle is uncovered to permit insertion of a power cord into the receptacle. Extending a lock shank through aligned openings formed in flange members extending from the mounting plate, the cover plate locks the cover plate in the first position. 15 figs.

  17. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  18. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer ''clusters''. The covalent crosslinking of these ''clusters'' produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density less than or equal to100 mg/cc; cell size less than or equal to0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent,dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 A/degree/. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "Clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density.ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100.circle.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  20. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density .ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 .ANG.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  1. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer clusters. The covalent crosslinking of these clusters produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density [<=]100 mg/cc; cell size [<=]0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 [angstrom]. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  2. Determination of tritiated formaldehyde in effluents from tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, DPEI/SERGD, BP 6, F-92265 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (FR))

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations suggested that formal-dehyde can be incorporated in vegetation at a very high rate. In this paper, the authors develop a methodology for determining tritiated formaldehyde (CHTO) in gaseous effluent containing HTO and HT as dominant species. CHTO being very soluble in water is collected in a solution of carrier formaldehyde. This carrier is necessary for precipitating for formaldehyde derivative of dimedone and collecting it by filtration. The precipitate, which contains the formaldehyde hydrogens, is freed from exchangeable tritium, dried in oven, and combusted to water for tritium determination. CHTO can thus be separated from HTO with a high efficiency, leading to the possibility of determining accurately 1 Bq of CHTO in as much as 5 {times} 10{sup 4} Bq of HTO. The methodology has been applied in preliminary experiments to determine the ratio of CHTO to HTO in effluent from a tritium-handling facility and effluent released from solid miscellaneous wastes.

  3. Avista Utilities (Gas)- Prescriptive Commercial Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Avista Utilities offers Natural Gas saving incentives to commercial customers on rate schedule 420 and 424. This program provides rebates for a variety of equipment and appliances including cooking...

  4. Effect of ventilation rates on indoor formaldehyde concentrations in Diana E. Hun1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    and outdoor air were sampled. Formaldehyde Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009 Paper 695 #12;concentrations

  5. INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATING LBL FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fanning, L.Z.; Allen, J.R.; Miksch, R.R.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LBL formaldehyde sampler consists of two parts: 1) a pump box and 2) a small refrigerator housing sampling bubblers. The pump box contains two pumps, a timer, a flow controller, an electrical cord, and a ten-foot piece of tubing to connect the refrigerator to the pump box. The small refrigerator contains four columns of bubbler sampling trains attached to a metal plate. Two sampling trains each are plumbed in parallel to two sampling ports on the back of the refrigerator. The two sampling lines supplied are to be attached to these ports to allow two locations to be sampled at once (usually one indoor and one outdoor). The refrigerator also contains a rack for holding bubbler tubes. In the sampling process, air is drawn through a sampling line attached to the fitting at the back of the refrigerator and into a prlmary bubbler containing a trapping solution. This trapping solution can be distilled water or an aqueous solution of some compound that reacts with formaldehyde. From this bubbler the air goes through a second bubbler containing the same trapping solution as the first bubbler. (To maintain sample integrity, all parts that the air sample contacts are made of Teflon, polypropylene, and stainless steel.) The air then goes into the third bubbler, which contains no liquid. This bubbler contains a hypodermic needle that serves as a flow-control orifice. The hypodermic needle, in conjunction with the flow controller in the pump box, ensures a constant a flow rate. The refrigerator contains four columns of these sets of three bubblers. After samples have been collected, the bubbler bottoms are detached and the contents of the first and second bubblers in each column are poured together, capped, and labeled. The use of a refrigerated primary and secondary bubbler whose contents are combined at the end of a sampling period ensures 95% collection efficiency. After the bubbler tubes are capped and labeled, they are stored either in the rack supplied in the refrigerator or in one of the styrofoam shipping boxes with some frozen blue ice. LBL has found that formaldehyde samples collected in water degrade significantly in a matter of hours if they are not kept cool, whereas refrigerated samples remain stable for as long as a month. Directions are provided for unpacking the apparatus, setting up sampling trains, performing the sampling, procedures after sampling, and shipping samples.

  6. Appliance Rebate Program Still Buzzing in the Beehive State ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    facts? Cash for Appliances Utah has distributed more than 7,000 rebates for ENERGY STAR products. The program is supported by 2.3 million in Recovery Act funding. Steady...

  7. Scheduling Smart Home Appliances Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    electricity generation, personal electrical vehicles (PEVs) and distributed electricity generation the wind power's dynamic contribution to electricity generation and the PEVs' random demand of electricity electricity cost scheduling problem of smart home appliances. Operation char- acteristics, such as expected

  8. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  9. Kitchen Appliance Upgrades Improve Water Efficiency at DOD Exchange Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Case study details the Exchange (formerly the Army and Air Force Exchange Service), which took a leadership role in kitchen appliance upgrades to improve water efficiency by integrating water efficiency concepts into the organization's overall sustainability plan and objectives.

  10. Sales Tax Holiday for Energy-Efficient Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of Missouri offers consumers a seven-day ''exemption from state sales taxes'' on certain Energy Star certified new appliances. The state sales tax holiday, known as the "Show-Me Green...

  11. Midea Washing Appliance: Proposed Penalty (2011-CE-1903)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Midea Washing Appliances Mfg. Co., Ltd. failed to certify a variety of dishwashers as compliant with the applicable water and energy conservation standards.

  12. ASKO Appliances: Order (2012-CE-19/2004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered ASKO Appliances, Inc. to pay a $36,500 civil penalty after finding ASKO had failed to certify that certain models of residential dishwashers and clothes washers comply with the applicable energy and water conservation standards.

  13. ASKO Appliances: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-19/2004)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that ASKO Appliances, Inc. failed to certify residential clothes washers and dishwashers as compliant with the applicable energy and water conservation standards.

  14. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.

  15. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  16. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K. (Kennewick, WA); Chassin, David P. (Pasco, WA); Dagle, Jeffery E. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael (Richland, WA); Winiarski, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Pratt, Robert G. (Kennewick, WA); Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie (Alexandria, VA)

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  17. Resorcinol-formaldehyde and carbon aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alviso, C.T.; Pekela, R.W.; Gross, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lu, X.; Caps, R.; Fricke, J [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are a unique class of materials possessing an open-cell structure with ultrafine cells/pores (<100nm), high surface area (400--1100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10nm. Although monolithic aerogels are ideal candidates for many applications (e.g. transparent window insulation), current processing methods have limited their introduction into the commercial marketplace. Our research focuses on the formation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel microspheres which offer an attractive alternative to monolith production. An inverse emulsion polymerization is used to produce these spherical gel particles which undergo solvent exchange followed by supercritical drying with carbon dioxide. This process yields aerogel microspheres (10--80{mu} diameter) which can be used as loosely packed powders, compression molded into near-net shapes using a polymer binder, or used as additives in conventional foaming operations to produce new aerogel composites with superior thermal properties. The emulsification procedure, thermal characterization, mechanical properties, and potential applications of RF aerogel microspheres will be discussed.

  18. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D. (Univ. of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.

  19. V-021: Cisco IronPort Web / Email Security Appliance Sophos Anti...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1: Cisco IronPort Web Email Security Appliance Sophos Anti-Virus Multiple Vulnerabilities V-021: Cisco IronPort Web Email Security Appliance Sophos Anti-Virus Multiple...

  20. A Texas Study of the Effects of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmeier, R.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At the present time, no legislated efficiency standards exist in Texas for residential appliances. However, the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 passed by the U.S. Senate in February, 1987, sets strict nationwide limits...

  1. Table HC15.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools... 56.2 5.0 3.4 4.3 6.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q N N N Hot Tub or...

  2. Wyoming's Appliance Rebate Program Surges Ahead | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Equality State can receive rebates on ENERGY STAR certified clothes washers, dishwashers, water heaters and gas furnaces ranging from 50 to 250. The program still has 40 percent...

  3. Comment submitted by BSH Home Appliances Corporation regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by BSH Home Appliances Corporation regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  4. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance Manufacturers’ (AHAM) certification program forAuthority of Thailand AEU AGO AHAM AMI ANSI ANOPR APEC ARI

  5. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and organizational long-term commitment to furthering energy efficiency.organizational environment. The approach for appliance energy efficiency

  6. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air Ccilia Solal1,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners CĂ©cilia Solal1: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning Formaldehyde, Volatile organic compounds, Household products, Exposure INTRODUCTION Most indoor air pollutants

  7. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  8. NOXIOUS GAS EMISSIONS FROM THE CLOSED IRON MINES TO THE BUILT-UP AREAS ON THE SURFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    mine workings, in which some inhabitants observed the dysfunctioning of gas cookers and boilers effects, the observed dysfunctioning of combustion appliances (boiler, gas cooker) due to CO2 polluted

  9. Electricity savings from residential appliance standards in Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Lebot, B. [Agence Francaise pour la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained in Sweden by instituting specific standards for five appliances: Refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. At the present time, Sweden has no minimum energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. This paper discusses the energy savings that could be obtained by instituting specific standards for five product types (refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, and dryers) starting in 1995. A methodology similar to that used in analyses for the European Community was employed in this study. In the Swedish study, we used appliance test data developed by the Swedish consumer agency, Konsument Verket, to estimate new unit energy consumption for each product type. Shipments, saturations, energy use, and demographic data were input to a spreadsheet model that sums energy consumption for each product type over the period 1990--2010. Both a base case and a standards case scenario are simulated for each of the five appliance types. It was found that electricity use for these five products can be reduced by 12% over the time period from 1990--2010. Most of the energy savings come from instituting efficiency standards for refrigerators and freezers. For each product class type, the impact on manufacturer offerings is discussed. For example, for simple refrigerators, eleven 1990 models meet the 1995 standard and six models meet the 2000 standard out of a total of 63 models.

  10. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES--DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES--DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY Victoria L. Klug, Agnes B. Lobscheid, and Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division August 2011 LBNL-5028 FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY Victoria L. Klug, Agnes B. Lobscheid, and Brett C. Singer Indoor Environment

  11. Monitoring Massive Appliances by a Minimal Number of Smart Meters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongcai

    56 Monitoring Massive Appliances by a Minimal Number of Smart Meters YONGCAI WANG, XIAOHONG HAO. This article presents a framework for deploying a minimal number of smart meters to accurately track the ON of required smart meters is studied by an entropy-based approach, which qualifies the impact of meter

  12. Leveraging smart meter data to recognize home appliances Markus Weiss+#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveraging smart meter data to recognize home appliances Markus Weiss+# , Adrian Helfenstein -- The worldwide adoption of smart meters that measure and communicate residential electricity consumption gives demand. In this paper we present an infrastructure and a set of algorithms that make use of smart meters

  13. Combustion Safety for Appliances Using Indoor Air (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  14. Energy-Efficient Appliances: Selection and maintenance guidelines for major home appliances (Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Technology Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southface Energy Institute; U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    2001-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet for homeowners and contractors that explains the energy savings potential of efficient appliances, how to purchase them, and how to maintain them.

  15. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  16. Isotopically Labeled Formaldehyde DOI: 10.1002/anie.200800991

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the Preparation of [11 C]Formaldehyde** Jacob M. Hooker,* Matthias Schönberger, Hanno Schieferstein, and Joanna S of 11 C-labeled compounds is the lack of available labeling reagents. Bear in mind, nearly all carbon-11

  17. Design Considerations for Frequency Responsive Grid Friendly Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2006-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper addresses design considerations for frequency responsive Grid FriendlyTM appliances (FR-GFAs). Case studies have been done based on the frequency data collected in 2003 in Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) systems. An FR-GFA can turn on/off based on frequency signals and make selective low-frequency load shedding possible at appliance level. FR-GFAs can also be treated as an spinning reserve to maintain a load-to-generation balance under power system normal operation states. The triggering frequency and duration of the FR-GFA device with different frequency setting schemes are simulated. Design considerations of the FR-GFA are then discussed based on simulation results.

  18. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  19. Appliance and Equipment Standards Program | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles » Alternative FuelNewsWashington AutoYourAppliance and Equipment

  20. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  1. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Sastry, Chellury

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  2. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Kimberly; Dale, Larry; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods.We then describe the market for home appliances and changes in this market over the past 20 years, performing regression analysis on the shipments of home appliances and relevant economic variables including changes to operating cost and household income. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the demand for home appliances is price inelastic.

  3. Load control in low voltage level of the electricity grid using CHP appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    1 Load control in low voltage level of the electricity grid using µCHP appliances M.G.C. Bosman, V.g.c.bosman@utwente.nl Abstract--The introduction of µCHP (Combined Heat and Power) appliances and other means of distributed on the transformers and, thus, on the grid. In this work we study the influence of introducing µCHP appliances

  4. Simple, rapid method for the preparation of isotopically labeled formaldehyde

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooker, Jacob Matthew (Port Jefferson, NY); Schonberger, Matthias (Mains, DE); Schieferstein, Hanno (Aabergen, DE); Fowler, Joanna S. (Bellport, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliances walking sticks Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the operating efficiency of appliances and their relationship with demand response and load management Source: California Energy Commission Collection: Energy Storage,...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliances maeleudstyr og Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    connected over home area network... and receiving real-time electricity prices via a smart meter. Specifically, a joint media access and appliance... scheduling approach is...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliances efeito terapeutico Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    connected over home area network... and receiving real-time electricity prices via a smart meter. Specifically, a joint media access and appliance... scheduling approach is...

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliance labeling rule Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 14 HeatProbe: A Thermal-based Power Meter for Accounting Disaggregated Electricity Usage Summary: ) appliance heat pixel...

  9. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliances current situation Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from suppliers to customer. The HAN (Home Area Network), consisting of smart appliances, smart... meter and management system, can enable an end-user to remotely control many...

  10. 11th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1th Semi-Annual Report to Congress on Appliance Energy Efficiency Rulemakings - Implementation Report: Energy Conservation Standards Activities 11th Semi-Annual Report to Congress...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliance price trends Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES Final... Report on Appliance Standards Compliance Enforcement Strategies Prepared For: CALIFORNIA ENERGY... Tovah Ealey Contract Manager G. William...

