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  1. Beaver County, Utah: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Blundell 2 Geothermal Facility Places in Beaver County, Utah Beaver, Utah Milford, Utah Minersville, Utah Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBeaver...

  2. Pennsylvania Nuclear Profile - Beaver Valley

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Beaver Valley" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date" 1,892,"7,119",91.1,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel" 2,885,"7,874",101.6,"PWR","application/vnd.ms-excel","application/vnd.ms-excel"

  3. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FY 2013 FY-2014 Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Cost Verification Background The Cost Verification Process for the Slice...

  4. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background People in the Pacific Northwest are concerned about what happens at Hanford. The involvement of our citizens is important to Hanford cleanup, because it helps the TPA ...

  5. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Background Highway construction workers, airport maintenance personnel, and film crews use small, portable lighting systems known as "mobile lighting." Traditionally, mobile...

  6. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background The 17 element group known as rare earth elements (REEs) provides significant value to our national security, energy independence, environmental future, and economic ...

  7. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tech Transfer Success Stories * 2010 Background Renewable energy sources are critical to the nation's future, and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell catalysts must become more durable, effcient, and inexpensive before they are practical and cost-effective. Most fuel cells use platinum or platinum alloys as catalysts, but the limited supply of platinum is a potential barrier to widespread fuel cell use. Innovative Edge Sandia

  8. Beaver Cove, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Beaver Cove, Maine: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 45.560582, -69.4606148 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingserv...

  9. Beaver City Corporation (Utility Company) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City Corporation (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Beaver City Corporation Place: Utah Phone Number: 435-438-2451 Website: www.beaverutah.netelectric-li...

  10. SPIDER OPTIMIZATION. II. OPTICAL, MAGNETIC, AND FOREGROUND EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dea, D. T.; Clark, C. N.; Contaldi, C. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Davis, G.; Benton, S. J.; Bock, J. J.; Crill, B. P.; Dore, O.; Filippini, J. P.; Bond, J. R.; Farhang, M.; Bonetti, J. A.; Bryan, S.; Chiang, H. C.; Fraisse, A. A.; Fissel, L. M.; Gandilo, N. N.

    2011-09-01

    SPIDER is a balloon-borne instrument designed to map the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with degree-scale resolution over a large fraction of the sky. SPIDER's main goal is to measure the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves through their imprint on the polarization of the CMB if the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, is greater than 0.03. To achieve this goal, instrumental systematic errors must be controlled with unprecedented accuracy. Here, we build on previous work to use simulations of SPIDER observations to examine the impact of several systematic effects that have been characterized through testing and modeling of various instrument components. In particular, we investigate the impact of the non-ideal spectral response of the half-wave plates, coupling between focal-plane components and Earth's magnetic field, and beam mismatches and asymmetries. We also present a model of diffuse polarized foreground emission based on a three-dimensional model of the Galactic magnetic field and dust, and study the interaction of this foreground emission with our observation strategy and instrumental effects. We find that the expected level of foreground and systematic contamination is sufficiently low for SPIDER to achieve its science goals.

  11. OPENING THE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION WINDOW: MEASUREMENTS OF FOREGROUND ISOLATION WITH PAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, Dave; Dexter, Matthew; MacMahon, Dave; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; Manley, Jason; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2013-05-10

    We present new observations with the Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization with the aim of measuring the properties of foreground emission for 21 cm epoch of reionization (EoR) experiments at 150 MHz. We focus on the footprint of the foregrounds in cosmological Fourier space to understand which modes of the 21 cm power spectrum will most likely be compromised by foreground emission. These observations confirm predictions that foregrounds can be isolated to a {sup w}edge{sup -}like region of two-dimensional (k , k{sub Parallel-To })-space, creating a window for cosmological studies at higher k{sub Parallel-To} values. We also find that the emission extends past the nominal edge of this wedge due to spectral structure in the foregrounds, with this feature most prominent on the shortest baselines. Finally, we filter the data to retain only this ''unsmooth'' emission and image its specific k{sub Parallel-To} modes. The resultant images show an excess of power at the lowest modes, but no emission can be clearly localized to any one region of the sky. This image is highly suggestive that the most problematic foregrounds for 21 cm EoR studies will not be easily identifiable bright sources, but rather an aggregate of fainter emission.

  12. FINGERPRINTS OF GALACTIC LOOP I ON THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp

    2014-07-10

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the ''radio loops'' in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where emission by dust dominates. This suggests the mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation from dust grains enriched by metallic iron or ferrimagnetic molecules. This new foreground we have identified is present at high galactic latitudes, and potentially dominates over the expected B-mode polarization signal due to primordial gravitational waves from inflation.

  13. IMAGING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION: LIMITATIONS FROM FOREGROUND CONFUSION AND IMAGING ALGORITHMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedantham, Harish; Udaya Shankar, N.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2012-02-01

    Tomography of redshifted 21 cm transition from neutral hydrogen using Fourier synthesis telescopes is a promising tool to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Limiting the confusion from Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds is critical to the success of these telescopes. The instrumental response or the point-spread function (PSF) of such telescopes is inherently three dimensional with frequency mapping to the line-of-sight (LOS) distance. EoR signals will necessarily have to be detected in data where continuum confusion persists; therefore, it is important that the PSF has acceptable frequency structure so that the residual foreground does not confuse the EoR signature. This paper aims to understand the three-dimensional PSF and foreground contamination in the same framework. We develop a formalism to estimate the foreground contamination along frequency, or equivalently LOS dimension, and establish a relationship between foreground contamination in the image plane and visibility weights on the Fourier plane. We identify two dominant sources of LOS foreground contamination-'PSF contamination' and 'gridding contamination'. We show that PSF contamination is localized in LOS wavenumber space, beyond which there potentially exists an 'EoR window' with negligible foreground contamination where we may focus our efforts to detect EoR. PSF contamination in this window may be substantially reduced by judicious choice of a frequency window function. Gridding and imaging algorithms create additional gridding contamination and we propose a new imaging algorithm using the Chirp Z Transform that significantly reduces this contamination. Finally, we demonstrate the analytical relationships and the merit of the new imaging algorithm for the case of imaging with the Murchison Widefield Array.

  14. Bipole-dipole survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Thermal Area, Beaver County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frangos, W.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-09-01

    A bipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Beaver County, Utah was undertaken to evaluate the technique in a well-studied Basin and Range geothermal prospect. The major electrical characteristics of the area are clearly revealed but are not particularly descriptive of the geothermal system. More subtle variations of electrical resistivity accompanying the geothermal activity are detectable, although the influence of near-surface lateral resistivity variations imposes upon the survey design the necessity of a high station density. A useful practical step is to conduct a survey using transmitter locations and orientations which minimize the response of known features such as the resistivity boundary due to a range front fault. Survey results illustrate the effects of transmitter orientation and placement, and of subtle lateral resistivity variations. A known near-surface conductive zone is detected while no evidence is found for a deep conductive region.

  15. Foreground contamination in Ly? intensity mapping during the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Yan; Cooray, Asantha; Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G.

    2014-04-10

    The intensity mapping of Ly? emission during the epoch of reionization will be contaminated by foreground emission lines from lower redshifts. We calculate the mean intensity and the power spectrum of Ly? emission at z ? 7 and estimate the uncertainties according to the relevant astrophysical processes. We find that the low-redshift emission lines from 6563 H?, 5007 [O III], and 3727 [O II] will be strong contaminants on the observed Ly? power spectrum. We make use of both the star formation rate and luminosity functions to estimate the mean intensity and power spectra of the three foreground lines at z ? 0.5 for H?, z ? 0.9 for [O III], and z ? 1.6 for [O II], as they will contaminate the Ly? emission at z ? 7. The [O II] line is found to be the strongest. We analyze the masking of the bright survey pixels with a foreground line above some line intensity threshold as a way to reduce the contamination in an intensity mapping survey. We find that the foreground contamination can be neglected if we remove pixels with fluxes above 1.4 10{sup 20} W m{sup 2}.

  16. Residual foreground contamination in the WMAP data and bias in non-Gaussianity estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chingangbam, Pravabati; Park, Changbom E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr

    2013-02-01

    We analyze whether there is any residual foreground contamination in the cleaned WMAP 7 years data for the differential assemblies, Q, V and W. We calculate the correlation between the foreground map, from which long wavelength correlations have been subtracted, and the foreground reduced map for each differential assembly after applying the Galaxy and point sources masks. We find positive correlations for all the differential assemblies, with high statistical significance. For Q and V, we find that a large fraction of the contamination comes from pixels where the foreground maps have positive values larger than three times the rms values. These findings imply the presence of residual contamination from Galactic emissions and unresolved point sources. We redo the analysis after masking the extended point sources cataloque of Scodeller et al. [7] and find a drop in the correlation and corresponding significance values. To quantify the effect of the residual contamination on the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the CMB we add estimated contaminant fraction to simulated Gaussian CMB maps and calculate the characteristic non-Gaussian deviation shapes of Minkowski Functionals that arise due to the contamination. We find remarkable agreement of these deviation shapes with those measured from WMAP data, which imply that a major fraction of the observed non-Gaussian deviation comes from residual foreground contamination. We also compute non-Gaussian deviations of Minkowski Functionals after applying the point sources mask of Scodeller et al. and find a decrease in the overall amplitudes of the deviations which is consistent with a decrease in the level of contamination.

  17. Extragalactic foreground contamination in temperature-based CMB lens reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osborne, Stephen J.; Hanson, Duncan; Dor, Olivier E-mail: dhanson@physics.mcgill.ca

    2014-03-01

    We discuss the effect of unresolved point source contamination on estimates of the CMB lensing potential, from components such as the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, radio point sources, and the Cosmic Infrared Background. We classify the possible trispectra associated with such source populations, and construct estimators for the amplitude and scale-dependence of several of the major trispectra. We show how to propagate analytical models for these source trispectra to biases for lensing. We also construct a ''source-hardened'' lensing estimator which experiences significantly smaller biases when exposed to unresolved point sources than the standard quadratic lensing estimator. We demonstrate these ideas in practice using the sky simulations of Sehgal et al., for cosmic-variance limited experiments designed to mimic ACT, SPT, and Planck. We find that for radio sources and SZ the bias is significantly reduced, but for CIB it is essentially unchanged. However, by using the high-frequency, all-sky CIB measurements from Planck and Herschel it may be possible to suppress this contribution.

  18. CMB lensing reconstruction in the presence of diffuse polarized foregrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fantaye, Y.; Baccigalupi, C.; Leach, S.M.; Yadav, A.P.S. E-mail: bacci@sissa.it E-mail: ayadav@physics.ucsd.edu

    2012-12-01

    The measurement and characterization of the lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is key goal of the current and next generation of CMB experiments. We perform a case study of a three-channel balloon-borne CMB experiment observing the sky at (l,b)=(250°,−38°) and attaining a sensitivity of 5.25 μK−arcmin with 8' angular resolution at 150 GHz, in order to assess whether the effect of polarized Galactic dust is expected to be a significant contaminant to the lensing signal reconstructed using the EB quadratic estimator. We find that for our assumed dust model, polarization fractions of about as low as a few percent may lead to a significant dust bias to the lensing convergence power spectrum. We investigated a parametric component separation method, proposed by Stompor et al. (2009), as well as a template cleaning method, for mitigating the effect of this dust bias. The template-based method recovers unbiased convergence power spectrum in all polarization fraction cases we considered, while for the component separation technique we find a dust contrast regime in which the accuracy of the profile likelihood spectral index estimate breaks down, and in which external information on the dust frequency scaling is needed. We propose a criterion for putting a requirement on the accuracy with which the dust spectral index must be estimated or constrained, and demonstrate that if this requirement is met, then the dust bias can be removed.

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background CMB.jpg The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is relic radiation from a very early stage in the universe -- essentially a...

  20. The COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment search for thecosmic infrared background. I. Limits and detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Silverberg, R.F.; Moseley, S.H.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot,G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-01-06

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 mu m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 mu m(nu l nu<64 nW m-2 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level) and at 240 mu m (nu l nu < 28 nW m-1 sr-1, 95 percent confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 mum data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 mu m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 mu m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of nu l nu = 25 +- 7 and 14 +- 3 nW m-2 sr-1 at 140 and 240 mu m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 mu m, 10.3 nW m-2sr-1, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust production since the decoupling of the cosmic microwave background from matter.

  1. COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION AND TEMPERATURE POWER SPECTRA ESTIMATION USING LINEAR COMBINATION OF WMAP 5 YEAR MAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samal, Pramoda Kumar; Jain, Pankaj; Saha, Rajib; Prunet, Simon; Souradeep, Tarun

    2010-05-01

    We estimate cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization and temperature power spectra using Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 5 year foreground contaminated maps. The power spectrum is estimated by using a model-independent method, which does not utilize directly the diffuse foreground templates nor the detector noise model. The method essentially consists of two steps: (1) removal of diffuse foregrounds contamination by making linear combination of individual maps in harmonic space and (2) cross-correlation of foreground cleaned maps to minimize detector noise bias. For the temperature power spectrum we also estimate and subtract residual unresolved point source contamination in the cross-power spectrum using the point source model provided by the WMAP science team. Our TT, TE, and EE power spectra are in good agreement with the published results of the WMAP science team. We perform detailed numerical simulations to test for bias in our procedure. We find that the bias is small in almost all cases. A negative bias at low l in TT power spectrum has been pointed out in an earlier publication. We find that the bias-corrected quadrupole power (l(l + 1)C{sub l} /2{pi}) is 532 {mu}K{sup 2}, approximately 2.5 times the estimate (213.4 {mu}K{sup 2}) made by the WMAP team.

  2. Stochastic gravitational-wave background from cosmological supernovae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buonanno, Alessandra; Sigl, Guenter; Raffelt, Georg G.; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Mueller, Ewald

    2005-10-15

    Based on new developments in the understanding of supernovae (SNe) as gravitational-wave (GW) sources we estimate the GW background from all cosmic SNe. For a broad range of frequencies around 1 Hz, this background is crudely comparable to the GW background expected from standard inflationary models. While our estimate remains uncertain within several orders of magnitude, the SN GW background may become detectable by second-generation space-based interferometers such as the proposed Big Bang Observatory (BBO). By the same token, the SN GWs may become a foreground for searches of the inflationary GWs, in particular, for sub-Hz frequencies where the SN background is Gaussian and where the BBO will be most sensitive. SN simulations lasting far beyond the usual cutoff of about 1 s are needed for more robust predictions in the sub-Hz frequency band. An even larger GW background can arise from a hypothetical early population of massive stars, although their GW source strength as well as their abundance are currently poorly understood.

  3. LTS Background - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Background About Us Hanford Cultural Resources LTS Home Page LTS Project Management LTS Transition and Timeline LTS Execution LTS Background LTS Information Management LTS Fact Sheets / Briefings LTS In The News LTS Related Links LTS Contact Us LTS Background Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size DOE recognized the significance of LTS in the 1990's when it issued several reports that addressed cleanup and management of land upon completion of the

  4. Extragalactic Background Light

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Yoshiyuki Inoue 1 , Susumu Inoue...

  5. ARM - Methane Background Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WarmingMethane Background Information Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Background Information What is Methane? Why Do We Use Methane? How is Methane Made? Where Do We Find Methane? Can Methane Be Dangerous? Does Methane Contribute to Climate Change? What is Methane?

  6. Scientific results from the cosmic background explorer (COBE). [Information on cosmic radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, C.L.; Boggess, N.W.; Cheng, E.S.; Hauser, M.G.; Kelsall, T.; Mather, J.C.; Moseley, S.H. Jr.; Shafer, R.A.; Silverberg, R.F. ); Murdock, T.L. ); Smoot, G.F. ); Weiss, R. ); Wright, E.L. )

    1993-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 [+-] 0.06 K, with no deviation from a black-body spectrum greater than 0.25% of the peak brightness. The data from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) show statistically significant cosmic microwave background anisotropy, consistent with a scale-invariant primordial density fluctuation spectrum. Measurements from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) provide new conservation upper limits to the cosmic infrared background. Extensive modeling of solar system and galactic infrared foregrounds is required for further improvement in the cosmic infrared background limits. 104 refs., 1 tab.

  7. A Flat Universe from High-Resolution Maps of the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Bernardis, P.; Ade, P.A.R.; Bock, J.J.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill,J.; Boscaleri, A.; Coble, K.; Crill, B.P.; De Gasperis, G.; Farese, P.C.; Ferreira, P.G.; Ganga, K.; Giacometti, M.; Hivon, E.; Hristov, V.V.; Iacoangeli, A.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Martinis, L.; Masi, S.; Mason,P.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Melchiorri, A.; Miglio, L.; Montroy, T.; Netterfield,C.B.; Pascale, E.; Piacentini, F.; Pogosyan, D.; Prunet, S.; Rao, S.; Romeo, G.; Ruhl, J.E.; Scaramuzzi, F.; Sforna, D.; Vittorio, N.

    2000-04-28

    The blackbody radiation left over from the Big Bang has been transformed by the expansion of the Universe into the nearly isotropic 2.73 K Cosmic Microwave Background. Tiny inhomogeneities in the early Universe left their imprint on the microwave background in the form of small anisotropies in its temperature. These anisotropies contain information about basic cosmological parameters, particularly the total energy density and curvature of the universe. Here we report the first images of resolved structure in the microwave background anisotropies over a significant part of the sky. Maps at four frequencies clearly distinguish the microwave background from foreground emission. We compute the angular power spectrum of the microwave background, and find a peak at Legendre multipole {ell}{sub peak} = (197 {+-} 6), with an amplitude DT{sub 200} = (69 {+-} 8){mu}K. This is consistent with that expected for cold dark matter models in a flat (euclidean) Universe, as favored by standard inflationary scenarios.

  8. THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND EXPERIMENT (CIBER): THE WIDE-FIELD IMAGERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bock, J.; Battle, J.; Sullivan, I.; Arai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Tsumura, K.; Cooray, A.; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Smidt, J.; Hristov, V.; Lam, A. C.; Levenson, L. R.; Mason, P.; Keating, B.; Renbarger, T.; Kim, M. G.; Lee, D. H.; Nam, U. W.; Suzuki, K.; and others

    2013-08-15

    We have developed and characterized an imaging instrument to measure the spatial properties of the diffuse near-infrared extragalactic background light (EBL) in a search for fluctuations from z > 6 galaxies during the epoch of reionization. The instrument is part of the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (CIBER), designed to observe the EBL above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The imaging instrument incorporates a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign field of view to measure fluctuations over the predicted peak of the spatial power spectrum at 10 arcmin, and 7'' Multiplication-Sign 7'' pixels, to remove lower redshift galaxies to a depth sufficient to reduce the low-redshift galaxy clustering foreground below instrumental sensitivity. The imaging instrument employs two cameras with {Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx} 0.5 bandpasses centered at 1.1 {mu}m and 1.6 {mu}m to spectrally discriminate reionization extragalactic background fluctuations from local foreground fluctuations. CIBER operates at wavelengths where the electromagnetic spectrum of the reionization extragalactic background is thought to peak, and complements fluctuation measurements by AKARI and Spitzer at longer wavelengths. We have characterized the instrument in the laboratory, including measurements of the sensitivity, flat-field response, stray light performance, and noise properties. Several modifications were made to the instrument following a first flight in 2009 February. The instrument performed to specifications in three subsequent flights, and the scientific data are now being analyzed.

  9. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  10. The Herschel cold debris disks: Confusion with the extragalactic background at 160 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gspr, Andrs; Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The Herschel 'DUst around NEarby Stars' (DUNES) survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22 K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue, we carefully examine the alternative explanation that the detections arise from confusion with infrared cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground stars. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  11. More About Inversions Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Inversions Background Inversions occur in fluids when a more dense fluid lies beneath a less dense fluid. In the atmosphere, the density is linked to temperature variations with warmer air lying atop colder air. Sounding Analysis - Inversions (Activity) Objective To evaluate radiosonde soundings for inversions. Materials  Soundings for the same date and synoptic time (provided or obtained online) Important Points to Understand The soundings here appear on a Stuve diagram. Because the

  12. EM SSAB Funding Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funding Background The Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), comprises 200+ individuals from eight regional Advisory Boards from Georgia, Idaho, Kentucky, Nevada, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee and Washington. These Advisory Boards cumulatively represent a stakeholder population of millions of people affected by waste generator sites, transportation routes, and waste disposal areas. EM SSAB members commit their time and resources as volunteers to

  13. The {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment Search for the Cosmic Infrared Background. I. Limits and Detections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauser, M.G.; Arendt, R.G.; Kelsall, T.; Dwek, E.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Freudenreich, H.T.; Reach, W.T.; Pei, Y.C.; Lubin, P.; Mather, J.C.; Shafer, R.A.; Smoot, G.F.; Weiss, R.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

    1998-11-01

    The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) on the Cosmic Background Explorer ({ital COBE}) spacecraft was designed primarily to conduct a systematic search for an isotropic cosmic infrared background (CIB) in 10 photometric bands from 1.25 to 240 {mu}m. The results of that search are presented here. Conservative limits on the CIB are obtained from the minimum observed brightness in all-sky maps at each wavelength, with the faintest limits in the DIRBE spectral range being at 3.5 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 64 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level) and at 240 {mu}m ({nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} {lt} 28 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, 95{percent} confidence level). The bright foregrounds from interplanetary dust scattering and emission, stars, and interstellar dust emission are the principal impediments to the DIRBE measurements of the CIB. These foregrounds have been modeled and removed from the sky maps. Assessment of the random and systematic uncertainties in the residuals and tests for isotropy show that only the 140 and 240 {mu}m data provide candidate detections of the CIB. The residuals and their uncertainties provide CIB upper limits more restrictive than the dark sky limits at wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 {mu}m. No plausible solar system or Galactic source of the observed 140 and 240 {mu}m residuals can be identified, leading to the conclusion that the CIB has been detected at levels of {nu}{ital I}{sub {nu}} = 25 {plus_minus} 7 and 14 {plus_minus} 3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1} at 140 and 240 {mu}m, respectively. The integrated energy from 140 to 240 {mu}m, 10.3 nW m{sup {minus}2} sr{sup {minus}1}, is about twice the integrated optical light from the galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field, suggesting that star formation might have been heavily enshrouded by dust at high redshift. The detections and upper limits reported here provide new constraints on models of the history of energy-releasing processes and dust

  14. ON MEASURING THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE AT REDSHIFT 0.89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, M.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Carilli, C. L.

    2013-02-20

    We report on a measurement of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation field, T {sub CMB}, at z = 0.88582 by imaging HC{sub 3}N(3 <- 2) and (5 <- 4) absorption in the foreground galaxy of the gravitationally lens magnified radio source PKS 1830-211 using the Very Long Baseline Array and the phased Very Large Array. Low-resolution imaging of the data yields a value of T {sub rot} = 5.6{sup +2.5} {sub -0.9} K for the rotational temperature, T {sub rot}, which is consistent with the temperature of the cosmic microwave background at the absorber's redshift of 2.73(1 + z) K. However, our high-resolution imaging reveals that the absorption peak position of the foreground gas is offset from the continuum peak position of the synchrotron radiation from PKS 1830-211SW, which indicates that the absorbing cloud is covering only part of the emission from PKS 1830-211, rather than the entire core-jet region. This changes the line-to-continuum ratios, and we find T {sub rot} between 1.1 and 2.5 K, which is lower than the expected value. This shows that previous T {sub rot} measurements could be biased due to unresolved structure.

  15. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  16. PROBING THE UNIVERSE'S TILT WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DIPOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: alexander.kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2011-06-10

    Conventional interpretation of the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole is that all of it is produced by local peculiar motions. Alternative explanations requiring part of the dipole to be primordial have received support from measurements of large-scale bulk flows. A test of the two hypotheses is whether other cosmic dipoles produced by collapsed structures later than the last scattering coincide with the CMB dipole. One background is the cosmic infrared background (CIB) whose absolute spectrum was measured to {approx}30% by the COBE satellite. Over the 100-500 {mu}m wavelength range its spectral energy distribution can provide a probe of its alignment with the CMB. This is tested with the COBE FIRAS data set which is available for such a measurement because of its low noise and frequency resolution which are important for Galaxy subtraction. Although the FIRAS instrument noise is in principle low enough to determine the CIB dipole, the Galactic foreground is sufficiently close spectrally to keep the CIB dipole hidden. A similar analysis is performed with DIRBE, which-because of the limited frequency coverage-provides a poorer data set. We discuss strategies for measuring the CIB dipole with future instruments to probe the tilt and apply it to the Planck, Herschel, and the proposed Pixie missions. We demonstrate that a future FIRAS-like instrument with instrument noise a factor of {approx}10 lower than FIRAS would make a statistically significant measurement of the CIB dipole. We find that the Planck and Herschel data sets will not allow a robust CIB dipole measurement. The Pixie instrument promises a determination of the CIB dipole and its alignment with either the CMB dipole or the dipole galaxy acceleration vector.

  17. BAYESIAN COMPONENT SEPARATION AND COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ESTIMATION FOR THE FIVE-YEAR WMAP TEMPERATURE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickinson, C.; Banday, A. J.; Jewell, J. B.; Gorski, K. M.; Huey, G.; Lawrence, C. R.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Wandelt, B. D.

    2009-11-10

    A well-tested and validated Gibbs sampling code, that performs component separation and cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum estimation, was applied to the WMAP five-year data. Using a simple model consisting of CMB, noise, monopoles, and dipoles, a 'per pixel' low-frequency power-law (fitting for both amplitude and spectral index), and a thermal dust template with a fixed spectral index, we found that the low-l (l < 50) CMB power spectrum is in good agreement with the published WMAP5 results. Residual monopoles and dipoles were found to be small (approx<3 muK) or negligible in the five-year data. We comprehensively tested the assumptions that were made about the foregrounds (e.g., dust spectral index, power-law spectral index prior, templates), and found that the CMB power spectrum was insensitive to these choices. We confirm the asymmetry of power between the north and south ecliptic hemispheres, which appears to be robust against foreground modeling. The map of low-frequency spectral indices indicates a steeper spectrum on average (beta = -2.97 +- 0.21) relative to those found at low (approxGHz) frequencies.

  18. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data, and Approach Used in the EBT for the Amendment ... 1 b. IP Rate and Revenue Forecast Used in the EBT for the Amendment ... 2 c. BPA expects to have...

  19. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 5 2. The Agreement will guarantee a revenue stream based on the IP rate, the statutorily defined rate for DSI sales....

  20. Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    including the mill tailings, were removed from the site and used in construction. ... During construction of the repository, visible dust cannot exceed State of Utah standards. ...

  1. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by large bluff bodies upstream of the turbine, e.g. piers, commonly found in river and tidal channels. Vincent S. Neary, Ph.D., P. E. Email: nearyvs@ornl.gov http:...

  2. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology, all of which support its national security mission. Sandia & EMCORE Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency S a n d i a S t r a t e g i c P a...

  3. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the establishment of the Nevada Test Site (now known as the Nevada National Security Site - NNSS) in 1951, thousands of people from around the world continue to visit this vast outdoor laboratory. Larger than the state of Rhode Island, the site features artifacts and archaeological sites from the early settlers, as well as the many relics remaining from nuclear weapons tests, nuclear rocket experiments, and a variety of other defense, environmental, and energy-related programs. Taking a Tour The

  4. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hydrogen-powered fuel cells offer an attractive alternative to current technologies. However, fuel cell catalysts ... inexpensive before they are practical and cost-effective. ...

  5. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    marketing and operating arrangement efforts. Flexible contracts responding to the pricing and unbundling forces emerging with the opening of the wholesale power market will...

  6. Background:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Recommended Browsers for iSupplier Portal Recommended Microsoft Internet Explorer Browser Settings (MSIE) Recommended Firefox Browser Settings Recommended...

  7. BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The safe and environmentally conscious performance of work is a fundamental core value of the Hanford Advisory Board. The Department of Energy (DOE) in seeking to move...

  8. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AGENCY RECORD OF DECISION: AMENDMENT NO. 1 TO FIRM POWER SALES AGREEMENT WITH PORT TOWNSEND PAPER CORPORATION, CONTRACT NO. 11PB-12330 AUTHENTICATED June 28, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS...

  9. Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MODE technology was based on Sandia-licensed compound semiconductors used in manufacturing vertical cavity surface- emitting laser components. Upon acquiring MODE, EMCORE became ...

  10. Background estimation in experimental spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, R.; Hanson, K. M.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS P940, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ; Dose, V.; Linden, W. von der

    2000-02-01

    A general probabilistic technique for estimating background contributions to measured spectra is presented. A Bayesian model is used to capture the defining characteristics of the problem, namely, that the background is smoother than the signal. The signal is allowed to have positive and/or negative components. The background is represented in terms of a cubic spline basis. A variable degree of smoothness of the background is attained by allowing the number of knots and the knot positions to be adaptively chosen on the basis of the data. The fully Bayesian approach taken provides a natural way to handle knot adaptivity and allows uncertainties in the background to be estimated. Our technique is demonstrated on a particle induced x-ray emission spectrum from a geological sample and an Auger spectrum from iron, which contains signals with both positive and negative components. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  11. A tale of tails. Dark matter interpretations of the Fermi GeV excess in light of background model systematics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular:more(1) In the case of DM annihilation into bb, we find that even large DM masses up to m??74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from ?+? with m? ~ 6070 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. In conclusion, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.less

  12. A Tale of Tails. Dark Matter Interpretations of the Fermi GeV Excess in Light of Background Model Systematics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We also find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. Inmore » particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into b¯b, we find that even large DM masses up to mχ≃74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from μ+μ- with mχ~60–70 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2°, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.« less

  13. A Tale of Tails. Dark Matter Interpretations of the Fermi GeV Excess in Light of Background Model Systematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We also find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into bb, we find that even large DM masses up to m??74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from ?+?- with m?~6070 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.

  14. A Tale of Tails. Dark Matter Interpretations of the Fermi GeV Excess in Light of Background Model Systematics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calore, Francesca; Cholis, Ilias; McCabe, Christopher; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-03-10

    Several groups have identified an extended excess of gamma rays over the modeled foreground and background emissions towards the Galactic center (GC) based on observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The excess emission is compatible in morphology and spectrum with a telltale sign from dark matter (DM) annihilation. Here, we present a critical reassessment of DM interpretations of the GC signal in light of the foreground and background uncertainties that some of us recently outlaid in Calore et al. (2014). We also find that a much larger number of DM models fits the gamma-ray data than previously noted. In particular: (1) In the case of DM annihilation into b¯b, we find that even large DM masses up to mχ≃74 GeV are allowed at p-value >0.05. (2) Surprisingly, annihilation into nonrelativistic hh gives a good fit to the data. (3) The inverse Compton emission from μ+μ- with mχ~60–70 GeV can also account for the excess at higher latitudes, |b|>2°, both in its spectrum and morphology. We also present novel constraints on a large number of mixed annihilation channels, including cascade annihilation involving hidden sector mediators. Finally, we show that the current limits from dwarf spheroidal observations are not in tension with a DM interpretation when uncertainties on the DM halo profile are accounted for.

  15. IS THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ASYMMETRY DUE TO THE KINEMATIC DIPOLE?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naselsky, P.; Zhao, W.; Kim, J.; Chen, S.

    2012-04-10

    Parity violation found in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is a crucial clue for the non-standard cosmological model or the possible contamination of various foreground residuals and/or calibration of the CMB data sets. In this paper, we study the directional properties of the CMB parity asymmetry by excluding the m = 0 modes in the definition of parity parameters. We find that the preferred directions of the parity parameters coincide with the CMB kinematic dipole, which implies that the CMB parity asymmetry may be connected with the possible contamination of the residual dipole component. We also find that such tendency is not only localized at l = 2, 3, but in the extended multipole ranges up to l {approx} 22.

  16. Modifications to the cosmic 21-cm background frequency spectrum by scattering via electrons in galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooray, Asantha

    2006-05-15

    The cosmic 21-cm background frequency spectrum related to the spin-flip transition of neutral hydrogen present during and before the era of reionization is rich in features associated with physical processes that govern transitions between the two spin states. The intervening electrons in foreground galaxy clusters inversely Compton scatter the 21-cm background spectrum and modify it just as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) spectrum is modified by inverse-Compton scattering. Towards typical galaxy clusters at low redshifts, the resulting modification is a few tenths milli-Kelvin correction to the few tens milli-Kelvin temperature of 21-cm signal relative to that of the cosmic microwave background blackbody spectrum. The modifications are mostly associated with sharp changes in the cosmic 21-cm background spectrum such as due to the onset of a Lyman-{alpha} radiation field or heating of neutral gas. Though low-frequency radio interferometers that are now planned for 21-cm anisotropy measurements are insensitive to the mean 21-cm spectrum, differential observations of galaxy clusters with these interferometers can be utilized to indirectly establish global features in the 21-cm frequency spectrum. We discuss the feasibility to detect the spectrum modified by clusters and find that, for upcoming interferometers, while a detection towards an individual cluster is challenging, one can average signals over a number of clusters, selected based on the strength of the Sunyave-Zel'dovich effect at high radio frequencies involving CMB scattering alone, to establish the mean 21-cm spectrum.

  17. BEDES Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background BEDES Background The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification data dictionary is a response to the need for a standardized system of terms and definitions for building energy performance data. By providing a set of common terms and definitions, BEDES will provide the framework on which to build interoperable data schemas and software tools which reduce the time and expense currently invested in sharing data. HISTORY BEDES was originally developed for internal use to improve

  18. Paducah Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background Paducah Background Click image for interactive historical timeline of the Paducah Site. Click image for interactive historical timeline of the Paducah Site. In October 1950, the United States Atomic Energy Commission selected a former World War II munitions plant near Paducah, Kentucky, known as Kentucky Ordnance Works, as the site for the second of three planned uranium enrichment plants in the United States. The other two enrichment plants were located near Portsmouth, Ohio and Oak

  19. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  20. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  1. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  2. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Background

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Providing Additional Pressure Relief to the Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Background After the radiological event on February 14, 2014 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Department of Energy (DOE) scientists from several national laboratories conducted extensive experiments and modeling studies to determine what caused the drum to breach. These investigations indicated that an incompatible mixture of nitrate salts and an organic absorbent created the conditions that resulted in an

  3. The isotropic radio background revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  4. Low background aspects of GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2011-04-27

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in {sup 76}Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from {sup 222}Rn. The main source of {sup 222}Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq {sup 228}Th.

  5. Low Background Counting At SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2011-04-27

    It is a continuous and ongoing effort to maintain radioactivity in materials and in the environment surrounding most underground experiments at very low levels. These low levels are required so that experiments can achieve the required detection sensitivities for the detection of low-energy neutrinos, searches for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to determine these low background levels in the materials and the underground environment. This proceedings will describe the SNOLAB High Purity Germanium Detector which has been in continuous use for the past five years and give results of many of the items that have been counted over that period. Brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be given, and the radon levels at SNOLAB will be discussed.

  6. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  7. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  8. Solar Background Document 3 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 Solar Background Document 3 A list of private sector investment in Solyndra. Solar Background Document 3.pdf (12.43 KB) More Documents & Publications Solar Background Document 2 ...

  9. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave BackgroundAnisotropy on angular scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; deBernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lange, A.E.; Lee, A.T.; Mauskopf, P.D.; Netterfield, C.B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2000-10-02

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions. Analysis of this CMB map yields a power spectrum for the CMB anisotropy over the range 36 {le} {ell} {le} 785. The spectrum shows a peak with an amplitude of 78 {+-} 6 {mu}K at {ell} {approx_equal} 220 and an amplitude varying between {approx} 40 {mu}K and {approx} 50 {mu}K for 400 {approx}< {ell} {approx}< 785.

  10. Widget:Background-Image | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Edit History Widget:Background-Image Jump to: navigation, search MHK Instrumentation & Sensor Database pages use this widget to load device images as CSS background rather than...

  11. Solar Background Document 5 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    5 Solar Background Document 5 Graph illustrating Chinese Development Bank financing to Chinese solar companies. Solar Background Document 5.pdf (29.35 KB) More Documents & ...

  12. Solar Background Document 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    1 Solar Background Document 1 A timeline outlining the Energy Department's extensive review of the Solyndra Solar loan guarantee application from 2006 to 2009. Solar Background ...

  13. Solar Background Document 4 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    4 Solar Background Document 4 Graph illustrating global distribution of solar manufacturing market share from 1990 to 2010. Solar Background Document 4.pdf (57.32 KB) More ...

  14. Solar Background Document 2 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solar Background Document 2 Media reports and other independent analysts which pointed to Solyndra as a very promising, innovative company. Solar Background Document 2.pdf (17.42 ...

  15. Solar Background Document 6 | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solar Background Document 6 Graph illustrating solar cell production in the United States and China from 2002 to 2010. Solar Background Document 6.pdf (38.97 KB) More Documents & ...

  16. High frequency background quantization of gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.

    1982-06-01

    Considering background quantization of gravitational fields, it is generally assumed that the classical background satisfies Einstein's gravitational equations. However, there exist arguments showing that, for high frequency (quantum) fluctuations, this assumption has to be replaced by a condition describing the back reaction of fluctuations on the background. It is shown that such an approach leads to limitations for the quantum procedure which occur at distances larger than Planck's elementary length 1 = (Gh/c/sup 3/)/sup 1/2/.

  17. Cosmic Microwave Background | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microwave Background Cosmic Microwave Background Remarkable progress has been made in the characterization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) over the last several years. It was nearly 30 years after the initial discovery of the CMB by Penzias and Wilson in 1965 before small differences in its intensity were measured by COBE and its spectrum was shown to be a blackbody to high precision. The finding helped motivate the inflation theory for the origin of the universe. In the past

  18. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle Plan and FY14 Quarterly ... Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ...

  19. Solar Background Document 7 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    7 Solar Background Document 7 Chart comparing global solar market in 2009 with the market today, illustrating the changing market conditions that Solyndra faced after receiving a ...

  20. Paducah Background Factsheet | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent Transactions, May 15, 2012 Paducah Background Factsheet0.pdf (100.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Excess Uranium Inventory ...

  1. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  2. Background considerations for SuperCDMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, J.; Collaboration: SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    Rejection and protection from background is a key issue for the next generation SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment that will have a cross-section sensitivity of better than 8 × 10{sup −46} cm{sup 2} for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions. This paper presents the details of the methods used to reject electromagnetic backgrounds using the new iZIP detectors that are currently operated in the Soudan Underground Laboratory, MN and the methods the collaboration is investigating to protect against neutron background in the next generation SuperCDMS experiment.

  3. Lighting Choices - White Background | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Choices - White Background Image icon All of these lightbulbs-CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving incandescents-meet the new energy standards that take effect from 2012-2014. More...

  4. Low background counting techniques at SNOLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, Ian; Cleveland, Bruce [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)] [SNOLAB, 1039 Regional Rd 24, Lively, ON P3Y 1N2 (Canada)

    2013-08-08

    Many of the experiments currently searching for dark matter, studying properties of neutrinos or searching for neutrinoless double beta decay require very low levels of radioactive backgrounds both in their own construction materials and in the surrounding environment. These low background levels are required so that the experiments can achieve the required sensitivities for their searches. SNOLAB has several facilities which are used to directly measure these radioactive backgrounds. This proceedings will describe SNOLAB's High Purity Germanium Detectors, one of which has been in continuous use for the past seven years measuring materials for many experiments in operation or under construction at SNOLAB. A description of the characterisation of SNOLAB's new germanium well detector will be presented. In addition, brief descriptions of SNOLAB's alpha-beta and electrostatic counters will be presented and a description of SNOLAB's future low background counting laboratory will be given.

  5. TEC Working Group Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background TEC Working Group Background Through the TEC/WG, DOE interacted with representatives of organizations at the state, tribal, and local levels to obtain input for program needs assessment, development and management, and to enhance their capability to carry out transportation emergency preparedness and safety activities specifically related to radioactive materials shipments. TEC membership included representatives from national, state, tribal and local government organizations, labor,

  6. Network Requirements Workshop - Documents and Background Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Requirements Review Reports Case Studies News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries ESnet Awards and Honors Blog ESnet Live Home » Science Engagement » Science Requirements Reviews » Network Requirements Reviews » Documents and Background Materials Science Engagement Move your data Programs & Workshops Science Requirements Reviews Network Requirements Reviews Documents and Background Materials FAQ for Case Study Authors BER Requirements Review 2015 ASCR

  7. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation: Gamma-ray Attenuation up to the Epoch of Cosmic Reionization and the First Stars Authors: Inoue,

  8. Low background screening capability in the UK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  9. Background compensation for a radiation level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keefe, D.J.

    1975-12-01

    Background compensation in a device such as a hand and foot monitor is provided by digital means using a scaler. With no radiation level test initiated, a scaler is down-counted from zero according to the background measured. With a radiation level test initiated, the scaler is up-counted from the previous down-count position according to the radiation emitted from the monitored object and an alarm is generated if, with the scaler having crossed zero in the positive going direction, a particular number is exceeded in a specific time period after initiation of the test. If the test is initiated while the scale is down-counting, the background count from the previous down- count stored in a memory is used as the initial starting point for the up-count.

  10. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example usingmore » powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.« less

  11. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutronmore » background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.« less

  12. Enhancements to the MCNP6 background source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.

    2015-10-19

    The particle transport code MCNP has been used to produce a background radiation data file on a worldwide grid that can easily be sampled as a source in the code. Location-dependent cosmic showers were modeled by Monte Carlo methods to produce the resulting neutron and photon background flux at 2054 locations around Earth. An improved galactic-cosmic-ray feature was used to model the source term as well as data from multiple sources to model the transport environment through atmosphere, soil, and seawater. A new elevation scaling feature was also added to the code to increase the accuracy of the cosmic neutron background for user locations with off-grid elevations. Furthermore, benchmarking has shown the neutron integral flux values to be within experimental error.

  13. Background model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuesta, C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Abgrall, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguayo, E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Barabash, A. S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boswell, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brudanin, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Caldwell, A. S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chan, Y -D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Christofferson, C. D. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Combs, D. C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Detwiler, J. A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Doe, P. J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Egorov, V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Dept. of Physics; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fast, J. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Finnerty, P. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Fraenkle, F. M. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giovanetti, G. K. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Goett, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gruszko, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Guiseppe, V. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Gusev, K. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Hallin, A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Hazama, R. [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics and Dept. of Physics; Hegai, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Henning, R. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Hoppe, E. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Howard, S. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Howe, M. A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Keeter, K. J. [Black Hills State Univ., Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M. F. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Kochetov, O. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Konovalov, S. I. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kouzes, R. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); LaFerriere, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leon, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Leviner, L. E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Loach, J. C. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China)

    2015-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  14. Compensatable muon collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raja, Rajendran

    2015-02-17

    A method and system for reducing background noise in a particle collider, comprises identifying an interaction point among a plurality of particles within a particle collider associated with a detector element, defining a trigger start time for each of the pixels as the time taken for light to travel from the interaction point to the pixel and a trigger stop time as a selected time after the trigger start time, and collecting only detections that occur between the start trigger time and the stop trigger time in order to thereafter compensate the result from the particle collider to reduce unwanted background detection.

  15. Beaver MCCs and Switchgear

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    circuits in service. Unable to get replacement parts Motor control centers are obsolete. ... Distribution panels in MCC's Latest Breaker Modifications Running out of spare breakers ...

  16. A measurement of the cosmic microwave background B-mode polarization power spectrum at sub-degree scales with POLARBEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Hasegawa, M.; Anthony, A. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Elleflot, T.; Feng, C.; Borrill, J.; Errard, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Flanigan, D.; Dobbs, M.; Gilbert, A.; Fabbian, G.; Collaboration: Polarbear Collaboration; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report a measurement of the B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) using the POLARBEAR experiment in Chile. The faint B-mode polarization signature carries information about the universe's entire history of gravitational structure formation, and the cosmic inflation that may have occurred in the very early universe. Our measurement covers the angular multipole range 500 < ? < 2100 and is based on observations of an effective sky area of 25 deg{sup 2} with 3.'5 resolution at 150 GHz. On these angular scales, gravitational lensing of the CMB by intervening structure in the universe is expected to be the dominant source of B-mode polarization. Including both systematic and statistical uncertainties, the hypothesis of no B-mode polarization power from gravitational lensing is rejected at 97.2% confidence. The band powers are consistent with the standard cosmological model. Fitting a single lensing amplitude parameter A{sub BB} to the measured band powers, A{sub BB}=1.120.61(stat){sub ?0.12}{sup +0.04}(sys)0.07(multi), where A{sub BB} = 1 is the fiducial WMAP-9 ?CDM value. In this expression, 'stat' refers to the statistical uncertainty, 'sys' to the systematic uncertainty associated with possible biases from the instrument and astrophysical foregrounds, and 'multi' to the calibration uncertainties that have a multiplicative effect on the measured amplitude A{sub BB}.

  17. POWER ASYMMETRY IN COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS FROM FULL SKY TO SUB-DEGREE SCALES: IS THE UNIVERSE ISOTROPIC?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, F. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Lilje, P. B.; Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M. E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.n E-mail: banday@MPA-Garching.MPG.D

    2009-10-20

    We repeat and extend the analysis of Eriksen et al. and Hansen et al., testing the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background fluctuations. We find that the hemispherical power asymmetry previously reported for the largest scales l = 2-40 extends to much smaller scales. In fact, for the full multipole range l = 2-600, significantly more power is found in the hemisphere centered at (theta = 107{sup 0} +- 10{sup 0}, phi = 226{sup 0} +- 10{sup 0}) in galactic co-latitude and longitude than in the opposite hemisphere, consistent with the previously detected direction of asymmetry for l = 2-40. We adopt a model selection test where the direction and amplitude of asymmetry, as well as the multipole range, are free parameters. A model with an asymmetric distribution of power for l = 2-600 is found to be preferred over the isotropic model at the 0.4% significance level, taking into account the additional parameters required to describe it. A similar direction of asymmetry is found independently in all six subranges of 100 multipoles between l = 2-600. None of our 9800 isotropic simulated maps show a similarly consistent direction of asymmetry over such a large multipole range. No known systematic effects or foregrounds are found to be able to explain the asymmetry.

  18. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  19. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  20. DOE Vendor Communication Plan I. Background

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vendor Communication Plan I. Background On February 2, 2011, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) issued a memorandum entitled "Myth-Busting: Addressing Misconceptions to Improve Communication with Industry during the Acquisition Process." In addition to identifying and refuting common misconceptions about vendor engagement, the memorandum directed agencies to develop high-level vendor communication plans to discuss how each agency will reduce unnecessary barriers, publicize

  1. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-11-10

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  2. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuesta, C.; Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Combs, Dustin C.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, James E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, Reyco; Hoppe, Eric W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Laferriere, Brian D.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, Anne-Marie; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, Werner; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; White, Brandon R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir

    2015-06-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a prototype system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment to search for neutrinoless double-beta (0v BB) decay in 76Ge. In view of the requirement that the next generation of tonne-scale Ge-based 0vBB-decay experiment be capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region, a major goal of theMajorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using Geant4 simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  3. Mode coupling evolution in arbitrary inflationary backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernardeau, Francis

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of high order correlation functions of a test scalar field in arbitrary inflationary backgrounds is computed. Whenever possible, exact results are derived from quantum field theory calculations. Taking advantage of the fact that such calculations can be mapped, for super-horizon scales, into those of a classical system, we express the expected correlation functions in terms of classical quantities, power spectra, Green functions, that can be easily computed in the long-wavelength limit. Explicit results are presented that extend those already known for a de Sitter background. In particular the expressions of the late time amplitude of bispectrum and trispectrum, as well as the whole high-order correlation structure, are given in terms of the expansion factor behavior. When compared to the case of a de Sitter background, power law inflation and chaotic inflation induced by a massive field are found to induce high order correlation functions the amplitudes of which are amplified by almost one order of magnitude. These results indicate that the dependence of the related non-Gaussian parameters — such as f{sub NL} — on the wave-modes is at percent level.

  4. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  5. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  6. Polarization of the cosmic background radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    The results and technique of a measurement of the linear polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation are discussed. The ground-based experiment utilizes a single horn (7/sup 0/ beam width) Dicke-type microwave polarimeter operating at 33 GHz (9.1 mm). Data taken between May 1978 and February 1980 from both the northern hemisphere (Berkeley Lat. = 38/sup 0/N) and the southern hemisphere (Lima Lat. = 12/sup 0/S) show the radiation to be essentially unpolarized over all areas surveyed. For the 38/sup 0/ declination data the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component is 0.3 mK for the average and 12 and 24 hour periods. Fitting all data gives the 95% confidence level limit on a linearly polarized component of 0.3 mK for spherical harmonics through third order. Constraints on various cosmological models are discussed in light of these limits.

  7. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying ...

  8. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, ...

  9. DETECTION OF THE COSMIC FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND IN AKARI DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuura, S.; Shirahata, M.; Kawada, M.; Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Oyabu, S.; Takagi, T.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Burgarella, D.; Clements, D. L.; Jeong, W.-S.; Hanami, H.; Khan, S. A.; Pearson, C. P.; White, G. J.; Pollo, A.; Serjeant, S.

    2011-08-10

    We report new limits on the absolute brightness and spatial fluctuations of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) via the AKARI satellite. We carried out observations at 65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m as a cosmological survey in AKARI Deep Field South, which is one of the lowest cirrus regions with a contiguous area of the sky. After removing bright galaxies and subtracting zodiacal and Galactic foregrounds from the measured sky brightness, we successfully measured the CIB brightness and its fluctuations across a wide range of angular scales, from arcminutes to degrees. The measured CIB brightness is consistent with previous results reported from COBE data, but significantly higher than the lower limits at 70 and 160 {mu}m obtained via Spitzer from the stacking analysis of selected 24 {mu}m sources. The discrepancy with the Spitzer result is possibly due to a new galaxy population at high redshift obscured by hot dust or unknown diffuse emission. From a power spectrum analysis at 90 {mu}m, two components were identified: the CIB fluctuations with shot noise due to individual galaxies in a small angular scale from the beam size up to 10 arcminutes, and Galactic cirrus emission dominating at the largest angular scales of a few degrees. The overall shape of the power spectrum at 90 {mu}m is very similar to that at longer wavelengths, as observed by Spitzer and the Balloon-borne Large-Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Our power spectrum, with an intermediate angular scale of 10-30 arcminutes, gives a firm upper limit for galaxy clustering, which was found by Spitzer and BLAST. Moreover, the color of the CIB fluctuations, which is obtained by combining our data with the previous results, is as red as ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at high redshift. These galaxies are not likely to provide the majority of the CIB emission at 90 {mu}m, but are responsible for the fluctuations. Our results provide new constraints on the evolution and clustering properties of distant

  10. Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Foy, B. R.; Petrin, R. R.; Wilson, C. W.

    2003-01-01

    The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation

  11. Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on High Energy Delayed Gamma-Rays From Gamma-Ray Bursts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of Cosmic Infrared Background on...

  12. Experimental Background Studies in the Two Photon Exchange (TPE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A number of test runs have identified the sources of background in the detector guided by previous simulations. Even so, the remaining background can be reduced considerably by the ...

  13. Passive background correction method for spatially resolved detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Randal L.; Hargis, Jr., Philip J.

    2011-05-10

    A method for passive background correction during spatially or angularly resolved detection of emission that is based on the simultaneous acquisition of both the passive background spectrum and the spectrum of the target of interest.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. Includes glossary You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  15. Muon-induced backgrounds in the CUORICINO experiment (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    c.l.) was obtained on the cosmicray induced background in the neutrinoless double beta decay region of interest. The measurements were also compared to Geant4 simulations....

  16. Neutron Spallation Measurements And Impacts On Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    Ultra-low background experiments, such as neutrinoless double beta decay, carried out deep underground to escape cosmic ray backgrounds can nonetheless be limited in sensitivity by cosmogenically induced signals. This limit can either be produced directly during operation from cosmic muon events in the detector volume, or can be produced by radioactive decay of cosmogenically generated radionuclides created while the detector materials were above ground. An accurate knowledge of the production of the latter source of background is of paramount importance in order to be able to interpret the results of low-background experiments.

  17. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrato...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. Authors: Guinn, Ian 1 ; ...

  18. Background | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Background Awards Information for Investigators Test Facility Pilot Program Workshop Reports Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of HEP Funding Opportunities Advisory Committees ...

  19. Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation We ...

  20. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research ESnet is currently supporting the Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) and Sandia National Laboratories in their...

  1. Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Tower Integrated Layout and Optimization Tool Background SolarPILOT(tm) offers several unique capabilities compared to other software tools. Unlike exclusively ...

  2. Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC; Role of the Background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Kuprash, O. E.; Magas, V. K.

    2011-07-15

    We discuss two topical problems of diffraction dissociation at the LHC, namely the role of the background and the elastic contribution.

  3. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Akerib, D. S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Arajo, H. M. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Bailey, A. J. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Balajthy, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bernard, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Cahn, S. B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Carmona-Benitez, M. C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Chan, C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chapman, J. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chiller, A. A. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Chiller, C. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Coffey, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Currie, A. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); de Viveiros, L. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Dobi, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dobson, J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Druszkiewicz, E. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Edwards, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Faham, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fiorucci, S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Flores, C. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gaitskell, R. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Gehman, V. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghag, C. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, K. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilchriese, M. G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hertel, S. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Horn, M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, D. Q. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ihm, M. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, R. G. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knoche, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Larsen, N. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lee, C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Lindote, A. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, M. I. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Malling, D. C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mannino, R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); McKinsey, D. N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Mei, D. -M. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Mock, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Moongweluwan, M. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Morad, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Murphy, A. St.J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Nehrkorn, C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nelson, H. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Neves, F. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Ott, R. A. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Pangilinan, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Parker, P. D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pease, E. K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pech, K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Phelps, P. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Reichhart, L. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Shutt, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Silva, C. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850 level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  4. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; Cherwinka, J. J.; Chu, R.; Classen, T.; Davee, D.; Dean, D.; Deichert, G.; Dolinski, M. J.; Dolph, J.; Dwyer, D. A.; Fan, S.; Gaison, J. K.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Gilje, K.; Glenn, A.; Green, M.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Heeger, K. M.; Heffron, B.; Jaffe, D. E.; Kettell, S.; Langford, T. J.; Littlejohn, B. R.; Martinez, D.; McKeown, R. D.; Morrell, S.; Mueller, P. E.; Mumm, H. P.; Napolitano, J.; Norcini, D.; Pushin, D.; Romero, E.; Rosero, R.; Saldana, L.; Seilhan, B. S.; Sharma, R.; Stemen, N. T.; Surukuchi, P. T.; Thompson, S. J.; Varner, R. L.; Wang, W.; Watson, S. M.; White, B.; White, C.; Wilhelmi, J.; Williams, C.; Wise, T.; Yao, H.; Yen, Y. -R.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the background fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.

  5. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  6. Automated video screening for unattended background monitoring in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A threat of specific interest to this project is the covert placement and subsequent remote detonation of bombs (e.g., briefcase bombs) inside crowded public facilities. Different from existing video motion detection systems, the video-screening technology described in this report is capable of detecting changes in the static background of an otherwise, dynamic environment - environments where motion and human activities are persistent. Our goal was to quickly detect changes in the background - even under conditions when the background is visible to the camera less than 5% of the time. Instead of subtracting the background to detect movement or changes in a scene, we subtracted the dynamic scene variations to produce an estimate of the static background. Subsequent comparisons of static background estimates are used to detect changes in the background. Detected changes can be used to alert security forces of the presence and location of potential threats. The results of this research are summarized in two MS Power-point presentations included with this report.

  7. Initial Beta-Gamma Nuclear Detector Background Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Matthew W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Haas, Derek A.; Hayes, James C.

    2011-09-12

    Detection of underground nuclear explosions and, more recently, nuclear reactor events is of great national interest. These measurements are most often made by determining the concentration of radioactive noble gases in the atmosphere. Currently there are several ground-based systems capable of making radioxenon gas measurements. The measurement is often close to the detection limit, so understanding the parameters and features that limit the measurement is very important. A preliminary study of the detection limit has been performed using a ?-? Quad detector designed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The initial study has concentrated on the measuring the ambient radioactive background. By making several background measurements while varying the detector, shielding it is possible to identify whether the ambient background is internal or external to the detector. Furthermore, internal background contributions can be potentially reduced by selecting alternative low-background materials, while external background can be reduced by increasing the active or passive shielding present. By reducing the background contributions, it is possible to improve the detection limit and therefore the likelihood of positively identifying a nuclear test.

  8. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic...

  9. Reduction of background clutter in structured lighting systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.; Davidson, Jr., Patrick A.; Novick, David K.; Wilson, Christopher W.

    2010-06-22

    Methods for segmenting the reflected light of an illumination source having a characteristic wavelength from background illumination (i.e. clutter) in structured lighting systems can comprise pulsing the light source used to illuminate a scene, pulsing the light source synchronously with the opening of a shutter in an imaging device, estimating the contribution of background clutter by interpolation of images of the scene collected at multiple spectral bands not including the characteristic wavelength and subtracting the estimated background contribution from an image of the scene comprising the wavelength of the light source and, placing a polarizing filter between the imaging device and the scene, where the illumination source can be polarized in the same orientation as the polarizing filter. Apparatus for segmenting the light of an illumination source from background illumination can comprise an illuminator, an image receiver for receiving images of multiple spectral bands, a processor for calculations and interpolations, and a polarizing filter.

  10. Simulation of PEP-II Accelerator Backgrounds Using TURTLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, R.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kozanecki, W.; Majewski, S.A.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2006-02-15

    We present studies of accelerator-induced backgrounds in the BaBar detector at the SLAC B-Factory, carried out using LPTURTLE, a modified version of the DECAY TURTLE simulation package. Lost-particle backgrounds in PEP-II are dominated by a combination of beam-gas bremstrahlung, beam-gas Coulomb scattering, radiative-Bhabha events and beam-beam blow-up. The radiation damage and detector occupancy caused by the associated electromagnetic shower debris can limit the usable luminosity. In order to understand and mitigate such backgrounds, we have performed a full program of beam-gas and luminosity-background simulations, that include the effects of the detector solenoidal field, detailed modeling of limiting apertures in both collider rings, and optimization of the betatron collimation scheme in the presence of large transverse tails.

  11. Higgs boson production at hadron colliders: Signal and background processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Rainwater; Michael Spira; Dieter Zeppenfeld

    2004-01-12

    We review the theoretical status of signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at hadron colliders. Particular emphasis is given to missing NLO results, which will play a crucial role for the Tevatron and the LHC.

  12. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  13. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ashenfelter, J.; Yeh, M.; Balantekin, B.; Baldenegro, C. X.; Band, H. R.; Barclay, G.; Bass, C. D.; Berish, D.; Bowden, N. S.; Bryan, C. D.; et al

    2015-10-23

    Research reactors host a wide range of activities that make use of the intense neutron fluxes generated at these facilities. Recent interest in performing measurements with relatively low event rates, e.g. reactor antineutrino detection, at these facilities necessitates a detailed understanding of background radiation fields. Both reactor-correlated and naturally occurring background sources are potentially important, even at levels well below those of importance for typical activities. Here we describe a comprehensive series of background assessments at three high-power research reactors, including γ-ray, neutron, and muon measurements. For each facility we describe the characteristics and identify the sources of the backgroundmore » fields encountered. Furthermore, the general understanding gained of background production mechanisms and their relationship to facility features will prove valuable for the planning of any sensitive measurement conducted therein.« less

  14. Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Power Spectrum of the 2500-square degree SPT-SZ Survey Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraints on Cosmology from the Cosmic Microwave Background Power Spectrum of ...

  15. Upper Limit on the Cosmological Gamma-ray Background (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gamma-ray Background Citation Details In-Document ... Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15845 arXiv:1206.2923 DOE Contract Number: AC02-76SF00515 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  16. No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Man-Made Radioactivity For Los Alamos area No increase in background, manmade radioactivity for Los Alamos area Two aerial flyovers found that radioisotopes and their associated exposure rates are consistent with those expected from normal background radiation. March 19, 2013 High southwest aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory (left) and Los Alamos townsite (middle and right). High southwest aerial view of Los Alamos National Laboratory (left) and Los Alamos townsite (middle and right).

  17. Sigma Mesa: Background elemental concentrations in soil and vegetation, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S.; Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1990-10-01

    In 1979, soil and vegetation samples were collected on Sigma Mesa to provide background data before construction on the mesa. Elemental data are presented for soil, grass, juniper, pinon pine, and oak. None of the data looks out of the ordinary. The purpose of the sampling program was to acquire, before any disturbance, a set of data to be used as background for future impact analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing Background: Today's Solyndra Solar Hearing September 14, 2011 - 12:04am Addthis Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of Public Affairs This morning, the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations is holding a hearing to discuss Solyndra Solar, the California-based solar manufacturer that declared bankruptcy last week. Jonathan Silver, Executive Director of the Department's Loan Programs Office, will be

  19. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans | Department of Energy Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Report is part of a larger, programmatic effort to assist federal agencies in taking action and changing their institutions to achieve and

  20. Home Energy Score Research and Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Background Home Energy Score Research and Background With the goal of addressing the significant, and yet untapped, potential for saving energy in existing homes, the U.S. Department of Energy, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, developed the Home Energy Score as a low cost and reliable method for estimating the energy use of a home and motivating investment in efficiency improvements. The Home Energy Score

  1. Ion Beam Neutralization by a Tenuous Background Plasma ---- Inventors Igor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Kaganovich and William Berdanier | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Ion Beam Neutralization by a Tenuous Background Plasma ---- Inventors Igor Kaganovich and William Berdanier The neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons form the basis for a wide range of applications for accelerators, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. This invention shows that for intense ion beam pulses, a background plasma with a low relative density can be used to effectively

  2. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    glossary] (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary] × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy

  3. BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO October 27, 1989 Prepared for: U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program Prepared by: R.F. Weston/Office of Technical Services BACKGROUND REVIEW OF THE BRUSH BERYLLIUM AND DIAMOND MAGNESIUM PLANTS IN LUCKEY, OHIO INTRODUCTION The Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a program to identify and examine the radiological conditions at sites used in the early years of nuclear

  4. Reducing 68Ge Background in Dark Matter Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-03-01

    Experimental searches for dark matter include experiments with sub-0.5 keV-energy threshold high purity germanium detectors. Experimental efforts, in partnership with the CoGeNT Collaboration operating at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, are focusing on energy threshold reduction via noise abatement, reduction of backgrounds from cosmic ray generated isotopes, and ubiquitous environmental radioactive sources. The most significant cosmic ray produced radionuclide is 68Ge. This paper evaluates reducing this background by freshly mining and processing germanium ore. The most probable outcome is a reduction of the background by a factor of two, and at most a factor of four. A very cost effective alternative is to obtain processed Ge as soon as possible and store it underground for 18 months.

  5. Assessment of Radiation Background Variation for Moving Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, James Christopher; Rennie, John Alan; Toevs, James Waldo; Wallace, Darrin J.; Abhold, Mark Edward

    2015-07-13

    The introduction points out that radiation backgrounds fluctuate across very short distances: factors include geology, soil composition, altitude, building structures, topography, and other manmade structures; and asphalt and concrete can vary significantly over short distances. Brief descriptions are given of the detection system, experimental setup, and background variation measurements. It is concluded that positive and negative gradients can greatly reduce the detection sensitivity of an MDS: negative gradients create opportunities for false negatives (nondetection), and positive gradients create a potentially unacceptable FAR (above 1%); the location of use for mobile detection is important to understand; spectroscopic systems provide more information for screening out false alarms and may be preferred for mobile use; and mobile monitor testing at LANL accounts for expected variations in the background.

  6. Reducing backgrounds in the higgs factory muon collider detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.

    2014-06-01

    A preliminary design of the 125-GeV Higgs Factory (HF) Muon Collider (MC) has identified an enormous background loads on the HF detector. This is related to the twelve times higher muon decay probability at HF compared to that previously studied for the 1.5-TeV MC. As a result of MARS15 optimization studies, it is shown that with a carefully designed protection system in the interaction region, in the machine-detector interface and inside the detector one can reduce the background rates to a manageable level similar to that achieved for the optimized 1.5-TeV case. The main characteristics of the HF detector background are presented for the configuration found.