  12. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, Larry

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dollars for selected years. AHAM Fact Book, TSDs. Operatingselected years. 1999 dollars. AHAM fact book. Income. Meanof units sold, in millions. AHAM Factbook and Appliance

  13. Realized and prospective impacts of U.S. energy efficiency standards for residential appliances: 2004 update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen; McMahon, James; McNeil, Michael

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AND ACRONYMS AAUE AFUE AHAM ARI LBNL NPV TSD Average annualAppliance Manufacturers (AHAM) and the Air-Conditioning andcapacity. Historical Data AHAM publishes estimates of

  14. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook for Appliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) program for room airfeatures. In the case of AHAM’s certification program forenergy labels. Meanwhile, AHAM notes the revised ratings in

  15. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) 2 and the Air-Conditioningor specific analytical issues. AHAM publishes time series ofroom air conditioners. The AHAM data are based on laboratory

  16. How to Make Appliance Standards Work: Improving Energy and Water Efficiency Test Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hill. 1996. “Energy test procedures for appliances. ” EnergyWater Efficiency Test Procedures Jim Lutz, Peter Biermayer,Water Efficiency Test Procedures Jim Lutz, Peter Biermayer,

  17. Trends in the cost of efficiency for appliances and consumer electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance Refrigerators and Freezers Room Air ConditionersPCU3352283352285 a The refrigerator and freezer price trendRefrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers (Final

  18. E-Print Network 3.0 - appliances generate energy Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RESOURCES AGENCY EDMUND G. BROWN JR., Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION Summary: Test Laboratory Approval Process The California Energy Commission's Appliance Efficiency...

  19. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  20. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

  1. Appliance and Equipment Standards Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehiclesTankless orA BRIEF HISTORYAgencyLocal|Annual Uncosted.Appliance and

  2. Appliance energy efficiency in new home construction. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey of 224 builders was conducted to which 160 builders responded. Each respondent completed between one and seven separate questionnaires. Each of the seven questionnaires were designed to collect information about one type of equipment or major appliance. These are: heat pump; heating system; air conditioner; domestic water heater; dishwasher; range; and refrigerator. Analysis of the resulting 406 questionnaires indicated that builders were primarily responsible for brand selection. These choices were made primarily without regard for the energy efficiency of the product. A similar apparent lack of consideration of energy efficiency during brand and model selection was found among home buyers and specialized subcontractors.

  3. Manufacturing - GE Appliances, ORNL sign agreement | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and InterfacesAdministrationManufacturing - GE Appliances, ORNL sign

  4. "Table HC10.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,12.2,12,20.5,11.6 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,"Q",0.4,"N",0.2 "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,1,1.3,2.1,2.2 "Swimming Pool...

  5. "Table HC11.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,12.2,9.4,2.8 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,"Q","Q","Q" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,1,0.8,0.2 "Swimming Pool with...

  6. "Table HC14.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,11.6,3.3,8.2 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,0.2,"Q",0.1 "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,2.2,0.6,1.7 "Swimming Pool with...

  7. "Table HC9.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Climate Zone...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,4.6,13.8,13.9,12.1,11.8 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,0.5,0.2,"N","N","N" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,0.9,1.2,1.4,1.6,1.6...

  8. Table HC6.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools..... 56.2 20.1 14.4 8.6 6.9 6.2 Other Appliances Used Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater... 0.8 Q 0.4 Q Q Q Hot Tub or...

  9. "Table HC15.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,5,3.4,4.3,6.2 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,"Q","N","N","N" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,"Q",0.7,0.5,1.2 "Swimming...

  10. "Table HC13.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,20.5,10.8,3.6,6.1 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,"N","N","N","N" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,2.1,1.2,0.2,0.7 "Swimming...

  11. "Table HC3.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,32.6,25,2.2,1.1,1.5,2.8 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,0.7,0.7,"N","Q","N","Q" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,6.5,6.2,"Q","N","N","...

  12. "Table HC4.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AppliancesTools",56.2,23.6,4.4,2.4,4.6,11.3,0.8 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N","N" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,"Q","Q","Q","N","N","...

  13. "Table HC12.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Battery-Operated AppliancesTools",56.2,12,9,3.1 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,0.4,"Q","Q" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,1.3,0.9,0.4 "Swimming Pool with...

  14. Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo | University Housing Update to Appliance and Electronic Device Guidelines for Residence Halls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sze, Lawrence

    Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo | University Housing Update to Appliance and Electronic Device Guidelines guidelines. This guideline notice serves as a campus update to the Appliance and Electronic Device Community appliances and personal care devices being used in the rooms. Often these items are not energy efficient

  15. Residential Appliance Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting with EPRI-REEPS 2.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBL-34046 UC-350 Residential Appliance Data, Assumptions and Methodology for End-Use Forecasting-use forecasting of appliance energy use in the U.S. residential sector. Our analysis uses the modeling framework provided by the Appliance Model in the Residential End-Use Energy Planning System (REEPS), which

  16. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  17. FABRICATION AND PROPERTIES OF OER COATED RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE SHELLS FOR OMEGA EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NIKROO,A; CZECHOWICZ,D; PAGUIO,R; GREENWOOD,A.L; TAKAGI,M

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 New high gain designs for direct drive ignition on NIF require foam shells. Scaled down versions of these designs are needed for near term experiments on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory Laser Energetics (LLE). These shells need to be about 1 mm in diameter and 50-100 {micro}m wall thickness and densities of 100-250 mg/cc. In addition, a full density permeation seal needs to be deposited for retention of the fill gas at room temperature or the ice at cryogenic temperatures. They have fabricated such shells using Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R/F) as the selected foam material due to its transparency in the optical region. Extensive characterization of the wall uniformity of these shells has been performed. The foam shells have {approx} 5%-6% non-concentricities on the average. A full density permeation seal has been deposited on the R/F shells using two different techniques. In the first technique R/F shells are coated directly with plasma polymer to thicknesses of 3-4 {micro}m. In the second technique, R/F shells are coated with polyvinylphenol, using a chemical interfacial polymerization technique. Data on surface finish and gas retention for R/F shells coated by both methods are provided.

  18. National propane safety week caps fifth anniversary of GAS Check

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowler, S.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on National Propane Safety Week. The publicity encompassed everything from preventative maintenance to safe winter storage of cylinders. This campaign focused much of its attention on GAS (gas appliance system) Check, the propane industry's most well-known safety program.

  19. Using National Survey Data to Estimate Lifetimes of Residential Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas and Electric Storage Water Heaters Table 6 and 7 showof gas and electric storage water heater, respectively. Theand ? = 3.2 for gas storage water heaters and ? = 13.2, ? =

  20. Using National Survey Data to Estimate Lifetimes of Residential Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers, water heaters,conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers, water heaters,Water Heater, Gas Room Air- Conditioning Central Air- Conditioning Boiler, Gas Furnace, Gas Heat Pump *

  1. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  2. Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Cancellation of Open Meetings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy (DOE) announces the cancellation of open meetings for the Commercial and Industrial Pumps Working Group of the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) scheduled for July 23 through July 25, 2014.

  3. 0 + 0 = 1 : the appliance model of selling software bundled with hardware

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hein, Bettina

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The business model of selling software bundled with hardware is called the appliance model. As hardware becomes less and less expensive and open source software is being offered for free, the traditional business model of ...

  4. Estimation of the Energy and Capacity Savings in Texas from Appliance Efficiency Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdict, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this presentation will be to assess the technical potential for energy and capacity savings in Texas by the year 2006 by the statewide adoption of minimum appliance efficiency standards equivalent to those recently adopted...

  5. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the next 20-30 years as China builds large quantity ofof power generation in China from 0.230 in 2003 to 0.164 kgHousehold Appliances in China Jiang Lin Environmental Energy

  6. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and Labeling Program to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    58: Historical and Forecast China Average Household Size,P ROGRAM Impacts of China’s Current Appliance Standards and68 Implications for China’s Current Energy Policy and

  7. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Synthesis by Inverse Suspension Polymerization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, Robert J.; Scrivens, Walter A.; Nash, Charles

    2005-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Base catalyzed sol-gel polycondensation of resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) with formaldehyde by inverse suspension polymerization leads to the formation of uniform, highly cross-linked, translucent, spherical gels, which have increased selectivity and capacity for cesium ion removal from high alkaline solutions. Because of its high selectivity for cesium ion, resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resins are being considered for process scale column radioactive cesium removal by ion-exchange at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), which is now under construction at the Hanford site. Other specialty resins such as Superlig{reg_sign} 644 have been ground and sieved and column tested for process scale radioactive cesium removal but show high pressure drops across the resin bed during transition from column regeneration to loading and elution. Furthermore, van Deemter considerations indicate better displacement column chromatography by the use of spherical particle beads rather than irregularly shaped ground or granular particles. In our studies batch contact equilibrium experiments using a high alkaline simulant show a definite increase in cesium loading onto spherical R-F resin. Distribution coefficient (Kd) values ranged from 777 to 429 mL/g in the presence of 0.1M and 0.7M potassium ions, respectively. Though other techniques for making R-F resins have been employed, to our knowledge no one has made spherical R-F resins by inverse suspension polymerization. Moreover, in this study we discuss the data comparisons to known algebraic isotherms used to evaluate ion-exchange resins for WTP plant scale cesium removal operations.

  8. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak Load Shifting & Spinning Reserves: Cost Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract In this paper, we present the results of an analytical cost-benefit study of residential smart appliances in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the EPA and DOE to provide a 5% credit to meet ENERGY STAR eligibility criteria for products that meet the definition of a smart appliance. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the challenges associated with increased electricity demand, and increased penetration of renewable sources of power. Our analytical model utilizes current annual appliance electricity consumption data, and estimates what the wholesale grid operating cost savings would be if some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads serve power system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. Historical wholesale market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States are used to estimate savings. The savings are then compared with the five percent credit, to determine if the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as the credit (cost) if not higher.

  9. Impact of primary formaldehyde on air pollution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei, Wenfang

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a radical source that plays an important role in urban atmospheric chemistry and ozone formation. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) is characterized by high anthropogenic emissions of HCHO ...

  10. Effect of Energy Efficiency Standards on Natural Gas Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnall, Michael; Dale, Larry; Lekov, Alex

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary justification for the establishment of energy efficiency standards for home appliances is the existence of information deficiencies and externalities in the market for appliances. For example, when a long-term homeowner purchases a new gas-fired water heater, she will maximize the value of her purchase by comparing the life-cycle cost of ownership of available units, including both total installed cost - purchase price plus installation costs - and operating cost in the calculus. Choice of the appliance with the lowest life-cycle costs leads to the most economically efficient balance between capital cost and fuel cost. However, if the purchaser's expected period of ownership is shorter than the useful life of the appliance, or the purchaser does not pay for the fuel used by the appliance, as is often the case with rental property, fuel cost will be external to her costs, biasing her decision toward spending less on fuel efficiency and resulting in the purchase of an appliance with greater than optimal fuel usage. By imposing an efficiency standard on appliances, less efficient appliances are made unavailable, precluding less efficient purchases and reducing fuel usage. The reduction in fuel demanded by residential users affects the total demand for such fuels as natural gas, for example. Reduced demand implies that residential customers are willing to purchase less gas at each price level. That is, the demand curve, labeled D{sub 0} in Figure 1, shifts to the left to D{sub 1}. If there is no change in the supply function, the supply curve will intersect the demand curve at a lower price. Residential demand is only one component of the total demand for natural gas. It is possible that total demand will decline very little if demand in other sectors increases substantially in response to a decline in the price. If demand does decrease, modeling studies generally confirm the intuition that reductions in demand for natural gas will result in reductions in its price as seen at the wellhead (Wiser 2007). The magnitude of the effect on price relative to the demand reduction, and the mechanism through which it occurs, is less well established. This report attempts to quantify the potential effects of reduced demand for natural gas in the residential sector, in response to the implementation of an energy efficiency standard for water heaters.

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used to model the total energy consumption and potentialscenario, the total energy consumption of each appliance (is higher than China’s total energy consumption in Continued

  12. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    used to model the total energy consumption and potentialscenario, the total energy consumption of each appliance (than China’s total energy consumption in 2009. Continued

  13. Comment submitted by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  14. Collision dynamics of proton with formaldehyde: Fragmentation and ionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jing; Gao, Cong-Zhang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Calvayrac, Florent [Institut des Molecules et Matériaux du Mans UMR 6283, Université du Maine, LUNAM 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut des Molecules et Matériaux du Mans UMR 6283, Université du Maine, LUNAM 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China) [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Using time-dependent density functional theory, applied to the valence electrons and coupled non-adiabatically to molecular dynamics of the ions, we study the ionization and fragmentation of formaldehyde in collision with a proton. Four different impact energies: 35 eV, 85 eV, 135 eV, and 300 eV are chosen in order to study the energy effect in the low energy region, and ten different incident orientations at 85 eV are considered for investigating the steric effect. Fragmentation ratios, single, double, and total electron ionization cross sections are calculated. For large impact parameters, these results are close to zero irrespective of the incident orientations due to a weak projectile-target interaction. For small impact parameters, the results strongly depend on the collision energy and orientation. We also give the kinetic energy releases and scattering angles of protons, as well as the cross section of different ion fragments and the corresponding reaction channels.

  15. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  16. Material World: Forecasting Household Appliance Ownership in a Growing Global Economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael A.

    2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past years the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed an econometric model that predicts appliance ownership at the household level based on macroeconomic variables such as household income (corrected for purchase power parity), electrification, urbanization and climate variables. Hundreds of data points from around the world were collected in order to understand trends in acquisition of new appliances by households, especially in developing countries. The appliances covered by this model are refrigerators, lighting fixtures, air conditioners, washing machines and televisions. The approach followed allows the modeler to construct a bottom-up analysis based at the end use and the household level. It captures the appliance uptake and the saturation effect which will affect the energy demand growth in the residential sector. With this approach, the modeler can also account for stock changes in technology and efficiency as a function of time. This serves two important functions with regard to evaluation of the impact of energy efficiency policies. First, it provides insight into which end uses will be responsible for the largest share of demand growth, and therefore should be policy priorities. Second, it provides a characterization of the rate at which policies affecting new equipment penetrate the appliance stock. Over the past 3 years, this method has been used to support the development of energy demand forecasts at the country, region or global level.