  7. Bounds on gravitational wave backgrounds from large distance clock comparisons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynaud, S.; Lamine, B.; Duchayne, L.; Wolf, P.; Jaekel, M.-T.

    2008-06-15

    Our space-time is filled with gravitational wave backgrounds that constitute a fluctuating environment created by astrophysical and cosmological sources. Bounds on these backgrounds are obtained from cosmological and astrophysical data but also by analysis of ranging and Doppler signals from distant spacecraft. We propose here a new way to set bounds on those backgrounds by performing clock comparisons between a ground clock and a remote spacecraft equipped with an ultrastable clock, rather than only ranging to an on-board transponder. This technique can then be optimized as a function of the signal to be measured and the dominant noise sources, leading to significant improvements on present bounds in a promising frequency range where different theoretical models are competing. We illustrate our approach using the SAGAS project which aims to fly an ultrastable optical clock in the outer solar system.

  8. Massive graviton on arbitrary background: derivation, syzygies, applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Laura; Deffayet, Cédric; Strauss, Mikael von

    2015-06-23

    We give the detailed derivation of the fully covariant form of the quadratic action and the derived linear equations of motion for a massive graviton in an arbitrary background metric (which were presented in arXiv:1410.8302 [hep-th]). Our starting point is the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley (dRGT) family of ghost free massive gravities and using a simple model of this family, we are able to express this action and these equations of motion in terms of a single metric in which the graviton propagates, hence removing in particular the need for a “reference metric' which is present in the non perturbative formulation. We show further how 5 covariant constraints can be obtained including one which leads to the tracelessness of the graviton on flat space-time and removes the Boulware-Deser ghost. This last constraint involves powers and combinations of the curvature of the background metric. The 5 constraints are obtained for a background metric which is unconstrained, i.e. which does not have to obey the background field equations. We then apply these results to the case of Einstein space-times, where we show that the 5 constraints become trivial, and Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-times, for which we correct in particular some results that appeared elsewhere. To reach our results, we derive several non trivial identities, syzygies, involving the graviton fields, its derivatives and the background metric curvature. These identities have their own interest. We also discover that there exist backgrounds for which the dRGT equations cannot be unambiguously linearized.

  9. ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Engineering Services The Network OSCARS Fasterdata IPv6 Network IPv6 Implementation Checklist ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers ESnet IPv6 History ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Network Performance Tools The ESnet Engineering Team Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net

  10. Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    CARLSBAD, N.M., May 18, 2011 – New Mexico State University's Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth's surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project's first two years of experimentation.

  11. Observation of objects under intense plasma background illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buzhinsky, R. O.; Savransky, V. V.; Zemskov, K. I.; Isaev, A. A.; Buzhinsky, O. I.

    2010-12-15

    Experiments on the observation of a brightness-amplified image of an object through a masking arc discharge are presented. The copper-vapor laser active medium was used as an image brightness amplifier. It is shown that the image quality does not worsen under plasma background illumination.

  12. The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooper, Dan; Belikov, Alexander V.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Linden, Tim; Profumo, Stefano; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2012-11-01

    Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.

  13. Issue Backgrounder : Downstream Fish Migration : Improving the Odds of Survival.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1985-05-01

    Background information is given on the problems caused to anadromous fish migrations, especially salmon and steelhead trout, by the development of hydroelectric power dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Programs arising out of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and conservation Act of 1980 to remedy these problems and restore fish and wildlife populations are described. (ACR)

  14. Low Background Signal Readout Electronics for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guinn, Ian; Rielage, Keith Robert; Elliott, Steven Ray; Xu, Wenqin; Goett, John Jerome III

    2015-06-11

    The MAJORANA Collaboration will seek neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in 76Ge using isotopically enriched p-type point contact (PPC) high purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A tonne-scale array of HPGe detectors would require background levels below 1 count/ROI-tonne-year in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039 keV Q-value of the decay. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of such an experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, a 40 kg HPGe detector array, is being constructed. The DEMONSTRATOR has a background goal of < 3 counts/ROI-tonne-year, which is expected to scale down to < 1 count/ROI-tonne-year for a one tonne experiment. The signal readout electronics, which must be placed in close proximity to the detectors, present a challenge toward reaching this background goal. This paper discusses the materials and design used to construct signal readout electronics with low enough backgrounds for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR.

  15. Virasoro conformal blocks and thermality from classical background fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.

    2015-11-30

    We show that in 2d CFTs at large central charge, the coupling of the stress tensor to heavy operators can be re-absorbed by placing the CFT in a non-trivial background metric. This leads to a more precise computation of the Virasoro conformal blocks between heavy and light operators, which are shown to be equivalent to global conformal blocks evaluated in the new background. We also generalize to the case where the operators carry U(1) charges. The refined Virasoro blocks can be used as the seed for a new Virasoro block recursion relation expanded in the heavy-light limit. Furthermore, we commentmore » on the implications of our results for the universality of black hole thermality in AdS3 , or equivalently, the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis for CFT2 at large central charge.« less

  16. Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram E-mail: ramyb@bgu.ac.il

    2010-09-01

    We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection.

  17. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  18. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, R.L.; Ambrose, W.P.; Demas, J.N.; Goodwin, P.M.; Johnson, M.E.; Keller, R.A.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, M.

    1998-10-27

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region. 6 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affleck, Rhett L.; Ambrose, W. Patrick; Demas, James N.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Johnson, Mitchell E.; Keller, Richard A.; Petty, Jeffrey T.; Schecker, Jay A.; Wu, Ming

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  20. NNSA to Conduct Background Radiation Testing | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) to Conduct Background Radiation Testing July 20, 2015 The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) under the Nuclear Incident Response Team (NIRT) program will be sponsoring an Aerial Measuring System (AMS) WINGS exercise July 20 - 24, 2015 in conjunction with the national level exercise Southern Exposure to be held in Florence, SC. Local, state and federal agencies will participate in an interoperability exercise

  1. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1986-03-04

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle. 8 figs.

  2. Anisotropies in the gravitational-wave stochastic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ölmez, S.; Mandic, V.; Siemens, X. E-mail: mandic@physics.umn.edu

    2012-07-01

    We consider anisotropies in the stochastic background of gravitational-waves (SBGW) arising from random fluctuations in the number of gravitational-wave sources. We first develop the general formalism which can be applied to different cosmological or astrophysical scenarios. We then apply this formalism to calculate the anisotropies of SBGW associated with the fluctuations in the number of cosmic string loops, considering both cosmic string cusps and kinks. We calculate the anisotropies as a function of angle and frequency.

  3. RESOLVING THE RADIO SOURCE BACKGROUND: DEEPER UNDERSTANDING THROUGH CONFUSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condon, J. J.; Cotton, W. D.; Fomalont, E. B.; Kellermann, K. I.; Miller, N.; Perley, R. A.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Wall, J. V.

    2012-10-10

    We used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to image one primary beam area at 3 GHz with 8'' FWHM resolution and 1.0 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms noise near the pointing center. The P(D) distribution from the central 10 arcmin of this confusion-limited image constrains the count of discrete sources in the 1 < S({mu}Jy) < 10 range. At this level, the brightness-weighted differential count S {sup 2} n(S) is converging rapidly, as predicted by evolutionary models in which the faintest radio sources are star-forming galaxies; and Almost-Equal-To 96% of the background originating in galaxies has been resolved into discrete sources. About 63% of the radio background is produced by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the remaining 37% comes from star-forming galaxies that obey the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation and account for most of the FIR background at {lambda} Almost-Equal-To 160 {mu}m. Our new data confirm that radio sources powered by AGNs and star formation evolve at about the same rate, a result consistent with AGN feedback and the rough correlation of black hole and stellar masses. The confusion at centimeter wavelengths is low enough that neither the planned Square Kilometre Array nor its pathfinder ASKAP EMU survey should be confusion limited, and the ultimate source detection limit imposed by 'natural' confusion is {<=}0.01 {mu}Jy at {nu} = 1.4 GHz. If discrete sources dominate the bright extragalactic background reported by ARCADE 2 at 3.3 GHz, they cannot be located in or near galaxies and most are {<=}0.03 {mu}Jy at 1.4 GHz.

  4. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, John C.; Jett, James H.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser, which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  5. Apparatus for eliminating background interference in fluorescence measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, J.C.; Jett, J.H.

    1984-01-06

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for eliminating background interference during fluorescence measurements in a multiple laser flow cytometer. A biological particle stained with fluorescent dyes is excited by a laser. A fluorescence detector detects the fluorescence. The particle scatters light and a gate signal is generated and delayed until the biological particle reaches the next laser. The delayed signal turns on this next laser which excites a different stained component of the same biological particle.

  6. SolTrace Background | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolTrace Background Since the late 1980s, a number of different optical design codes have been developed at NREL for designing and modeling solar concentrating systems. Each of these codes was written to model a very specific optical geometry, and each one built upon the others in an evolutionary way. Examples of such codes include: OPTDSH, a code written to model circular aperture parabolic dish concentrators; ODMF, a code based on OPTDSH that modeled multifaceted parabolic dish concentrators;

  7. Low-background tracker development for SuperNEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mott, James [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [University College London, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Collaboration: SuperNEMO Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The SuperNEMO experiment will search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) with a target sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0?) > 10{sup 26} years, corresponding to an effective neutrino mass of 50-100 meV. At its heart there is a low-background gaseous tracking detector which allows for extremely efficient background rejection and, if 0??? is observed, may provide important insights into the mechanism via which it may be mediated. Radon inside the tracker, which can mimic rare ?? events, is one of the most dangerous backgrounds for SuperNEMO. To reach the target sensitivity the radon concentration inside the tracking volume must be < 0.15 mBq/m{sup 3}. To reach this challengingly-low level of radon, a considerable program of R and D has been undertaken. This includes automation of the tracker-wiring process, development of a dedicated setup to measure radon diffusion and a 'radon concentration line' which will be able to measure levels of radon in the ?Bq/m{sup 3} range.

  8. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-07-01

    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

  9. Real-Time Active Cosmic Neutron Background Reduction Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ronald; Mitchell, Stephen; Guss, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Neutron counting using large arrays of pressurized 3He proportional counters from an aerial system or in a maritime environment suffers from the background counts from the primary cosmic neutrons and secondary neutrons caused by cosmic ray-induced mechanisms like spallation and charge-exchange reaction. This paper reports the work performed at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews (RSL-A) and results obtained when using two different methods to reduce the cosmic neutron background in real time. Both methods used shielding materials with a high concentration (up to 30% by weight) of neutron-absorbing materials, such as natural boron, to remove the low-energy neutron flux from the cosmic background as the first step of the background reduction process. Our first method was to design, prototype, and test an up-looking plastic scintillator (BC-400, manufactured by Saint Gobain Corporation) to tag the cosmic neutrons and then create a logic pulse of a fixed time duration (~120 μs) to block the data taken by the neutron counter (pressurized 3He tubes running in a proportional counter mode). The second method examined the time correlation between the arrival of two successive neutron signals to the counting array and calculated the excess of variance (Feynman variance Y2F)1 in the neutron count distribution from Poisson distribution. The dilution of this variance from cosmic background values ideally would signal the presence of man-made neutrons.2 The first method has been technically successful in tagging the neutrons in the cosmic-ray flux and preventing them from being counted in the 3He tube array by electronic veto—field measurement work shows the efficiency of the electronic veto counter to be about 87%. The second method has successfully derived an empirical relationship between the percentile non-cosmic component in a neutron flux and the Y2F of the measured neutron count distribution. By using shielding materials alone, approximately 55% of the neutron flux

  10. Beaver County, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Frankfort Springs, Pennsylvania Freedom, Pennsylvania Georgetown, Pennsylvania Glasgow, Pennsylvania Harmony Township, Pennsylvania Homewood, Pennsylvania Hookstown,...

  11. Boralex Beaver Livermore Falls Biomass Facility | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MW 34,700 kW 34,700,000 W 34,700,000,000 mW 0.0347 GW Commercial Online Date 1992 Heat Rate (BTUkWh) 14308.9 References EPA Web Site1 Loading map......

  12. CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC INFRARED AND X-RAY BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS: EVIDENCE OF SIGNIFICANT BLACK HOLE POPULATIONS AMONG THE CIB SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Kashlinsky, A.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H.; Arendt, R. G.; Finoguenov, A.; Fazio, G. G.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.

    2013-05-20

    In order to understand the nature of the sources producing the recently uncovered cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations, we study cross-correlations between the fluctuations in the source-subtracted CIB from Spitzer/IRAC data and the unresolved cosmic X-ray background from deep Chandra observations. Our study uses data from the EGS/AEGIS field, where both data sets cover an {approx_equal} 8' Multiplication-Sign 45' region of the sky. Our measurement is the cross-power spectrum between the IR and X-ray data. The cross-power signal between the IRAC maps at 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m and the Chandra [0.5-2] keV data has been detected, at angular scales {approx}> 20'', with an overall significance of {approx_equal} 3.8{sigma} and {approx_equal} 5.6{sigma}, respectively. At the same time we find no evidence of significant cross-correlations at the harder Chandra bands. The cross-correlation signal is produced by individual IR sources with 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m magnitudes m{sub AB} {approx}> 25-26 and [0.5-2] keV X-ray fluxes <<7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We determine that at least 15%-25% of the large scale power of the CIB fluctuations is correlated with the spatial power spectrum of the X-ray fluctuations. If this correlation is attributed to emission from accretion processes at both IR and X-ray wavelengths, this implies a much higher fraction of accreting black holes than among the known populations. We discuss the various possible origins for the cross-power signal and show that neither local foregrounds nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations.

  13. Pion Form Factor in Improved Holographic QCD Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwee, Herry J.

    2010-08-05

    We extend our recent numerical calculation of the pion electromagnetic form factor F{sub {pi}}(Q{sup 2}) in holographic QCD with a background field that interpolates between 'hard-wall' and 'soft-wall' models to obtain an improved model that reproduces the desirable phenomenological features of both. In all cases, F{sub {pi}}for large Q{sup 2} is shallower than data, an effect that can be cured by relaxing the fit to one of the static observables, particularly the decay constant f{sub {pi}}.

  14. Search for Linear Polarization of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Lubin, P. M.; Smoot, G. F.

    1978-10-01

    We present preliminary measurements of the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background (3 deg K blackbody) radiation. These ground-based measurements are made at 9 mm wavelength. We find no evidence for linear polarization, and set an upper limit for a polarized component of 0.8 m deg K with a 95% confidence level. This implies that the present rate of expansion of the Universe is isotropic to one part in 10{sup 6}, assuming no re-ionization of the primordial plasma after recombination

  15. Exelon Generation Company, LLC Order No. EA-249 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Exelon Generation Company, LLC Order No. EA-249 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On August 20, 2001, Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. Exelon proposes to purchase surplus

  16. Central Plateau Principles Public Involvement Advice DETAILED BACKGROUND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    v0, 12/9/14 Central Plateau Principles Public Involvement Advice DETAILED BACKGROUND Cleanup of Hanford's Central Plateau is expected to take another four decades or longer, and cost tens of billions of dollars. The Central Plateau includes the 200 East and 200 West Areas with all of Hanford's High-Level Nuclear Waste Tank Farms, processing plants, sites where over a million gallons of High-Level Nuclear Waste has leaked from Single Shell Tanks (SSTs), and billions of gallons of waste was

  17. UBS AG, LONDON BRANCH Order No. EA-261 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On April 11, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from UBS AG, London Branch (UBS) for authorization to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico. UBS, a Swiss corporation formed in 1998 by the merger of Union Bank of

  18. UBS AG, LONDON BRANCH Order No. EA-263 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On April 11, 2002, the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) received an application from UBS, AG London Branch (UBS) for authorization to transmit electric energy from the Untied States to Mexico and to Canada. UBS, a Swiss corporation formed in 1998 by the merger of Union

  19. Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Gorenstein, M. V.; Smoot, G. F.

    1980-05-01

    We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (.089 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup 1�}. The measurements how clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360{+ or -}50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2{+ or -}0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+ or -}8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypotheses of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

  20. Threshold magnitudes for a multichannel correlation detector in background seismicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carmichael, Joshua D.; Hartse, Hans

    2016-04-01

    Colocated explosive sources often produce correlated seismic waveforms. Multichannel correlation detectors identify these signals by scanning template waveforms recorded from known reference events against "target" data to find similar waveforms. This screening problem is challenged at thresholds required to monitor smaller explosions, often because non-target signals falsely trigger such detectors. Therefore, it is generally unclear what thresholds will reliably identify a target explosion while screening non-target background seismicity. Here, we estimate threshold magnitudes for hypothetical explosions located at the North Korean nuclear test site over six months of 2010, by processing International Monitoring System (IMS) array data with a multichannelmore » waveform correlation detector. Our method (1) accounts for low amplitude background seismicity that falsely triggers correlation detectors but is unidentifiable with conventional power beams, (2) adapts to diurnally variable noise levels and (3) uses source-receiver reciprocity concepts to estimate thresholds for explosions spatially separated from the template source. Furthermore, we find that underground explosions with body wave magnitudes mb = 1.66 are detectable at the IMS array USRK with probability 0.99, when using template waveforms consisting only of P -waves, without false alarms. We conservatively find that these thresholds also increase by up to a magnitude unit for sources located 4 km or more from the Feb.12, 2013 announced nuclear test.« less

  1. Measurements of Worldwide Radioxenon Backgrounds - The "EU" Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Forrester, Joel B.; Haas, Derek A.; Hansen, Randy R.; Keller, Paul E.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Lidey, Lance S.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Payne, Rosara F.; Saey, Paul R.; Thompson, Robert C.; Woods, Vincent T.; Williams, Richard M.

    2009-09-24

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), radioactive xenon (radioxenon) measurements are one of the principle techniques used to detect nuclear underground nuclear explosions, and specifically, the presence of one or more radioxenon isotopes allows one to determine whether a suspected event was a nuclear explosion or originated from an innocent source. During the design of the International Monitoring System (IMS), which was designed as the verification mechanism for the Treaty, it was determined that radioxenon measurements should be performed at 40 or more stations worldwide. At the time of the design of the IMS, however, very few details about the background of the xenon isotopes was known and it is now recognized that the backgrounds were probably evolving anyhow. This paper lays out the beginning of a study of the worldwide concentrations of xenon isotopes that can be used to detect nuclear explosions and several sources that also release radioxenons, and will have to be accounted for during analysis of atmospheric levels. Although the global concentrations of the xenon isotopes are the scope of a much larger activity that could span over several years, this study measures radioxenon concentrations in locations where there was either very little information or there was a unique opportunity to learn more about emissions from known sources. The locations where radioxenon levels were measured and reported are included.

  2. Surface backgrounds in the DEAP-3600 dark matter experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, B.; Boulay, M.; Pollmann, T.; Cleveland, B.

    2011-04-27

    DEAP-3600 is a dark matter experiment using 3.6 tons of liquid argon to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), with a target sensitivity to the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-section of 10{sup -46} cm{sup 2}. The detector is designed to allow for a three year background-free run with a 1-ton fiducial volume. We identify in this paper the potential sources of surface contamination. We require {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contaminations on the order of 10{sup -12} g/g or less, a level achieved by the SNO experiment, and {sup 210}Pb not significantly out of equilibrium with {sup 238}U, i.e., 10{sup -20} g/g or less {sup 210}Pb in the acrylic vessel or TPB wavelength shifter, which should be achievable with appropriate control of exposure to radon.

  3. Intersecting nonextreme p-branes and linear dilaton background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.-M.; Gal'tsov, Dmitri V.; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2005-08-15

    We construct the general static solution to the supergravity action containing gravity, the dilaton and a set of antisymmetric forms describing the intersecting branes delocalized in the relative transverse dimensions. The solution is obtained by reducing the system to a set of separate Liouville equations (the intersection rules implying the separability); it contains the maximal number of free parameters corresponding to the rank of the differential equations. Imposing the requirement of the absence of naked singularities, we show that the general configurations are restricted to two and only two classes: the usual asymptotically flat intersecting branes, and the intersecting branes some of which are asymptotically flat and some approach the linear dilaton background at infinity. In both cases the configurations are black. These are supposed to be relevant for the description of the thermal phase of the QFT's in the corresponding Domain-Wall/QFT duality.

  4. Plasma tomographic reconstruction from tangentially viewing camera with background subtraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odstr?il, M.; Mlyn?, J.; Weinzettl, V.; H?ek, P.; Verdoolaege, G.; Berta, M.

    2014-01-15

    Light reflections are one of the main and often underestimated issues of plasma emissivity reconstruction in visible light spectral range. Metallic and other specular components of tokamak generate systematic errors in the optical measurements that could lead to wrong interpretation of data. Our analysis is performed at data from the tokamak COMPASS. It is a D-shaped tokamak with specular metallic vessel and possibility of the H-mode plasma. Data from fast visible light camera were used for tomographic reconstruction with background reflections subtraction to study plasma boundary. In this article, we show that despite highly specular tokamak wall, it is possible to obtain a realistic reconstruction. The developed algorithm shows robust results despite of systematic errors in the optical measurements and calibration. The motivation is to obtain an independent estimate of the plasma boundary shape.

  5. New measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, J.B.; Richards, P.L.; Bonomo, J.L.; Timusk, T.

    1984-06-01

    Accurate measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) can provide useful tests of cosmological theories. The data set existing in 1982 has been summarized on a number of occasions and is shown. To first approximation the CMB is characterized by a single temperature and thus has a blackbody spectrum over the frequency range from 0.02 to 24 cm/sup -1/. The error limits given for these experiments are dominated by systematic errors and are often very subjective. Consequently, it is not clear how to analyze the data set in a valid way. The general impression, however, is of a scatter in the high frequency data that is somewhat larger than would be expected from the given error limits. We have designed a new apparatus to measure the spectrum of the CMB in the frequency range from 3 to 10 cm/sup -1/. 13 references, 5 figures.

  6. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Roussel-Dupre', Diane; Smith, Barham W.

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  7. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  8. THE COSMIC NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND. II. FLUCTUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Elizabeth R.; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Shapiro, Paul R.; Iliev, Ilian T.

    2010-02-20

    The near-infrared background (NIRB) is one of a few methods that can be used to observe the redshifted light from early stars at a redshift of 6 and above, and thus it is imperative to understand the significance of any detection or nondetection of the NIRB. Fluctuations of the NIRB can provide information on the first structures, such as halos and their surrounding ionized regions in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We combine, for the first time, N-body simulations, radiative transfer code, and analytic calculations of luminosity of early structures to predict the angular power spectrum (C{sub l} ) of fluctuations in the NIRB. We study in detail the effects of various assumptions about the stellar mass, the initial mass spectrum of stars, the metallicity, the star formation efficiency (f{sub *}), the escape fraction of ionizing photons (f{sub esc}), and the star formation timescale (t{sub SF}), on the amplitude as well as the shape of C{sub l} . The power spectrum of NIRB fluctuations is maximized when f{sub *} is the largest (as C{sub l} {proportional_to} f {sup 2}{sub *}) and f{sub esc} is the smallest (as more nebular emission is produced within halos). A significant uncertainty in the predicted amplitude of C{sub l} exists due to our lack of knowledge of t{sub SF} of these early populations of galaxies, which is equivalent to our lack of knowledge of the mass-to-light ratio of these sources. We do not see a turnover in the NIRB angular power spectrum of the halo contribution, which was claimed to exist in the literature, and explain this as the effect of high levels of nonlinear bias that was ignored in the previous calculations. This is partly due to our choice of the minimum mass of halos contributing to NIRB ({approx}2 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}), and a smaller minimum mass, which has a smaller nonlinear bias, may still exhibit a turnover. Therefore, our results suggest that both the amplitude and shape of the NIRB power spectrum provide important information

  9. Experiments with background gas in a vacuum arc centrifuge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.

    1996-04-01

    Since promising isotope separation results were first reported by Krishnan et al. in 1981, a range of vacuum arc centrifuge experiments have been conducted in laboratories around the world. The PCEN (Plasma CENtrifuge) vacuum arc centrifuge at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research has been used for isotope separation studies with cathode materials of carbon and magnesium and also to investigate the performance in terms of the rotational velocity attained for different cathode materials. Here, a vacuum arc centrifuge has been operated with an initial filling gas of either argon or hydrogen for pressures ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 10{sup {minus}1} Pa. The angular velocity {omega} of the plasma has been determined by cross-correlating the signals from potential probes, and the electron temperature T has been deduced from Langmuir probe data. At high gas pressures and early times during the 14 ms plasma lifetime, high-frequency nonuniformities frequently observed in the vacuum discharge disappear, suggesting that the associated instability is suppressed. Under the same conditions, nonuniformities rotating with much lower angular velocities are observed in the plasma. Temperatures are reduced in the presence of the background gas, and the theoretical figure of merit for separation proportional to {omega}{sup 2}/T is increased compared to its value in the vacuum discharge for both argon and hydrogen gas fillings.

  10. Background analysis and status of the ANAIS dark matter project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2015-08-17

    ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) is a project aiming to set up at the new facilities of the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), a large scale NaI(Tl) experiment in order to explore the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation positive result using the same target and technique. Two 12.5 kg each NaI(Tl) crystals provided by Alpha Spectra took data at the LSC in the ANAIS-25 set-up. The comparison of the background model for the ANAIS-25 prototypes with the experimental results is presented. ANAIS crystal radiopurity goals have been achieved for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U chains, but a {sup 210}Pb contamination out-of-equilibrium was identified, whose origin has been studied. The high light collection efficiency obtained with these prototypes allows to anticipate an energy threshold of the order of 1 keVee. A new detector, with improved performances, was received in March 2015 and very preliminary results are shown.

  11. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, D.R.; Notestein, J.E.

    1985-01-04

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interfering blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  12. Optical emission line monitor with background observation and cancellation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goff, David R.; Notestein, John E.

    1986-01-01

    A fiber optics based optical emission line monitoring system is provided in which selected spectral emission lines, such as the sodium D-line emission in coal combustion, may be detected in the presence of interferring background or blackbody radiation with emissions much greater in intensity than that of the emission line being detected. A bifurcated fiber optic light guide is adapted at the end of one branch to view the combustion light which is guided to a first bandpass filter, adapted to the common trunk end of the fiber. A portion of the light is reflected back through the common trunk portion of the fiber to a second bandpass filter adapted to the end of the other branch of the fiber. The first filter bandpass is centered at a wavelength corresponding to the emission line to be detected with a bandwidth of about three nanometers (nm). The second filter is centered at the same wavelength but having a width of about 10 nm. First and second light detectors are located to view the light passing through the first and second filters respectively. Thus, the second detector is blind to the light corresponding to the emission line of interest detected by the first detector and the difference between the two detector outputs is uniquely indicative of the intensity of only the combustion flame emission of interest. This instrument can reduce the effects of interferring blackbody radiation by greater than 20 dB.

  13. Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: background tests and thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Graef, L.L.; Pavn, D.; Basilakos, Spyros E-mail: leilagraef@usp.br E-mail: svasil@academyofathens.gr

    2014-10-01

    A cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, it is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the GibbonsHawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current 'quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.

  14. Spectral characteristics of background error covariance and multiscale data assimilation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Zhijin; Cheng, Xiaoping; Gustafson, Jr., William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.

    2016-05-17

    The steady increase of the spatial resolutions of numerical atmospheric and oceanic circulation models has occurred over the past decades. Horizontal grid spacing down to the order of 1 km is now often used to resolve cloud systems in the atmosphere and sub-mesoscale circulation systems in the ocean. These fine resolution models encompass a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, across which dynamical and statistical properties vary. In particular, dynamic flow systems at small scales can be spatially localized and temporarily intermittent. Difficulties of current data assimilation algorithms for such fine resolution models are numerically and theoretically examined. Ourmore » analysis shows that the background error correlation length scale is larger than 75 km for streamfunctions and is larger than 25 km for water vapor mixing ratios, even for a 2-km resolution model. A theoretical analysis suggests that such correlation length scales prevent the currently used data assimilation schemes from constraining spatial scales smaller than 150 km for streamfunctions and 50 km for water vapor mixing ratios. Moreover, our results highlight the need to fundamentally modify currently used data assimilation algorithms for assimilating high-resolution observations into the aforementioned fine resolution models. Lastly, within the framework of four-dimensional variational data assimilation, a multiscale methodology based on scale decomposition is suggested and challenges are discussed.« less

  15. Gravitational wave background from Standard Model physics: qualitative features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghiglieri, J.; Laine, M.

    2015-07-16

    Because of physical processes ranging from microscopic particle collisions to macroscopic hydrodynamic fluctuations, any plasma in thermal equilibrium emits gravitational waves. For the largest wavelengths the emission rate is proportional to the shear viscosity of the plasma. In the Standard Model at T>160 GeV, the shear viscosity is dominated by the most weakly interacting particles, right-handed leptons, and is relatively large. We estimate the order of magnitude of the corresponding spectrum of gravitational waves. Even though at small frequencies (corresponding to the sub-Hz range relevant for planned observatories such as eLISA) this background is tiny compared with that from non-equilibrium sources, the total energy carried by the high-frequency part of the spectrum is non-negligible if the production continues for a long time. We suggest that this may constrain (weakly) the highest temperature of the radiation epoch. Observing the high-frequency part directly sets a very ambitious goal for future generations of GHz-range detectors.

  16. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background ...

  17. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  18. Binary electrokinetic separation of target DNA from background DNA primers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Conrad D.; Derzon, Mark Steven

    2005-10-01

    This report contains the summary of LDRD project 91312, titled ''Binary Electrokinetic Separation of Target DNA from Background DNA Primers''. This work is the first product of a collaboration with Columbia University and the Northeast BioDefense Center of Excellence. In conjunction with Ian Lipkin's lab, we are developing a technique to reduce false positive events, due to the detection of unhybridized reporter molecules, in a sensitive and multiplexed detection scheme for nucleic acids developed by the Lipkin lab. This is the most significant problem in the operation of their capability. As they are developing the tools for rapidly detecting the entire panel of hemorrhagic fevers this technology will immediately serve an important national need. The goal of this work was to attempt to separate nucleic acid from a preprocessed sample. We demonstrated the preconcentration of kilobase-pair length double-stranded DNA targets, and observed little preconcentration of 60 base-pair length single-stranded DNA probes. These objectives were accomplished in microdevice formats that are compatible with larger detection systems for sample pre-processing. Combined with Columbia's expertise, this technology would enable a unique, fast, and potentially compact method for detecting/identifying genetically-modified organisms and multiplexed rapid nucleic acid identification. Another competing approach is the DARPA funded IRIS Pharmaceutical TIGER platform which requires many hours for operation, and an 800k$ piece of equipment that fills a room. The Columbia/SNL system could provide a result in 30 minutes, at the cost of a few thousand dollars for the platform, and would be the size of a shoebox or smaller.

  19. Spectral Characteristics of Background Error Covariance and Multiscale Data Assimilation: Background Error Covariance and Multiscale Data Assimilation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Zhijin; Cheng, Xiaoping; Gustafson, William I.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.