  17. Secretary Chu Announces More Stringent Appliance Standards for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heaters, pool heaters and direct heating equipment such as gas fireplaces - will reduce air pollution, prevent the release of harmful nitrogen oxides and mercury, and avoid...

  18. Abstract-In this paper we evaluate the energy and economic consequences of appliance remanufacturing relative to purchasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutowski, Timothy

    .S. energy consumption [1]. According to the Energy Information Administration, total consumption by home% of total national energy consumption [2]. This is largely due to appliances' high saturation rates appliances accounts for nearly one third of the nation's residential energy consumption and more than 6

  19. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  20. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    roll-out study for gas fired water heaters, NBSIR 88-3724.Fired Furnaces And Water Heaters, Technical Report 96/0266.an Orphaned Natural Draft Water Heater Converted to a Stand-

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first work to quantify mercury on sRF resin. Resin mercury content is important in plans for the disposition of used sRF resin. Mercury speciation in high level waste (HLW) is unknown. It may be partly organic, one example being methyl mercury cation. Further study of the resin's affinity for mercury is recommended.

  2. An Engineering Evaluation of Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL; Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Collins, Robert T [ORNL; Hunt, Rodney Dale [ORNL

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removal of cesium from caustic, supernatant, and dissolved salt solutions stored or generated from high-level tank wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site and Savannah River Sites. In both instances, deployment of SCIX systems, either in-tank or near-tank, is a means of expediting waste pretreatment and dispositioning with minimal or no new infrastructure requirements. Conceptually, the treatment approach can utilize a range of ion exchange media. Previously, both crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, nonelutable sorbent, and resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), an organic, elutable resin, have been considered for cesium removal from tank waste. More recently, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644, an elutable ion exchange medium, for the subject application. Results of testing indicate hydraulic limitations of the SuperLig{reg_sign} resin, specifically a high pressure drop through packed ion exchange columns. This limitation is likely the result of swelling and shrinkage of the irregularly shaped (granular) resin during repeated conversions between sodium and hydrogen forms as the resin is first loaded then eluted. It is anticipated that a similar flow limitation would exist in columns packed with conventional, granular RF resin. However, use of spherical RF resin is a likely means of mitigating processing limitations due to excessive pressure drop. Although size changes occur as the spherical resin is cycled through loading and elution operations, the geometry of the resin is expected to effectively mitigate the close packing that leads to high pressure drops across ion exchange columns. Multiple evaluations have been performed to determine the feasibility of using spherical RF resin and to obtain data necessary for design of an SCIX process. The work performed consisted of examination of radiation effects on resin performance, quantification of cesium adsorption performance as a function of operating temperature and pH, and evaluation of sodium uptake (titration) as function of pH and counteranion concentration. The results of these efforts are presented in this report. Hydraulic performance of the resin and the use of eluant alternatives to nitric acid have also been evaluated and have been reported elsewhere (Taylor 2009, Taylor and Johnson 2009).

  3. Polymerization of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde on Ordered (WO3...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of their monomers and oligomers into the gas phase. The heats of H2CO and CH3CHO sublimation and polymerization determined based on our experiments are in good agreement...

  4. Energy and CO2 efficient scheduling of smart appliances in active houses equipped with batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    is commonly defined as changes in electricity use by consumers in response to changes in the electricity price in household load profile, e.g., see [6]. The main conclusions are that employing hourly electricity prices hard for consumers to reschedule their appliances based on time-varying electricity prices and CO2

  5. An Appliance-driven Approach to Detection of Corrupted Load Curve Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, Jian

    An Appliance-driven Approach to Detection of Corrupted Load Curve Data Guoming Tang1,3 , Kui Wu1@sfu.ca, jiuyang_tang@nudt.edu.cn, jshlei@shiep.edu.cn ABSTRACT Load curve data in power systems refers to users discov- ered in the data. Load curve data, however, usually suffers from corruptions caused by various

  6. A Communication-Based Appliance Scheduling Scheme for Consumer-Premise Energy Management Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Larry

    of electricity prices and distributed wind power uncertainty. We model the evolution of the protocol as a two is an energy management controller that incorporates prices and user preferences to providA Communication-Based Appliance Scheduling Scheme for Consumer-Premise Energy Management Systems

  7. T-531: The WebVPN implementation on Cisco Adaptive Security Appliances (ASA) 5500

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The WebVPN implementation on Cisco Adaptive Security Appliances (ASA) 5500 series devices with software before 8.2(3) permits the viewing of CIFS shares even when CIFS file browsing has been disabled, which allows remote authenticated users to bypass intended access restrictions via CIFS requests, aka Bug ID CSCsz80777.

  8. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  9. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  10. Information on the Department of Energy's analyses to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A historical overview of three separate Department of Energy analyses performed to determine the need for appliance efficiency standards is presented. An identification of the assumptions used in each of the analyses and the conclusions reached in each analysis are covered. Standards for furnaces, water heaters, central air conditioners, refrigerators, ranges/ovens, clothes dryers, freezers, and room air conditioners are considered. (MCW)

  11. Less Watts, More Performance: An Intelligent Storage Engine for Data Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teubner, Jens

    how Ibex reduces data movement, CPU usage, and overall energy consumption in database appliances­27, 2013, New York, New York, USA. Copyright 2013 ACM 978-1-4503-2037-5/13/06 ...$10.00. MySQL Server M y- proves performance and also reduces energy consumption. Query processing in relational databases may

  12. @scale: Insights from a Large, Long-Lived Appliance Stephen Dawson-Haggerty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Design, Measurement, Performance Keywords Energy, Audit, Building, Power, Wireless, Sensor Network 1@scale: Insights from a Large, Long-Lived Appliance Energy WSN Stephen Dawson-Haggerty , Steven Lanzisera , Jay Taneja , Richard Brown , and David Culler Computer Science Division Environmental Energy

  13. Electrical Appliances Students may use clocks, sound equipment, computers, electric razors, hair dryers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    with a heating coil *Torchiere type lamps with a halogen bulb, and other lamps with a halogen bulb greater than there is specific UL approval for a higher wattage. Violators of any of the above policies will be charged $50, Prohibited Appliances, and Halogen Torchiere Lamps 1st offense: $50.00 fine and the student will be called

  14. Tracking States of Massive Electrical Appliances by Lightweight Metering and Sequence Decoding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongcai

    to track the on/off states of N appliances by deploying only m smart meters on the power load tree, where m demonstrate some interesting structures of the problem. Keywords Energy auditing, Smart meter, Deployment smart meter networks, and thus suffer from the high deploy- ment, maintenance and data collection costs

  15. Impact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    air pollution study (CITEPA), France * Corresponding email: Eva.Leoz@ineris.fr SUMMARY Data pollutants in ambient air. Consequently our study aims at describing both emission factors and inerisImpact of domestic woodburning appliances on indoor air quality Corinne Mandin1 , Jacques Ribéron2

  16. "Table HC7.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Household...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tools",56.2,20.3,16,8.6,5.1,6.2,12.8,26.8 "Other Appliances Used" "Auto BlockEngineBattery Heater",0.8,"Q",0.2,"Q","Q",0.3,"Q","Q" "Hot Tub or Spa",6.7,"Q",0.8,1.3,1.1,3...

  17. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard Z21.10.1, first enacted in 2003, all new storage water heaters

  18. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traynor, G.W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. Bromly, Reduction of Nitrogen Dioxide Emissions from Gasthan 10 ! lm), and nitrogen dioxide ( N0 2) standards areare nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (N0 2); although,

  19. Predicting Backdrafting and Spillage for Natural-Draft Gas Combustion Appliances: Validating VENT-II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapp, Vi H.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B) of the orphaned water heater at the PG&E Test House infor the natural-draft water heater system located ini.e. , furnace or water heater). This program is capable of

  20. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on New FVIR Water Heaters." Retrieved 04/17/2009, 2009, fromAir Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,

  1. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth Codestheatfor Optimized9 *ConcentratingCondensing

  2. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pilot (most storage water heaters), electronic ignition (heads common to storage water heaters and cooktops, longin 2003, all new storage water heaters manufactured after

  3. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Administration (2009). Annual Energy Outlook. ReportAdministration (2009). Annual Energy Outlook. ReportReport: An Updated Annual Energy Outlook 2009 Reference Case

  4. Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Mapping isoprene emissions over North America using formaldehyde column observations from space. [1] We present a methodology for deriving emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) using space to local VOC emissions, with a spatial smearing that increases with the VOC lifetime. Isoprene

  5. Timber Products' Mississippi mill earns formaldehyde certification Tuesday, February 10, 2009 -Modern Woodworking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., have been certified to meet the California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements. Timber Products of the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Corinth's designation means that all Timber Products hardwood plywoodTimber Products' Mississippi mill earns formaldehyde certification Tuesday, February 10, 2009

  6. Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis T.

    . Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V-state reaction conditions, CH2O is produced as the dominant product of methanol oxidation at temperatures belowMechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported

  7. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part IV. Relevance of materials standards to problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, K.R.; Schutte, W.C.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The insulation industry is essentially self-regulated; therefore, the question arises as to whether or not increased public regulation would be effective in controlling problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam as residential insulation. The relevancy of public regulation to controlling problems such as off-gassing of formaldehyde associated with the use of the products through the introduction of materials standards and quality assurance of manufacture and installation is discussed. The use of urea-formaldehyde insulation may be divided into three phases-manufacture, installation, and behavioral phases. The relevance of materials standards and quality assurance for each phase is discussed.

  8. July 11 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial And Residential Building End-Use Equipment And Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain the three slide decks presented at the public meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances, held on July 11, 2014 in Washington, DC.

  9. Use of Residential Smart Appliances for Peak-Load Shifting and Spinning Reserves Cost/Benefit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Robert G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Li, Shun

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the results of an analytical cost/benefit study of residential smart appliances from a utility/grid perspective in support of a joint stakeholder petition to the ENERGY STAR program within the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the petition is in part to provide appliance manufacturers incentives to hasten the production of smart appliances. The underlying hypothesis is that smart appliances can play a critical role in addressing some of the societal challenges, such as anthropogenic global warming, associated with increased electricity demand, and facilitate increased penetration of renewable sources of power. The appliances we consider include refrigerator/freezers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, room air-conditioners, and dishwashers. The petition requests the recognition that providing an appliance with smart grid capability, i.e., products that meet the definition of a smart appliance, is at least equivalent to a corresponding five percent in operational machine efficiencies. It is then expected that given sufficient incentives and value propositions, and suitable automation capabilities built into smart appliances, residential consumers will be adopting these smart appliances and will be willing participants in addressing the aforementioned societal challenges by more effectively managing their home electricity consumption. The analytical model we utilize in our cost/benefit analysis consists of a set of user-definable assumptions such as the definition of on-peak (hours of day, days of week, months of year), the expected percentage of normal consumer electricity consumption (also referred to as appliance loads) that can shifted from peak hours to off-peak hours, the average power rating of each appliance, etc. Based on these assumptions, we then formulate what the wholesale grid operating-cost savings, or benefits, would be if the smart capabilities of appliances were invoked, and some percentage of appliance loads were shifted away from peak hours to run during off-peak hours, and appliance loads served power-system balancing needs such as spinning reserves that would otherwise have to be provided by generators. The rationale is that appliance loads can be curtailed for about ten minutes or less in response to a grid contingency without any diminution in the quality of service to the consumer. We then estimate the wholesale grid operating-cost savings based on historical wholesale-market clearing prices (location marginal and spinning reserve) from major wholesale power markets in the United States. The savings derived from the smart grid capabilities of an appliance are then compared to the savings derived from a five percent increase in traditional operational machine efficiencies, referred to as cost in this report, to determine whether the savings in grid operating costs (benefits) are at least as high as or higher than the operational machine efficiency credit (cost).

  10. A step towards the hydrogen economy by using the existing natural gas grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A step towards the hydrogen economy by using the existing natural gas grid (the NATURALHY to the hydrogen-economy will be lengthy, costly and will require significant R&D PRACTICAL STRATEGY Prepared - end use · Pipeline durability · Pipeline integrity · End user appliances' performance Prepared by O

  11. Spatial distribution of isoprene emissions from North America derived from formaldehyde column measurements by the OMI satellite sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chance, Kelly

    Spatial distribution of isoprene emissions from North America derived from formaldehyde column isoprene emission from North America. OMI HCHO columns for June-August 2006 are consistent distribution of OMI HCHO columns follows that of isoprene emission; anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions

  12. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  13. New analysis techniques for estimating impacts of federal appliance efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Impacts of U.S. appliance and equipment standards have been described previously. Since 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has updated standards for clothes washers, water heaters, and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. A revised estimate of the aggregate impacts of all the residential appliance standards in the United States shows that existing standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 89 percent in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. Studies of possible new standards are underway for residential furnaces and boilers, as well as a number of products in the commercial (tertiary) sector, such as distribution transformers and unitary air conditioners. The analysis of standards has evolved in response to critiques and in an attempt to develop more precise estimates of costs and benefits of these regulations. The newer analysis elements include: (1) valuing energy savings by using marginal (rather than average) energy prices specific to an end-use; (2) simulating the impacts of energy efficiency increases over a sample population of consumers to quantify the proportion of households having net benefits or net costs over the life of the appliance; and (3) calculating marginal markups in distribution channels to derive the incremental change in retail prices associated with increased manufacturing costs for improving energy efficiency.

  14. Evaluating the Safety of a Natural Gas Home Refueling Appliance (HRA); Natural Gas Infrastructure Evaluation (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy and Assistance100 ton StanatAccepted|the EffectCloudSat, ARM, and

  15. Studies on phenol-formaldehyde crosslinked polymer gels in bulk and in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albonico, P.; Bartosek, M.; Malandrino, A.; Bryant, S.; Lockhart, T.P.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The general conditions for gel formation by phenol-formaldehyde polymer solutions have been examined in studies with three acrylamide polymers. Contrary to an earlier report, polymer crosslinking is found to take place over a wide interval of pH. While the gelation time is relatively insensitive to the concentrations of phenol and formaldehyde or pH, it is strongly influenced by the temperature and the nature of the polymer. These gelants display good infectivity in corefloods and slim-tube experiments at temperatures up to 140 C. On the other hand, the partitioning of phenol into crude oil is found to be a significant issue for the propagation of these gelants. The use of a phenol pre-flush of the formation is shown by numerical modeling to be a potentially viable solution for this problem.

  16. The effect of polyacrylamide polymers and formaldehyde on selected strains of oilfield related bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farquhar, G.B. [Texaco E.P.T.D., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study of the effect of two polyacrylamide polymers and formaldehyde on certain strains of oil field related bacteria was performed. Since at this stage of the development of planning the proposed North Sea polymer flood field samples of native bacteria populations and fluid samples were not available, the preliminary study was made using pure strains of bacteria associated with the oilfield environment. The tests were run using ideal growth conditions of temperature and culture media. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of proposed polyacrylamide polymer flooding materials on the growth of selected strains of bacteria belonging to families common to the oilfield environment. The effect of 100 ppm of formaldehyde on these organisms also was investigated. The results of the tests showed that these bacteria responded differently to exposure to formaldehyde, polyacrylamide polymers and mixtures of both. These results indicate another possible mechanism for the occurrence of high bacteria related corrosion rates reported to occur on the producing side of polymer floods.

  17. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  18. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Torchieres Comm. Storage Water Heaters (elec. ) Res. GasLights Comm. Storage Water Heaters (gas) Air CompressorsCompressors Comm. Storage Water Heaters (gas) Street Lights

  19. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The three primary analyses presented in this report are: Nevertheless, it is important to analyze best-on-market products, since data on truly max tech technologies are limited. (1) an analysis of the cross-cutting strategies most promising for reducing appliance and equipment energy use in the U.S.; (2) a macro-analysis of the U.S. energy-saving potential inherent in promising ultra-efficient appliance technologies; and (3) a product-level analysis of the energy-saving potential.

  20. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to conventional gas combustion technologies (Figure E-due to conventional gas combustion technologies. heat-pump

  1. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN CHEMISTRY FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange technology is being considered for cesium removal using a polymer resin made of resorcinol formaldehyde that has been engineered into microspheres. The waste under study is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste; therefore, the resin performance was evaluated with actual dissolved salt waste. The ion exchange performance and resin chemistry results are discussed.

  2. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  3. Appliances, Lighting, Electronics, and Miscellaneous EquipmentElectricity Use in New Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Richard E.; Rittelman, William; Parker, Danny; Homan,Gregory

    2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The "Other" end-uses (appliances, lighting, electronics, andmiscellaneous equipment) continue to grow. This is particularly true innew homes, where increasing floor area and amenities are leading tohigher saturation of these types of devices. This paper combines thefindings of several field studies to assess the current state ofknowledge about the "Other" end-uses in new homes. The field studiesinclude sub-metered measurements of occupied houses in Arizona, Florida,and Colorado, as well as device-level surveys and power measurements inunoccupied new homes. We find that appliances, lighting, electronics, andmiscellaneous equipment can consume from 46 percent to 88 percent ofwhole-house electricity use in current low-energy homes. Moreover, theannual consumption for the "Other" end-uses is not significantly lower innew homes (even those designed for low energy use) compared to existinghomes. The device-level surveys show that builder-installed equipment isa significant contributor to annual electricity consumption, and certaindevices that are becoming more common in new homes, such as structuredwiring systems, contribute significantly to this power consumption. Thesefindings suggest that energy consumption by these "Other" end uses isstill too large to allow cost-effective zero-energy homes.

  4. Time- and space-resolved quantitative LIF measurements of formaldehyde in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donkerbroek, A.J.; van Vliet, A.P.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Meerts, W.L.; ter Meulen, J.J. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Somers, L.M.T.; Frijters, P.J.M. [Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dam, N.J. [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Applied Physics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O) is a characteristic species for the ignition phase of diesel-like fuels. As such, the spatio-temporal distribution of formaldehyde is an informative parameter in the study of the ignition event in internal combustion engines, especially for new combustion modes like homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). This paper presents quantitative data on the CH{sub 2}O distribution around diesel and n-heptane fuel sprays in the combustion chamber of a commercial heavy-duty diesel engine. Excitation of the 4{sub 0}{sup 1} band (355 nm) as well as the 4{sub 0}{sup 1}2{sub 0}{sup 1} band (339 nm) is applied. We use quantitative, spectrally resolved laser-induced fluorescence, calibrated by means of formalin seeding, to distinguish the contribution from CH{sub 2}O to the signal from those of other species formed early in the combustion. Typically, between 40% and 100% of the fluorescence in the wavelength range considered characteristic for formaldehyde is in fact due to other species, but the latter are also related to the early combustion. Numerical simulation of a homogeneous reactor of n-heptane and air yields concentrations that are in reasonable agreement with the measurements. Formaldehyde starts to be formed at about 2 CA (crank angle degrees) before the rise in main heat release. There appears to be a rather localised CH{sub 2}O formation zone relatively close to the injector, out of which formaldehyde is transported downstream by the fuel jet. Once the hot combustion sets in, formaldehyde quickly disappears. (author)

  5. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsors to distribute copies of this book worldwide at no charge for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.CLASPonline.org and can be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  6. Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery and Utilization from Residential Appliances and Fixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomlinson, John J [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary In every home irrespective of its size, location, age, or efficiency, heat in the form of drainwater or dryer exhaust is wasted. Although from a waste stream, this energy has the potential for being captured, possibly stored, and then reused for preheating hot water or air thereby saving operating costs to the homeowner. In applications such as a shower and possibly a dryer, waste heat is produced at the same time as energy is used, so that a heat exchanger to capture the waste energy and return it to the supply is all that is needed. In other applications such as capturing the energy in drainwater from a tub, dishwasher, or washing machine, the availability of waste heat might not coincide with an immediate use for energy, and consequently a heat exchanger system with heat storage capacity (i.e. a regenerator) would be necessary. This study describes a two-house experimental evaluation of a system designed to capture waste heat from the shower, dishwasher clothes washer and dryer, and to use this waste heat to offset some of the hot water energy needs of the house. Although each house was unoccupied, they were fitted with equipment that would completely simulate the heat loads and behavior of human occupants including operating the appliances and fixtures on a demand schedule identical to Building American protocol (Hendron, 2009). The heat recovery system combined (1) a gravity-film heat exchanger (GFX) installed in a vertical section of drainline, (2) a heat exchanger for capturing dryer exhaust heat, (3) a preheat tank for storing the captured heat, and (4) a small recirculation pump and controls, so that the system could be operated anytime that waste heat from the shower, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and in any combination was produced. The study found capturing energy from the dishwasher and clothes washer to be a challenge since those two appliances dump waste water over a short time interval. Controls based on the status of the dump valve on these two appliances would have eliminated uncertainty in knowing when waste water was flowing and the recovery system operated. The study also suggested that capture of dryer exhaust heat to heat incoming air to the dryer should be examined as an alternative to using drying exhaust energy for water heating. The study found that over a 6-week test period, the system in each house was able to recover on average approximately 3000 W-h of waste heat daily from these appliance and showers with slightly less on simulated weekdays and slightly more on simulated weekends which were heavy wash/dry days. Most of these energy savings were due to the shower/GFX operation, and the least savings were for the dishwasher/GFX operation. Overall, the value of the 3000 W-h of displaced energy would have been $0.27/day based on an electricity price of $.09/kWh. Although small for today s convention house, these savings are significant for a home designed to approach maximum affordable efficiency where daily operating costs for the whole house are less than a dollar per day. In 2010 the actual measured cost of energy in one of the simulated occupancy houses which waste heat recovery testing was undertaken was $0.77/day.

  7. International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Awards for Appliance Manufacturers and Retailers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Washers Residential Dishwashers Tankless Water HeatersStorage Water Heaters Room Air Conditioners Total Totalresidential gas tankless water heaters; residential gas

  8. 2014-04-30 Public Meeting Presentation Slides: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014.

  9. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat pump electric and gas heating Approach Energy-saving potential (approximate) (commercial) (residential)

  10. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Heat Pumps Room Air Conditioners Water Heaters Gas Furnaces Clothes Washers Clothes Dryers Dishwashers COMMERCIAL

  11. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeill, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing; Saheb, Yamina

    2010-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    China is now the world's largest producer and consumer of household appliances and commercial equipment. To address the growth of electricity use of the appliances, China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 30 appliances, and voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products. Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these standard and labeling programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This research involved modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, or under development and those proposed for development in 2010. Two scenarios that have been developed differ primarily in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. The 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step considering the technical limitation of the technology. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice MEPS in 2014. This paper concludes that under the 'CIS' of regularly scheduled MEPS revisions to 2030, cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction would be 35% lower than in the frozen scenario.

  12. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Letschert, Virginie; Ke, Jing

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China has implemented a series of minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for over 30 appliances, voluntary energy efficiency label for 40 products and a mandatory energy information label that covers 19 products to date. However, the impact of these programs and their savings potential has not been evaluated on a consistent basis. This paper uses modeling to estimate the energy saving and CO{sub 2} emission reduction potential of the appliances standard and labeling program for products for which standards are currently in place, under development or those proposed for development in 2010 under three scenarios that differ in the pace and stringency of MEPS development. In addition to a baseline 'Frozen Efficiency' scenario at 2009 MEPS level, the 'Continued Improvement Scenario' (CIS) reflects the likely pace of post-2009 MEPS revisions, and the likely improvement at each revision step. The 'Best Practice Scenario' (BPS) examined the potential of an achievement of international best practice efficiency in broad commercial use today in 2014. This paper concludes that under 'CIS', cumulative electricity consumption could be reduced by 9503 TWh, and annual CO{sub 2} emissions of energy used for all 37 products would be 16% lower than in the frozen efficiency scenario. Under a 'BPS' scenario for a subset of products, cumulative electricity savings would be 5450 TWh and annual CO{sub 2} emissions reduction of energy used for 11 appliances would be 35% lower.

  13. Research and development of energy-efficient appliance motor-compressors. Final report. Volume II: market evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staelin, R.; Redinger, R.P.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An exploratory experiment asked consumers to verbalize how they chose among a set of hypothetical refrigerators with different initial prices and operating costs. From these verbalizations it was determined that many consumers used a payback criterion whereby they would choose the energy efficient appliance if the increase in initial price was recouped in future operating cost savings within an acceptable period of time. This acceptable period of time is called a payback period. Based on these preliminary results, a field study of 337 respndents was undertaken to estimate the distribution of acceptable payback periods for two energy consuming appliances, air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers. The payback distributions were then used to estimte the percent of consumers (i.e., market shares) who would select the energy efficient appliances for a range of price increases and operating cost savings. Following the field study, 123 consumers participated in a simulated shopping experiment to (a) see if the results of the field survey would hold in a more realistic shopping environment and (b) determine the effects of several market variables on the demand for energy efficiency.

  14. Barnett Shale Municipal Oil and Gas Ordinance Dynamics: A Spatial Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Trey Daniel-Aaron

    2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    criticisms of shale gas wells is the environmental impact, not the least of which is watershed and aquifer degradation due to the usage of fracking fluids (Mantell 2011) that contain known carcinogens including benzene, toluene, and formaldehyde (Rahm 2011... residents concerned that drilling — or more precisely, the injection of spent fracking fluids deep underground — is jeopardizing the underlying geologic stability of the Barnett Shale (Malewitz 2014a). Municipal responses to impacts In an effort to allay...

  15. Energy Demands and Efficiency Strategies in Data Center Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Appliance: Building 02 Datacenter. Pacific Gas and ElectricAppliance Building 11 Datacenter. Pacific Gas and Electric

  16. Energy Implications of Economizer Use in California Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehabi, Arman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Network Appliance: Building 02 Datacenter. ” Pacific Gas andAppliance Building 11 Datacenter. ” Pacific Gas and Electric

  17. Improving the Energy Performance of Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, A; Shehabi, Arman

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Network Appliance: Building 02 Datacenter. ” Pacific Gas andAppliance Building 11 Datacenter. ” Pacific Gas and Electric

  18. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    general) Res. Elec. Water Heaters Central AC General PumpsCompressors Comm. Storage Water Heaters (gas) Street LightsLow-end Servers Res. Gas Water Heaters Comm. Storage Water

  19. NATURAL GAS VARIABILITY IN CALIFORNIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DEVICE PERFORMANCE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Brett C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary Reports for Storage Water Heaters This appendix is Table 13.  Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally Table 13. Storage water heaters evaluated experimentally for

  20. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  1. Impacts of China's Current Appliance Standards and LabelingProgram to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The report summarizes the history and nature of China sstandardsand labeling program in the Introduction in Section 1. Trends indomestic production, exports, penetration rates, unit energy consumptionand the history of S&L technical levels by product are discussed ingreat detail in Section 2. The national energy impactsanalysis found inSection 3 concludes that overall China s standards and labeling programsreduce total electricity consumption in 2020 by an annual 106 TWh, or 16percent of what would otherwise been expected in that year in the absenceof standards and labeling programs.In total, the report concludes thatthe S&L programs currently in place in China are expected to save acumulative 1143 TWh by 2020, or 9 percent of the cumulative consumptionof residential electricity to that year. In 2020 alone, annual savingsare expected to be equivalent to 11 percent of residential electricityuse. In average generation terms, this is equivalent to 27 1-GW coalfired plants that would have required around 75 million tonnes of coal tooperate.In comparison, savings from the US appliance standards programalone is expected to save 10 percent of residential electricityconsumption in 2020.