    2016-05-17

    The steady increase of the spatial resolutions of numerical atmospheric and oceanic circulation models has occurred over the past decades. Horizontal grid spacing down to the order of 1 km is now often used to resolve cloud systems in the atmosphere and sub-mesoscale circulation systems in the ocean. These fine resolution models encompass a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, across which dynamical and statistical properties vary. In particular, dynamic flow systems at small scales can be spatially localized and temporarily intermittent. Difficulties of current data assimilation algorithms for such fine resolution models are numerically and theoretically examined. Ourmore » analysis shows that the background error correlation length scale is larger than 75 km for streamfunctions and is larger than 25 km for water vapor mixing ratios, even for a 2-km resolution model. A theoretical analysis suggests that such correlation length scales prevent the currently used data assimilation schemes from constraining spatial scales smaller than 150 km for streamfunctions and 50 km for water vapor mixing ratios. Moreover, our results highlight the need to fundamentally modify currently used data assimilation algorithms for assimilating high-resolution observations into the aforementioned fine resolution models. Within the framework of four-dimensional variational data assimilation, a multiscale methodology based on scale decomposition is suggested and challenges are discussed.« less

  20. Basin-Scale Opportunity Assessment Initiative Background Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saulsbury, Bo; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-10-01

    As called for in the March 24, 2010, Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), environmental stakeholders, and the hydropower industry are collaborating to identify opportunities to simultaneously increase electricity generation and improve environmental services in river basins of the United States. New analytical tools provide an improved ability to understand, model, and visualize environmental and hydropower systems. Efficiencies and opportunities that might not be apparent in site-by-site analyses can be revealed through assessments at the river-basin scale. Information from basin-scale assessments could lead to better coordination of existing hydropower projects, or to inform siting decisions (e.g., balancing the removal of some dams with the construction of others), in order to meet renewable energy production and environmental goals. Basin-scale opportunity assessments would inform energy and environmental planning and address the cumulative effects of hydropower development and operations on river basin environmental quality in a way that quantifies energy-environment tradeoffs. Opportunity assessments would create information products, develop scenarios, and identify specific actions that agencies, developers, and stakeholders can take to locate new sustainable hydropower projects, increase the efficiency and environmental performance of existing projects, and restore and protect environmental quality in our nation's river basins. Government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGO) have done significant work to understand and assess opportunities for both hydropower and environmental protection at the basin scale. Some initiatives have been successful, others less so, and there is a need to better understand the legacy of work on which this current project can build. This background literature review is intended to

  1. A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ABUNDANCE Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A JOINT MODEL OF X-RAY AND INFRARED BACKGROUNDS. II. ...

  2. 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil June 23, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis ...

  3. Systematic Assessment of Neutron and Gamma Backgrounds Relevant to Operational Modeling and Detection Technology Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Daniel E.; Hornback, Donald Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Nicholson, Andrew D.; Patton, Bruce W.; Peplow, Douglas E.; Miller, Thomas Martin; Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a two year effort to systematically assess neutron and gamma backgrounds relevant to operational modeling and detection technology implementation. The first year effort focused on reviewing the origins of background sources and their impact on measured rates in operational scenarios of interest. The second year has focused on the assessment of detector and algorithm performance as they pertain to operational requirements against the various background sources and background levels.

  4. Establishment of a Background Environmental Monitoring Station for the PNNL Campus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2014-12-18

    The environmental surveillance of background levels of radionuclides and, in particular, the siting of a background environmental surveillance (monitoring) station are examined. Many published works identify and stress the need for background monitoring; however, little definitive and comprehensive information for siting a station exists. A definition of an ideal background monitoring location and the generic criteria recommended for use in establishing such a background monitoring location are proposed. There are seven primary (mandatory) criteria described with two additional, optional criteria. The criteria are applied to the Richland, Washington (WA), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Campus, which currently uses background monitoring data from the nearby Hanford Site. Eleven potential background monitoring sites were identified, with one location in Benton City, WA found to meet all of the mandatory and optional criteria. It is expected that the new sampler will be installed and operating by the end of June, 2015.

  5. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Project Rulison :.Contract: . . AEC, Austral Oil Company, and CER Geonuclear Corporation, ... DEPARTMENT. OF THE INTERIOR and AUSTRAL OIL COMPANY INCORPORATED and CER GEONUCLEAR ...

  6. Background F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F rom 1951 to 1992, the United States government conducted 828 underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site. About one-third of these tests occurred near, below, or within the water tablethe very top portion of the groundwater layer where rock and soil are completely saturated with water. As a result, some groundwater was contaminated. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began exploring the effects of groundwater contamination in the 1970s. Though contamination from

  7. CAMD Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CAMD's Research Funding Impact CAMD is a synchrotron facility supporting the science and engineering research of the LSU faculty as well as other State and Regional stakeholders. The output and productivity of CAMD is measured by that of the faculty and students that perform research and are trained at the facility. The LSU faculty users of CAMD are among the most productive researchers on the campus with a record of exemplary grantsmanship and research accomplishments. In order to assess the

  8. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... radionuclide, which is an About one week before trial, samples of gas isotope of hydrogen. ... Dr. Victor Bond, a medical doctor with a Ph.D. in medical physics, who is the Associate ...

  9. Legal Background

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... C o l l b r a n , Colorado TedIKathleen Smith C o l l b r a n , Colorado Aaron H & V i r ... a l l e y , Colorado Malcolm & Martha K. Smith Route i k l Grand V a l l e y , Colorado ...

  10. 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conference Call Regarding Oil | Department of Energy :30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil 10:30AM TODAY: Senior Administration Officials to Hold a Background Conference Call Regarding Oil June 23, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Today, Thursday, June 23 at 10:30AM ET, Senior Administration Officials will hold a background conference call regarding the ongoing oil supply disruptions in the Middle East and North Africa and the

  11. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  12. Dark soliton beats in the time-varying background of Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Lei; Li Lu; Zhang Jiefang

    2009-07-15

    We investigate the dynamics of dark solitons in one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. In the large particle limit, by introducing the lens-type transformation, we find that the macroscopic wave function evolves self-similarly when its initial profile strays from that of the equilibrium state, which provides a time-varying background for the propagation of dark solitons. The interaction of dark solitons with this kind of background is studied both analytically and numerically. We find that the center-of-mass motion of the dark soliton is deeply affected by the time-varying background, and the beating phenomena of dark soliton emerge when the intrinsic frequency of the dark soliton approaches that of the background. Lastly, we investigate the propagation of dark solitons in the freely expanding background.

  13. Development of criteria used to establish a background environmental monitoring station

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Snyder, Sandra F.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2015-03-02

    It is generally considered necessary to measure concentrations of contaminants-of-concern at a background location when conducting atmospheric environmental surveillance. This is because it is recognized that measurements of background concentrations can enhance interpretation of environmental monitoring data. Despite the recognized need for background measurements, there is little published guidance available that describes how to identify an appropriate atmospheric background monitoring location. This paper develops generic criteria that can guide the decision making process for identifying suitable locations for background atmospheric monitoring station. Detailed methods for evaluating some of these criteria are also provided and a case study for establishment ofmore » an atmospheric background surveillance station as part of an environmental surveillance program is described. While the case study focuses on monitoring for radionuclides, the approach is equally valid for any airborne constituent being monitored. The case study shows that implementation of the developed criteria can result in a good, defensible choice for a background atmospheric monitoring location.« less

  14. Resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion in vacuum and argon gas backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindley, R.A.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses the following on resonant holographic measurements of laser ablation plume expansion: Introduction to laser ablation; applications of laser ablation; The study of plume expansion; holographic interferometry; resonant holographic interferometry; accounting for finite laser bandwidth; The solution for doppler broadening and finite bandwidth; the main optical table; the lumonics laser spot shape; developing and reconstructing the holograms; plume expansion in RF/Plasma Environments; Determining {lambda}{sub o}; resonant refraction effects; fringe shift interpretation; shot-to-shot consistency; laser ablation in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; theoretically modeling plume expansion in vacuum and low pressure, inert, background gas; and laser ablation in higher pressure, inert, background gas.

  15. The number counts and infrared backgrounds from infrared-bright galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacking, P.B.; Soifer, B.T. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1991-02-01

    Extragalactic number counts and diffuse backgrounds at 25, 60, and 100 microns are predicted using new luminosity functions and improved spectral-energy distribution density functions derived from IRAS observations of nearby galaxies. Galaxies at redshifts z less than 3 that are like those in the local universe should produce a minimum diffuse background of 0.0085, 0.038, and 0.13 MJy/sr at 25, 60, and 100 microns, respectively. Models with significant luminosity evolution predict backgrounds about a factor of 4 greater than this minimum. 22 refs.

  16. Next-Generation Germanium Spectrometer Background Reduction Techniques at 2 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-04-01

    The Majorana project, a next-generation 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment being undertaken by a large international collaboration, has the goal of measuring the neutrinoless double-beta decay rate by observing monochromatic events at 2039 keV in 500 kg of isotopically enriched 76Ge gamma-ray spectrometers. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity limit, the background in the 2037-2041 keV region must be reduced to <1 event per year in the entire germanium array. The effects of various background reduction techniques, and the combination thereof, to produce a huge 76Ge spectrometer array with virtually zero background are discussed.

  17. PROBING THE COSMIC X-RAY AND MeV GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND RADIATION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THROUGH THE ANISOTROPY While the cosmic soft X-ray background is very likely to ... We propose that future measurements of the angular power spectra of anisotropy of the ...

  18. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray ...

  19. An upper bound from helioseismology on the stochastic background of gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Daniel M.; Roth, Markus

    2014-04-01

    The universe is expected to be permeated by a stochastic background of gravitational radiation of astrophysical and cosmological origin. This background is capable of exciting oscillations in solar-like stars. Here we show that solar-like oscillators can be employed as giant hydrodynamical detectors for such a background in the μHz to mHz frequency range, which has remained essentially unexplored until today. We demonstrate this approach by using high-precision radial velocity data for the Sun to constrain the normalized energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background around 0.11 mHz. These results open up the possibility for asteroseismic missions like CoRoT and Kepler to probe fundamental physics.

  20. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  1. DOE Data ID Service Background | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOE Data ID Service Background DataCite | Contact DOE Data ID Service In 2011, the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) joined DataCite to facilitate citing, ...

  2. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK INFORMATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ONLY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CRIMINAL BACKGROUND CHECK INFORMATION ENSURE DATA IS LEGIBLE AND COMPLETE, THIS FORM MUST BE COMPLETED BY APPLICANT LAST NAME: FIRST NAME, MIDDLE INITIAL: SSN: DOB: RACE: SEX: EYES: HT: WT: ADDRESS, CITY, AND ZIP: US CITIZENSHIP: YES NO DRIVER'S LICENSE NUMBER AND STATE OF ISSUE: AGE 18 OR OVER: YES NO EMPLOYER: Any Alias: I authorize the use of and release of my personal information to KIRTLAND AFB, NM, to accomplish a National criminal background check. I understand

  3. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  4. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    double-beta decay experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments Inelastic neutron scattering on Pb isotopes can result in {gamma} rays near the signature endpoint energy in a number of {beta}{beta} isotopes. In particular, there are

  5. Geochemistry of Background Sediment Samples at Technical Area 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric V. McDonald; Katherine Campbell; Patrick A. Longmire; Steven L. Reneau

    1998-11-01

    This report presents results of chemical analyses of 24 analytes in 16 background sediment samples collected from Ancho Canyon and Indio Canyon at Technical Area (TA) 39, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Preliminary upper tolerance limits (UTLS) for sediments are calculated from this data set but, because of the small sample size, these UTLs exceed the maximum values in the data set by up to 50'ZO and will require revision as more background sediment data are obtained.

  6. Luminosity distance for Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves propagating in a cosmological magnetic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R; Ferraro, Rafael E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2008-06-15

    Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves interacting with a static magnetic background in an expanding universe are studied. The non-linear character of Born-Infeld electrodynamics modifies the relation between the energy flux and the distance to the source, which gains a new dependence on the redshift that is governed by the background field. We compute the luminosity distance as a function of the redshift and compare with Maxwellian curves for supernovae type Ia.

  7. Cosmic microwave Background Map-making at the Petascale and Beyond |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Cosmic microwave Background Map-making at the Petascale and Beyond Authors: Sudarsan, R., Borrill, J., Cantalupo, C., Kisner, T., Madduri, K., Oliker, L., Simon, H., Zheng, Y. The analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations is a long-standing computational challenge, driven by the exponential growth in the size of the data sets being gathered. Since this growth is projected to continue for at least the next decade, it will be critical to

  8. Detection of Enhancement in Number Densities of Background Galaxies due to Magnification by Massive Galaxy Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, I.

    2015-10-06

    We present a detection of the enhancement in the number densities of background galaxies induced from lensing magnification and use it to test the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) inferred masses in a sample of 19 galaxy clusters with median redshift z?0.42 selected from the South Pole Telescope SPT-SZ survey. Two background galaxy populations are selected for this study through their photometric colours; they have median redshifts zmedian?0.9 (low-z background) and zmedian?1.8 (high-z background). Stacking these populations, we detect the magnification bias effect at 3.3? and 1.3? for the low- and high-z backgrounds, respectively. We fit NFW models simultaneously to all observed magnification bias profiles to estimate the multiplicative factor ? that describes the ratio of the weak lensing mass to the mass inferred from the SZE observable-mass relation. We further quantify systematic uncertainties in ? resulting from the photometric noise and bias, the cluster galaxy contamination and the estimations of the background properties. The resulting ? for the combined background populations with 1? uncertainties is 0.830.24(stat)0.074(sys), indicating good consistency between the lensing and the SZE-inferred masses. We also use our best-fit ? to predict the weak lensing shear profiles and compare these predictions with observations, showing agreement between the magnification and shear mass constraints. Our work demonstrates the promise of using the magnification as a complementary method to estimate cluster masses in large surveys.

  9. Systematic Fast Neutron Background Measurement Fluctuations in an Urban Area Using a Mobile Detection System

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha S; Beach, Matthew R; Newby, Jason; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hayward, J P

    2014-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10 min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reductionmore » in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  10. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.

  11. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Iyengar, Anagha; Beach, Matthew; Newby, Robert J.; Fabris, Lorenzo; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hayward, Jason P.

    2015-11-12

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee. The 0.5 m2 system consisting of 8 EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic background variations that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a local, downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets in the downtown Knoxville area, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction inmore » background count rates ranging from 10-50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the shielding of adjacent buildings, quantified in part here by the metric angle-of-open-sky. The adjacent buildings may serve to shield cosmic ray neutron flux.« less

  12. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  13. Dissecting the Gamma-Ray Background in Search of Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cholis, Ilias; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D.

    2014-02-01

    Several classes of astrophysical sources contribute to the approximately isotropic gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. In this paper, we use Fermi's catalog of gamma-ray sources (along with corresponding source catalogs at infrared and radio wavelengths) to build and constrain a model for the contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background from astrophysical sources, including radio galaxies, star-forming galaxies, and blazars. We then combine our model with Fermi's measurement of the gamma-ray background to derive constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section, including contributions from both extragalactic and galactic halos and subhalos. The resulting constraints are competitive with the strongest current constraints from the Galactic Center and dwarf spheroidal galaxies. As Fermi continues to measure the gamma-ray emission from a greater number of astrophysical sources, it will become possible to more tightly constrain the astrophysical contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background. We project that with 10 years of data, Fermi's measurement of this background combined with the improved constraints on the astrophysical source contributions will yield a sensitivity to dark matter annihilations that exceeds the strongest current constraints by a factor of ~ 5 - 10.

  14. Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by the phase control of its intrinsic background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Xi; Wang Kai; Welch, George R.; Sokolov, Alexei V.

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate the use of femtosecond laser pulse shaping for precise control of the interference between the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal and the coherent nonresonant background generated within the same sample volume. Our technique is similar to heterodyne detection with the coherent background playing the role of the local oscillator field. In our experiment, we first apply two ultrashort (near-transform-limited) femtosecond pump and Stokes laser pulses to excite coherent molecular oscillations within a sample. After a short and controllable delay, we then apply a laser pulse that scatters off of these oscillations to produce the CARS signal. By making fine adjustments to the probe field spectral profile, we vary the relative phase between the Raman-resonant signal and the nonresonant background, and we observe a varying spectral interference pattern. These controlled variations of the measured pattern reveal the phase information within the Raman spectrum.

  15. Spherically symmetric self-dual Yang-Mills instantons on curved backgrounds in all even dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.; Yang Yisong

    2008-02-15

    We present several different classes of self-dual Yang-Mills instantons in all even d-dimensional backgrounds with Euclidean signature. In d=4p+2 the only solutions we found are on constant curvature dS (de Sitter) and AdS (anti-de Sitter) backgrounds and are evaluated in closed form. In d=4p an interesting class of instantons are given on black hole backgrounds. One class of solutions are (Euclidean) time-independent and spherically symmetric in d-1 dimensions, and the other class are spherically symmetric in all d dimensions. Some of the solutions in the former class are evaluated numerically, all the rest being given in closed form. Analytic proofs of existence covering all numerically evaluated solutions are given. All instantons studied have finite action and vanishing energy momentum tensor and do not disturb the geometry.

  16. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-09-15

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments.

  17. Background studies for NaI(Tl) detectors in the ANAIS dark matter project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Solórzano, A. Ortiz de; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2013-08-08

    Several large NaI(Tl) detectors, produced by different companies, have been operated in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) in the frame of the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project devoted to the direct detection of dark matter. A complete background model has been developed for a 9.6 kg detector (referred as ANAIS-0 prototype) after a long data taking at LSC. Activities from the natural chains of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the NaI(Tl) crystal were evaluated applying different methods: discrimination of alpha particles vs beta/gamma background by Pulse Shape Analysis for quantifying the content of the natural chains and coincidence techniques for {sup 40}K. Radioactive contaminations in the detector and shielding components were also determined by HPGe spectrometry. Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 package were carried out to evaluate their contribution. At high energies, most of the measured background is nicely reproduced; at low energy some non-explained components are still present, although some plausible background sources have been analyzed. The {sup 40}K content of the NaI(Tl) crystal has been confirmed to be the dominant contributor to the measured background with this detector. In addition, preliminary results of the background characterization, presently underway at the LSC, of two recently produced NaI(Tl) detectors, with 12.5 kg mass each, will be presented: cosmogenic induced activity has been clearly observed and is being quantified, and {sup 40}K activity at a level ten times lower than in ANAIS-0 has been determined.

  18. THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND INTENSITY AND ANISOTROPIES DURING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooray, Asantha; Gong Yan; Smidt, Joseph; Santos, Mario G.

    2012-09-01

    A fraction of the extragalactic near-infrared (near-IR) background light involves redshifted photons from the ultraviolet (UV) emission from galaxies present during reionization at redshifts above 6. The absolute intensity and the anisotropies of the near-IR background provide an observational probe of the first-light galaxies and their spatial distribution. We estimate the extragalactic background light intensity during reionization by accounting for the stellar and nebular emission from first-light galaxies. We require the UV photon density from these galaxies to generate a reionization history that is consistent with the optical depth to electron scattering from cosmic microwave background measurements. We also require the bright-end luminosity function (LF) of galaxies in our models to reproduce the measured Lyman-dropout LFs at redshifts of 6-8. The absolute intensity is about 0.1-0.4 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at the peak of its spectrum at {approx}1.1 {mu}m. We also discuss the anisotropy power spectrum of the near-IR background using a halo model to describe the galaxy distribution. We compare our predictions for the anisotropy power spectrum to existing measurements from deep near-IR imaging data from Spitzer/IRAC, Hubble/NICMOS, and AKARI. The predicted rms fluctuations at tens of arcminute angular scales are roughly an order of magnitude smaller than the existing measurements. While strong arguments have been made that the measured fluctuations do not have an origin involving faint low-redshift galaxies, we find that measurements in the literature are also incompatible with galaxies present during the era of reionization. The measured near-IR background anisotropies remain unexplained with an unknown origin.

  19. The MAJORANA experiment: an ultra-low background search for neutrinoless double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keller, C.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2012-12-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double-beta decay would resolve the Majorana nature of the neutrino and could provide information on the absolute scale of the neutrino mass. The initial phase of the Majorana Experiment, known as the Demonstrator, will house 40 kg of Ge in an ultra-low background shielded environment at the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The objective of the Demonstrator is to validate whether a future 1-tonne experiment can achieve a background goal of one count per tonne-year in a narrow region of interest around the 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay peak.

  20. Stabilization of the filamentation instability and the anisotropy of the background plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bret, A.; Deutsch, C.

    2006-02-15

    The interaction of a relativistic electron beam with an anisotropic Maxwellian plasma is investigated, with a focus on the stabilization condition for the filamentation instability. It is found that this condition is very sensitive to the anisotropy degree of the background plasma so that the investigation of the beam instability may not be easily decoupled from the state of the background plasma in typical fusion conditions. Furthermore, regardless of the plasma isotropy, filamentation can no longer be suppressed when the beam density exceeds a threshold value that is determined.

  1. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  2. Evaluation of ultra-low background materials for uranium and thorium using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, E. W.; Overman, N. R.; LaFerriere, B. D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. This paper discusses how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  3. Evaluation of Ultra-Low Background Materials for Uranium and Thorium Using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Overman, Nicole R.; LaFerriere, Brian D.

    2013-08-08

    An increasing number of physics experiments require low background materials for their construction. The presence of Uranium and Thorium and their progeny in these materials present a variety of unwanted background sources for these experiments. The sensitivity of the experiments continues to drive the necessary levels of detection ever lower as well. This requirement for greater sensitivity has rendered direct radioassay impractical in many cases requiring large quantities of material, frequently many kilograms, and prolonged counting times, often months. Other assay techniques have been employed such as Neutron Activation Analysis but this requires access to expensive facilities and instrumentation and can be further complicated and delayed by the formation of unwanted radionuclides. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a useful tool and recent advancements have increased the sensitivity particularly in the elemental high mass range of U and Th. Unlike direct radioassay, ICP-MS is a destructive technique since it requires the sample to be in liquid form which is aspirated into a high temperature plasma. But it benefits in that it usually requires a very small sample, typically about a gram. Here we will discuss how a variety of low background materials such as copper, polymers, and fused silica are made amenable to ICP-MS assay and how the arduous task of maintaining low backgrounds of U and Th is achieved.

  4. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hausladen, Paul; Blessinger, Christopher S; Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  5. Project plan for the background soils project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The Background Soils Project for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (BSPP) will determine the background concentration levels of selected naturally occurring metals, other inorganics, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated areas in proximity to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The data will be used for comparison with characterization and compliance data for soils, with significant differences being indicative of contamination. All data collected as part of this project will be in addition to other background databases established for the PGDP. The BSPP will address the variability of surface and near-surface concentration levels with respect to (1) soil taxonomical types (series) and (2) soil sampling depths within a specific soil profile. The BSPP will also address the variability of concentration levels in deeper geologic formations by collecting samples of geologic materials. The BSPP will establish a database, with recommendations on how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide data to estimate the potential human and health and ecological risk associated with background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. BSPP data will be used or applied as follows.

  6. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad energy Germanium detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Amman, M.; Avignone, Frank T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fujikawa, Brian; Fuller, Erin S.; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Prior, Gersende; Qian, J.; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof P.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.; Zimmerman, S.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is building the Majorana Demonstrator, a 60 kg array of high purity germanium detectors housed in an ultra-low background shield at the Sanford Underground Laboratory in Lead, SD. The Majorana Demonstrator will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge while demonstrating the feasibility of a tonne-scale experiment. It may also carry out a dark matter search in the 1-10 GeV/c² mass range. We have found that customized Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors produced by Canberra have several desirable features for a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment, including low electronic noise, excellent pulse shape analysis capabilities, and simple fabrication. We have deployed a customized BEGe, the Majorana Low-Background BEGe at Kimballton (MALBEK), in a low-background cryostat and shield at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility in Virginia. This paper will focus on the detector characteristics and measurements that can be performed with such a radiation detector in a low-background environment.

  7. Background Modelling in Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berge, David; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Heidelberg Observ. /Leeds U.

    2006-11-07

    Ground based Cherenkov telescope systems measure astrophysical {gamma}-ray emission against a background of cosmic-ray induced air showers. The subtraction of this background is a major challenge for the extraction of spectra and morphology of {gamma}-ray sources. The unprecedented sensitivity of the new generation of ground based very-high-energy {gamma}-ray experiments such as H.E.S.S. has lead to the discovery of many previously unknown extended sources. The analysis of such sources requires a range of different background modeling techniques. Here we describe some of the techniques that have been applied to data from the H.E.S.S. instrument and compare their performance. Each background model is introduced and discussed in terms of suitability for image generation or spectral analysis and possible caveats are mentioned. We show that there is not a single multi-purpose model, different models are appropriate for different tasks. To keep systematic uncertainties under control it is important to apply several models to the same data set and compare the results.

  8. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  9. Slowing of Femtosecond Laser-Generated Nanoparticles in a Background Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-11-25

    The slowing of Pt nanoparticles in argon background gas was characterized by Rayleigh scattering imaging using a plume of nanoparticles generated by femtosecond laser through thin film ablation (fs-TTFA) of 20 nanometers-thick Pt films. The ablation was performed at threshold laser energy fluences for complete film removal to provide a well-defined plume consisting almost entirely of nanoparticles traveling with a narrow velocity distribution, providing a unique system to unambiguously characterize the slowing of nanoparticles during interaction with background gases. Nanoparticles of ~200 nm diameter were found to decelerate in background Ar gas with pressures less than 50 Torr in goodmore » agreement with a linear drag model in the Epstein regime. Based on this model, the stopping distance of small nanoparticles in the plume was predicted and tested by particle collection in an off-axis geometry, and size distribution analysis by transmission electron microscopy. These results permit a basis to interpret nanoparticle propagation through background gases in laser ablation plumes that contain mixed components.« less

  10. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  11. Development of an Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter for Trace Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Orrell, John L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Finn, Erin C.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Panisko, Mark E.; Shaff, Sarah M.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Low-level liquid scintillation counting (LSC) has been established as one of the radiation detection techniques useful in elucidating environmental processes and environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities. The Ultra-Low Background Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULB-LSC) under construction in the Shallow Underground Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory aims to further reduce the MDAs and/or required sample processing. Through layers of passive shielding in conjunction with an active veto and 30 meters water equivalent overburden, the background reduction is expected to be 10 to 100 times below typical analytic low-background liquid scintillation systems. Simulations have shown an expected background of around 14 counts per day. A novel approach to the light collection will use a coated hollow light guide cut into the inner copper shielding. Demonstration LSC measurements will show low-energy detection, spectral deconvolution, and alpha/beta discrimination capabilities, from trials with standards of tritium, strontium-90, and actinium-227, respectively. An overview of the system design and expected demonstration measurements will emphasize the potential applications of the ULB-LSC in environmental monitoring for treaty verification, reach-back sample analysis, and facility inspections.

  12. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Henderson, M. G.; Larsen, B. A.

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energy channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).

  13. A background correction algorithm for Van Allen Probes MagEIS electron flux measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; O'Brien, T. P.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Roeder, J. L.; Clemmons, J. H.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Mulligan, T. M.; Spence, H. E.; et al

    2015-07-14

    We describe an automated computer algorithm designed to remove background contamination from the Van Allen Probes Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) electron flux measurements. We provide a detailed description of the algorithm with illustrative examples from on-orbit data. We find two primary sources of background contamination in the MagEIS electron data: inner zone protons and bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by energetic electrons interacting with the spacecraft material. Bremsstrahlung X-rays primarily produce contamination in the lower energy MagEIS electron channels (~30–500 keV) and in regions of geospace where multi-M eV electrons are present. Inner zone protons produce contamination in all MagEIS energymore » channels at roughly L < 2.5. The background-corrected MagEIS electron data produce a more accurate measurement of the electron radiation belts, as most earlier measurements suffer from unquantifiable and uncorrectable contamination in this harsh region of the near-Earth space environment. These background-corrected data will also be useful for spacecraft engineering purposes, providing ground truth for the near-Earth electron environment and informing the next generation of spacecraft design models (e.g., AE9).« less

  14. Estimation of Cosmic Induced Contamination in Ultra-low Background Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Greene, Austen T.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary This document presents the result of investigating a way to reliably determine cosmic induced backgrounds for ultra-low background materials. In particular, it focuses on those radioisotopes produced by the interactions with cosmic ray particles in the detector materials that act as a background for experiments looking for neutrinoless double beta decay. This investigation is motivated by the desire to determine background contributions from cosmic ray activation of the electroformed copper that is being used in the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. The most important radioisotope produced in copper that contributes to the background budget is 60Co, which has the potential to deposit energy in the region of interest of this experiment. Cobalt-60 is produced via cosmic ray neutron collisions in the copper. This investigation aims to provide a method for determining whether or not the copper has been exposed to cosmic radiation beyond the threshold which the Majorana Project has established as the maximum exposure. This threshold is set by the Project as the expected contribution of this source of background to the overall background budget. One way to estimate cosmic ray neutron exposure of materials on the surface of the Earth is to relate it to the cosmic ray muon exposure. Muons are minimum-ionizing particles and the available technologies to detect muons are easier to implement than those to detect neutrons. We present the results of using a portable, ruggedized muon detector, the µ-Witness made by our research group, for determination of muon exposure of materials for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR. From the muon flux measurement, this report presents a method to estimate equivalent sea-level exposure, and then infer the neutron exposure of the tracked material and thus the cosmogenic activation of the copper. This report combines measurements of the muon flux taken by the µ-Witness detector with Geant4 simulations in order to assure our

  15. LY? FOREST TOMOGRAPHY FROM BACKGROUND GALAXIES: THE FIRST MEGAPARSEC-RESOLUTION LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURE MAP AT z > 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Eilers, Anna-Christina [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stark, Casey; White, Martin [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex 3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [University of California Observatories, Lick Observatory, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu [Institut de Cincies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Mart Franqus 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Suzuki, Nao [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba (Japan); Croft, Rupert A. C. [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Caputi, Karina I. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700-AV Groningen (Netherlands); Cassata, Paolo [Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Casilla 5030, Valparaiso (Chile); Ilbert, Olivier; Le Brun, Vincent; Le Fvre, Olivier [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Garilli, Bianca [INAF-IASF, Via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maccagni, Dario [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani,1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Nugent, Peter, E-mail: lee@mpia.de [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present the first observations of foreground Ly? forest absorption from high-redshift galaxies, targeting 24 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with z ? 2.3-2.8 within a 5' 14' region of the COSMOS field. The transverse sightline separation is ?2 h {sup 1} Mpc comoving, allowing us to create a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional (3D) Ly? forest absorption field over the redshift range 2.20 ? z ? 2.45. The resulting map covers 6 h {sup 1} Mpc 14 h {sup 1} Mpc in the transverse plane and 230 h {sup 1} Mpc along the line of sight with a spatial resolution of ?3.5 h {sup 1} Mpc, and is the first high-fidelity map of a large-scale structure on ?Mpc scales at z > 2. Our map reveals significant structures with ? 10 h {sup 1} Mpc extent, including several spanning the entire transverse breadth, providing qualitative evidence for the filamentary structures predicted to exist in the high-redshift cosmic web. Simulated reconstructions with the same sightline sampling, spectral resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio recover the salient structures present in the underlying 3D absorption fields. Using data from other surveys, we identified 18 galaxies with known redshifts coeval with our map volume, enabling a direct comparison with our tomographic map. This shows that galaxies preferentially occupy high-density regions, in qualitative agreement with the same comparison applied to simulations. Our results establish the feasibility of the CLAMATO survey, which aims to obtain Ly? forest spectra for ?1000 SFGs over ?1 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, in order to map out the intergalactic medium large-scale structure at (z) ? 2.3 over a large volume (100 h {sup 1} Mpc){sup 3}.

  16. Touschek Background and Lifetime Studies for the SuperB Factory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boscolo, M.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; Sullivan, M.; Paoloni, E.; /INFN, Pisa

    2010-08-26

    The novel crab waist collision scheme under test at the DA{Phi}NE Frascati {Phi}-factory finds its natural application to the SuperB project, the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} flavour factory at very high luminosity with relatively low beam currents and reduced backgrounds. The SuperB accelerator design requires a careful choice of beam parameters to reach a good trade-off between different effects. We present here simulation results for the Touschek backgrounds and lifetime obtained for both the low and high energy rings for different machine designs. A first set of horizontal collimators has been studied to stop Touschek particles. A study of the distributions of the Touschek particle losses at the interaction region into the detectors for further investigations is underway.

  17. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  18. Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, John C.; McFarland, Andrew R.; Oritz, Carlos A.; Marlow, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus having reduced background for measuring radiation activity in aerosol particles. A continuous air monitoring sampler is described for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. An inlet fractionating screen has been demonstrated to remove about 95% of freshly formed radon progeny from the aerosol sample, and approximately 33% of partially aged progeny. Addition of an electrical condenser and a modified dichotomous virtual impactor are expected to produce considerable improvement in these numbers, the goal being to enrich the transuranic (TRU) fraction of the aerosols. This offers the possibility of improving the signal-to-noise ratio for the detected alpha-particle energy spectrum in the region of interest for detecting TRU materials associated with aerosols, thereby enhancing the performance of background-compensation algorithms for improving the quality of alarm signals intended to warn personnel of potentially harmful quantities of TRU materials in the ambient air.