  2. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  3. High resolution transmission electron microscopy of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels and silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruben, G.C. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) was to image the structure of two tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and two melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels at the single polymer chain level{sup 1,2}. With this level of structural resolution we hoped to interrelate each aerogel's structure with its physical properties and its method of synthesis. Conventional single-step base catalysed TMOS aerogels show strings of spheroidal particles linked together with minimal necking. The spheroidal particles range from 86--132 {Angstrom} and average 113{plus minus}10 {Angstrom} in diameter{sup 2}. In contrast the TMOS aerogels reported on here were made by a two step method. After extended silica chains are grown in solution under acidic conditions with a substoichiometric amount of water, the reaction is stopped and the methanol hydrolysed from TMOS is removed. Then base catalysis and additional water are added to cause gel formation is a nonalcoholic solvent. The MF aerogels were prepared for HRTEM by fracturing them on a stereo microscope stage with razor knife so that fractured pieces with smooth flat surfaces could be selected for platinum-carbon replication. The two silica (TMOS) aerogels were both transparent and difficult to see. These aerogels were fractured on a stereo microscope stage with tweezers. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Microstructural characterization of low-density foams. [Silica, resorcinol/formaldehyde, cellulose/acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, C.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-density foams (of the order 0.1 g/cm/sup 3/) synthesized from silica aerogel, resorcinol/formaldehyde, and cellulose acetate have fine, delicate microstructures that are extremely difficult to characterize. Improved low-voltage resolution of an SEM equipped with a field-emission gun (FESEM) does permit these materials to be examined directly without coating and at sufficient magnification to reveal the microstructures. Light coatings applied by ion-beam deposition can stabilize the specimens to some extent and reduce electron charging without seriously altering the microstructure, but coatings applied by conventional techniques usually obliterate these microstructures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is required to provide unambiguous microstructural interpretations. However, TEM examinations of these materials can be severely restricted by specimen preparation difficulties and electron-beam damage, and considerable care must be taken to ensure that reasonably accurate TEM results have been obtained. This work demonstrates that low-voltage FESEM analyses can be used to characterize microstructures in these foams, but TEM analyses are required to confirm the FESEM analyses and perform quantitative measurements. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

  6. Opportunities for regional harmonization of appliance standards and l abeling program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The South Asian Regional Initiative for Energy (SARI/Energy) calls for a series of activities to promote Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) of end use appliances in the region. In pursuit of this goal, the project supports several seminars and meetings that bring together policymakers and stakeholders from throughout the region. The purpose of these gatherings is to encourage a dialogue among participants as to the benefits and barriers associated with EES&L programs. In addition, it is the role of the program organizers to provide participants with the technical details necessary to make progress towards effective efficiency programs. One component of the initiative is to encourage the harmonization (alignment) of existing program components, and the pursuit of new programs coordinated at the regional level. In support of this goal, the report provides information aimed at motivating and enabling cooperative activities which will provide concrete benefits to programs in each country, whether well developed, or still in the initial planning stage. It should be emphasized that the underlying objective of the harmonization component of the SARI/Energy project is to increase the potential for success of EES&L programs of all countries involved, and to reduce burdens on manufacturers, exporters and importers in each country. Harmonization ''for it's own sake'' is not desirable, nor is it suggested that policymakers should bring their programs in line with international norms if doing so would present a disadvantage to their own efficiency programs, or to commercial interests within their country. If there is no such disadvantage, however, the program encourages alignment of policies and provides a forum at which this alignment can be pursued. The report covers several main topics, with varying emphasis. First, a general discussion of the motivation for an explicit policy of regional harmonization is given. Next, the current status of existing programs in the region are discussed in some detail. The section that follows covers the harmonization of efficiency test procedures. Special attention is given to this component of an EES&L program because it is the most critical element in terms of harmonization--having incompatible test procedures between trade partners can greatly impact the effectiveness of a program, and it can also unduly impact trade. Currently, policymakers in India and Sri Lanka are collaborating with the goal of aligning refrigerator test procedures used in their respective programs. For this reason, the section on test procedures of refrigerators goes into a significant amount of technical detail, in order to provide the clearest possible articulation of issues to be resolved in bringing the procedures into alignment. Following the discussion of test procedures, the report contains a section each on harmonization of efficiency rating levels, development of label designs, and enforcement issues. The report is organized such that the sections covering current programs and test procedures are subdivided by target appliance. These sections are further divided by country, where applicable. Each section is concluded with recommendations.

  7. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the development of a monitoring system to track compliance with standards and labeling, CLASP, with support from Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), has expanded its ongoing collaboration with the China National Institute of Standards (CNIS) to include enforcement and monitoring. CNIS has already begun working on the issue of compliance. CNIS has conducted modest sample testing in 2006 for refrigerators, freezers and room air-conditioners, and repeated the same task in 2007 with a similar sample size for three products (refrigerators, freezers, air-conditioners and clothes washers). And, CNIS, with technical support from LBNL, has analyzed the data collected through testing. At the same time, parallel effort has also been paid to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. In conjunction with CNIS, CLASP technical experts reviewed the standards development timeline of the four products currently subject to the mandatory energy information label. CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing: technical input to the process; comment and advice on particular technical issues; as well as evaluation of the results. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. This short report summarizes the status of Standards and Labeling program, current enforcement and monitoring mechanism in China, and states the importance of international collaborations.

  8. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in order to achieve success in adopting reach standards.

  9. Projected regional impacts of appliance efficiency standards for the U.S. residential sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koomey, J.G.; Mahler, S.A.; Webber, C.A.; McMahon, J.E.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minimum efficiency standards for residential appliances have been implemented in the US for a large number of residential end-uses. This analysis assesses the potential energy, dollar, and carbon impacts of those standards at the state and national levels. In this assessment, the authors use historical and projected shipments of equipment, a detailed stock accounting model, measured and estimated unit energy savings associated with the standards, estimated incremental capital costs, demographic data, and fuel price data at the finest level of geographic disaggregation available. Energy savings from the standards are substantial. Total primary energy savings will peak in 2004 at about 0.7 exajoules/year (1 exajoule = 10{sup 18} joules {approx} 1 quadrillion Btu = 10{sup 15} Btus). Cumulative primary energy savings during the 1990 to 2010 period total 10.6 exajoules. Efficiency standards in the residential sector have been a highly cost-effective policy instrument for promoting energy efficiency. Projected cumulative present-values dollar savings after subtracting out the additional cost of the more efficient equipment are about $33 billion from 1990 to 2010. Average benefit/cost ratios for these standards are about 3.5 for the US as a whole. Projected carbon reductions are approximately 9 million metric tons of carbon/year from 2000 through 2010, an amount roughly equal to 4% of carbon emissions in 1990. Because these standards save energy at a cost less than the price of that energy, the resulting carbon emission reductions are achieved at negative net cost to society. Minimum efficiency standards reduce pollution and save money at the same time.

  10. A Global Review of Incentive Programs to Accelerate Energy-Efficient Appliances and Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Phadke, Amol; Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Incentive programs are an essential policy tool to move the market toward energy-efficient products. They offer a favorable complement to mandatory standards and labeling policies by accelerating the market penetration of energy-efficient products above equipment standard requirements and by preparing the market for increased future mandatory requirements. They sway purchase decisions and in some cases production decisions and retail stocking decisions toward energy-efficient products. Incentive programs are structured according to their regulatory environment, the way they are financed, by how the incentive is targeted, and by who administers them. This report categorizes the main elements of incentive programs, using case studies from the Major Economies Forum to illustrate their characteristics. To inform future policy and program design, it seeks to recognize design advantages and disadvantages through a qualitative overview of the variety of programs in use around the globe. Examples range from rebate programs administered by utilities under an Energy-Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) regulatory framework (California, USA) to the distribution of Eco-Points that reward customers for buying efficient appliances under a government recovery program (Japan). We found that evaluations have demonstrated that financial incentives programs have greater impact when they target highly efficient technologies that have a small market share. We also found that the benefits and drawbacks of different program design aspects depend on the market barriers addressed, the target equipment, and the local market context and that no program design surpasses the others. The key to successful program design and implementation is a thorough understanding of the market and effective identification of the most important local factors hindering the penetration of energy-efficient technologies.

  11. Realized and Projected Impacts of U.S. Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Commercial Appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyers, Stephen P.; McMahon, James; Atkinson, Barbara

    2008-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This study estimated energy, environmental and consumer economic impacts of U.S. Federal residential energy efficiency standards that became effective in the 1988-2006 period, and of energy efficiency standards for fluorescent lamp ballasts and distribution transformers. These standards have been the subject of in-depth analyses conducted as part of DOE's standards rulemaking process. This study drew on those analyses, but updated certain data and developed a common framework and assumptions for all of the products in order to estimate realized impacts and to update projected impacts. It also performed new analysis for the first (1990) fluorescent ballast standards, which had been introduced in the NAECA legislation without a rulemaking. We estimate that the considered standards will reduce residential/ commercial primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in 2030 by 4percent compared to the levels expected without any standards. The reduction for the residential sector is larger, at 8percent. The estimated cumulative energy savings from the standards amount to 39 quads by 2020, and 63 quads by 2030. The standards will also reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by considerable amounts.The estimated cumulative net present value of consumer benefit amounts to $241 billion by 2030, and grows to $269 billion by 2045. The overall ratio of consumer benefits to costs (in present value terms) in the 1987-2050 period is 2.7 to 1. Although the estimates made in this study are subject to a fair degree of uncertainty, we believe they provide a reasonable approximation of the national benefits resulting from Federal appliance efficiency standards.

  12. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbesi, Karina; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Bolduc, Christopher; Burch, Gabriel; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Saltiel, Seth

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This study surveyed the technical potential for efficiency improvements in 150 categories of appliances and equipment representing 33 quads of primary energy use across the US economy in 2010 and (1) documented efficient product designs, (2) identified the most promising cross-cutting strategies, and (3) ranked national energy savings potential by end use. Savings were estimated using a method modeled after US Department of Energy priority-setting reports - simplified versions of the full technical and economic analyses performed for rulemakings. This study demonstrates that large savings are possible by replacing products at the end-of-life with ultra-efficient models that use existing technology. Replacing the 50 top energy-saving end-uses (constituting 30 quads of primary energy consumption in 2010) with today's best-on-market equivalents would save {approx}200 quads of US primary energy over 30 years (25% of consumption anticipated there from). For the 29 products for maximum feasible savings potential could be estimated, the savings were twice as high. These results demonstrate that pushing ultra-efficient products to market could significantly escalate carbon emission reductions and is a viable strategy for sustaining large emissions reductions through standards. The results of this analysis were used by DOE for new coverage prioritization, to identify key opportunities for product prototyping and market development, and will leverage future standards rulemakings by identifying the full scope of maximum feasible technology options. High leverage products include advances lighting systems, HVAC, and televisions. High leverage technologies include electronic lighting, heat pumps, variable speed motors, and a host of controls-related technologies.

  13. Projected Regional Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, J.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    standards Other Refrigerators and Freezers DWsandCWs: g aioo%- Other | Refrigerators and Freezers Gas and oil watermarket prices for refrigerators and freezers from 1987 to

  14. International Comparison of Energy Efficiency Awards for Appliance Manufacturers and Retailers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Heaters Storage Water Heaters Room Air Conditionersheaters; residential gas storage water heaters, and room airWater Heaters Storage Water Heaters Instantaneous Water

  15. Max Tech Appliance Design: Potential for Maximizing U.S. Energy Savings through Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garbesi, Karina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressors Comm. Storage Water Heaters (gas) Street LightsHeaters Comm. Storage Water Heaters (elec. ) )TorchieresCompressors Comm. Storage Water Heaters … Street Lights Low-

  16. 2015-02-25 Issuance: Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Meeting and Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of open meeting and webinar regarding the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 25, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-formaldehyde condensation reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    they un-15 dergo chemical reactions... and chemical reactions at the interface or in the bulk of the different compartments: gas, ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de...

  18. www.ornl.gov Energy-Efficient Building Appliances for Market Success

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    integrated heat pumps, HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning) systems, waste heat recovery from-room, side-by-side chambers can test gas heat pumps, electric heat pumps and air conditioners, gas/electric packaged units, desiccant systems, and small distributed generation/combined heat and power (CHP) systems

  19. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D.

    2009-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

  20. Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

  1. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of gaseous formaldehyde by the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Gaoke, E-mail: gkzhang@whut.edu.cn; Qin, Xi

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites were prepared by a sol–gel method. • The composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity and good stability. • The physicochemical property of tourmaline may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. • The mixed-phase of anatase and rutile TiO{sub 2} may be favor for the degradation of HCHO. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} supported tourmaline composites were prepared by a sol–gel method and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). The results indicate that the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile exists in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites. The specific surface area of the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites is much higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. The TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of HCHO, which was 6 times higher than that of the pure TiO{sub 2}. Moreover, the excellent photocatalytic activity of the composites was fully maintained after five photocatalytic cycles, which may be attributed to the physicochemical property of tourmaline and the mixed-phase of anatase and rutile in the TiO{sub 2}/tourmaline composites.

  2. REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

  3. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penwell, D.L.

    1994-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs.

  4. How to Make Appliance Standards Work: Improving Energy and Water Efficiency Test Procedures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supplyheat pump water heaters). http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2004/CSA 4.3- 2004 Gas Water Heaters - Volume III, Storage

  5. Projected Regional Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koomey, J.G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioners, Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment,according to the type of water heater used in the home.Gas Room Central HP Water heater Showers Faucets Furnace X X

  6. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comm. Ranges (gas) Dry-type Transformers DVD/Blu-ray PlayersBut for low-voltage, dry-type transformers, the most currentimmersed and dry-type transformers (of average capacity with

  7. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part III. Residential studies in Colorado and Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formaldehyde levels were measured in homes in problem and non-problem areas in Wisconsin and Colorado to elucidate the severity and the extent of formaldehyde emission under field conditions, help correlate laboratory findings with field observations, and investigate the cause and effect relationship between insulation stability and weather conditions of an area. Methods for selecting homes and sampling are described. Interviews were conducted with occupants of the homes and the data are tabulated. Results are summarized. Investigation forms are shown and weather information in Denver and Wisconsin is tabulated. (MCW)

  8. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. A study has been conducted to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. A select few of the top candidate eluants from the screening tests were subjected to actual sorption (loading) and elution tests to confirm their elution ability. The actual sorption (loading) and elution tests mimicked the typical sRF-cesium ion exchange process (i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution) via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. The eluants tested included ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, and nitric acid. Calcium acetate and magnesium acetate were substitutes for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively due to corrosion concerns. Nitric acid was selected for benchmarking since it is the baseline cesium eluant for sRF resin. The cesium elution performance of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate was approximately the same as the benchmark eluant, nitric acid. Ninety-seven (97), 94, and 100% percent of the cesium sorbed or loaded were eluted by ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and nitric acid was respectively. The performance of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, on the other hand, was mediocre. Percent elution was 16 and 8 respectively.

  9. An Integrated CoreWork for Fast InformationAppliance Buildup 1 Paul C. H. Lee, ChiWei Yang, RueiChuan Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    , all the core components are designed modularly and well documented in exported and imported interface1 An Integrated Core­Work for Fast Information­Appliance Buildup 1 Paul C. H. Lee, Chi­Wei Yang is isolated and independent to others. Application designers can have more controls in behavior of each

  10. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the programs and on the design of the labels and standards themselves. In addition, it directs the reader to references and other resources likely to be useful in conducting the activities described and includes a chapter on energy policies and programs that complement appliance efficiency labels and standards. This guidebook attempts to reflect the essential framework of labeling and standards programs. It is the intent of the authors and sponsor to distribute copies of this book worldwide, at no charge, for the general public benefit. The guidebook is also available on the web at www.clasponline.org and may be downloaded to be used intact or piecemeal for whatever beneficial purposes readers may conceive.

  11. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2009-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on batch contact and column testing tasks for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The testing used a non-radioactive simulant of SRS Tank 2F dissolved salt, as well as an actual radioactive waste sample of similar composition, which are both notably high in sodium (6 M). The resin was Microbeads batch 5E-370/641 which had been made on the hundred gallon scale. Equilibrium batch contact work focused on cesium at a temperature of 25 C due to the lack of such data to better benchmark existing isotherm models. Two campaigns were performed with small-scale ion exchange columns, first with Tank 2F simulant, then with actual dissolved salt in the Shielded Cells. An extrapolation of the batch contact results with radioactive waste over-predicted the cesium loaded onto the IX sRF resin bed by approximately 11%. This difference is not unexpected considering uncertainties from measurement and extrapolation and because the ion exchange that occurs when waste flows through a resin bed probably cannot reach the same level of equilibrium as when waste and resin are joined in a long term batch contact. Resin was also characterized to better understand basic chemistry issues such as holdup of trace transition metals present in the waste feed streams. The column tests involved using two beds of sRF resin in series, with the first bed referred to as the Lead column and the second bed as the Lag column. The test matrix included two complete IX cycles for both the simulant and actual waste phases. A cycle involves cesium adsorption, until the resin in the Lead column reaches saturation, and then regenerating the sRF resin, which includes eluting the cesium. Both the simulated and the actual wastes were treated with two cycles of operation, and the resin beds that were used in the Lead and Lag columns of simulant test phase were regenerated and reused in the actual waste test phase. This task is the first to demonstrate the treatment of SRS waste with sRF resin and the tests clearly demonstrated cesium decontamination for actual waste. The results of the column tests were similar for both the simulated and the actual waste and demonstrated Cs removal with sRF from both wastes. For a flowrate of 1.4 bed volumes (BV)/hour at 25 C those results with sRF resin were: (1) Simulant and actual waste results are equivalent; (2) Cs breakthrough began between 200 and 250 BV; (3) Cs breakthrough reached 100% at around 400 BV; (4) Cs breakthrough curve from 5% to 100% is approximately linear; (5) Cs elution with 0.5 M HNO3 starts at 2 BV and ends at 6BV; (6) Most, if not all, of Cs adsorbed during treatment is released during elution; (7) At 100% breakthrough of Cs the resin bed adsorbs approximately 85% of full capacity before detection in the effluent; the remaining 15% is adsorbed at saturation; (8) Approximately 90% of resin bed changes (color and volume) are complete by 6 BV; and (9) During elution the resin shrinks to about 80% of its fully working (sodium form) BV.

  12. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12-inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24-inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

  13. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, D

    2006-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Seven of the cycles were completed in the 12 inch IX Column and sixteen cycles were completed in the 24 inch IX Column. Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 2 1/2 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale system. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. In downflow of the Regeneration and Simulant Introduction steps, the resin bed particles pack tightly together and produce higher hydraulic pressures than that found in upflow. Also, upflow Simulant Introduction produced an ideal level bed for the twenty cycles completed using upflow Simulant Introduction. Conversely, the three cycles conducted using downflow Simulant Introduction produced an uneven bed surface with erosion around the thermowells. The RF resin bed in both columns showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. Micrographs comparing representative bead samples before and after testing indicated no change in bead morphology. The skeletal density of the RF resin in the 24 inch IX Column increased slightly with cycling (in both hydrogen and sodium form). The chemical solutions used in the pilot-scale testing remained clear throughout testing, indicating very little chemical breakdown of the RF resin beads. The RF resin particles did not break down and produce fines, which would have resulted in higher pressure drops across the resin bed. Three cesium (Cs) loading tests were conducted on the RF resin in pilot-scale IX columns. Laboratory analyses concluded the Cs in the effluent never exceeded the detection limit. Therefore, there was no measurable degradation in cesium removal performance. Using the pilot-scale systems to add the RF resin to the columns and removing the resin from the columns was found to work well. The resin was added and removed from the columns three times with no operational concerns. Whether the resin was in sodium or hydrogen form, the resin flowed well and resulted in an ideal resin bed formation during each Resin Addition. During Resin Removal, 99+ % of the resin was easily sluiced out of the IX column. The hydraulic performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins, and SRNL testing indicates that the resin should hold up to many cycles in actual radioactive Cs separation. The RF resin was found to be durable in the long term cycle testing and should result in a cost saving in actual operations when compared to other IX resins.

  14. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lobscheid, Agnes

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    air exchange rate, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxidemonoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), formaldehyde,

  15. NOx-Mediated Homogeneous Pathways for the Synthesis of Formaldehyde from CH4-O2 Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    CH4 conversion, because weaker C-H bonds in HCHO and CH3OH relative to CH4 lead to their fast that the O2 distribution along a reactor will not improve HCHO yields but may prove useful to inhibit NOx losses to less reactive N-compounds. 1. Introduction The practical conversion of remote natural gas

  16. EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Nash, C.; Pennebaker, F.

    2011-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion Exchange column loading and elution of cesium from spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde resin have been conducted for two potential non-acid eluants -(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}. The results revealed encouraging cesium elution performance. 100% elution was achieved in at most 22 hours ({approx}28 bed volumes) of elution. Elution performance was fairly high at 6 hours ({approx}8 bed volumes) of elution for some of the eluants and also practically comparable to the benchmark acid eluant (HNO{sub 3}). Hence, it is quite possible 100% percent elution will be closer to the 6th hour than the 22nd hour. Elution is generally enhanced by increasing the concentration and pH of the eluants, and combining the eluants.

  17. Characterization of the Sources and Concentrations of Formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds in four new manufactured houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, A.T.; Beal, D.; Chandra, S.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentrations of formaldehyde, 52 individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total VOCs (TVOC) were measured in four new manufactured houses on three occasions over a period of approximately nine months following completion of their construction. The houses were furnished, but unoccupied, model homes produced by a single U.S. manufacturer. Several of the houses incorporated interior finish materials with lower VOC emissions than standard materials. One house had a modified ventilation system. Ventilation rates were measured concurrently with the collection of air samples. A steady-state mass-balance model was used to calculate the area-specific emission rates of the target compounds and TVOC. The emissions of formaldehyde and VOCs from a specimen of plywood used as the floor sheeting were additionally quantified. The median formaldehyde concentration in the four houses was 37 parts-per-billion ( ppb). The formaldehyde concentrations were all less than the most restrictive guideline for this compound of 50 ppb. The concentrations of many of the target VOCs were low. Thirty-one of the VOCs had median concentrations that were at or below 1 ppb. Seven of the compounds were among the most abundant VOCs in all four houses. These compounds were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, ethylene glycol, hexanal, 2-butanone, and acetic acid. The concentrations of the aldehydes, hexanal, octanal and nonanal, in the four houses were either near or exceeded their respective odor thresholds. The concentrations of acetic acid increased with time. In the final sampling period, the odor threshold for acetic acid was exceeded in all of the houses. The range of TVOC concentrations in the four houses was 0.8 to 3 mg m{sup -3}, with a median value of 1.6 mg m{sup -3}. These concentrations were somewhat lower than TVOC concentrations previously measured in several new site-built houses, and the median concentration was only about twice the typical value for existing residences. The house with the modified ventilation system and several lower emitting materials had consistently low TVOC concentrations that were near 1 mg m{sup -3}. There were no large decreases with time in the emission rates of the individual VOCs or TVOC during the course of the study. However, the emission rates were often lowest in the final sampling with the notable exception of the acetic acid emission rate that increased with time. The source of the aldehydes was most likely engineered wood products, such as the plywood floor sheeting and possibly other structural or interior components. The source of the acetic acid was uncertain. The effects of the source substitution treatments were measurable but turned out to be relatively minor due to the predominance of other sources.

  18. Fluid diversion and sweep improvement with chemical gels in oil recovery processes. [Four types of gels: resorcinol-formaldehyde; colloidal silica; Cr sup 3+ (chloride)-xanthan; and Cr sup 3+ (acetate)-polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project were to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants were examined, including polymer-based gelants, a monomer-based gelant, and a colloidal-silica gelant. This research was directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gas floods. The work examined how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals included determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. During this three-year project, a number of theoretical analyses were performed to determine where gel treatments are expected to work best and where they are not expected to be effective. The most important, predictions from these analyses are presented. Undoubtedly, some of these predictions will be controversial. However, they do provide a starting point in establishing guidelines for the selection of field candidates for gel treatments. A logical next step is to seek field data that either confirm or contradict these predictions. The experimental work focused on four types of gels: (1) resorcinol-formaldehyde, (2) colloidal silica, (3) Cr{sup 3+}(chloride)-xanthan, and (4) Cr{sup 3+}(acetate)-polyacrylamide. All experiments were performed at 41{degrees}C.

  19. Polyaniline Nanothin Film Chemiresistive Gas Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinives, Sira

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for monitoring ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Analytica ChimicaNH 3 ) [2], nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) [3], hydrogen (H 2 ) [work include ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon

  20. 2014-08-07 Issuance: Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC)- Manufactured Housing Working Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of open meeting regarding the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Manufactured Housing Working Group on August 7, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  1. April 30 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014. The first document includes the first presentation from the meeting: DOE Vision and Objectives. The second document includes all other presentations from the meeting: Terminology and Definitions; End-User and Grid Services; Physical Characterization Framework; Value, Benefits & Metrics.

  2. RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HASSAN, NEGUIBM

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

  3. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fans Pumps Instantaneous gas water Heaters Electricstorage water heaters Household induction cooktop ComputerComputers Servers Heat-Pump water heaters Residential range

  4. Analysis of Potential Energy Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction of Home Appliances and Commercial Equipments in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fans Pumps Instantaneous gas water Heaters Electricstorage water heaters Household induction cooktop ComputerComputers Servers Heat-Pump Water Heaters Residential range

  5. 2014-07-21 Issuance: Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Adivsory Committee (ASRAC)- Manufactured Housing Working Group; Notice of Open Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting for the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee (ASRAC) - Manufactured Housing Working Group, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 21, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register ?publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  6. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared(PIR) burner at various barometric pressures (operating altitude) and gas compositions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. In this program, the theoretical basis for the behavior of PIR burners will be established through analysis of the combustion, heat and mass transfer, and other related processes which determine the performance of PIR burners. Based on the results of this study, a first order model of the performance of the burner, including radiant output will be developed. The model will be applied to predict the performance of the selected burner and modified through comparison with test results. Concurrently, an experimental setup will be devised and built. This experimental rig will be a modified appliance, capable of measuring the heat and combustion product output, as well as providing a means by which the radiant heat output can be measured. The burner will be selected from an existing commercial appliance, a commercial deep fat fryer, and will be of a scale that will be compatible with the laboratory facilities in the Combustion Laboratory at Clark Atlanta University. Theoretical analysis and formulation of the PIR burner performance model has been started and the development of the test facilities and experimental setup has also been initiated. These are described.

  7. Xcel Energy (Gas and Electric)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to home energy audits, Xcel Energy offers rebates to Minnesota residential customers for the purchase of energy efficient HVAC systems, insulation, appliances and lighting equipment....

  8. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  9. NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

  10. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. Studies are ongoing to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. The next phase of testing for this work will focus on the following down selected eluants: Ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide. The next testing phase is a confirmation of the elution ability of the selected eluants. It will mimic a typical sRF cesium ion exchange process i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. Due to corrosion concerns, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate will be tested instead of calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively. Nitric acid is for benchmarking since it is the baseline sRF eluant. The information at hand indicates ammonium hydroxide, while a weak base, may hold promise as an effective eluant. Hence, its inclusion among the eluants to be studied despite the fact that it was not tested as a stand-alone eluant earlier.

  11. Effects of polymerization and briquetting parameters on the tensile strength of briquettes formed from coal coke and aniline-formaldehyde resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.; Simsek, T. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the utilization of aniline (C{sub 6}H{sub 7}N) formaldehyde (HCHO) resins as a binding agent of coke briquetting was investigated. Aniline (AN) formaldehyde (F) resins are a family of thermoplastics synthesized by condensing AN and F in an acid solution exhibiting high dielectric strength. The tensile strength sharply increases as the ratio of F to AN from 0.5 to 1.6, and it reaches the highest values between 1.6 and 2.2 F/AN ratio; it then slightly decreases. The highest tensile strength of F-AN resin-coke briquette (23.66 MN/m{sup 2}) was obtained from the run with 1.5 of F/AN ratio by using (NH4){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} catalyst at 310 K briquetting temperature. The tensile strength of F-AN resin-coke briquette slightly decreased with increasing the catalyst percent to 0.10%, and then it sharply decreased to zero with increasing the catalyst percent to 0.2%. The effect of pH on the tensile strength is irregular. As the pH of the mixture increases from 9.0 to 9.2, the tensile strength shows a sharp increase, and the curve reaches a plateau value between pH 9.3 and 9.9; then the tensile strength shows a slight increase after pH = 9.9.