  19. Origin of background electron concentration in InxGa1-xN alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pantha, B. N.; Wang, H.; Khan, N.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2011-08-15

    The origin of high background electron concentration (n) in InxGa1-xN alloys has been investigated. A shallow donor was identified as having an energy level (ED1) that decreases with x (ED1 = 16 meV at x = 0 and ED1 = 0 eV at x ~ 0.5) and that crossover the conduction band at x ~ 0.5. This shallow donor is believed to be the most probable cause of high n in InGaN. This understanding is consistent with the fact that n increases sharply with an increase in x and becomes constant for x > 0.5. A continuous reduction in nmore » was obtained by increasing the V/III ratio during the epilayer growth, suggesting that nitrogen vacancy-related impurities are a potential cause of the shallow donors and high background electron concentration in InGaN« less

  20. Identification and summary characterization of materials potentially requiring vitrification: Background information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Croff, A.G.

    1996-05-13

    This document contains background information for the Workshop in general and the presentation entitled `Identification and Summary Characterization of Materials Potentially Requiring Vitrification` that was given during the first morning of the workshop. summary characteristics of 9 categories of US materials having some potential to be vitrified are given. This is followed by a 1-2 page elaborations for each of these 9 categories. References to more detailed information are included.

  1. Background limited mid-infrared photodetection with photovoltaic HgTe colloidal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe Roberts, John Andris

    2015-12-21

    The photovoltaic response of thin films of HgTe colloidal quantum dots in the 3–5 μm range is observed. With no applied bias, internal quantum efficiency exceeding 40%, specific detectivity above 10{sup 10} Jones and microseconds response times are obtained at 140 K. The cooled devices detect the ambient thermal radiation. A detector with 5.25 μm cut-off achieves Background Limited Infrared Photodetection at 90 K.

  2. Non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies at recombination in the squeezed limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolo, N.; Matarrese, S.; Riotto, A. E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it

    2012-02-01

    We estimate analytically the second-order cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies at the recombination epoch in the squeezed limit and we deduce the contamination of the primordial local non-Gaussianity. We find that the level of contamination corresponds to f{sub NL}{sup con} = O(1) which is below the sensitivity of present experiments and smaller than the value O(5) recently claimed in the literature.

  3. Background cosmological dynamics in f(R) gravity and observational constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Amna; Sami, M.; Sen, Anjan A.; Gannouji, Radouane

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we carry out a study of viable cosmological models in f(R) gravity at the background level. We use observable parameters like {Omega} and {gamma} to form an autonomous system of equations and show that the models under consideration exhibit two different regimes in their time evolution, namely, a phantom phase followed by a quintessencelike behavior. We employ state finder parameters to emphasize a characteristic discriminative signature of these models.

  4. Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3/107 Evidence-Based Background Material Underlying Guidance for Federal Agencies in Implementing Strategic Sustainability Performance Plans Implementing Sustainability: The Institutional-Behavioral Dimension Elizabeth L. Malone Tom Sanquist Amy K. Wolfe Rick Diamond Christopher Payne Jerry Dion January 2011 (Updated June 2013) Federal Energy Management Program U.S. Department of Energy DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S.

  5. Exact Bogoliubov-de Gennes solutions for gray-soliton backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walczak, P. B.; Anglin, J. R.

    2011-07-15

    We derive and discuss the complete set of exact solutions to the one-dimensional Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for small-amplitude excitations around general gray-soliton solutions to the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Our results extend the previously known case of the motionless dark-soliton background. We derive our nonzero-frequency solutions using a variant of the factorization method for Schroedinger equations with reflectionless potentials. We also discuss the zero-mode solutions at length.

  6. Low Frequency Measurement of the Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smoot, G. F.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S. D.; Witebsky, C.; Mandolesi, N.; Partridge, R. B.; Sironi, G.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.

    1983-06-01

    We have made measurements of the cosmic background radiation spectrum at 5 wavelengths (0.33, 0.9, 3, 6.3, and 12 cm) using radiometers with wavelength-scaled corrugated horn antennas having very low sidelobes. A single large-mouth (0.7 m diameter) liquid-helium-cooled absolute reference load was used for all five radiometers. The results of the observations are consistent with previous measurements and represent a significant improvement in accuracy.

  7. New acceptor centers of the background impurities in p-CdZnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plyatsko, S. V. Rashkovetskyi, L. V.

    2013-07-15

    Low-temperature photoluminescence data are used to study the redistribution of the background impurities and host components of p-CdZnTe single crystals with a resistivity of 1-50 {Omega} cm upon their interaction with infrared laser radiation. The effect of widening of the band gap and the formation of new acceptor centers in response to laser-stimulated changes in the system of intrinsic defects are established. The activation energy of the new acceptor centers is determined.

  8. DOE Data ID Service Background | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information DOE Data ID Service Background DataCite | Contact DOE Data ID Service In 2011, the DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) joined DataCite to facilitate citing, accessing, and reusing publicly available scientific research datasets produced by DOE-funded researchers. DataCite is an international organization that supports data visibility, ease of data citation in scholarly publications, data preservation and future re-use, and data

  9. Obelix, a new low-background HPGe at Modane Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loaiza, P.; Piquemal, F.; Warot, G.; Zampaolo, M.

    2015-08-17

    An ultra-low background coaxial HPGe detector for gamma-ray spectrometry with a relative efficiency of 160%, corresponding to a 600 cm{sup 3} Ge crystal, was installed at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France (4800 m.w.e). To reduce the instrinsic detector background, all parts involved in the detector cryostat were selected for their low radioactivity contamination. A shielding, composed of an inner layer of roman lead and an external layer of regular lead was installed, together with a system to reduce the Rn level inside the sample chamber. The shielding was designed to allow the measurement of Marinelli-shaped samples. We present the constructional details which lead to a remarkable low detector background of 73 cts/kg·d in [40, 3000] keV. Measured samples showed that sensitivities about 100 μBq/kg in {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th are reached for samples of some kg and 30 days of lifetime.

  10. Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cowee, Misa [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    We use hybrid simulations and simple theoretical arguments to determine when debris ions streaming relative to background ions in a collisionless, magnetized plasma couple strongly enough to generate a magnetosonic shock wave. We consider three types of configurations: one-dimensional, the two-dimensional extension of the 1-D case, and a more complex 2-D geometry that contains some effects that would be found in a laser-produced, laboratory plasma. We show that the simulation results as well as previous Russian and LLNL results reduce to a simple condition (R{sub m}/{rho}{sub d} = equal mass radius/debris ion gyroradius {ge} 0.7) for the generation of a shock wave. Strong debris interaction with the background is characterized by the formation of a magnetic pulse that steepens and speeds up as it encounters the debris ions deflected by the magnetic field. The pulse further evolves into a shock. As the earlier work has indicated, the process also involves the generation of a transverse electric field perpendicular to the flow and the magnetic field that accelerates the background ions radially outward, which in turn causes the speedup of the pulse. With electric and magnetic field probes, the UCLA laser experiments should be able to detect these signatures of coupling as well as the generation of the shock wave.

  11. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; et al

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (ββ(0ν)) of the isotope ⁷⁶Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ββ(0ν)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ⁷⁶Ge ββ(0ν)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolutionmore » performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.« less

  12. Ship Effect Neutron Measurements And Impacts On Low-Background Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2013-10-01

    The primary particles entering the upper atmosphere as cosmic rays create showers in the atmosphere that include a broad spectrum of secondary neutrons, muons and protons. These cosmic-ray secondaries interact with materials at the surface of the Earth, yielding prompt backgrounds in radiation detection systems, as well as inducing long-lived activities through spallation events, dominated by the higher-energy neutron secondaries. For historical reasons, the multiple neutrons produced in spallation cascade events are referred to as “ship effect” neutrons. Quantifying the background from cosmic ray induced activities is important to low-background experiments, such as neutrino-less double beta decay. Since direct measurements of the effects of shielding on the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum are not available, Monte Carlo modeling is used to compute such effects. However, there are large uncertainties (orders of magnitude) in the possible cross-section libraries and the cosmic-ray neutron spectrum for the energy range needed in such calculations. The measurements reported here were initiated to validate results from Monte Carlo models through experimental measurements in order to provide some confidence in the model results. The results indicate that the models provide the correct trends of neutron production with increasing density, but there is substantial disagreement between the model and experimental results for the lower-density materials of Al, Fe and Cu.

  13. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-08-15

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy.

  14. X-ray microprobe studies of Hungarian background and urban aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toeroek, S.; Sandor, S.; Xhoffer, C.; Van Grieken, R.; Jones, K.W.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.

    1991-10-01

    In order to determine the polluting atmospheric sources in urban and background areas source apportionment of the air particulate matter is necessary. Hitherto these studies were mostly based on bulk composition measurements of the aerosol. Source profiles, i.e. the concentrations of several elements for air particulate matter originating from one source, can be deduced from the receptor data using a number of multivariate techniques among which the chemical mass balance. The application is limited by the large number of observations that must be made for each of the variables. Often an elaborated sample preparation is necessary for fractionating the sample into several sub samples, according to the density, particle diameter or other relevant properties. Often this may results in poorly resolved source profiles. The aim of the present work is to find the relative abundance of the particle types originating from two different background monitoring stations in the middle of the Great Hungarian Plain. In urban areas most pollutants originate from traffic and municipal waste incineration. Since heavy metals play an important role in these samples the highly sensitive x-ray microscope (XRM) of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of the Brookhaven National Laboratory was used. A feasibility study on individual aerosol particles sampled at the above background stations and in the urban area of Budapest is discussed.

  15. The Majorana low-noise low-background front-end electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abgrall, N.; Aguayo, E.; Avignone, III, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Bertrand, F. E.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, M.; Byram, D.; Caldwell, A. S.; Chan, Y. -D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Combs, D. C.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Doe, P. J.; Efremenko, Yu.; Egorov, V.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Fast, J. E.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, F. M.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goett, J.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Gusev, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Hegai, A.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howard, S.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Leon, J.; Leviner, L. E.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, J.; MacMullin, S.; Martin, R. D.; Meijer, S.; Mertens, S.; Nomachi, M.; Orrell, J. L.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Overman, N. R.; Phillips, II, D. G.; Poon, A. W.P.; Pushkin, K.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G.H.; Romero-Romero, E.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, A. G.; Shanks, B.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, K. J.; Snyder, N.; Suriano, A. M.; Thompson, J.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A. R.; Yu, C. -H.; Yumatov, V.

    2015-03-24

    The Majorana Demonstrator will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (??(0?)) of the isotope ??Ge with a mixed array of enriched and natural germanium detectors. In view of the next generation of tonne-scale germanium-based ??(0?)-decay searches, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the 2039-keV Q-value of the ??Ge ??(0?)-decay. Such a requirement on the background level significantly constrains the design of the readout electronics, which is further driven by noise and energy resolution performances. We present here the low-noise low-background front-end electronics developed for the low-capacitance p-type point contact (P-PC) germanium detectors of the Majorana Demonstrator. This resistive-feedback front-end, specifically designed to have low mass, is fabricated on a radioassayed fused-silica substrate where the feedback resistor consists of a sputtered thin film of high purity amorphous germanium and the feedback capacitor is based on the capacitance between gold conductive traces.

  16. NEW OBSERVATION OF FAILED FILAMENT ERUPTIONS: THE INFLUENCE OF ASYMMETRIC CORONAL BACKGROUND FIELDS ON SOLAR ERUPTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Su, J.; Lin, H.; Shibata, K.; Kurokawa, H.

    2009-05-01

    Failed filament eruptions not associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) have been observed and reported as evidence for solar coronal field confinement on erupting flux ropes. In those events, each filament eventually returns to its origin on the solar surface. In this Letter, a new observation of two failed filament eruptions is reported which indicates that the mass of a confined filament can be ejected to places far from the original filament channel. The jetlike mass motions in the two failed filament eruptions are thought to be due to the asymmetry of the background coronal magnetic fields with respect to the locations of the filament channels. The asymmetry of the coronal fields is confirmed by an extrapolation based on a potential field model. The obvious imbalance between the positive and negative magnetic flux (with a ratio of 1:3) in the bipolar active region is thought to be the direct cause of the formation of the asymmetric coronal fields. We think that the asymmetry of the background fields can not only influence the trajectories of ejecta, but also provide a relatively stronger confinement for flux rope eruptions than the symmetric background fields do.

  17. Mineralogical characterization of saprolite at the FRC background site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Moon, Ji Won; Roh, Yul; Brooks, Scott C

    2008-12-01

    The Field Research Center (FRC) including five contaminated sites and a clean background area was established in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) program. This study investigates the mineralogy and mineralogical pathways of saprolite at the FRC background site to provide a fundamental basis for the remediation strategy for contaminated sites. The background site is underlain interbedded shales, siltstones, and limestones with nearly identical characteristics to the contaminated sites. Bulk samples of saprolite were collected by hand picking approximately at 1 m depth (C horizon) from the soil surface. The soil pH of 4.3 and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 10.5 cmol/kg measured are in the range of the typical shallow depth saprolite layer in this area. Total Fe by citrate-bicarbonate-dithionate (CBD) and ammonium oxalate extractable (amorphous) were 17.6 and 0.61 g/kg, respectively. Total Mn extracted by NH{sub 2}OH{center_dot}HCl was 0.17 g/kg. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicate that quartz, illite, and microcline (K-feldspar) are the dominant minerals, occupying 95% of mineral composition. The saprolite samples analyzed have shown characteristics of oxic conditions overall, and the degrees of weathering for three sampling locations were various, most for S1 and least for S3, likely influenced either by the flow channels developed through saprolite or by seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater table. The source of the manganese oxide that observed from the site is likely to be Mn-rich muscovite in the shale or Mn-rich biotite in the blackish band in the limestone. The results such as abundant Mn and Fe contents identified encouraging prospects for conducting remediation projects in FRC sites.

  18. Investigations of 2? decay measured by low background HPGe spectrometer OBELIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rukhadze, Ekaterina [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, CTU in Prague, Horska 3a Collaboration: OBELIX Collaboration; SuperNEMO Collaboration

    2013-12-30

    A low background high sensitive HPGe spectrometer OBELIX was installed at the Modane Underground Laboratory (LSM, France, 4800 m w.e.). The detector was designed to measure a contamination of enriched isotopes and radio-impurities in construction materials, to investigate rare nuclear processes such as resonance neutrinoless double electron capture and two-neutrino double beta decay to excited states of daughter nuclei. Spectrometer sensitivity, contamination of NEMO-3 sources and results of 2?2?{sup ?} decay of {sup 100}Mo to the 0{sup +} (1130 keV) and 2{sup +} (540 keV) excited states as well as future plans for OBELIX detector are given.

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. AES NewEnergy, Inc. Order No. EA-248 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On July 13, 2001, AES NewEnergy, Inc. (AES NewEnergy) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. AES NewEnergy, a Delaware corporation and wholly- owned subsidiary of the AES Corporation, a

  1. Federal Facility Compliance Act, Proposed Site Treatment Plan: Background Volume. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-24

    This Federal Facility Compliance Act Site Treatment Plan discusses the options of radioactive waste management for Ames Laboratory. This is the background volume which discusses: site history and mission; framework for developing site treatment plans; proposed plan organization and related activities; characterization of mixed waste and waste minimization; low level mixed waste streams and the proposed treatment approach; future generation of TRU and mixed wastes; the adequacy of mixed waste storage facilities; and a summary of the overall DOE activity in the area of disposal of mixed waste treatment residuals.

  2. Basic science and energy research sector profile: Background for the National Energy Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March, F.; Ashton, W.B.; Kinzey, B.R.; McDonald, S.C.; Lee, V.E.

    1990-11-01

    This Profile report provides a general perspective on the role of basic science in the spectrum of research and development in the United States, and basic research's contributions to the goals of the National Energy Strategy (NES). It includes selected facts, figures, and analysis of strategic issues affecting the future of science in the United States. It is provided as background for people from government, the private sector, academia, and the public, who will be reviewing the NES in the coming months; and it is intended to serve as the basis for discussion of basic science issues within the context of the developing NES.

  3. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  4. Background and Derivation of ANS-5.4 Standard Fission Product Release Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beyer, Carl E.; Turnbull, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    This background report describes the technical basis for the newly proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) 5.4 standard, Methods for Calculating the Fractional Release of Volatile Fission Products from Oxide Fuels. The proposed ANS 5.4 standard provides a methodology for determining the radioactive fission product releases from the fuel for use in assessing radiological consequences of postulated accidents that do not involve abrupt power transients. When coupled with isotopic yields, this method establishes the 'gap activity,' which is the inventory of volatile fission products that are released from the fuel rod if the cladding are breached.

  5. Background Information for the Nevada National Security Site Integrated Sampling Plan, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farnham, Irene; Marutzky, Sam

    2014-12-01

    This document describes the process followed to develop the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Integrated Sampling Plan (referred to herein as the Plan). It provides the Plan’s purpose and objectives, and briefly describes the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity, including the conceptual model and regulatory requirements as they pertain to groundwater sampling. Background information on other NNSS groundwater monitoring programs—the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan (RREMP) and Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP)—and their integration with the Plan are presented. Descriptions of the evaluations, comments, and responses of two Sampling Plan topical committees are also included.

  6. Extending the radial diffusion model of Falthammar to non-dipole background field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott

    2015-05-26

    A model for radial diffusion caused by electromagnetic disturbances was published by Falthammar (1965) using a two-parameter model of the disturbance perturbing a background dipole magnetic field. Schulz and Lanzerotti (1974) extended this model by recognizing the two parameter perturbation as the leading (non--dipole) terms of the Mead Williams magnetic field model. They emphasized that the magnetic perturbation in such a model induces an electric ield that can be calculated from the motion of field lines on which the particles are ‘frozen’. Roederer and Zhang (2014) describe how the field lines on which the particles are frozen can be calculated by tracing the unperturbed field lines from the minimum-B location to the ionospheric footpoint, and then tracing the perturbed field (which shares the same ionospheric footpoint due to the frozen -in condition) from the ionospheric footpoint back to a perturbed minimum B location. The instantaneous change n Roederer L*, dL*/dt, can then be computed as the product (dL*/dphi)*(dphi/dt). dL*/Dphi is linearly dependent on the perturbation parameters (to first order) and is obtained by computing the drift across L*-labeled perturbed field lines, while dphi/dt is related to the bounce-averaged gradient-curvature drift velocity. The advantage of assuming a dipole background magnetic field, as in these previous studies, is that the instantaneous dL*/dt can be computed analytically (with some approximations), as can the DLL that results from integrating dL*/dt over time and computing the expected value of (dL*)^2. The approach can also be applied to complex background magnetic field models like T89 or TS04, on top of which the small perturbations are added, but an analytical solution is not possible and so a numerical solution must be implemented. In this talk, I discuss our progress in implementing a numerical solution to the calculation of DL*L* using arbitrary background field models with simple electromagnetic

  7. Quantum noise properties of CT images with anatomical textured backgrounds across reconstruction algorithms: FBP and SAFIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, Justin; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Quantum noise properties of CT images are generally assessed using simple geometric phantoms with uniform backgrounds. Such phantoms may be inadequate when assessing nonlinear reconstruction or postprocessing algorithms. The purpose of this study was to design anatomically informed textured phantoms and use the phantoms to assess quantum noise properties across two clinically available reconstruction algorithms, filtered back projection (FBP) and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE). Methods: Two phantoms were designed to represent lung and soft-tissue textures. The lung phantom included intricate vessel-like structures along with embedded nodules (spherical, lobulated, and spiculated). The soft tissue phantom was designed based on a three-dimensional clustered lumpy background with included low-contrast lesions (spherical and anthropomorphic). The phantoms were built using rapid prototyping (3D printing) technology and, along with a uniform phantom of similar size, were imaged on a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash CT scanner and reconstructed with FBP and SAFIRE. Fifty repeated acquisitions were acquired for each background type and noise was assessed by estimating pixel-value statistics, such as standard deviation (i.e., noise magnitude), autocorrelation, and noise power spectrum. Noise stationarity was also assessed by examining the spatial distribution of noise magnitude. The noise properties were compared across background types and between the two reconstruction algorithms. Results: In FBP and SAFIRE images, noise was globally nonstationary for all phantoms. In FBP images of all phantoms, and in SAFIRE images of the uniform phantom, noise appeared to be locally stationary (within a reasonably small region of interest). Noise was locally nonstationary in SAFIRE images of the textured phantoms with edge pixels showing higher noise magnitude compared to pixels in more homogenous regions. For pixels in uniform regions, noise magnitude was

  8. PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC Order No. EA-250 I. BACKGROUND

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC Order No. EA-250 I. BACKGROUND Exports of electricity from the United States to a foreign country are regulated and require authorization under section 202(e) of the Federal Power Act (FPA) (16 U.S.C. §824a(e)). On September 14, 2001, PSEG Energy Resources & Trade, LLC (PSEG ER&T) applied to the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy (DOE) for authorization to transmit electric energy to Canada as a power marketer. The power to be

  9. Wave breaking phenomenon of lower-hybrid oscillations induced by a background inhomogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sengupta, Sudip [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-10-15

    In a fluid description, we study space-time evolution of lower hybrid modes in a cold quasi-neutral homogeneous plasma in presence of a background inhomogeneous magnetic field. Within a linear analysis, a dispersion relation with inhomogeneous magnetic field shows 'phase mixing' of such oscillations. A manifestation of 'phase mixing' is shown in 'mode coupling.' By using Lagrangian variables, an exact solution is presented in parametric form of this nonlinear time dependent problem. It is demonstrated that initially excited lower hybrid modes always break via phase mixing phenomenon in presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Breaking of such oscillations is revealed by the appearance of spikes in the plasma density profile.

  10. Neutral hydrogen absorption by galaxies and implications for the soft X-ray background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbelli, E.; Schneider, S.E. Massachusetts Univ., Amherst )

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented from a search for neutral hydrogen absorption in the 21-cm spectra of 59 radio continuum sources in the proximity of spiral and lenticular galaxies using the Arecibo radio telescope. Five galaxies showed possible but uncertain absorption. For the 54 other sources, the column density of the neutral hydrogen in the intervening material is well below 2 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm or the spin temperature is at least one order of magnitude above the microwave background temperature. For these cases, subthermal effects are not hiding appreciable amounts of neutral hydrogen. 47 refs.

  11. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Farmer, Orville T.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Liezers, Martin; Miley, Harry S.; Overman, Nicole R.; Reeves, James H.

    2014-07-07

    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  12. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; et al

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmv) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020.more » Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.« less

  13. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, Robin; Russell, Lee; Krupnick, Alan; Smith, Hilary; Schaffhauser, Jr., A.; Barnthouse, Larry; Cada, Glen; Kroodsma, Roger; Turner, Robb; Easterly, Clay; Jones, Troyce; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Freeman, A. Myrick

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources'' for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term damages'' or benefits,'' leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  14. Large-Angular-Scale Anisotropy in the Cosmic BackgroundRadiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorenstein, M.V.; Smoot, G.F.

    1980-05-01

    We report the results of an extended series of airborne measurements of large-angular-scale anisotropy in the 3 K cosmic background radiation. Observations were carried out with a dual-antenna microwave radiometer operating at 33 GHz (0.89 cm wavelength) flown on board a U-2 aircraft to 20 km altitude. In eleven flights, between December 1976 and May 1978, the radiometer measured differential intensity between pairs of directions distributed over most of the northern hemisphere with an rms sensitivity of 47 mK Hz{sup -1/2}. The measurements show clear evidence of anisotropy that is readily interpreted as due to the solar motion relative to the sources of the radiation. The anisotropy is well fit by a first order spherical harmonic of amplitude 360 {+-} 50km sec{sup -1} toward the direction 11.2 {+-} 0.5 hours of right ascension and 19 {+-} 8 degrees declination. A simultaneous fit to a combined hypothesis of dipole and quadrupole angular distributions places a 1 mK limit on the amplitude of most components of quadrupole anisotropy with 90% confidence. Additional analysis places a 0.5 mK limit on uncorrelated fluctuations (sky-roughness) in the 3 K background on an angular scale of the antenna beam width, about 7 degrees.

  15. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  16. Multi-wavelength emission from the Fermi bubbles. I. Stochastic acceleration from background plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2014-07-20

    We analyze processes of electron acceleration in the Fermi bubbles in order to define parameters and restrictions of the models, which are suggested for the origin of these giant radio and gamma-ray structures. In the case of the leptonic origin of the nonthermal radiation from the bubbles, these electrons should be produced somehow in situ because of the relatively short lifetime of high-energy electrons, which lose their energy by synchrotron and inverse-Compton processes. It has been suggested that electrons in bubbles may be accelerated by shocks produced by tidal disruption of stars accreting onto the central black hole or a process of re-acceleration of electrons ejected by supernova remnants. These processes will be investigated in subsequent papers. In this paper, we focus on in situ stochastic (Fermi) acceleration by a hydromagnetic/supersonic turbulence, in which electrons can be directly accelerated from the background plasma. We showed that the acceleration from the background plasma is able to explain the observed fluxes of radio and gamma-ray emission from the bubbles, but the range of permitted parameters of the model is strongly restricted.

  17. US--EC fuel cycle study: Background document to the approach and issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantor, Robin; Lee, Russell

    1992-11-01

    In February 1991, DOE and the Commission of the European Communities (EC), signed a joint statement regarding the external costs of fuel cycles. This 18-month agreement committed their respective organizations to ``develop a comparative analytical methodology and to develop the best range of estimates of external costs from secondary sources`` for eight fuel cycles and four conservation options. In our study, a fuel cycle is defined as the series of physical and chemical processes and activities that are required to generate electricity from a specific fuel or resource. This foundation phase of the study is primarily limited to developing and demonstrating methods for estimating impacts and their monetized value, what we term ``damages`` or ``benefits,`` leaving aside the extent to which such damages have been internalized. However, Appendix C provides the conceptual framework for evaluating the extent of internalization. This report is a background document to introduce the study approach and to discuss the major conceptual and practical issues entailed by the incremental damage problem. As a background document, the report seeks to communicate an overview of the study and the important methodological choices that were made to conduct the research. In successive sections of the report, the methodological tools used in the study are discussed; the ecological and health impacts are reviewed using the coal fuel cycle as a reference case; and, in the final chapter, the methods for valuing impacts are detailed.

  18. Neutrino physics from the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Brock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.

    2015-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve σ (σmν)(σmν) = 16 meV and σ (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero σmνσmν, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics — the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of NeffNeff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that View the MathML sourceNeff=3.046.

  19. Radio galaxies dominate the high-energy diffuse gamma-ray background

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hooper, Dan; Linden, Tim; Lopez, Alejandro

    2016-08-09

    It has been suggested that unresolved radio galaxies and radio quasars (sometimes referred to as misaligned active galactic nuclei) could be responsible for a significant fraction of the observed diffuse gamma-ray background. In this study, we use the latest data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to characterize the gamma-ray emission from a sample of 51 radio galaxies. In addition to those sources that had previously been detected using Fermi data, we report here the first statistically significant detection of gamma-ray emission from the radio galaxies 3C 212, 3C 411, and B3 0309+411B. Combining this information with the radio fluxes,more » radio luminosity function, and redshift distribution of this source class, we find that radio galaxies dominate the diffuse gamma-ray background, generating 77.2(+25.4)(-9.4)% of this emission at energies above ~1 GeV . We discuss the implications of this result and point out that it provides support for scenarios in which IceCube's high-energy astrophysical neutrinos also originate from the same population of radio galaxies.« less

  20. An Analysis of Recent Measurements of the Temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smoot, G.; Levin, S. M.; Witebsky, C.; De Amici, G.; Rephaeli, Y.

    1987-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the results of recent temperature measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). The observations for wavelengths longer than 0.1 cum are well fit by a blackbody spectrum at 2.74{+ or -}0.0w K; however, including the new data of Matsumoto et al. (1987) the result is no longer consistent with a Planckian spectrum. The data are described by a Thomson-distortion parameter u=0.021{+ or -}0.002 and temperature 2.823{+ or -}0.010 K at the 68% confidence level. Fitting the low-frequency data to a Bose-Einstein spectral distortion yields a 95% confidence level upper limit of 1.4 x 10{sup -2} on the chemical potential mu{sub 0}. These limits on spectral distortions place restrictions on a number of potentially interesting sources of energy release to the CMBR, including the hot intergalactic medium proposed as the source of the X-ray background.

  1. Neutrino Physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J.; Benson, B. A.; Bischoff, C.; Bock, J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Calabrese, E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carvalho, C. S.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Church, S.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Dawson, K. S.; Das, S.; Devlin, M. J.; Dobbs, M.; Dodelson, S.; Dore, O.; Dunkley, J.; Errard, J.; Fraisse, A.; Gallicchio, J.; Halverson, N. W.; Hanany, S.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hincks, A.; Hlozek, R.; Holder, G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hu, W.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K.; Jones, W. C.; Kamionkowski, M.; Keating, B.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Komatsu, E.; Kovac, J.; Kuo, C. -L.; Lawrence, C.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E.; Linder, E.; Lubin, P.; McMahon, J.; Miller, A.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, H. T.; Page, L.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Sehgal, N.; Seljak, U.; Sievers, J.; Silverstein, E.; Slosar, A.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D.; Staggs, S. T.; Stark, A.; Stompor, R.; Wang, G.; Watson, S.; Wollack, E. J.; Wu, W. L.K.; Yoon, K. W.; Zahn, O.

    2014-03-15

    This is a report on the status and prospects of the quantification of neutrino properties through the cosmological neutrino background for the Cosmic Frontier of the Division of Particles and Fields Community Summer Study long-term planning exercise. Experiments planned and underway are prepared to study the cosmological neutrino background in detail via its influence on distance-redshift relations and the growth of structure. The program for the next decade described in this document, including upcoming spectroscopic galaxy surveys eBOSS and DESI and a new Stage-IV CMB polarization experiment CMB-S4, will achieve ? (?mv) = 16 meV and ? (Neff)(Neff) = 0.020. Such a mass measurement will produce a high significance detection of non-zero ?m??m?, whose lower bound derived from atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillation data is about 58 meV. If neutrinos have a minimal normal mass hierarchy, this measurement will definitively rule out the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, shedding light on one of the most puzzling aspects of the Standard Model of particle physics the origin of mass. This precise a measurement of Neff will allow for high sensitivity to any light and dark degrees of freedom produced in the big bang and a precision test of the standard cosmological model prediction that Neff = 3.046.

  2. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E.; Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J.; Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Jarvis, M.; and others

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  3. Quenching methods for background reduction in luminescence-based probe-target binding assays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong; Goodwin, Peter M; Keller, Richard A.; Nolan, Rhiannon L.

    2007-04-10

    Background luminescence is reduced from a solution containing unbound luminescent probes, each having a first molecule that attaches to a target molecule and having an attached luminescent moiety, and luminescent probe/target adducts. Quenching capture reagent molecules are formed that are capable of forming an adduct with the unbound luminescent probes and having an attached quencher material effective to quench luminescence of the luminescent moiety. The quencher material of the capture reagent molecules is added to a solution of the luminescent probe/target adducts and binds in a proximity to the luminescent moiety of the unbound luminescent probes to quench luminescence from the luminescent moiety when the luminescent moiety is exposed to exciting illumination. The quencher capture reagent does not bind to probe molecules that are bound to target molecules and the probe/target adduct emission is not quenched.

  4. Measurement of the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 3mm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    A balloon-borne differential radiometer has measured the large-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) with high sensitivity. The antenna temperature dipole anistropy at 90 GHz (3 mm wavelength) is 2.82 +- 0.19 mK, corresponding to a thermodynamic anistropy of 3.48 +- mK for a 2.7 K blackbody CBR. The dipole direction, 11.3 +- 0.1 hours right ascension and -5.7/sup 0/ +- 1.8/sup 0/ declination, agrees well with measurements at other frequencies. Calibration error dominates magnitude uncertainty, with statistical errors on dipole terms being under 0.1 mK. No significant quadrupole power is found, placing a 90% confidence-level upper limit of 0.27 mK on the RMS thermodynamic quadrupolar anistropy. 22 figures, 17 tables.