  12. Appliance and Equipment Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed.9-0s)Excel workbook (version 5.2)October

  13. Energy Star Appliances

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing Zirconia NanoparticlesSmart Grocer Program Sign-up Form

  14. Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherrill, David

    1 Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety Program March 2011 #12;Georgia Tech Dangerous Gas Safety.......................................................................................................... 5 6. DANGEROUS GAS USAGE REQUIREMENTS................................................. 7 6.1. RESTRICTED PURCHASE/ACQUISITION RULES: ................................................ 7 7. FLAMMABLE GAS

  15. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  16. Gas-grain chemistry in cold interstellar cloud cores with a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to surface chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Q; Herbst, E

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AIM: We have recently developed a microscopic Monte Carlo approach to study surface chemistry on interstellar grains and the morphology of ice mantles. The method is designed to eliminate the problems inherent in the rate-equation formalism to surface chemistry. Here we report the first use of this method in a chemical model of cold interstellar cloud cores that includes both gas-phase and surface chemistry. The surface chemical network consists of a small number of diffusive reactions that can produce molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, methanol and assorted radicals. METHOD: The simulation is started by running a gas-phase model including accretion onto grains but no surface chemistry or evaporation. The starting surface consists of either flat or rough olivine. We introduce the surface chemistry of the three species H, O and CO in an iterative manner using our stochastic technique. Under the conditions of the simulation, only atomic hydrogen can evaporate to a significant extent. Althoug...

  17. Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

  18. Gas Storage Act (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any corporation which is engaged in or desires to engage in, the distribution, transportation or storage of natural gas or manufactured gas, which gas, in whole or in part, is intended for ultimate...

  19. Gas Utilities (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter regulates natural gas utilities in the State of New York, and describes standards and procedures for gas meters and accessories, gas quality, line and main extensions, transmission and...

  20. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  1. Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rules regarding the production, sale, and transfer of manufactured gas will also apply to natural gas. This section regulates natural gas utilities that serve ten or more customers, more than one...

  2. Energy Data Sourcebook for the U.S. Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, T.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Market Survey: 1995. AHAM, Association of Home ApplianceEnergy Efficiency and Consumption Trends. Chicago: AHAM.AHAM, Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. 1996.

  3. Gas Production Tax (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A tax of 7.5 percent of the market value of natural gas produced in the state of Texas is imposed on every producer of gas.

  4. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  5. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  6. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  7. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  8. Identifying emerging smart grid impacts to upstream and midstream natural gas operations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, Annie

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Smart Grid has come to describe a next-generation electrical power system that is typified by the increased use of communications and information technology in the generation, delivery and consumption of electrical energy. Much of the present Smart Grid analysis focuses on utility and consumer interaction. i.e. smart appliances, home automation systems, rate structures, consumer demand response, etc. An identified need is to assess the upstream and midstream operations of natural gas as a result of the smart grid. The nature of Smart Grid, including the demand response and role of information, may require changes in upstream and midstream natural gas operations to ensure availability and efficiency. Utility reliance on natural gas will continue and likely increase, given the backup requirements for intermittent renewable energy sources. Efficient generation and delivery of electricity on Smart Grid could affect how natural gas is utilized. Things that we already know about Smart Grid are: (1) The role of information and data integrity is increasingly important. (2) Smart Grid includes a fully distributed system with two-way communication. (3) Smart Grid, a complex network, may change the way energy is supplied, stored, and in demand. (4) Smart Grid has evolved through consumer driven decisions. (5) Smart Grid and the US critical infrastructure will include many intermittent renewables.

  9. CONSULTANT REPORT 2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONSULTANT REPORT 2009 CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL APPLIANCE SATURATION STUDY funded and administered a Residential Appliance Saturation Study that serves as an update to the 2003 electric and 10 natural gas residential enduses and appliance saturations for households

  10. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  11. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  12. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  13. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels (eg diesel, compressed natural gas). Electricity (infossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied

  14. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  15. Cost of Gas Adjustment for Gas Utilities (Maine)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This rule, applicable to gas utilities, establishes rules for calculation of gas cost adjustments, procedures to be followed in establishing gas cost adjustments and refunds, and describes reports...

  16. Enhanced membrane gas separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, R.

    1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

  17. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  18. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  19. Natural Gas & Local Governments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    -trailers New business ventures Frac services Water hauling Brine water remediation Pipeline Group #12;2. Sublette County, Wyoming Largest gas-producing county in Wyoming (44% of states gas

  20. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  1. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  2. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  3. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  4. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

  5. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  6. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  7. Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Purchased Gas Adjustment Rules are implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority). Purchased Gas Adjustment (PGA) Rules are intended to permit the company/LDC (local gas...

  8. COMPUTATIONAL OPTIMIZATION OF GAS COMPRESSOR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2015 ... When considering cost-optimal operation of gas transport net- works ..... The four most frequently used drive types are gas turbines, gas driven.

  9. Creating and Implementing a Regularized Monitoring and EnforcementSystem for China's Mandatory Standards and Energy Information Label forAppliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China has developed a comprehensive program of energy efficiency standards and labels for household appliances. In 1989, China first launched its minimum energy performance standards (MEPS), which are now applied to an extensive list of products. In 1998, China launched a voluntary energy endorsement label, which has grown to cover both energy-saving and water-saving products. And, in 2005, China launched a mandatory energy information label that initially covered two products. CLASP has assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes. CLASP has also assisted China in the development of the mandatory energy information label. Increasingly, attention is being placed on maximum energy savings from China's standards and labeling (S&L) efforts in order to meet the recently announced goal of reducing China's energy intensity by 20 percent by 2010 with an interim objective of 4 percent in 2006. China's mandatory standards system is heavily focused on the technical requirements for efficiency performance, but historically, it has lacked administrative and personnel capacity to undertake monitoring and enforcement of these legally binding standards. Similarly, resources for monitoring and enforcement have been quite limited. As a consequence, compliance to both the mandatory standards and the mandatory energy information label is uneven with the potential and likely result of lost energy savings. Thus, a major area for improvement, which could significantly increase overall energy savings, is the creation and implementation of a regularized monitoring system for tracking the compliance to, and enforcement of, mandatory standards and the energy information label in China. CLASP has been working with the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS), the China Administration for Quality, Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and relevant stakeholders in the industry to develop a stronger system of monitoring and enforcement. In November 2005, CNIS and LBNL (a CLASP implementing partner) with funding from the Energy Foundation jointly organized an international workshop to present the international best practices in S&L monitoring and enforcement. Currently, CNIS is developing a guideline for monitoring and enforcement for appliance standards. With support from METI, CLASP has been able to expand the on-going collaboration with CNIS to include enforcement needs for the mandatory energy information label and to accelerate the progress of the project to develop a more robust monitoring and enforcement for S&L programs in China. This expanded effort has included: (1) Holding an enforcement and monitoring roadmap planning workshop with key S&L stakeholders; (2) Interviews with S&L stakeholders on the need and scope of national compliance tests; (3) Research on past enforcement activities; (4) An analysis of compliance data from the mandatory energy information labeling program; (5) Interviews with stakeholders on the need and scope of testing infrastructure; and (6) Development of a roadmap for future activities. This report summarizes the findings of these activities and identifies the progress that China is making, and can make, toward developing a stronger system of monitoring and enforcement (M&E). In sum, it outlines a vision of moving forward with more vigorous M&E in China.

  10. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  11. Natural gas annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1994 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1990 to 1994 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  12. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  13. Gas Cylinders: Proper Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Compressed Gas Cylinders: Proper Management And Use Published by the Office of Environment, Health;1 Introduction University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley) departments that use compressed gas cylinders (MSDS) and your department's Job Safety Analyses (JSAs). Talk to your gas supplier about hands

  14. Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    GCMS - 1 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS OF ETHANOL AND BENZENE IN GASOLINE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;GCMS - 2 Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry GC-MS ANALYSIS). The goal of this experiment is to separate the components in a sample of gasoline using Gas Chromatography

  15. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  16. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  17. Welcome FUPWG- Natural Gas Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) Fall 2008 meeting—provides an overview of natural gas, including emissions, compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, and landfill gas supplement for natural gas system.

  18. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  20. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  1. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  2. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  3. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  4. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PIR) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances in containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. During this period, experimental setup with optical and electronic instrumentation that is necessary for measuring the radiant heat output and the emission gas output of the burner has been established. The radiation measurement instrument, an FTIR, has been purchased and installed in the porous burner experimental system. The radiation measurement capability of the FTIR was tested and found to be satisfactory. A standard blackbody source, made by Graseby Infrared, was employed to calibrate the FTIR. A collection duct for emission gas measurement was fabricated and connected to the existing Horiba gas analyzer. Test runs are being conducted for flue gas analysis. A number of published research papers on modeling of porous burners were reviewed. The physical mechanism and theoretical analysis of the combustion process of the PIR burner was formulated. The numerical modeling, and implementation of a PIR burner code at CAU`s computing facility is in progress.

  5. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, Charles A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burbage, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a pneumatically operated valve assembly for simultaneously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two of the lines so closed. The valve assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  6. Thermodynamics of Chaplygin gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yun Soo Myung

    2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We clarify thermodynamics of the Chaplygin gas by introducing the integrability condition. All thermal quantities are derived as functions of either volume or temperature. Importantly, we find a new general equation of state, describing the Chaplygin gas completely. We confirm that the Chaplygin gas could show a unified picture of dark matter and energy which cools down through the universe expansion without any critical point (phase transition).

  7. Ammonia synthesis gas purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuderer, A.

    1986-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes the purification of a reformed gas mixture following water gas shift conversion to produce a purified ammonia synthesis gas stream. The improved processing sequence consisting essentially of: (A) Selectively catalytically oxidizing the residual carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to carbon dioxide so as to reduce the carbon monoxide content of the gas mixture to less than about 20 ppm, the selective catalytic oxidation being carried out with an excess of air, with the excess oxygen being catalytically reacted with a small amount of hydrogen so that the residual oxygen level is reduced to less than about 3 ppm; (B) removing the bulk of the carbon dioxide content of the gas mixture by liquid absorption; (C) Removing residual amounts of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water by selective adsorption on the fixed beds of a thermal swing adsorption system, a dry, purified ammonia ammonia synthesis gas stream containing less than a total of 10 ppm of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide being recovered from the thermal swing adsorption system; (D) Passing the resulting dry, purified ammonia synthesis gas stream having a low content of methane to an ammonia production operation without intermediate passage of the ammonia synthesis gas stream to a methanation unit or to a cryogenic unit for removal of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide therefrom; whereby the efficiency of the overall purification operation and the effective utilization of hydrogen are enhanced.

  8. Liquefied Natural Gas (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document adopts the standards promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association as rules for the transportation, storage, handling, and use of liquefied natural gas. The NFPA standards...

  9. Reversible Acid Gas Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dave Heldebrant

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist David Heldebrant demonstrates how a new process called reversible acid gas capture works to pull carbon dioxide out of power plant emissions.

  10. Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

  11. String Gas Baryogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Alberghi

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a possible realization of the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism in the context of extra-dimensional string cosmology and specifically in the string gas scenario.

  12. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic (Teaneck, NJ)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  13. ,"Colorado Natural Gas Prices"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Prices",8,"Monthly","112014","1151989" ,"Release Date:","1302015"...

  14. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  15. Oil and Gas Outlook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Outlook For Independent Petroleum Association of America November 13, 2014 | Palm Beach, FL By Adam Sieminski, Administrator U.S. Energy Information Administration Recent...

  16. Natural gas annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1997 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1993 to 1997 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level. 27 figs., 109 tabs.

  17. Gas venting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Amjad; Dreier, Ken Wayne; Moulthrop, Lawrence Clinton; White, Erik James

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system to vent a moist gas stream is disclosed. The system includes an enclosure and an electrochemical cell disposed within the enclosure, the electrochemical cell productive of the moist gas stream. A first vent is in fluid communication with the electrochemical cell for venting the moist gas stream to an exterior of the enclosure, and a second vent is in fluid communication with an interior of the enclosure and in thermal communication with the first vent for discharging heated air to the exterior of the enclosure. At least a portion of the discharging heated air is for preventing freezing of the moist gas stream within the first vent.

  18. An Analysis of the Residential Energy Savings from the Implementation of the 2001 IECC and 2006 NAECA Appliance Standards in the State of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, Z.; Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J.; Gilman, D.; Montgomery, C.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    This paper presents results of an analysis of the annual electricity and natural gas savings from implementation of the 2001 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) specifications with updated 2006 specifications for mechanical systems to new...

  19. 47 Natural Gas Market Trends NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    47 Natural Gas Market Trends Chapter 5 NATURAL GAS MARKET TRENDS INTRODUCTION Natural gas discusses current natural gas market conditions in California and the rest of North America, followed on the outlook for demand, supply, and price of natural gas for the forecasted 20-year horizon. It also addresses

  20. Fission gas detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for collecting fission gas released by a failed fuel rod which device uses a filter to pass coolant but which filter blocks fission gas bubbles which cannot pass through the filter due to the surface tension of the bubble.

  1. Illinois Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  2. Montana Natural Gas Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Withdrawals NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Oil Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 1991-2014 From Shale Gas Wells NA NA NA NA NA NA 2007-2014...

  3. Gas Kick Mechanistic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zubairy, Raheel

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    -gain and temperature profile in the annulus. This research focuses on these changes in these parameters to be able to detect the occurrence of gas kick and the circulation of the gas kick out from the well. In this thesis, we have developed a model that incorporates...

  4. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  5. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moridis, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gas Price ($/Mscf) for Offshore Gas Hydrate StudyEvaluation of deepwater gas-hydrate systems. The Leadingfor Gas Production from Gas Hydrates Reservoirs. J. Canadian

  6. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This quarterly technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-94MT94011 during the period September 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 which covers the nineth quarter of the project. The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. As the environmental regulations become more stringent, infrared burners are receiving increasing interests.

  7. Supersonic gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawlor, Shawn P. (Bellevue, WA); Novaresi, Mark A. (San Diego, CA); Cornelius, Charles C. (Kirkland, WA)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas compressor based on the use of a driven rotor having a compression ramp traveling at a local supersonic inlet velocity (based on the combination of inlet gas velocity and tangential speed of the ramp) which compresses inlet gas against a stationary sidewall. In using this method to compress inlet gas, the supersonic compressor efficiently achieves high compression ratios while utilizing a compact, stabilized gasdynamic flow path. Operated at supersonic speeds, the inlet stabilizes an oblique/normal shock system in the gasdyanamic flow path formed between the rim of the rotor, the strakes, and a stationary external housing. Part load efficiency is enhanced by the use of a pre-swirl compressor, and using a bypass stream to bleed a portion of the intermediate pressure gas after passing through the pre-swirl compressor back to the inlet of the pre-swirl compressor. Inlet guide vanes to the compression ramp enhance overall efficiency.

  8. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX); Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan (Kingwood, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  9. Underground Storage of Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute declares underground storage of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas to be in the public interest if it promotes the conservation of natural gas and permits the accumulation of...

  10. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

  11. Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas Natural Gas Savings Programs are offering the following bonus rebates (in addition to the joint utilities bonus rebate). For both offers below, installation must...

  12. Intermountain Gas Company (IGC)- Gas Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Intermountain Gas Company's (IGC) Gas Heating Rebate Program offers customers a $200 per unit rebate when they convert to a high efficiency natural gas furnace that replaces a heating system...

  13. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Supply Basins...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Major Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors, 2008 U.S. Natural Gas Transporation Corridors out of Major...

  14. CONSULTANT REPORT APPLIANCE MARKET SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    found at retail/wholesale stores, Internet sites, and in catalogs. This report delineates the degree.....................................................................................................................5 Retail/Wholesale Store Surveys ..........................................................................................................5 Retail/Wholesale Store Site Selection ..................................

  15. Tips: Appliances | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatusButler Tina Butler Tina-Butler.jpg Tina L.Ducts Tips: Air

  16. Appliance Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists' ResearchThe OfficeUtility Fed.9-0s)Excel workbook (version 5.2) isof

  17. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  18. natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

  19. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Largest Natural Gas Pipeline...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Interstate Pipelines Table About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Thirty Largest U.S. Interstate Natural...

  20. ,"New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"2262015 9:43:21 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: New York Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Shale Gas (Million Cubic Feet)"...

  1. Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Using noble gas isotopes to develop a mechanistic understanding of shale gas, desorbtion, tracing, migration Overview The discovery of shale gas in UK Shales demonstrates how important and no doubt will vary from shale to shale. An improved understanding of the controls on gas production from

  2. The Gas/Electric Partnership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmeal, W. R.; Royall, D.; Wrenn, K. F. Jr.

    The electric and gas industries are each in the process of restructuring and "converging" toward one mission: providing energy. Use of natural gas in generating electric power and use of electricity in transporting natural gas will increase...

  3. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  4. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  5. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule1, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description...

  6. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egnell, R.A.; Hansson, B.L.

    1981-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is disclosed for recirculating combustion exhaust gases to the burner region of a Stirling cycle hot-gas engine to lower combustion temperature and reduct NO/sub x/ formation includes a first wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the inlet air stream, a second wall separating the exhaust gas stream from the burner region, and low flow resistance ejectors formed in the first and second walls for admitting the inlet air to the burner region and for entraining and mixing with the inlet air portion of the exhaust gas stream. In a preferred embodiment the ejectors are arranged around the periphery of a cylindrical burner region and oriented to admit the air/exhaust gas mixture tangentially to promote mixing. In another preferred embodiment a single annular ejector surrounds and feeds the air/exhaust gas mixture to a cylindrical burner region. The annular ejector includes an annular plate with radially-directed flow passages to provide an even distribution of the air/exhaust gas mixture to the burner region.

  8. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  9. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission & distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1 to June 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: (1) Develop and process subcontract agreements for the eight projects selected for cofunding at the February 2006 GSTC Meeting; (2) Compiling and distributing the three 2004 project final reports to the GSTC Full members; (3) Develop template, compile listserv, and draft first GSTC Insider online newsletter; (4) Continue membership recruitment; (5) Identify projects and finalize agenda for the fall GSTC/AGA Underground Storage Committee Technology Transfer Workshop in San Francisco, CA; and (6) Identify projects and prepare draft agenda for the fall GSTC Technology Transfer Workshop in Pittsburgh, PA.

  10. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  11. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  12. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for two types of consumer products; refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers; small gas furnaces; and a proposed No standard standard for television sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts resulting from new or amended energy-efficiency standard for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, small gas furnaces, and television sets as mandated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. A complete description of the Engineering and Economic Analysis of the proposed standards may be found elsewhere in the Technical Support Document (TSD). Four of the 14 scenarios for product design changes described in the Engineering Analysis of the TSD are chosen for environmental assessment based on their relative importance as design measures. Values for energy savings that result from product design changes are also taken from the TSD. The two main environmental concerns addressed are emissions from fossil fuel-fired electricity generation and the chlorofluorcarbons used in the production of rigid insulation foam. Each of the 12 design options for refrigerators and freezers result in decreased electricity use and and, therefore, reduced power plant emissions. Design changes that call for additional rigid foam insulation per appliance are of interest because they affect chlorofluorocarbon consumption. There is strong evidence that chlorofluorocarbons migrate to the stratosphere, break down, and catalyze the destruction of stratospheric ozone.

  13. Gas only nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtel, William Theodore (15 Olde Coach Rd., Scotia, NY 12302); Fitts, David Orus (286 Sweetman Rd., Ballston Spa, NY 12020); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (60 St. Stephens La., Glenville, NY 12302)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A diffusion flame nozzle gas tip is provided to convert a dual fuel nozzle to a gas only nozzle. The nozzle tip diverts compressor discharge air from the passage feeding the diffusion nozzle air swirl vanes to a region vacated by removal of the dual fuel components, so that the diverted compressor discharge air can flow to and through effusion holes in the end cap plate of the nozzle tip. In a preferred embodiment, the nozzle gas tip defines a cavity for receiving the compressor discharge air from a peripheral passage of the nozzle for flow through the effusion openings defined in the end cap plate.

  14. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    1985-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  15. Gas ampoule-syringe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D. (Aiken, SC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas ampoule for the shipment and delivery of radioactive gases. The gas ampoule having a glass tube with serum bottle stopper on one end and a plunger tip in the opposite end all fitting in a larger plastic tube threaded on each end with absorbent between the tubes, is seated onto the internal needle assembly via a bushing associated with the plunger and locked into the syringe barrel via barrel-bushing locking caps. The design practically eliminates the possibility of personnel contamination due to an inadvertent exposure of such personnel to the contained radioactive gas.

  16. Landfill Gas Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of landfill gas energy resources and technologies supplemented by specific information to apply landfill gas energy within the Federal sector.

  17. Regulations For Gas Companies (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Regulations for Gas Companies, implemented by the Tennessee Regulatory Authority (Authority) outline the standards for metering, distribution and electricity generation for utilities using gas....

  18. Historical Natural Gas Annual 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1999 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  19. Natural Gas | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fossil Natural Gas Natural Gas September 15, 2014 NETL Releases Hydraulic Fracturing Study The National Energy Technology Laboratory has released a technical report on the...

  20. ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas- Bonus Rebate Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ComEd, Nicor Gas, Peoples Gas and North Shore Gas are offering a Complete System Replacement Rebate Program to residential customers. The program is a bundled promotion in partnership with ComEd...

  1. Gas Pipelines (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter applies to any entity that owns, manages, operates, leases, or controls a pipeline for the purpose of transporting natural gas in the state for sale or compensation, as well as any...

  2. Gas-Saving Tips

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Properly Tuned Fixing a car that is noticeably out of tune or has failed an emis- sions test can improve its gas mileage by an average of 4 percent. However, results vary based on...

  3. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  4. Natural gas repowering experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bautista, P.J.; Fay, J.M. [Gas Research Institute, Chicago, IL (United States); Gerber, F.B. [BENTEK Energy Research, DeSoto, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas Research Institute has led a variety of projects in the past two years with respect to repowering with natural gas. These activities, including workshops, technology evaluations, and market assessments, have indicated that a significant opportunity for repowering exists. It is obvious that the electric power industry`s restructuring and the actual implementation of environmental regulations from the Clean Air Act Amendments will have significant impact on repowering with respect to timing and ultimate size of the market. This paper summarizes the results and implications of these activities in repowering with natural gas. It first addresses the size of the potential market and discusses some of the significant issues with respect to this market potential. It then provides a perspective on technical options for repowering which are likely to be competitive in the current environment. Finally, it addresses possible actions by the gas industry and GRI to facilitate development of the repowering market.

  5. Gas Separation Using Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial membrane-based gas separator systems based upon high-flux, asymmetric polysulfone hollow fibers were first introduced in 1977 by Monsanto. These systems were packaged in compact modules containing large amounts of permeation surface area...

  6. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  7. Holographic Chaplygin gas model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M R Setare

    2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and Chaplygin gas energy density in FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the scalar field which describe the Chaplygin cosmology.

  8. Gas Pipeline Securities (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes that entities engaged in the transmission of gas by pipelines are not required to obtain the consent of the Utility Regulatory Commission for issuance of stocks,...

  9. Natural Gas Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation title 805 promulgates the rules and regulations pertaining to natural gas production in Kentucky. In addition to KAR title 405, chapter 30, which pertains to any...

  10. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Data presented include volume and price, production, consumption, underground storage, and interstate pipeline activities.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Residential Energy Use for 2009 IECC Code Compliance and 2001 IECC Compliance with 2006 NAECA Appliance Standards for Selected Climate Zones in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Liu, Z.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    IECC with IECC 2001 Amendments house. The models were prepared for a house with electric heat-pump heating and domestic hot water (DHW) and a house with natural gas heating and DHW. Table 1 provides a list of input parameters for the base...

  13. Home Safety: Radon Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Denny, Monica L.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Every home should be tested for radon, an invisible, odorless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally. Radon is estimated to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. However, with proper equipment, radon is easy to detect... poten- tial for radon (Fig. 1), homes in Texas have been found to have radon levels that exceed U.S. Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations. Every home is susceptible to a radon gas problem. Health/cancer risks Radon produces...

  14. U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F.C.; Patel, J.G.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed an advanced coal gasification process. The U-GAS process has been extensively tested in a pilot plant to firmly establish process feasibility and provide a large data base for scale-up and design of the first commercial plant. The U-GAS process is considered to be one of the more flexible, efficient, and economical coal gasification technologies developed in the US during the last decade. The U-GAS technology is presently available for licensing from GDC, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of IGT. The U-GAS process accomplishes four important functions in a single-stage, fluidized-bed gasifier: It decakes coal, devolatilizes coal, gasifies coal, and agglomerates and separates ash from char. Simultaneously with coal gasification, the ash is agglomerated into spherical particles and separated from the bed. Part of the fluidizing gas enters the gasifier through a sloping grid. The remaining gas flows upward at a high velocity through the ash agglomerating device and forms a hot zone within the fluidized bed. High-ash-content particles agglomerate under these conditions and grow into larger and heavier particles. Agglomerates grow in size until they can be selectively separated and discharged from the bed into water-filled ash hoppers where they are withdrawn as a slurry. In this manner, the fluidized bed achieves the same low level of carbon losses in the discharge ash generally associated with the ash-slagging type of gasifier. Coal fines elutriated from the fluidized bed are collected in two external cyclones. Fines from the first cyclone are returned to the bed and fines from the second cyclone are returned to the ash agglomerating zone, where they are gasified, and the ash agglomerated with bed ash. The raw product gas is virtually free of tar and oils, thus simplifying ensuing heat recovery and purification steps.

  15. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions* Francis O, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended Environ. Res. Lett. 7 (2012) 044030 (6pp) doi:10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044030 Shale gas production: potential

  16. Oil and Gas CDT Coupled flow of water and gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Coupled flow of water and gas during hydraulic fracture in shale The University of Oxford http://www.earth.ox.ac.uk/people/profiles/academic/joec Key Words Shale gas, hydraulic fracture, groundwater contamination, transport in porous media Overview Recovery of natural gas from mudstone (shale

  17. HD gas analysis with Gas Chromatography and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouille; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas analyzer system has been developed to analyze Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for producing frozen-spin polarized HD targets, which are used for hadron photoproduction experiments at SPring-8. Small amounts of ortho-H$_{2}$ and para-D$_{2}$ gas mixtures ($\\sim$0.01%) in the purified HD gas are a key to realize a frozen-spin polarized target. In order to obtain reliable concentrations of these gas mixtures in the HD gas, we produced a new gas analyzer system combining two independent measurements with the gas chromatography and the QMS. The para-H$_{2}$, ortho-H$_{2}$, HD, and D$_{2}$ are separated using the retention time of the gas chromatography and the mass/charge. It is found that the new gas analyzer system can measure small concentrations of $\\sim$0.01% for the otho-H$_2$ and D$_2$ with good S/N ratios.

  18. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created-the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of July 1, 2006 to September 30, 2006. Key activities during this time period include: {lg_bullet} Subaward contracts for all 2006 GSTC projects completed; {lg_bullet} Implement a formal project mentoring process by a mentor team; {lg_bullet} Upcoming Technology Transfer meetings: {sm_bullet} Finalize agenda for the American Gas Association Fall Underground Storage Committee/GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting in San Francisco, CA. on October 4, 2006; {sm_bullet} Identify projects and finalize agenda for the Fall GSTC Technology Transfer Meeting, Pittsburgh, PA on November 8, 2006; {lg_bullet} Draft and compile an electronic newsletter, the GSTC Insider; and {lg_bullet} New members update.

  19. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project includes the creation of the GSTC structure, development of constitution (by-laws) for the consortium, and development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with the second 3-months of the project and encompasses the period December 31, 2003, through March 31, 2003. During this 3-month, the dialogue of individuals representing the storage industry, universities and the Department of energy was continued and resulted in a constitution for the operation of the consortium and a draft of the initial Request for Proposals (RFP).

  20. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. Base funding for the consortium is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In addition, funding is anticipated from the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period April 1, 2004, through June 30, 2004. During this 3-month period, a Request for Proposals (RFP) was made. A total of 17 proposals were submitted to the GSTC. A proposal selection meeting was held June 9-10, 2004 in Morgantown, West Virginia. Of the 17 proposals, 6 were selected for funding.