  5. Cosmic strings as the source of small-scale microwave background anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pogosian, Levon; Tye, S.-H. Henry; Wasserman, Ira; Wyman, Mark E-mail: tye@lepp.cornell.edu E-mail: mwyman@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2009-02-15

    Cosmic string networks generate cosmological perturbations actively throughout the history of the universe. Thus, the string sourced anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background is not affected by Silk damping as much as the anisotropy seeded by inflation. The spectrum of perturbations generated by strings does not match the observed CMB spectrum on large angular scales (l < 1000) and is bounded to contribute no more than 10% of the total power on those scales. However, when this bound is marginally saturated, the anisotropy created by cosmic strings on small angular scales l {approx}> 2000 will dominate over that created by the primary inflationary perturbations. This range of angular scales in the CMB is presently being measured by a number of experiments; their results will test this prediction of cosmic string networks soon.

  6. Historical Background on the Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RECHARD, ROBERT P

    1999-10-21

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a Research and development facility for the safe management storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and after site selection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance. assessment conducted in 1996, which is summarized in this special issue of Reliability Engineering and System Safety. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This paper provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project.

  7. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Temperature at3.3 mm Wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witebsky, C.; Smoot, G.; De Amici, G.; Friedman, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    We have measured the temperature of the cosmic background radiation (CBR) at 3.3 mm wavelength in 1982, 1983, and 1984 as part of a larger project to determine the CBR temperature at five wavelengths from 12 cm to 3.3 mm (Smoot et al. 1985). The 3.3-mm measurements yield a brightness temperature of 2.57 K with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 20.12 K. This paper describes the instrument, the measurement techniques, and the data-analysis procedures used. Our result is in good agreement with recent measurements at comparable wavelengths by Meyer and Jura (1985) and by Peterson, Richards, and Timusk (1985), but it disagrees with the temperatures reported by Woody and Richards (1981).

  8. Estimation of Equivalent Sea Level Cosmic Ray Exposure for Low Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Austen T.; Orrell, John L.

    2012-08-25

    While scientists at CERN and other particle accelerators around the world explore the boundaries of high energy physics, the Majorana project investigates the other end of the spectrum with its extremely sensitive, low background, low energy detector. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR aims to detect neutrinoless double beta decay (0???), a rare theoretical process in which two neutrons decay into two protons and two electrons, without the emission of the two antineutrinos that are a product of a normal double beta decay. This process is only possible if and therefore a detection would prove the neutrino is a Majorana particle, meaning that it is its own antiparticle [Aaselth et al. 2004] . The existence of such a decay would also disprove lepton conservation and give information about the neutrino's mass.

  9. Low-frequency measurements of the CMB (cosmic microwave background) spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogut, A.; Bensadoun, M.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Limon, M.; Smoot, G. ); Sironi, G. . Dipt. di Fisica); Bersanelli, M.; Bonelli, G. )

    1989-10-01

    As part of an extended program to characterize the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at low frequencies, we have performed multiple measurements from a high-altitude site in California. On average, these measurements suggest a CMB temperature slightly lower than measurements at higher frequencies. Atmospheric conditions and the encroachment of civilization are now significant limitations from our present observing site. In November 1989, we will make new measurements from the South Pole Amnudsen-Scott Station at frequencies 0.82 1.5, 2.5, 3.8, 7.5, and 90 GHz. We discuss recent measurements and indicate improvements from a polar observing site. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Durability-Based Design Guide for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 2. Background Data and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Weitsman, Y.J.; Yahr, G.T.

    1998-02-01

    This background report is a companion to the document entitled ''Durability-Based Design Criteria for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 1. Design Rules'' (ORNL-6930). The rules and the supporting material characterization and modeling efforts described here are the result of a U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures.'' The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive structural composites. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC). The initial reference material addressed by the rules and this background report was chosen and supplied by ACC. The material is a structural reaction injection-molded isocyanurate (urethane), reinforced with continuous-strand, swirl-mat, E-glass fibers. This report consists of 16 position papers, each summarizing the observations and results of a key area of investigation carried out to provide the basis for the durability-based design guide. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluids, vibrations, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. The position papers cover these durability issues. Topics include (1) tensile, compressive, shear, and flexural properties; (2) creep and creep rupture; (3) cyclic fatigue; (4) the effects of temperature, environment, and prior loadings; (5) a multiaxial strength criterion; (6) impact damage and damage tolerance design; (7) stress concentrations; (8) a damage-based predictive model for time-dependent deformations; (9) confirmatory subscale component tests; and (10) damage development and growth observations.

  11. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajello, M.; Costamante, L.; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; Chiang, J.; Rau, A.; Escala, A.; Greiner, J.; Tueller, J.; Wall, J.V.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  12. The Design of an Ultra-Low Background Thermosyphon for the Majorana Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Busch, Matthew; Daniels, Randy; Fast, James E.; Green, Matthew P.; Reid, Douglas J.

    2013-05-01

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) is an ultra-low background neutrinoless double-beta decay (0???) experiment that will deploy up to 40 kg of high purity germanium detectors (HPGe). The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a detector array with less than 1 event/ton-year in a 4 keV region of interest around the 0??? signal. HPGe diodes, when used as ionizing radiation detectors, need to be maintained at a temperature close to that of liquid nitrogen (77 K). This work describes the R&D results of a cryogenic system capable of meeting the requirements of low background and the cooling capacity required to successfully operate such a detector system. The MJD germanium detector modules will operate at liquid nitrogen temperature to provide adequate cooling for a full range of HPGe impurity concentrations. This paper shows the experimental results obtained using a two-phase horizontal thermosyphon using liquid nitrogen as the MJDs cooling system. The cold test shows that the proposed thermosyphon has sufficient cooling power to handle the heat load of an MJD module. Results for the temperature gradient across the thermosyphon, cooling capacity, and design considerations demonstrate that the thermosyphon can effectively remove the calculated heat load of each module of the experiment. The thermosyphon will be bolted to a cold plate from which detector strings will hang. The thermal conductivity of a mockup of the MJD bolted thermal joint is experimentally determined to be below 0.1 K/W.

  13. Viscous effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with background temperature gradient

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerashchenko, Sergiy; Livescu, Daniel

    2016-07-28

    Here we studied the growth rate of the compressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a background temperature gradient, Θ, using a normal mode analysis. The effect of Θ variation is examined for three interface types corresponding to the combinations of the viscous properties of the fluids (inviscid-inviscid, viscous-viscous, and viscous-inviscid) at different Atwood numbers, At, and when at least one of the fluids' viscosity is non-zero, as a function of the Grashof number. For the general case, the resulting ordinary differential equations are solved numerically; however, dispersion relations for the growth rate are presented for several limiting cases. Anmore » analytical solution is found for the inviscid-inviscid interface and the corresponding dispersion equation for the growth rate is obtained in the limit of large Θ. For the viscous-inviscid case, a dispersion relation is derived in the incompressible limit and Θ=0. Compared to Θ=0 case, the role of Θ<0 (hotter light fluid) is destabilizing and becomes stabilizing when Θ>0 (colder light fluid). The most pronounced effect of Θ ≠ 0 is found at low At and/or at large perturbation wavelengths relative to the domain size for all interface types. On the other hand, at small perturbation wavelengths relative to the domain size, the growth rate for the Θ<0 case exceeds the infinite domain incompressible constant density result. The results are applied to two practical examples, using sets of parameters relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion coasting stage and solar corona plumes. The role of viscosity on the growth rate reduction is discussed together with highlighting the range of wavenumbers most affected by viscosity. The viscous effects further increase in the presence of background temperature gradient, when the viscosity is temperature dependent.« less

  14. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search and Background Rejection with Event Position Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Gen-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from observational cosmology and astrophysics indicates that about one third of the universe is matter, but that the known baryonic matter only contributes to the universe at 4%. A large fraction of the universe is cold and non-baryonic matter, which has important role in the universe structure formation and its evolution. The leading candidate for the non-baryonic dark matter is Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which naturally occurs in the supersymmetry theory in particle physics. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is searching for evidence of a WIMP interaction off an atomic nucleus in crystals of Ge and Si by measuring simultaneously the phonon energy and ionization energy of the interaction in the CDMS detectors. The WIMP interaction energy is from a few keV to tens of keV with a rate less than 0.1 events/kg/day. To reach the goal of WIMP detection, the CDMS experiment has been conducted in the Soudan mine with an active muon veto and multistage passive background shields. The CDMS detectors have a low energy threshold and background rejection capabilities based on ionization yield. However, betas from contamination and other radioactive sources produce surface interactions, which have low ionization yield, comparable to that of bulk nuclear interactions. The low-ionization surface electron recoils must be removed in the WIMP search data analysis. An emphasis of this thesis is on developing the method of the surface-interaction rejection using location information of the interactions, phonon energy distributions and phonon timing parameters. The result of the CDMS Soudan run118 92.3 live day WIMP search data analysis is presented, and represents the most sensitive search yet performed.

  15. Genetic Background Modulates lncRNA-Coordinated Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Jonathan; Huang, Yurong; Nguyen, David H.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10 cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressed aftermore » LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs.« less

  16. Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers: Results of background trace metals study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, M.M.; Overdier, J.T.; Armstrong, D.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Webb, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Levels of total and filtrable Ag, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in 41 Wisconsin rivers draining watersheds of distinct homogeneous characteristics (land use/cover, soil type, surficial geology) were quantified. Levels, fluxes, and yields of trace metals are interpreted in terms of principal geochemical controls. The study samples were also used to evaluate the capability of modern ICP-MS techniques for ``background`` level quantification of metals. Order-of-magnitude variations in levels of a given metal between sites was measured. This large natural variance reflects influences of soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOC), ionic strength, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on metal levels. Significant positive correlations between DOC levels and filtrable metal concentrations were observed, demonstrating the important role that DOC plays in metal speciation and behavior. Systematic, chemically consistent, differences in behavior between the metals is evident with partition coefficients (K,) and fraction in particulate forms ranking in the order: Al > Pb > Zn > Cr >Cd > Cu. Total metal yields correlate well with SPM yields, especially for highly partitioned elements, whereas filtrable metal yields reflect the interplay of partitioning and water yield. The State of Wisconsin will use these data in a re-evaluation of regulatory limits and in the development of water effects ratio criteria.

  17. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1.47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus_minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus_minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  18. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1. 47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  19. Genetic background modulates lncRNA-coordinated tissue response to low dose ionizing radiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Jonathan; Huang, Yurong; Nguyen, David H.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Snijders, Antoine M.; Mao, Jian -Hua

    2015-02-04

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10 cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressedmoreafter LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs.less

  20. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - Background : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    This volume consists of eight separate reports. We present them as background to the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology. They are a selection from publications, white papers, and presentations prepared over the past two years. Some of the papers are previously published, others are currently being prepared for publication. In the early to mid 1980`s the concern for failure of both natural and hatchery production of Columbia river salmon populations was widespread. The concept of supplementation was proposed as an alternative solution that would integrate artificial propagation with natural production. In response to the growing expectations placed upon the supplementation tool, a project called Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) was initiated in 1990. The charge of RASP was to define supplementation and to develop guidelines for when, where and how it would be the appropriate solution to salmon enhancement in the Columbia basin. The RASP developed a definition of supplementation and a set of guidelines for planning salmon enhancement efforts which required consideration of all factors affecting salmon populations, including environmental, genetic, and ecological variables. The results of RASP led to a conclusion that salmon issues needed to be addressed in a manner that was consistent with an ecosystem approach. If the limitations and potentials of supplementation or any other management tool were to be fully understood it would have to be within the context of a broadly integrated approach - thus the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) method was born.

  1. Measured Radiation and Background Levels During Transmission of Megawatt Electron Beams Through Millimeter Apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alarcon, Ricardo [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Balascuta, S. [Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ (United States); Benson, Stephen V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Bertozzi, William [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Boyce, James R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Cowan, Ray [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Evtushenko, Pavel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Fisher, P. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ihloff, Ernest E. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kalantarians, Narbe [Hampton University, Hampton, VA (United States); Kelleher, Aidan Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Krossler, W. J. [William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Legg, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Long, Elena [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Neil, George R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Ou, Longwu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schmookler, Barack Abraham [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tschalar, C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Williams, Gwyn P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-off, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW continuous-wave (CW) beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, multipactoring inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation when the machine is tuned for 130 MeV operation.

  2. A Study of External Galaxies Detected by the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odenwald, S.; Newmark, J.; Smoot, G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of the {ital COBE} Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the {ital IRAS} Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at {lambda} {gt} 100 {mu}m. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at {ital T}{sub {ital d}} = 20{endash}30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with {ital T}{sub {ital d}} {approx} 10{endash}15 K suggest that between 2{percent}{endash}100{percent} of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 {mu}m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by {ital IRAS} and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65{percent}. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  3. A study of external galaxies detected by the COBE Diffuse InfraredBackground Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odenwald, S.; Newmark, J.; Smoot, G.

    1995-10-05

    A comparison of the COBE Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) all-sky survey with the locations of known galaxies in the IRAS Catalog of Extragalactic Objects and the Center for Astrophysics Catalog of Galaxies led to the detection of as many as 57 galaxies. In this paper, we present the photometric data for these galaxies and an analysis of the seven galaxies that were detected at lambda > 100 mum. Estimates of the ratio of the mass of the cold dust (CD) component detected at Td = 20-30 K to a very cold dust (VCD) component with Td approx. = to 10-15 K suggest that between 2 percent-100 percent of the cirrus-like CD mass can also exist in many of these galaxies as VCD. In one galaxy, M33, the DIRBE photometry at 240 mu m suggests as much as 26 times as much VCD may be present as compared to the cirrus-like component. Further submillimeter measurements of this galaxy are required to verify such a large population of VCD. We also present 10 galaxies that were detected in the sky region not previously surveyed by IRAS and that can be used to construct a flux-limited all-sky catalog of galaxies brighter than 1000 Jy with a modest completeness limit of about 65 percent.

  4. Investigation of Technetium Redox Cycling in FRC Background Sediments using EXAFS and Gamma Camera Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, J.R.; McBeth, J.M.; Lear, G.; Morris, K.; Burke, I.T.; Livens, F.R.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R.

    2006-04-05

    Technetium-99 is a priority pollutant at numerous DOE sites, due to its long half-life (2.1 x 105 years), high mobility as Tc(VII) in oxic waters, and bioavailability as a sulfate analogue. {sup 99}Tc is far less mobile under anaerobic conditions, forming insoluble Tc(IV) precipitates. As anaerobic microorganisms can reduce soluble Tc(VII) to insoluble Tc(IV), microbial metabolism may have the potential to treat sediments and waters contaminated with Tc. Baseline studies of fundamental mechanisms of Tc(VII) bioreduction and precipitation (reviewed by Lloyd et al., 2005, in press) have generally used pure cultures of metal-reducing bacteria, in order to develop conceptual models for the biogeochemical cycling of {sup 99}Tc. There is, however, comparatively little known about interactions of metal-reducing bacteria with environmentally relevant trace concentrations of {sup 99}Tc, against a more complex biogeochemical background provided by mixed microbial communities in aquifer sediments. The objective of this project is to probe the site specific biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of {sup 99}Tc at the US DOE Field Research Center Site (FRC; Oak Ridge, Tennessee). This information is required for the rational design of in situ bioremediation strategies for technetium-contaminated subsurface environments. We are using a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, microbiological and spectroscopic techniques to determine the solubility and phase associations of {sup 99}Tc in FRC sediments, and characterize the underpinning biogeochemical controls.

  5. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  6. Estimation of the extragalactic background light using TeV observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Acharya, B. S.; Sahayanathan, S.; Godambe, S.; Misra, R. E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in E-mail: gsagar@barc.ernet.in

    2014-11-01

    The very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray spectral index of high-energy peaked blazars correlates strongly with its corresponding redshift, whereas no such correlation is observed in the X-ray or GeV bands. We attribute this correlation to photon-photon absorption of TeV photons with the extragalactic background light (EBL), and utilizing this we compute the allowed flux range for the EBL, which is independent of previous estimates. The observed VHE spectrum of the sources in our sample can be well approximated by a power law, and if the de-absorbed spectrum is also assumed to be a power law, then we show that the spectral shape of EBL will be εn(ε) ∼ klog (ε/ε {sub p}). We estimate the range of values for the parameters defining the EBL spectrum, k and ε {sub p}, such that the correlation of the intrinsic VHE spectrum with redshift is nullified. The estimated EBL depends only on the observed correlation and the assumption of a power-law source spectrum. Specifically, it does not depend on the spectral modeling or radiative mechanism of the sources or on any theoretical shape of the EBL spectrum obtained through cosmological calculations. The estimated EBL spectrum is consistent with the upper and lower limits imposed by different observations. Moreover, it also agrees closely with the theoretical estimates obtained through cosmological evolution models.

  7. GERDA phase II detectors: Behind the production and characterisation at low background conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maneschg, Werner [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fr Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    The low background GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) is designed to search for the rare neutrinoless double beta decay (0???) in {sup 76}Ge. Bare germanium diodes are operated in liquid argon which is used as coolant, as passive and soon active as well shield against external radiation. Currently, Phase I of the experiment is running using ?15 kg of co-axial High Purity Germanium diodes. In order to increase the sensitivity of the experiment 30 Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) diodes will be added within 2013. This presentation reviews the production chain of the new BEGe detectors from isotopic enrichment to diode production and testing. As demonstrated all steps were carefully planned in order to minimize the exposure of the enriched germanium to cosmic radiation. Following this premise, acceptance and characterisation measurement of the newly produced diodes have been performed within the HEROICA project in the Belgian underground laboratory HADES close to the diode manufacturer. The test program and the results from a subset of the recently terminated GERDA Phase II BEGe survey will be presented.

  8. A new scenario framework for climate change research: background, process, and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebi, Kristie L.; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kram, Tom; Arnell, Nigel; Carter, Tim; Edmonds, James A.; Kriegler, Elmar; Mathur, Ritu; O'Neill, Brian; Riahi, Keywan; Winkler, Harald; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Zwickel, Timm

    2014-02-01

    The scientific community is developing new integrated global, regional, and sectoral scenarios to facilitate interdisciplinary research and assessment to explore the range of possible future climates and related physical changes could pose to human and natural systems; how these could interact with social, economic, and environmental development pathways; the degree to which mitigation and adaptation policies can avoid and reduce those risks; the costs and benefits of various policy mixes; residual impacts under alternative pathways; and the relationship with sustainable development. This paper provides the background to, and process of, developing the conceptual framework for these scenarios, described in three other papers in this Special Issue (van Vuuren et al.; O'Neill et al.; Kriegler et al.). The paper also discusses research needs to further develop and apply this framework. The goal is to encourage climate change researchers from a broad range of perspectives and disciplines to work together to develop policy-relevant scenarios and explore the implications of different possible futures for the challenges and opportunities human and natural systems could face with increasing climate change.

  9. Historical Background on Assessment the Performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    In 1979, six years after selecting the Delaware Basin as a potential disposal area, Congress authorized the US Department of Energy to build the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico, as a research and development facility for the safe management, storage, and disposal of waste contaminated with transuranic radioisotopes. In 1998, 19 years after authorization and 25 years after site selection, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified that the WIPP disposal system complied with its regulations. The EPA's decision was primarily based on the results from a performance assessment conducted in 1996. This performance assessment was the culmination of four preliminary performance assessments conducted between 1989 and 1992. This report provides a historical setting and context for how the performance of the deep geologic repository at the WIPP was analyzed. Also included is background on political forces acting on the project. For example, the federal requirement to provide environmental impact statements and negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico influenced the type of scientific areas that were investigated and the engineering analysis prior to 1989 for the WIPP.

  10. A guide to designing future ground-based cosmic microwave background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, W. L. K.; Kuo, C. L.; Errard, J.; Dvorkin, C.; Lee, A. T.; McDonald, P.; Zahn, O.; Slosar, A.

    2014-06-20

    In this follow-up work to the high energy physics Community Summer Study 2013 (aka SNOWMASS), we explore the scientific capabilities of a future Stage IV cosmic microwave background polarization experiment under various assumptions on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage. We use the Fisher matrix technique to calculate the expected uncertainties of cosmological parameters in ??CDM that are especially relevant to the physics of fundamental interactions, including neutrino masses, effective number of relativistic species, dark energy equation of state, dark matter annihilation, and inflationary parameters. To further chart the landscape of future cosmology probes, we include forecasted results from the baryon acoustic oscillation signal as measured by Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument to constrain parameters that would benefit from low redshift information. We find the following best 1? constraints: ?(M {sub ?}) = 15 meV, ?(N {sub eff}) = 0.0156, dark energy figure of merit = 303, ?(p {sub ann}) = 0.00588 3 10{sup 26} cm{sup 3} s{sup 1} GeV{sup 1}, ?(? {sub K}) = 0.00074, ?(n{sub s} ) = 0.00110, ?(? {sub s}) = 0.00145, and ?(r) = 0.00009. We also detail the dependencies of the parameter constraints on detector count, resolution, and sky coverage.

  11. Signatures of clumpy dark matter in the global 21 cm background signal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumberbatch, Daniel T.; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Silk, Joseph

    2010-11-15

    We examine the extent to which the self-annihilation of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter, as well as light dark matter, influences the rate of heating, ionization, and Lyman-{alpha} pumping of interstellar hydrogen and helium and the extent to which this is manifested in the 21 cm global background signal. We fully consider the enhancements to the annihilation rate from dark matter halos and substructures within them. We find that the influence of such structures can result in significant changes in the differential brightness temperature, {delta}T{sub b}. The changes at redshifts z<25 are likely to be undetectable due to the presence of the astrophysical signal; however, in the most favorable cases, deviations in {delta}T{sub b}, relative to its value in the absence of self-annihilating dark matter, of up to {approx_equal}20 mK at z=30 can occur. Thus we conclude that, in order to exclude these models, experiments measuring the global 21 cm signal, such as EDGES and CORE, will need to reduce the systematics at 50 MHz to below 20 mK.

  12. Constraints on Extragalactic Background Light from Cherenkov telescopes: status and perspectives for the next 5 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazin, Daniel

    2009-04-08

    Very high energy (VHE, E>30 GeV){gamma}-rays are absorbed via interaction with low-energy photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL) if the involved photon energies are above the threshold for electron-positron pair creation. The VHE {gamma}-ray absorption, which is energy dependent and increases strongly with redshift, distorts the VHE energy spectra observed from distant objects. The observed energy spectra of the AGNs carry therefore an imprint of the EBL. Recent detections of hard spectra of distant blazars (z = 0.11-0.54) by H.E.S.S. and MAGIC put strong constraints on the EBL density in the optical to near infrared waveband. It is, however, not yet possible to distinguish between an intrinsic softening of blazar spectra and a softening caused by the interaction with low energy EBL photons. In this paper, we give an overview of the EBL constraints, their limitations and perspectives for the joint efforts of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space telescope and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  13. Sustainable development: Background an represent policy views for governmental agencies, industry, and other specialty groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerman, J.A.; Silverman, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a phrase that has come into common usage without benefit of clear definition or meaning. Usage very much reflects individual and group perspectives: foresters might consider sustainability in terms of maintaining ecological integrity as part of managing forests for wood harvesting, industry might emphasize pollution control, while government agencies may be looking for new ways to exploit resources on a more continuous basis. Perhaps the greatest commonality among groups considering these issues is that {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} has not been attained but that it needs to occur. The National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP) agrees that it is critical to the health of the planet that sustainable development be actively pursued and implemented in international, national, regional, and local policies and practices. To contribute to this effort a {open_quotes}white paper{close_quotes} is being prepared. Its purpose is twofold: (1) to review the existing information from the NAEP Sustainable Development Working Group and the literature and through examination of these policies, to clarify the thinking, what is being done, and what is still needed; and (2) to develop a position and action plan. This action plan should direct NAEP`s actions in making a significant contribution to the national dialog. This paper presents the background and results of the review phase of this white paper development. Representative views on sustainable development policy and practice are presented from three perspectives: governmental agencies, industry, and other specialty groups.

  14. Atomic chemistry in turbulent astrophysical media II: Effect of the redshift zero metagalactic background

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gray, William J.; Scannapieco, Evan

    2016-02-22

    Here, we carry out direct numerical simulations of turbulent astrophysical media exposed to the redshift zero metagalactic background. The simulations assume solar composition and explicitly track ionizations, recombinations, and ion-by-ion radiative cooling for hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sodium, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, calcium, and iron. Each run reaches a global steady state that depends not only on the ionization parameter,more » $U,$ and mass-weighted average temperature, $${T}_{{\\rm{MW}}},$$ but also on the one-dimensional turbulent velocity dispersion, $${\\sigma }_{{\\rm{1D}}}$$. We carry out runs that span a grid of models with U ranging from 0 to 10–1 and $${\\sigma }_{{\\rm{1D}}}$$ ranging from 3.5 to 58 km s–1, and we vary the product of the mean density and the driving scale of the turbulence, $${nL},$$ which determines the average temperature of the medium, from $${nL}={10}^{16}$$ to $${nL}={10}^{20}$$ cm–2. The turbulent Mach numbers of our simulations vary from $$M\\approx 0.5$$ for the lowest velocity dispersion cases to $$M\\approx 20$$ for the largest velocity dispersion cases. When $$M\\lesssim 1,$$ turbulent effects are minimal, and the species abundances are reasonably described as those of a uniform photoionized medium at a fixed temperature. On the other hand, when $$M\\gtrsim 1,$$ dynamical simulations such as the ones carried out here are required to accurately predict the species abundances. We gather our results into a set of tables to allow future redshift zero studies of the intergalactic medium to account for turbulent effects.« less

  15. New constraints on cosmic polarization rotation from B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alighieri, Sperello di Serego; Ni, Wei-Tou; Pan, Wei-Ping E-mail: weitou@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2 have recently measured the cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization in various sky regions of several tens of square degrees and obtained BB power spectra in the multipole range 20-3000, detecting the components due to gravitational lensing and to inflationary gravitational waves. We analyze jointly the results of these three experiments and propose modifications to their analyses of the spectra to include in the model, in addition to the gravitational lensing and the inflationary gravitational wave components, and also the effects induced by the cosmic polarization rotation (CPR), if it exists within current upper limits. Although in principle our analysis would also lead to new constraints on CPR, in practice these can only be given on its fluctuations (??{sup 2}), since constraints on its mean angle are inhibited by the derotation which is applied by current CMB polarization experiments, in order to cope with the insufficient calibration of the polarization angle. The combined data fits from all three experiments (with 29% CPR-SPTpol correlation, depending on the theoretical model) gives the constraint (??{sup 2}){sup 1/2} < 27.3 mrad (1.56), with r = 0.194 0.033. These results show that the present data are consistent with no CPR detection and the constraint on CPR fluctuation is about 1.5. This method of constraining the CPR is new, is complementary to previous tests, which use the radio and optical/UV polarization of radio galaxies and the CMB E-mode polarization, and adds a new constraint for the sky areas observed by SPTpol, POLARBEAR, and BICEP2.

  16. Degree-scale cosmic microwave background polarization measurements from three years of BICEP1 data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barkats, D.; Aikin, R.; Bock, J. J.; Filippini, J.; Hristov, V. V.; Bischoff, C.; Buder, I.; Kovac, J. M.; Kaufman, J. P.; Keating, B. G.; Bierman, E. M.; Su, M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Battle, J. O.; Dowell, C. D.; Chiang, H. C.; Duband, L.; Hivon, E. F.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Jones, W. C.; and others

    2014-03-10

    BICEP1 is a millimeter-wavelength telescope designed specifically to measure the inflationary B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background at degree angular scales. We present results from an analysis of the data acquired during three seasons of observations at the South Pole (2006-2008). This work extends the two-year result published in Chiang et al., with additional data from the third season and relaxed detector-selection criteria. This analysis also introduces a more comprehensive estimation of band power window functions, improved likelihood estimation methods, and a new technique for deprojecting monopole temperature-to-polarization leakage that reduces this class of systematic uncertainty to a negligible level. We present maps of temperature, E- and B-mode polarization, and their associated angular power spectra. The improvement in the map noise level and polarization spectra error bars are consistent with the 52% increase in integration time relative to Chiang et al. We confirm both self-consistency of the polarization data and consistency with the two-year results. We measure the angular power spectra at 21 ≤ ℓ ≤ 335 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with Lambda cold dark matter cosmology, with the first acoustic peak of the EE spectrum now detected at 15σ. The BB spectrum remains consistent with zero. From B-modes only, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r=0.03{sub −0.23}{sup +0.27}, or r < 0.70 at 95% confidence level.

  17. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V. E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  18. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

    2009-09-24

    This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

  19. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  20. Final Technical Report [Cosmogenic background and shielding R&D for a Ge Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiseppe, Vince

    2013-10-01

    The USD Majorana group focused all of its effort in support of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR (MJD) experiment. Final designs of the shielding subsystems are complete. Construction of the MJD shielding systems at SURF has begun and the proposed activities directly support the completion of the shield systems. The PI and the group contribute heavily to the onsite construction activities of the MJD experiment. The group led investigations into neutron and neutron-?induced backgrounds, shielding effectiveness and design, and radon backgrounds.

  1. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3: Project Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared.

  2. The Design, Construction, and Initial Characterization of an Ultra-Low-Background Gas-Proportional Counting System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Day, Anthony R.; Fuller, Erin S.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Keillor, Martin E.; Mace, Emily K.; Overman, Cory T.; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-05-01

    ABSTRACT Over the past several years, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed an ultra-low background proportional counter (ULBPC) technology. The resulting detector is the product of an effort to produce a low-background, physically robust gas proportional counter for applications like radon emanation measurements, groundwater tritium, and 37Ar. In order to fully take advantage of the inherent low-background properties designed into the ULBPC, a comparably low-background dedicated counting system is required. An ultra-low-background counting system (ULBCS) was recently built in the new shallow underground laboratory at PNNL. With a design depth of 30 meters water-equivalent, the shallow underground laboratory provides approximately 100x fewer fast neutrons and 6x fewer muons than a surface location. The ULBCS itself provides additional shielding in the form of active anti-cosmic veto (via 2-in. thick plastic scintillator paddles) and passive borated poly (1 in.), lead (6 in.), and copper (~3 in.) shielding. This work will provide details on PNNLs new shallow underground laboratory, examine the motivation for the design of the counting system, and provide results from the characterization of the ULBCS, including initial detector background.

  3. Probing non-standard gravity with the growth index: a background independent analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steigerwald, Heinrich; Marinoni, Christian; Bel, Julien E-mail: jbel@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2014-05-01

    Measurements of the growth index of linear matter density fluctuations ?(z) provide a clue as to whether Einstein's field equations encompass gravity also on large cosmic scales, those where the expansion of the universe accelerates. We show that the information encoded in this function can be satisfactorily parameterized using a small set of coefficients ?{sub i}, in such a way that the true scaling of the growth index is recovered to better than 1% in most dark energy and dark gravity models. We find that the likelihood of current data, given this formalism and the ? Cold Dark Matter (?CDM) expansion model of Planck, is maximal for ?{sub 0} = 0.74{sup +0.44}{sub ?0.41} and ?{sub 1} = 0.01{sup +0.46}{sub ?0.46}, a measurement compatible with the ?CDM predictions (?{sub 0} = 0.545, ?{sub 1} = ?0.007). In addition, data tend to favor models predicting slightly less growth of structures than the Planck ?CDM scenario. The main aim of the paper is to provide a prescription for routinely calculating, in an analytic way, the amplitude of the growth indices ?{sub i} in relevant cosmological scenarios, and to show that these parameters naturally define a space where predictions of alternative theories of gravity can be compared against growth data in a manner which is independent from the expansion history of the cosmological background. As the standard ?-plane provides a tool to identify different expansion histories H(t) and their relation to various cosmological models, the ?-plane can thus be used to locate different growth rate histories f(t) and their relation to alternatives model of gravity. As a result, we find that the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati gravity model is rejected with a 95% confidence level. By simulating future data sets, such as those that a Euclid-like mission will provide, we also show how to tell apart ?CDM predictions from those of more extreme possibilities, such as smooth dark energy models, clustering quintessence or parameterized post

  4. HerMES: COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES AND THE CLUSTERING OF DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viero, M. P.; Zemcov, M.; Bock, J.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Wang, L.; Addison, G.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Casey, C. M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; and others

    2013-07-20

    We present measurements of the auto- and cross-frequency power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m (1200, 860, and 600 GHz) from observations totaling {approx}70 deg{sup 2} made with the SPIRE instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. We measure a fractional anisotropy {delta}I/I = 14% {+-} 4%, detecting signatures arising from the clustering of dusty star-forming galaxies in both the linear (2-halo) and nonlinear (1-halo) regimes; and that the transition from the 2- to 1-halo terms, below which power originates predominantly from multiple galaxies within dark matter halos, occurs at k{sub {theta}} {approx} 0.10-0.12 arcmin{sup -1} (l {approx} 2160-2380), from 250 to 500 {mu}m. New to this paper is clear evidence of a dependence of the Poisson and 1-halo power on the flux-cut level of masked sources-suggesting that some fraction of the more luminous sources occupy more massive halos as satellites, or are possibly close pairs. We measure the cross-correlation power spectra between bands, finding that bands which are farthest apart are the least correlated, as well as hints of a reduction in the correlation between bands when resolved sources are more aggressively masked. In the second part of the paper, we attempt to interpret the measurements in the framework of the halo model. With the aim of fitting simultaneously with one model the power spectra, number counts, and absolute CIB level in all bands, we find that this is achievable by invoking a luminosity-mass relationship, such that the luminosity-to-mass ratio peaks at a particular halo mass scale and declines toward lower and higher mass halos. Our best-fit model finds that the halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation in the redshift range of peak star-forming activity, z {approx} 1-3, is log(M{sub peak}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 12.1 {+-} 0.5, and that the minimum halo mass to host infrared galaxies is log(M{sub min}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10

  5. Signatures of anisotropic sources in the trispectrum of the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Peloso, Marco E-mail: komatsu@mpa-garching.mpg.de

    2014-04-01

    Soft limits of N-point correlation functions, in which one wavenumber is much smaller than the others, play a special role in constraining the physics of inflation. Anisotropic sources such as a vector field during inflation generate distinct angular dependence in all these correlators, and introduce a fix privileged direction in our sky. In this paper we focus on the four-point correlator (the trispectrum T). We adopt a parametrization motivated by models in which the inflaton ? is coupled to a vector field through a I{sup 2}(?)F{sup 2} interaction, namely T{sub ?}(k{sub 1},k{sub 2},k{sub 3},k{sub 4})??{sub n}d{sub n}[P{sub n}( k-circumflex {sub 1}? k-circumflex {sub 3})+P{sub n}( k-circumflex {sub 1}? k-circumflex {sub 12})+P{sub n}( k-circumflex {sub 3}? k-circumflex {sub 12})]P{sub ?}(k{sub 1})P{sub ?}(k{sub 3})P{sub ?}(k{sub 12})+(23perm), where P{sub n} denotes the Legendre polynomials. This shape is enhanced when the wavenumbers of the diagonals of the quadrilateral are much smaller than the sides, k{sub i}. The coefficient of the isotropic part, d{sub 0}, is equal to ?{sub NL}/6 discussed in the literature. A I{sup 2}(?)F{sup 2} interaction generates d{sub 2} = 2d{sub 0} which is, in turn, related to the quadrupole modulation parameter of the power spectrum, g{sub *}, as d{sub 2} ? 14|g{sub *}|N{sup 2} with N ? 60. We show that d{sub 0} and d{sub 2} can be equally well-constrained: the expected 68% CL error bars on these coefficients from a cosmic-variance-limited experiment measuring temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background up to ?{sub max} = 2000 are ?d{sub 2} ? 4?d{sub 0} = 105. Therefore, we can reach |g{sub *}| = 10{sup ?3} by measuring the angle-dependent trispectrum. The current upper limit on ?{sub NL} from the Planck temperature maps yields |g{sub *}| < 0.02 (95% CL)

  6. INVERSE-COMPTON CONTRIBUTION TO THE STAR-FORMING EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Nachiketa; Fields, Brian D.

    2013-08-20

    Fermi has resolved several star-forming galaxies, but the vast majority of the star-forming universe is unresolved, and thus contributes to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB). Here, we calculate the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB in the Fermi range from 100 MeV to 100 GeV due to inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of the interstellar photon field by cosmic-ray electrons. We first construct one-zone models for individual star-forming galaxies assuming that supernovae power the acceleration of cosmic rays. We develop templates for both normal and starburst galaxies, accounting for differences in the cosmic-ray electron propagation and in the interstellar radiation fields. For both types of star-forming galaxies, the same IC interactions leading to gamma rays also substantially contribute to the energy loss of the high-energy cosmic-ray electrons. Consequently, a galaxy's IC emission is determined by the relative importance of IC losses in the cosmic-ray electron energy budget ({sup p}artial calorimetry{sup )}. We calculate the cosmological contribution of star-forming galaxies to the EGB using our templates and the cosmic star formation rate distribution. For all of our models, we find that the IC EGB contribution is almost an order of magnitude less than the peak of the emission due to cosmic-ray ion interactions (mostly pionic p{sub cr} p{sub ism} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma}); even at the highest Fermi energies, IC is subdominant. The flatter IC spectrum increases the high-energy signal of the pionic+IC sum, bringing it closer to the EGB spectral index observed by Fermi. Partial calorimetry ensures that the overall IC signal is relatively well constrained, with only uncertainties in the amplitude and spectral shape for plausible model choices. We conclude with a brief discussion on how the pionic spectral feature and other methods can be used to measure the star-forming component of the EGB.

  7. Evaluation of Background Concentrations of Contaminants in an Unusual Desert Arroyo Near a Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cell - 12260

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, Richard P.; Morrison, Stan J.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages 27 sites that have groundwater containing uranium concentrations above background levels. The distal portions of the plumes merge into background groundwater that can have 50 μg/L or more uranium. Distinguishing background from site-related uranium is often problematic, but it is critical to determining if remediation is warranted, establishing appropriate remediation goals, and evaluating disposal cell performance. In particular, groundwater at disposal cells located on the upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale may have relatively high background concentrations of uranium. Elevated concentrations of nitrate, selenium, and sulfate accompany the uranium. LM used geologic analogs and uranium isotopic signatures to distinguish background groundwater from groundwater contaminated by a former uranium processing site. The same suite of contaminants is present in groundwater near former uranium processing sites and in groundwater seeps emanating from the Mancos Shale over a broad area. The concentrations of these contaminants in Many Devils Wash, located near LM's Shiprock disposal cell, are similar to those in samples collected from many Mancos seeps, including two analog sites that are 8 to 11 km from the disposal cell. Samples collected from Many Devils Wash and the analog sites have high AR values (about 2.0)-in contrast, groundwater samples collected near the tailings disposal cell have AR values near 1.0. These chemical signatures raise questions about the origin of the contamination seeping into Many Devils Wash. (authors)

  8. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  9. Real-Time Airborne Gamma-Ray Background Estimation Using NASVD with MLE and Radiation Transport for Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.

  10. Breathers and localized solitons for the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system on constant backgrounds in erbium doped fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Rui Hao, Hui-Qin

    2014-05-15

    In nonlinear erbium doped fibers, the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch system with higher order effects usually governs the propagation of ultrashort pulses. New soliton solutions for this system are constructed on the constant backgrounds including one and two breathers and first and higher order localized soliton solutions. Considering the influence of higher order effects, propagation properties of those soliton solutions are discussed. -- Highlights: •The AB and Ma-breathers are derived on the constant backgrounds. •Dynamic features of two-breathers are discussed. •Localized solutions are generated from two different ways.

  11. The effect of plasma background on the instability of two non-parallel quantum plasma shells in whole K space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K., E-mail: std-hajisharifi@khu.ac.ir, E-mail: k.hajisharifi@gmail.com; Hasanbeigi, A., E-mail: hbeigi@khu.ac.ir, E-mail: ahbeigi@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr. Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell's equations are used to study the stability problem of non-parallel and non-relativistic plasma shells colliding over a background plasma at arbitrary angle, as a first step towards a microscopic understanding of the collision shocks. The calculations have been performed for all magnitude and directions of wave vectors. The colliding plasma shells in the vacuum region have been investigated in the previous works as a counter-streaming model. While, in the presence of background plasma (more realistic system), the colliding shells are mainly non-paralleled. The obtained results show that the presence of background plasma often suppresses the maximum growth rate of instabilities (in particular case, this behavior is contrary). It is also found that the largest maximum growth rate occurs for the two-stream instability of the configuration consisting of counter-streaming currents in a very dilute plasma background. The results derived in this study can be used to analyze the systems of three colliding plasma slabs, provided that the used coordinate system is stationary relative to the one of the particle slabs. The present analytical investigations can be applied to describe the quantum violent astrophysical phenomena such as white dwarf stars collision with other dense astrophysical bodies or supernova remnants. Moreover, at the limit of ??0, the obtained results described the classical (sufficiently dilute) events of colliding plasma shells such as gamma-ray bursts and flares in the solar winds.

  12. En route to Background Independence: Broken split-symmetry, and how to restore it with bi-metric average actions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D. Reuter, M.

    2014-11-15

    The most momentous requirement a quantum theory of gravity must satisfy is Background Independence, necessitating in particular an ab initio derivation of the arena all non-gravitational physics takes place in, namely spacetime. Using the background field technique, this requirement translates into the condition of an unbroken split-symmetry connecting the (quantized) metric fluctuations to the (classical) background metric. If the regularization scheme used violates split-symmetry during the quantization process it is mandatory to restore it in the end at the level of observable physics. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of split-symmetry breaking and restoration within the Effective Average Action (EAA) approach to Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with a special emphasis on the Asymptotic Safety conjecture. In particular we demonstrate for the first time in a non-trivial setting that the two key requirements of Background Independence and Asymptotic Safety can be satisfied simultaneously. Carefully disentangling fluctuation and background fields, we employ a ‘bi-metric’ ansatz for the EAA and project the flow generated by its functional renormalization group equation on a truncated theory space spanned by two separate Einstein–Hilbert actions for the dynamical and the background metric, respectively. A new powerful method is used to derive the corresponding renormalization group (RG) equations for the Newton- and cosmological constant, both in the dynamical and the background sector. We classify and analyze their solutions in detail, determine their fixed point structure, and identify an attractor mechanism which turns out instrumental in the split-symmetry restoration. We show that there exists a subset of RG trajectories which are both asymptotically safe and split-symmetry restoring: In the ultraviolet they emanate from a non-Gaussian fixed point, and in the infrared they loose all symmetry violating contributions inflicted on them by the

  13. A measurement of the secondary-CMB and millimeter-wave-foreground...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... (United States) Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada) Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States) ...

  14. MODELING OF THE HERMES SUBMILLIMETER SOURCE LENSED BY A DARK MATTER DOMINATED FOREGROUND GROUP OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavazzi, R.; Cooray, A.; Conley, A.; Aguirre, J. E.; Amblard, A.; Auld, R.; Beelen, A.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bridge, C.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Blundell, R.; Brisbin, D.; Burgarella, D.; Chanial, P.; Christopher, N.; Clements, D. L.; Cox, P.

    2011-09-10

    We present the results of a gravitational lensing analysis of the bright z{sub s} = 2.957 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) HERMES found in the Herschel/SPIRE science demonstration phase data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) project. The high-resolution imaging available in optical and near-IR channels, along with CO emission obtained with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, allows us to precisely estimate the intrinsic source extension and hence estimate the total lensing magnification to be {mu} = 10.9 {+-} 0.7. We measure the half-light radius R{sub eff} of the source in the rest-frame near-UV and V bands that characterize the unobscured light coming from stars and find R{sub eff,*} = [2.0 {+-} 0.1] kpc, in good agreement with recent studies on the SMG population. This lens model is also used to estimate the size of the gas distribution (R{sub eff,gas} = [1.1 {+-} 0.5] kpc) by mapping back in the source plane the CO (J = 5 {yields} 4) transition line emission. The lens modeling yields a relatively large Einstein radius R{sub Ein} = 4.''10 {+-} 0.''02, corresponding to a deflector velocity dispersion of [483 {+-} 16] km s{sup -1}. This shows that HERMES is lensed by a galaxy group-size dark matter halo at redshift z{sub l} {approx} 0.6. The projected dark matter contribution largely dominates the mass budget within the Einstein radius with f{sub dm}(< R{sub Ein}) {approx} 80%. This fraction reduces to f{sub dm}(< R{sub eff,G1} {approx_equal} 4.5 kpc) {approx} 47% within the effective radius of the main deflecting galaxy of stellar mass M{sub *,G1} = [8.5 {+-} 1.6] x 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}. At this smaller scale the dark matter fraction is consistent with results already found for massive lensing ellipticals at z {approx} 0.2 from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey.

  15. Quality assurance of temporal variability of natural decay chain and neutron induced background for low-level NORM analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoho, Michael; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2015-09-22

    In this study, twenty-one high purity germanium (HPGe) background spectra were collected over 2 years at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A quality assurance methodology was developed to monitor spectral background levels from thermal and fast neutron flux levels and naturally occurring radioactive material decay series radionuclides. 238U decay products above 222Rn demonstrated minimal temporal variability beyond that expected from counting statistics. 238U and 232Th progeny below Rn gas displayed at most twice the expected variability. Further, an analysis of the 139 keV 74Ge(n, γ) and 691 keV 72Ge(n, n') spectral features demonstrated temporal stability for both thermal and fast neutronmore » fluxes.« less

  16. Quality assurance of temporal variability of natural decay chain and neutron induced background for low-level NORM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoho, Michael; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2015-09-22

    In this study, twenty-one high purity germanium (HPGe) background spectra were collected over 2 years at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A quality assurance methodology was developed to monitor spectral background levels from thermal and fast neutron flux levels and naturally occurring radioactive material decay series radionuclides. 238U decay products above 222Rn demonstrated minimal temporal variability beyond that expected from counting statistics. 238U and 232Th progeny below Rn gas displayed at most twice the expected variability. Further, an analysis of the 139 keV 74Ge(n, γ) and 691 keV 72Ge(n, n') spectral features demonstrated temporal stability for both thermal and fast neutron fluxes.

  17. Background Suppression Using Pulse Shape Analysis with a BEGe Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Search with GERDA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budjas, Dusan; Schoenert, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chkvorets, Oleg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, P3E 2C6 Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-12-17

    A pulse shape analysis for distinguishing between double beta decay-like interactions and multiple-scattered photons was performed for the first time using a BEGe-type detector. This discrimination method is included in the research and development for the second phase of the GERDA experiment, since active background suppression techniques are necessary to reach sensitivity for the {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double beta decay half life of >10{sup 26} years. A suppression of backgrounds in the energy region of interest around the {sup 76}Ge Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV is demonstrated, with (0.93{+-}0.08)% survival probability for events from {sup 60}Co, (21{+-}3)% for {sup 226}Ra, and (40{+-}2)% for {sup 228}Th. This performance is achieved with (89{+-}1)% acceptance of {sup 228}Th double escape events, which are analogous to double beta decay.

  18. Impact of sensitivity and throughput on optimum selection of a low-background alpha/beta gross counting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.; Sergent, F.; Knight, K.; Kyker, B.

    1992-12-31

    Selection of the appropriate low-background counting system is determined by the laboratory`s measurement requirements including the radionuclide activities being measured, required sensitivity, sample volume, sample throughput, operator skill, automation, reporting requirements, budget, reliability, service, and upgrade capability. These requirements are ranked differently by each user. Nevertheless, any selection requires that the sensitivity and sample throughput be evaluated first because these parameters are instrument-specific, cannot be changed after the equipment is purchased and are easily quantified beforehand. Many of the other criteria are also related to sensitivity and affect the choice of instrument. Mathematical expressions, useful in evaluating sensitivity and throughput, are reviewed, extended, and applied to selecting a low-background alpha/beta counting system.

  19. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) background document for newly listed refinery wastes: F037 and F038. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-06-30

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is establishing best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) treatment standards for the newly listed wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations Section 261.31 (40 CFR 261.31) as F037 and F038. This background document provides the Agency`s rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents regulated in F037 and F038 and for developing the treatment standards. Section 1.0 summarizes the regulatory background of F037 and F038 and the contents of the document. Section 2.0 discusses the processes generating the wastes and waste characterization; Section 3.0 discusses the applicable and demonstrated treatment technologies; Section 4.0 discusses the available treatment performance data; Section 5.0 discusses the identification of BDAT; Section 6.0 discusses the selection of regulated constituents; Section 7.0 discusses the calculation of treatment standards.

  20. The sensitivity of Cherenkov telescopes to dark matter and astrophysical anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripken, Joachim; Cuoco, Alessandro; Conrad, Jan; Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Horns, Dieter E-mail: cuoco@fysik.su.se E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the capability of present (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS) and planned (CTA) ground-based Cherenkov telescope systems for detecting angular anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background is investigated. Following up on a study of the impact of instrumental characteristics (effective area, field of view, angular resolution, and background rejection efficiency), the first part examines the influence of different observational strategies, i.e. whether a single deep observation or a splitting over multiple shallow fields is preferred. In the second part, the sensitivity to anisotropies generated by self-annihilating dark matter is studied for different common dark matter models. We find that a relative contribution of ∼ 10% from dark matter annihilation to the extra-galactic diffuse gamma-ray background can be detected with planned configurations of CTA. In terms of the thermally-averaged self-annihilation cross section, the sensitivity of CTA corresponds to values below the thermal freeze-out expectation (σv) = 3 × 10{sup −26} cm{sup 3} s{sup −1} for dark matter particles lighter than ∼ 200 GeV. We stress the importance of constraining anisotropies from unresolved astrophysical sources with currently operating instruments already, as a novel and complementary method for investigating the properties of TeV sources.

  1. Sources of machine-induced background in the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce, R.; et al.,

    2013-11-21

    One source of experimental background in the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is particles entering the detectors from the machine. These particles are created in cascades, caused by upstream interactions of beam protons with residual gas molecules or collimators. We estimate the losses on the collimators with SixTrack and simulate the showers with FLUKA and MARS to obtain the flux and distribution of particles entering the ATLAS and CMS detectors. We consider some machine configurations used in the first LHC run, with focus on 3.5 TeV operation as in 2011. Results from FLUKA and MARS are compared and a very good agreement is found. An analysis of logged LHC data provides, for different processes, absolute beam loss rates, which are used together with further simulations of vacuum conditions to normalize the results to rates of particles entering the detectors. We assess the relative importance of background from elastic and inelastic beam-gas interactions, and the leakage out of the LHC collimation system, and show that beam-gas interactions are the dominating source of machine-induced background for the studied machine scenarios. Our results serve as a starting point for the experiments to perform further simulations in order to estimate the resulting signals in the detectors.

  2. A generalised background correction algorithm for a Halo Doppler lidar and its application to data from Finland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Manninen, Antti J.; O'Connor, Ewan J.; Vakkari, Ville; Petäjä, Tuukka

    2016-03-03

    Current commercially available Doppler lidars provide an economical and robust solution for measuring vertical and horizontal wind velocities, together with the ability to provide co- and cross-polarised backscatter profiles. The high temporal resolution of these instruments allows turbulent properties to be obtained from studying the variation in radial velocities. However, the instrument specifications mean that certain characteristics, especially the background noise behaviour, become a limiting factor for the instrument sensitivity in regions where the aerosol load is low. Turbulent calculations require an accurate estimate of the contribution from velocity uncertainty estimates, which are directly related to the signal-to-noise ratio. Anymore » bias in the signal-to-noise ratio will propagate through as a bias in turbulent properties. In this paper we present a method to correct for artefacts in the background noise behaviour of commercially available Doppler lidars and reduce the signal-to-noise ratio threshold used to discriminate between noise, and cloud or aerosol signals. Lastly, we show that, for Doppler lidars operating continuously at a number of locations in Finland, the data availability can be increased by as much as 50 % after performing this background correction and subsequent reduction in the threshold. The reduction in bias also greatly improves subsequent calculations of turbulent properties in weak signal regimes.« less

  3. Monitored Retrievable Storage Background

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    `The U.S. Government is seeking a site for a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS). Employing proven technologies used in this country and abroad, the MRS will be an Integral part of the...

  4. UNDERSTANDING INVERSIONS Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    layer according to their densities (mass per volume). The variation in density can be linked to either what is dissolved in each liquid or the temperature of the two liquids or...

  5. background.pdf

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

  6. ARM - Campaign Backgrounders

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems PDF | 1.4MB ... Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems PDF | 1.4MB ...

  7. NYSERDA - White Background

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Renewable Electricity: State-level Issues and Perspectives July 12, 2016 2 40% Reduction in GHG emissions from 1990 levels Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy sector- power generation, industry, buildings, and transportation-is critical to protecting the health and welfare of New Yorkers and reaching the longer term goal of decreasing total carbon emissions 80% by 2050. 50% Generation of electricity from renewable energy sources Renewable resources, including solar, wind,

  8. Background Information on CBECS

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Information on CBECS The following topics provide detailed information on survey methodology, the kinds of errors associated with sample surveys, estimation of standard errors,...

  9. ARM - Radar Backgrounder

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuesday, A24B-02: Use of Dual Frequency Doppler Radar to Infer Cloud and Precipitation Properties and Air Motion Statistics. Science Team: Mike Jensen, Brookhaven National ...

  10. In-Situ Characterization of Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Interstitial, and background Particles using Single Particle Mass Spectrometer, SPLAT II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, D.; Earle, Michael; Easter, Richard C.; Korolev, Alexei; Leaitch, W. R.; Liu, Peter; Macdonald, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Strapp, Walter

    2010-10-01

    Aerosol indirect effect remains the most uncertain aspect of climate change modeling because proper test requires knowledge of individual particles sizes and compositions with high spatial and temporal resolution. We present the first deployment of a single particle mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) that is operated in a dual data acquisition mode to measure all the required individual particle properties with sufficient temporal resolution to definitively resolve the aerosol-cloud interaction in this exemplary case. We measured particle number concentrations, asphericity, and individual particle size, composition, and density with better than 60 seconds resolution. SPLAT II measured particle number concentrations between 70 particles cm-3and 300 particles cm-3, an average particle density of 1.4 g cm-3. Found that most particles are composed of oxygenated organics, many of which are mixed with sulfates. Biomass burn particles some with sulfates were prevalent, particularly at higher altitudes, and processed sea-salt was observed over the ocean. Analysis of cloud residuals shows that with time cloud droplets acquire sulfate by the reaction of peroxide with SO2. Based on the particle mass spectra and densities we find that the compositions of cloud condensation nuclei are similar to those of background aerosol but, contain on average ~7% more sulfate, and do not include dust and metallic particles. A comparison between the size distributions of background, activated, and interstitial particles shows that while nearly none of the activated particles is smaller than 115 nm, more than 80% of interstitial particles are smaller than 115 nm. We conclude that for this cloud the most important difference between CCN and background aerosol is particle size although having more sulfate also helps.

  11. Dust acoustic solitons in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benzekka, Moufida; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2013-08-15

    Dust acoustic (DA) solitons are addressed in a charge varying dusty plasma in the presence of ion nonthermality and background nonextensivity. A physically meaningful nonthermal nonextensive ion distribution is outlined. The correct non-Maxwellian ion charging current is derived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Under grain-current balance, the variable dust charge is expressed in terms of the Lambert function. It is found that nonthermality and its nonextensive nature may act concurrently and influence the restoring force and hence the soliton profile. Due to the flexibility provided by the nonextensive parameter, we think that our model should provide a better fit of the space observations.

  12. The concentrations of radionuclides, heavy metals, and poloychlorinated biphenyls in field mice collected from regional background areas. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fresquez, Philip R.

    2015-12-18

    Field mice are effective indicators of contaminant presence. This paper reports the concentrations of various radionuclides, heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, perchlorate, and dioxin/furans in field mice (mostly deer mice) collected from regional background areas in northern New Mexico. These data, represented as the regional statistical reference level (the mean plus three standard deviations = 99% confidence level), are used to compare with data from field mice collected from areas potentially impacted by Laboratory operations, as per the Environmental Surveillance Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  13. Pattern recognition techniques to reduce backgrounds in the search for the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay with gaseous TPCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iguaz, F. J.; Cebrin, S.; Dafni, T.; Gmez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Irastorza, I. G.; Luzon, G.; Segui, L.; Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)] [Laboratorio de Fsica Nuclear y Astropartculas, Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-08-08

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay may provide essential information on the nature of neutrinos. Among the current experimental approaches, a high pressure gaseous TPC is an attractive option for the search of double beta decay due to its good energy resolution and the detailed topological information of each event. We present in this talk a detailed study of the ionization topology of the {sup 136}Xe double beta decay events in a High Pressure Xenon TPC, as well as that of the typical competing backgrounds. We define some observables based on graph theory concepts to develop automated discrimination algorithms. Our criteria are able to reduce the background level by about three orders of magnitude in the region of interest of the {sup 136}Xe Q{sub ??} for a signal acceptance of 40%. This result provides a quantitative assessment of the benefit of topological information offered by gaseous TPCs for double beta decay search, and proves that it is a promising feature in view of future experiments in the field. Possible ideas for further improvement in the discrimination algorithms and the dependency of these results with the gas diffusion and readout granularity will be also discussed.

  14. HerMES: A DEFICIT IN THE SURFACE BRIGHTNESS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND DUE TO GALAXY CLUSTER GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zemcov, M.; Cooray, A.; Bock, J.; Dowell, C. D.; Nguyen, H. T.; Blain, A.; Bethermin, M.; Conley, A.; Glenn, J.; Conversi, L.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Marsden, G.; Jullo, E.; Kneib, J.-P.; Richard, J.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We have observed four massive galaxy clusters with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory and measure a deficit of surface brightness within their central region after removing detected sources. We simulate the effects of instrumental sensitivity and resolution, the source population, and the lensing effect of the clusters to estimate the shape and amplitude of the deficit. The amplitude of the central deficit is a strong function of the surface density and flux distribution of the background sources. We find that for the current best fitting faint end number counts, and excellent lensing models, the most likely amplitude of the central deficit is the full intensity of the cosmic infrared background (CIB). Our measurement leads to a lower limit to the integrated total intensity of the CIB of I{sub 250{mu}m}>0.69{sub -0.03}{sup +0.03}(stat.){sub -0.06}{sup +0.11}(sys.) MJy sr{sup -1}, with more CIB possible from both low-redshift sources and from sources within the target clusters. It should be possible to observe this effect in existing high angular resolution data at other wavelengths where the CIB is bright, which would allow tests of models of the faint source component of the CIB.

  15. PROBING THE EPOCH OF PRE-REIONIZATION BY CROSS-CORRELATING COSMIC MICROWAVE AND INFRARED BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A. E-mail: Alexander.Kashlinsky@nasa.gov

    2014-12-20

    The epoch of first star formation and the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at that time are not directly observable with current telescopes. The radiation from those early sources is now part of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) and, as these sources ionize the gas around them, the IGM plasma would produce faint temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) via the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (TSZ) effect. While these TSZ anisotropies are too faint to be detected, we show that the cross-correlation of maps of source-subtracted CIB fluctuations from Euclid, with suitably constructed microwave maps at different frequencies, can probe the physical state of the gas during reionization and test/constrain models of the early CIB sources. We identify the frequency-combined, CMB-subtracted microwave maps from space- and ground-based instruments to show that they can be cross-correlated with the forthcoming all-sky Euclid CIB maps to detect the cross-power at scales ?5'-60' with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of up to S/N ? 4-8 depending on the contribution to the Thomson optical depth during those pre-reionization epochs (?? ? 0.05) and the temperature of the IGM (up to ?10{sup 4} K). Such a measurement would offer a new window to explore the emergence and physical properties of these first light sources.

  16. Project: 1.8 MW Wind Turbine on Tribal Common Lands Near Lake Erie

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anthony J. Giacobbe Seneca Nation of Indians and James F. Yockey URS Inc. May 4, 2015 BACKGROUND Membership and Territories Total Enrolled Membership: 8,057 members Members Residing On Territory: 4,006 members Territories:  Allegany Territory  Cattaraugus Territory  Oil Spring Territory  Niagara Falls Territory  Buffalo Creek Territory BACKGROUND Clans Clans:  Deer  Hawk  Heron  Snipe Clans:  Turtle  Beaver  Wolf  Bear BACKGROUND Elected Government Elected

  17. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  18. Validation procedures used in the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is (1) to document the data validation process developed for the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP); (2) to offer members of other project teams and potential data users the benefit of the experience gained in the BSCP in the area of developing project-specific data validation criteria and procedures based on best available guidance and technical information; and (3) to provide input and guidance to the efforts under way within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., to develop standard operating procedures to streamline and optimize the analytical laboratory data validation process for general use by making it more technically rigorous, consistent, and cost effective. Lessons learned from the BSCP are also provided to meet this end (Sect. 1.3).

  19. NEW MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS IN DEEP SPITZER/IRAC SURVEY DATA AND THEIR COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Mather, J.; Moseley, S. H.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, G. G.

    2012-07-01

    We extend previous measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign using new data from the Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Two fields with depths of {approx_equal} 12 hr pixel{sup -1} over three epochs are analyzed at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Maps of the fields were assembled using a self-calibration method uniquely suitable for probing faint diffuse backgrounds. Resolved sources were removed from the maps to a magnitude limit of mag{sub AB} {approx_equal} 25, as indicated by the level of the remaining shot noise. The maps were then Fourier transformed and their power spectra were evaluated. Instrumental noise was estimated from the time-differenced data, and subtracting this isolates the spatial fluctuations of the actual sky. The power spectra of the source-subtracted fields remain identical (within the observational uncertainties) for the three epochs indicating that zodiacal light contributes negligibly to the fluctuations. Comparing to 8 {mu}m power spectra shows that Galactic cirrus cannot account for the fluctuations. The signal appears isotropically distributed on the sky as required for an extragalactic origin. The CIB fluctuations continue to diverge to >10 times those of known galaxy populations on angular scales out to {approx}< 1 Degree-Sign . The low shot-noise levels remaining in the diffuse maps indicate that the large-scale fluctuations arise from the spatial clustering of faint sources well below the confusion noise. The spatial spectrum of these fluctuations is in reasonable agreement with an origin in populations clustered according to the standard cosmological model ({Lambda}CDM) at epochs coinciding with the first stars era.

  20. Study of the Kroll-process to produce ultra-pure Ti for the low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozhevitina, Elena; Chepurnov, Alexander; Chub, Alexander; Avetissov, Igor; Glebovsky, Vadim; Nisi, Stefano; Di Vacri, Maria Laura; Suvorov, Yury

    2015-08-17

    To construct G2 & G3 low background experiments for direct Dark Matter search, a lot of ultra-pure construction materials will be needed. Our study of various Ti samples shows that the levels of contaminations of commercially available industrial Ti can varies from 0.2 to 100 mBq/kg for U/Th. It means that the metal Ti is such a promising material for future experiments if the way of production in bulk quantities with very low level of contaminations (below ∼1 mBq/kg of {sup 238}U /{sup 232}Th) would be developed. Our study of the industrial Kroll-process is focused on the possible sources of U and Th and their migration during the multistage Kroll process. To understand migration of U and Th during the Kroll process the set of other impurities available due to precise ICP-MS analysis have been studied. Preliminary results confirm that the Kroll process could be used for the ultra pure Ti sponge production while the following stages of the metal Ti production of from the Ti sponge with necessary mechanical properties need to be additionally studied.

  1. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings - volume 3: Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    The Energy Conservation for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C Section 6831 et. seq. requires the US Department of Energy to issue energy conservation standards for the design of new residential and commercial buildings. The standards will be mandatory only for the design of new federal buildings, and will serve as voluntary guidelines for the design of new non-federal buildings. This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations, from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations have been developed over the past 25 months by a multidisciplinary project team, under the management of the US Department of Energy and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Volume III -- Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort is a description of the Standard development process and contains the rationale for the general approach and specific criteria contained within the recommendations.

  2. A Measurement of Gravitational Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Galaxy Clusters Using Data from the South Pole Telescope

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxter, E. J.; Keisler, R.; Dodelson, S.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Ashby, M. L.N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; et al

    2015-06-22

    Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters with CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We also develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects on our analysis of several potential sources of systematic error andmore » find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. It is estimated that this bias to lower cluster mass is roughly 0.85σ in units of the statistical error bar, although this estimate should be viewed as an upper limit. Furthermore, we apply our maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.1σ. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: M200,lens = 0.83+0.38-0.37 M200,SZ (68% C.L., statistical error only).« less

  3. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, John P. Dolbnya, Igor P.; Collins, Stephen P.; Harris, Kenneth D. M.; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R.; Palmer, Benjamin A.

    2015-04-28

    In the recently developed technique of X-ray Birefringence Imaging, molecular orientational order in anisotropic materials is studied by exploiting the birefringence of linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to an absorption edge of an element in the material. In the experimental setup, a vertically deflecting high-resolution double-crystal monochromator is used upstream from the sample to select the appropriate photon energy, and a horizontally deflecting X-ray polarization analyzer, consisting of a perfect single crystal with a Bragg reflection at Bragg angle of approximately 45°, is placed downstream from the sample to measure the resulting rotation of the X-ray polarization. However, if the experiment is performed on a synchrotron bending-magnet beamline, then the elliptical polarization of the X-rays out of the electron orbit plane affects the shape of the output beam. Also, because the monochromator introduces a correlation between vertical position and photon energy to the X-ray beam, the polarization analyzer does not select the entire beam, but instead selects a diagonal stripe, the slope of which depends on the Bragg angles of the monochromator and the polarization analyzer. In the present work, the final background intensity distribution is calculated analytically because the phase space sampling methods normally used in ray traces are too inefficient for this setup. X-ray Birefringence Imaging data measured at the Diamond Light Source beamline B16 agree well with the theory developed here.

  4. RECONSTRUCTING THE NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND FLUCTUATIONS FROM KNOWN GALAXY POPULATIONS USING MULTIBAND MEASUREMENTS OF LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helgason, Kari; Ricotti, Massimo; Kashlinsky, Alexander

    2012-06-20

    We model fluctuations in the cosmic infrared background (CIB) arising from known galaxy populations using 233 measured UV, optical, and near-IR luminosity functions (LFs) from a variety of surveys spanning a wide range of redshifts. We compare best-fit Schechter parameters across the literature and find clear indication of evolution with redshift. Providing fitting formulae for the multi-band evolution of the LFs out to z {approx} 5, we calculate the total emission redshifted into the near-IR bands in the observer frame and recover the observed optical and near-IR galaxy counts to good accuracy. Our empirical approach, in conjunction with a halo model describing the clustering of galaxies, allows us to compute the fluctuations of the unresolved CIB and compare the models to current measurements. We find that fluctuations from known galaxy populations are unable to account for the large-scale CIB clustering signal seen by Spitzer/IRAC and AKARI/IRC and continue to diverge out to larger angular scales. This holds true even if the LFs are extrapolated out to faint magnitudes with a steep faint-end slope all the way to z = 8. We also show that removing resolved sources to progressively fainter magnitude limits isolates CIB fluctuations to increasingly higher redshifts. Our empirical approach suggests that known galaxy populations are not responsible for the bulk of the fluctuation signal seen in the measurements and favors a very faint population of highly clustered sources.

  5. MaGe - a GEANT4-based Monte Carlo Application Framework for Low-background Germanium Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, M.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Finnerty, P.; Henning, R.; Gehman, Victor; Johnson, Robert A.; Jordan, David V.; Kazkaz, Kareem; Knapp, Markus; Kroninger, Kevin; Lenz, Daniel; Leviner, L.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Xiang; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Mokhtarani, A.; Pandola, Luciano; Schubert, Alexis G.; Schubert, J.; Tomei, Claudia; Volynets, Oleksandr

    2011-06-13

    We describe a physics simulation software framework, MAGE, that is based on the GEANT4 simulation toolkit. MAGE is used to simulate the response of ultra-low radioactive background radiation detectors to ionizing radiation, specifically the MAJ ORANA and GE RDA neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. MAJ ORANA and GERDA use high-purity germanium technology to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the 76 Ge isotope, and MAGE is jointly developed between these two collaborations. The MAGE framework contains simulated geometries of common objects, prototypes, test stands, and the actual experiments. It also implements customized event generators, GE ANT 4 physics lists, and output formats. All of these features are available as class libraries that are typically compiled into a single executable. The user selects the particular experimental setup implementation at run-time via macros. The combination of all these common classes into one framework reduces duplication of efforts, eases comparison between simulated data and experiment, and simplifies the addition of new detectors to be simulated. This paper focuses on the software framework, custom event generators, and physics list.

  6. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-04-01

    A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

  7. 2010 AUGUST 1-2 SYMPATHETIC ERUPTIONS. I. MAGNETIC TOPOLOGY OF THE SOURCE-SURFACE BACKGROUND FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Titov, V. S.; Mikic, Z.; Toeroek, T.; Linker, J. A.; Panasenco, O.

    2012-11-01

    A sequence of apparently coupled eruptions was observed on 2010 August 1-2 by Solar Dynamics Observatory and STEREO. The eruptions were closely synchronized with one another, even though some of them occurred at widely separated locations. In an attempt to identify a plausible reason for such synchronization, we study the large-scale structure of the background magnetic configuration. The coronal field was computed from the photospheric magnetic field observed at the appropriate time period by using the potential field source-surface model. We investigate the resulting field structure by analyzing the so-called squashing factor calculated at the photospheric and source-surface boundaries, as well as at different coronal cross-sections. Using this information as a guide, we determine the underlying structural skeleton of the configuration, including separatrix and quasi-separatrix surfaces. Our analysis reveals, in particular, several pseudo-streamers in the regions where the eruptions occurred. Of special interest to us are the magnetic null points and separators associated with the pseudo-streamers. We propose that magnetic reconnection triggered along these separators by the first eruption likely played a key role in establishing the assumed link between the sequential eruptions. The present work substantiates our recent simplified magnetohydrodynamic model of sympathetic eruptions and provides a guide for further deeper study of these phenomena. Several important implications of our results for the S-web model of the slow solar wind are also addressed.

  8. FAST PIXEL SPACE CONVOLUTION FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND SURVEYS WITH ASYMMETRIC BEAMS AND COMPLEX SCAN STRATEGIES: FEBeCoP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitra, S.; Rocha, G.; Gorski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Eriksen, H. K.; Ashdown, M. A. J. E-mail: graca@caltech.edu E-mail: Charles.R.Lawrence@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no

    2011-03-15

    Precise measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropy can tightly constrain many cosmological models and parameters. However, accurate measurements can only be realized in practice provided all major systematic effects have been taken into account. Beam asymmetry, coupled with the scan strategy, is a major source of systematic error in scanning CMB experiments such as Planck, the focus of our current interest. We envision Monte Carlo methods to rigorously study and account for the systematic effect of beams in CMB analysis. Toward that goal, we have developed a fast pixel space convolution method that can simulate sky maps observed by a scanning instrument, taking into account real beam shapes and scan strategy. The essence is to pre-compute the 'effective beams' using a computer code, 'Fast Effective Beam Convolution in Pixel space' (FEBeCoP), that we have developed for the Planck mission. The code computes effective beams given the focal plane beam characteristics of the Planck instrument and the full history of actual satellite pointing, and performs very fast convolution of sky signals using the effective beams. In this paper, we describe the algorithm and the computational scheme that has been implemented. We also outline a few applications of the effective beams in the precision analysis of Planck data, for characterizing the CMB anisotropy and for detecting and measuring properties of point sources.

  9. THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM THE MEASUREMENTS OF THE ATTENUATION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The attenuation of high-energy gamma-ray spectrum due to the electron-positron pair production against the extragalactic background light (EBL) provides an indirect method to measure the EBL of the universe. We use the measurements of the absorption features of the gamma-rays from blazars as seen by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to explore the EBL flux density and constrain the EBL spectrum, star formation rate density (SFRD), and photon escape fraction from galaxies out to z = 6. Our results are basically consistent with the existing determinations of the quantities. We find a larger photon escape fraction at high redshifts, especially at z = 3, compared to the result from recent Ly{alpha} measurements. Our SFRD result is consistent with the data from both gamma-ray burst and ultraviolet (UV) observations in the 1{sigma} level. However, the average SFRD we obtain at z {approx}> 3 matches the gamma-ray data better than the UV data. Thus our SFRD result at z {approx}> 6 favors the fact that star formation alone is sufficiently high enough to reionize the universe.

  10. DAQ Software Contributions, Absolute Scale Energy Calibration and Background Evaluation for the NOvA Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flumerfelt, Eric Lewis

    2015-08-01

    The NOvA (NuMI Off-axis ve [nu_e] Appearance) Experiment is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment currently in its second year of operations. NOvA uses the Neutrinos from the Main Injector (NuMI) beam at Fermilab, and there are two main off-axis detectors: a Near Detector at Fermilab and a Far Detector 810 km away at Ash River, MN. The work reported herein is in support of the NOvA Experiment, through contributions to the development of data acquisition software, providing an accurate, absolute-scale energy calibration for electromagnetic showers in NOvA detector elements, crucial to the primary electron neutrino search, and through an initial evaluation of the cosmic background rate in the NOvA Far Detector, which is situated on the surface without significant overburden. Additional support work for the NOvA Experiment is also detailed, including DAQ Server Administration duties and a study of NOvA’s sensitivity to neutrino oscillations into a “sterile” state.

  11. Limits on dark matter annihilation signals from the Fermi LAT 4-year measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ackermann, M.

    2015-09-02

    We search for evidence of dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) measured with 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. An improved theoretical description of the cosmological DM annihilation signal, based on two complementary techniques and assuming generic weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) properties, renders more precise predictions compared to previous work. More specifically, we estimate the cosmologically-induced gamma-ray intensity to have an uncertainty of a factor ~ 20 in canonical setups. We consistently include both the Galactic and extragalactic signals under the same theoretical framework, and study the impact of the former onmore » the IGRB spectrum derivation. We find no evidence for a DM signal and we set limits on the DM-induced isotropic gamma-ray signal. Our limits are competitive for DM particle masses up to tens of TeV and, indeed, are the strongest limits derived from Fermi LAT data at TeV energies. This is possible thanks to the new Fermi LAT IGRB measurement, which now extends up to an energy of 820 GeV. As a result, we quantify uncertainties in detail and show the potential this type of search offers for testing the WIMP paradigm with a complementary and truly cosmological probe of DM particle signals.« less

  12. Limits on dark matter annihilation signals from the Fermi LAT 4-year measurement of the isotropic gamma-ray background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackermann, M.

    2015-09-02

    We search for evidence of dark matter (DM) annihilation in the isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) measured with 50 months of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. An improved theoretical description of the cosmological DM annihilation signal, based on two complementary techniques and assuming generic weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) properties, renders more precise predictions compared to previous work. More specifically, we estimate the cosmologically-induced gamma-ray intensity to have an uncertainty of a factor ~ 20 in canonical setups. We consistently include both the Galactic and extragalactic signals under the same theoretical framework, and study the impact of the former on the IGRB spectrum derivation. We find no evidence for a DM signal and we set limits on the DM-induced isotropic gamma-ray signal. Our limits are competitive for DM particle masses up to tens of TeV and, indeed, are the strongest limits derived from Fermi LAT data at TeV energies. This is possible thanks to the new Fermi LAT IGRB measurement, which now extends up to an energy of 820 GeV. As a result, we quantify uncertainties in detail and show the potential this type of search offers for testing the WIMP paradigm with a complementary and truly cosmological probe of DM particle signals.

  13. Reducing computation in an i-vector speaker recognition system using a tree-structured universal background model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McClanahan, Richard; De Leon, Phillip L.

    2014-08-20

    The majority of state-of-the-art speaker recognition systems (SR) utilize speaker models that are derived from an adapted universal background model (UBM) in the form of a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). This is true for GMM supervector systems, joint factor analysis systems, and most recently i-vector systems. In all of the identified systems, the posterior probabilities and sufficient statistics calculations represent a computational bottleneck in both enrollment and testing. We propose a multi-layered hash system, employing a tree-structured GMM–UBM which uses Runnalls’ Gaussian mixture reduction technique, in order to reduce the number of these calculations. Moreover, with this tree-structured hash, wemore » can trade-off reduction in computation with a corresponding degradation of equal error rate (EER). As an example, we also reduce this computation by a factor of 15× while incurring less than 10% relative degradation of EER (or 0.3% absolute EER) when evaluated with NIST 2010 speaker recognition evaluation (SRE) telephone data.« less

  14. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O'BRIEN G

    2008-07-24

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

  15. TRACKING DOWN THE SOURCE POPULATION RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UNRESOLVED COSMIC 6-8 keV BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Y. Q.; Wang, S. X.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Schneider, D. P.; Young, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Lehmer, B. D.; Vignali, C.

    2012-10-20

    Using the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, we have identified a sample of 6845 X-ray-undetected galaxies that dominates the unresolved Almost-Equal-To 20%-25% of the 6-8 keV cosmic X-ray background (XRB). This sample was constructed by applying mass and color cuts to sources from a parent catalog based on GOODS-South Hubble Space Telescope z-band imaging of the central 6'radius area of the 4 Ms CDF-S. The stacked 6-8 keV detection is significant at the 3.9{sigma} level, but the stacked emission was not detected in the 4-6 keV band, which indicates the existence of an underlying population of highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Further examinations of these 6845 galaxies indicate that the galaxies on the top of the blue cloud and with redshifts of 1 {approx}< z {approx}< 3, magnitudes of 25 {approx}< z {sub 850} {approx}< 28, and stellar masses of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} {approx}< M {sub *}/M {sub Sun} {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} make the majority contributions to the unresolved 6-8 keV XRB. Such a population is seemingly surprising given that the majority of the X-ray-detected AGNs reside in massive ({approx}> 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }) galaxies. We discuss constraints upon this underlying AGN population, supporting evidence for relatively low mass galaxies hosting highly obscured AGNs, and prospects for further boosting the stacked signal.

  16. Corrective Action Site 02-37-02 Background Information and Comparison to Corrective Action Site 09-99-06

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-06-26

    Corrective Action Site (CAS) 02-37-02, Gas Sampling Assembly, is associated with nuclear test MULLET. MULLET was an underground safety test conducted on October 17, 1963. The experiment also involved prompt sampling of particulate material from the detonation, similar to CAS 09-99-06, Gas Sampling Assembly, which is associated with PLAYER/YORK. The sampling system at MULLET was similar to that of PLAYER/YORK and was used to convey gas from the MULLET emplacement hole (U2ag) to a sampling assembly. Beyond the sampling assembly, the system had a 'Y' junction with one branch running to a filter unit and the other running to a scrubber unit. The total system length was approximately 250 feet and is depicted on the attached drawing. According to the available background information, retrieval of the sample material from the MULLET event caused significant alpha (plutonium) contamination, limited to an area near ground zero (GZ). Test support Radiological Control Technicians did not detect contamination outside the immediate GZ area. In addition, vehicles, equipment, and workers that were contaminated were decontaminated on site. Soil contamination was addressed through the application of oil, and the site was decommissioned after the test. Any equipment that could be successfully decontaminated and had a future use was removed from the site. The contaminated equipment and temporary buildings erected to support the test were buried on site, most likely in the area under the dirt berm. The exact location of the buried equipment and temporary buildings is unknown. No information was found describing the disposition of the filter and scrubber, but they are not known to be at the site. The COMMODORE test was conducted at U2am on May 20, 1967, and formed the crater next to CAS 02-37-02. The COMMODORE test area had been surveyed prior to the test, and alpha contamination was not identified. Furthermore, alpha contamination was not identified during the COMMODORE re

  17. Monte-Carlo simulation of noise in hard X-ray Transmission Crystal Spectrometers: Identification of contributors to the background noise and shielding optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thfoin, I. Reverdin, C.; Duval, A.; Leboeuf, X.; Lecherbourg, L.; Ross, B.; Hulin, S.; Batani, D.; Santos, J. J.; Vaisseau, X.; Fourment, C.; Giuffrida, L.; Szabo, C. I.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Brambrink, E.; Koenig, M.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Morace, A.

    2014-11-15

    Transmission crystal spectrometers (TCS) are used on many laser facilities to record hard X-ray spectra. During experiments, signal recorded on imaging plates is often degraded by a background noise. Monte-Carlo simulations made with the code GEANT4 show that this background noise is mainly generated by diffusion of MeV electrons and very hard X-rays. An experiment, carried out at LULI2000, confirmed that the use of magnets in front of the diagnostic, that bent the electron trajectories, reduces significantly this background. The new spectrometer SPECTIX (Spectromtre PETAL Cristal en TransmIssion X), built for the LMJ/PETAL facility, will include this optimized shielding.

  18. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF B & BX & BY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MYERS DA

    2007-09-28

    This report documents the results of preliminary surface geophysical exploration activities performed between October and December 2006 at the B, BX, and BY tank farms (B Complex). The B Complex is located in the 200 East Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity survey. Results of the background characterization show there are several areas located around the site with large metallic subsurface debris or metallic infrastructure.

  19. Microsoft PowerPoint - SWL HPConf2015.pptx [Read-Only

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CLEARWATER RESERVOIR MISSOURI ARKANSAS Lock and Dam No 1 10 CACHE RIVER LEGEND EXISTING ... M&I Water Supply Reallocation Studies Beaver Lake * Completed Studies * Beaver Dam Trout ...

  20. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants petroleum refineries. Background information for final standards. Summary of public comments and responses. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) are promulgated for the petroleum refinery industry under authority of section 112 of the Clean Air Act. This background information document provides technical information and analyses used in the development of the final NESHAP and Agency reponses to public comments on the proposed rule.

  1. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  2. EFFECTS OF DIFFUSE BACKGROUND EMISSION AND SOURCE CROWDING ON PHOTOMETRIC COMPLETENESS IN SPITZER SPACE TELESCOPE IRAC SURVEYS: THE GLIMPSE CATALOGS AND ARCHIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Alexander, Michael J.; Babler, Brian L.; Meade, Marilyn R.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Churchwell, Edward B. E-mail: malexan9@uwyo.edu E-mail: meade@astro.wisc.edu E-mail: ebc@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-07-01

    We characterize the completeness of point source lists from Spitzer Space Telescope surveys in the four Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bandpasses, emphasizing the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) programs (GLIMPSE I, II, 3D, 360; Deep GLIMPSE) and their resulting point source Catalogs and Archives. The analysis separately addresses effects of incompleteness resulting from high diffuse background emission and incompleteness resulting from point source confusion (i.e., crowding). An artificial star addition and extraction analysis demonstrates that completeness is strongly dependent on local background brightness and structure, with high-surface-brightness regions suffering up to five magnitudes of reduced sensitivity to point sources. This effect is most pronounced at the IRAC 5.8 and 8.0 {mu}m bands where UV-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission produces bright, complex structures (photodissociation regions). With regard to diffuse background effects, we provide the completeness as a function of stellar magnitude and diffuse background level in graphical and tabular formats. These data are suitable for estimating completeness in the low-source-density limit in any of the four IRAC bands in GLIMPSE Catalogs and Archives and some other Spitzer IRAC programs that employ similar observational strategies and are processed by the GLIMPSE pipeline. By performing the same analysis on smoothed images we show that the point source incompleteness is primarily a consequence of structure in the diffuse background emission rather than photon noise. With regard to source confusion in the high-source-density regions of the Galactic Plane, we provide figures illustrating the 90% completeness levels as a function of point source density at each band. We caution that completeness of the GLIMPSE 360/Deep GLIMPSE Catalogs is suppressed relative to the corresponding Archives as a consequence of rejecting stars that lie in the point

  3. Logistics background study: underground mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  4. Portsmouth Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    man-hours; Construction of the site quickly began in 1952. The effort was impressive, and when completed, included nearly 23,000 construction workers logging 69 million man-hou...

  5. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... doi:10.1016Zj.phpro.2014.12.101 788 A.R. Smith et al. Physics Procedia 61 (2015) 787 - ... began in the summer of 1975 when A.R. Smith established contacts there with the ...

  6. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) background document for universal standards. Volume A. Universal standards for nonwastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is establishing Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) universal standards for the listed wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations Section 261.31 (40 CFR 261.31). A universal treatment standard (i.e., universal standard) is a single concentration-based treatment standard established for a specific constituent; a constituent has the same treatment standard in each waste code in which it is regulated. The background document provides the Agency`s rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents for regulation under universal standards and for developing the universal standards for nonwastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes.

  7. Best demonstrated available technology (BDAT) background document for universal standards. Volume B. Universal standards for wastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is establishing Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) universal standards for the listed wastes identified in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Section 261.31 (40 CFR 261.31). A universal standard is a single concentration-based treatment standard established for a specific constituent; a constituent has the same treatment standard in each waste code in which it is regulated. The background document provides the Agency`s rationale and technical support for selecting the constituents for regulation under universal standards and for developing the universal standards for wastewater forms of listed hazardous wastes.

  8. A statistical, task-based evaluation method for three-dimensional x-ray breast imaging systems using variable-background phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Subok; Jennings, Robert; Liu Haimo; Badano, Aldo; Myers, Kyle

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: For the last few years, development and optimization of three-dimensional (3D) x-ray breast imaging systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and computed tomography, have drawn much attention from the medical imaging community, either academia or industry. However, there is still much room for understanding how to best optimize and evaluate the devices over a large space of many different system parameters and geometries. Current evaluation methods, which work well for 2D systems, do not incorporate the depth information from the 3D imaging systems. Therefore, it is critical to develop a statistically sound evaluation method to investigate the usefulness of inclusion of depth and background-variability information into the assessment and optimization of the 3D systems. Methods: In this paper, we present a mathematical framework for a statistical assessment of planar and 3D x-ray breast imaging systems. Our method is based on statistical decision theory, in particular, making use of the ideal linear observer called the Hotelling observer. We also present a physical phantom that consists of spheres of different sizes and materials for producing an ensemble of randomly varying backgrounds to be imaged for a given patient class. Lastly, we demonstrate our evaluation method in comparing laboratory mammography and three-angle DBT systems for signal detection tasks using the phantom's projection data. We compare the variable phantom case to that of a phantom of the same dimensions filled with water, which we call the uniform phantom, based on the performance of the Hotelling observer as a function of signal size and intensity. Results: Detectability trends calculated using the variable and uniform phantom methods are different from each other for both mammography and DBT systems. Conclusions: Our results indicate that measuring the system's detection performance with consideration of background variability may lead to differences in system performance

  9. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seah, M. P.; Gilmore, I. S.

    2006-05-01

    An analysis is provided of the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) intensities measured in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) XPS database for 46 solid elements. This present analysis does not change our previous conclusions concerning the excellent correlation between experimental intensities, following deconvolving the spectra with angle-averaged reflection electron energy loss data, and the theoretical intensities involving the dipole approximation using Scofield's cross sections. Here, more recent calculations for cross sections by Trzhaskovskaya et al. involving quadrupole terms are evaluated and it is shown that their cross sections diverge from the experimental database results by up to a factor of 5. The quadrupole angular terms lead to small corrections that are close to our measurement limit but do appear to be supported in the present analysis. Measurements of the extent of shake-up for the 46 elements broadly agree with the calculations of Yarzhemsky et al. but not in detail. The predicted constancy in the shake-up contribution by Yarzhemsky et al. implies that the use of the Shirley background will lead to a peak area that is a constant fraction of the true peak area including the shake-up intensities. However, the measured variability of the shake-up contribution makes the Shirley background invalid for quantification except for situations where the sensitivity factors are from reference samples similar to those being analyzed.

  10. The diffuse source at the center of LMC SNR 050967.5 is a background galaxy at z = 0.031

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pagnotta, Ashley [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Walker, Emma S. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Schaefer, Bradley E., E-mail: pagnotta@amnh.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use in the measurement of cosmological distances, but our continuing lack of concrete knowledge about their progenitor stars is both a matter of debate and a source of systematic error. In our attempts to answer this question, we presented unambiguous evidence that LMC SNR 050967.5, the remnant of an SN Ia that exploded in the Large Magellanic Cloud 400 50 yr ago, did not have any point sources (stars) near the site of the original supernova explosion, from which we concluded that this particular supernova must have had a progenitor system consisting of two white dwarfs. There is, however, evidence of nebulosity near the center of the remnant, which could have been left over detritus from the less massive WD, or could have been a background galaxy unrelated to the supernova explosion. We obtained long-slit spectra of the central nebulous region using GMOS on Gemini South to determine which of these two possibilities is correct. The spectra show H? emission at a redshift of z = 0.031, which implies that the nebulosity in the center of LMC SNR 050967.5 is a background galaxy, unrelated to the supernova.

  11. The variations in long term TLD measurements of environmental background radiation at locations in southeastern New York state and northern New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiello, M.L.

    1997-06-01

    The variations of the measured dose rate in air should be recognized especially where background radiation is used as a comparative benchmark to assess radiation surveillance and environmental remediation work. In this note, the natural variations of the combined gamma and cosmic-ray background air-dose rate as measured by lithium fluoride thermoluminescence dosimeters are reported. The dosimeters were deployed monthly at locations within 150 km of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory in New York City. Urban and suburban stations were established with simultaneous indoor and outdoor measurements at some locations. Measurements were obtained over 10 to 18 years. The mean air-dose rates from the six outdoor and four indoor stations vary from 50.8 to 123.1 nGy h{sup -1}. The range of the annual dose rates expressed as a percent-difference of the minimum and maximum is 5.3 to 18.0%. Commonly, 1-mo deviations from the long term mean of about {+-}10 to {+-}25% are observed. An abrupt decrease in the annual dose rate at one of the measurement sites was attributed to a minor relocation of a dosimeter. Structural shielding factors for the first and second floors of a residence are reported. The ground level location of a dosimeter inside another residence apparently resulted in a very high shielding factor. Finally, a gradual decrease of the dose rate at most of the stations is shown to exist (approximately -0.3 nGy h{sup -1} y{sup -1} for the outdoor stations). Plausible causes of this trend are briefly discussed. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The contribution of z ≲ 6 sources to the spatial coherence in the unresolved cosmic near-infrared and X-ray backgrounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helgason, K.; Ricotti, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Hasinger, G.; Kashlinsky, A.

    2014-04-10

    A spatial clustering signal has been established in Spitzer/IRAC measurements of the unresolved cosmic near-infrared background (CIB) out to large angular scales, ∼1°. This CIB signal, while significantly exceeding the contribution from the remaining known galaxies, was further found to be coherent at a highly statistically significant level with the unresolved soft cosmic X-ray background (CXB). This measurement probes the unresolved CXB to very faint source levels using deep near-IR source subtraction. We study contributions from extragalactic populations at low to intermediate redshifts to the measured positive cross-power signal of the CIB fluctuations with the CXB. We model the X-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and hot gas residing in virialized structures, calculating their CXB contribution including their spatial coherence with all infrared emitting counterparts. We use a halo model framework to calculate the auto and cross-power spectra of the unresolved fluctuations based on the latest constraints of the halo occupation distribution and the biasing of AGNs, galaxies, and diffuse emission. At small angular scales (≲ 1'), the 4.5 μm versus 0.5-2 keV coherence can be explained by shot noise from galaxies and AGNs. However, at large angular scales (∼10'), we find that the net contribution from the modeled populations is only able to account for ∼3% of the measured CIB×CXB cross-power. The discrepancy suggests that the CIB×CXB signal originates from the same unknown source population producing the CIB clustering signal out to ∼1°.

  13. Star-forming galaxies as the origin of diffuse high-energy backgrounds: gamma-ray and neutrino connections, and implications for starburst history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Murase, Kohta E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl

    2014-09-01

    Star-forming galaxies have been predicted to contribute considerably to the diffuse gamma-ray background as they are guaranteed reservoirs of cosmic rays. Assuming that the hadronic interactions responsible for high-energy gamma rays also produce high-energy neutrinos and that O(100) PeV cosmic rays can be produced and confined in starburst galaxies, we here discuss the possibility that star-forming galaxies are also the main sources of the high-energy neutrinos observed by the IceCube experiment. First, we compute the diffuse gamma-ray background from star-forming galaxies, adopting the latest Herschel PEP/HerMES luminosity function and relying on the correlation between the gamma-ray and infrared luminosities reported by Fermi observations. Then we derive the expected intensity of the diffuse high-energy neutrinos from star-forming galaxies including normal and starburst galaxies. Our results indicate that starbursts, including those with active galactic nuclei and galaxy mergers, could be the main sources of the high-energy neutrinos observed by the IceCube experiment. We find that assuming a cosmic-ray spectral index of 2.12.2 for all starburst-like galaxies, our predictions can be consistent with both the Fermi and IceCube data, but larger indices readily fail to explain the observed diffuse neutrino flux. Taking the starburst high-energy spectral index as free parameter, and extrapolating from GeV to PeV energies, we find that the spectra harder than E{sup -2.15} are likely to be excluded by the IceCube data, which can be more constraining than the Fermi data for this population.

  14. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. I. IMPLICATIONS OF PLASMA INSTABILITIES FOR THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca

    2012-06-10

    Inverse Compton cascades (ICCs) initiated by energetic gamma rays (E {approx}> 100 GeV) enhance the GeV emission from bright, extragalactic TeV sources. The absence of this emission from bright TeV blazars has been used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and the stringent limits placed on the unresolved extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) by Fermi have been used to argue against a large number of such objects at high redshifts. However, these are predicated on the assumption that inverse Compton scattering is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the ultrarelativistic pairs produced by the annihilation of the energetic gamma rays on extragalactic background light photons. Here, we show that for sufficiently bright TeV sources (isotropic-equivalent luminosities {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) plasma beam instabilities, specifically the 'oblique' instability, present a plausible mechanism by which the energy of these pairs can be dissipated locally, heating the intergalactic medium. Since these instabilities typically grow on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling rate, they necessarily suppress the ICCs. As a consequence, this places a severe constraint on efforts to limit the IGMF from the lack of a discernible GeV bump in TeV sources. Similarly, it considerably weakens the Fermi limits on the evolution of blazar populations. Specifically, we construct a TeV-blazar luminosity function from those objects currently observed and find that it is very well described by the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 0.1, shifted to lower luminosities and number densities, suggesting that both classes of sources are regulated by similar processes. Extending this relationship to higher redshifts, we show that the magnitude and shape of the EGRB above {approx}10 GeV are naturally reproduced with this particular example of a rapidly evolving TeV-blazar luminosity function.

  15. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G; Ward, Richard C; Wright, Michael C; Kruse, Kara L

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. The approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  16. A SURVEY OF H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, AND CO ICE FEATURES TOWARD BACKGROUND STARS AND LOW-MASS YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS USING AKARI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noble, J. A.; Fraser, H. J.; Aikawa, Y.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Sakon, I.

    2013-10-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 19 molecular clouds made using the AKARI satellite, and the data reduction pipeline written to analyze those observations. The 2.5-5 ?m spectra of 30 objects22 field stars behind quiescent molecular clouds and 8 low-mass young stellar objects in coreswere successfully extracted using the pipeline. Those spectra are further analyzed to calculate the column densities of key solid phase molecular species, including H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CO, and OCN{sup }. The profile of the H{sub 2}O ice band is seen to vary across the objects observed and we suggest that the extended red wing may be an evolutionary indicator of both dust and ice mantle properties. The observation of 22 spectra with fluxes as low as < 5 mJy toward background stars, including 15 where the column densities of H{sub 2}O, CO, and CO{sub 2} were calculated, provides valuable data that could help to benchmark the initial conditions in star-forming regions prior to the onset of star formation.

  17. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNM detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information

  18. An interactive ontology-driven information system for simulating background radiation and generating scenarios for testing special nuclear materials detection algorithms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sorokine, Alexandre; Schlicher, Bob G.; Ward, Richard C.; Wright, Michael C.; Kruse, Kara L.; Bhaduri, Budhendra; Slepoy, Alexander

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes an original approach to generating scenarios for the purpose of testing the algorithms used to detect special nuclear materials (SNM) that incorporates the use of ontologies. Separating the signal of SNM from the background requires sophisticated algorithms. To assist in developing such algorithms, there is a need for scenarios that capture a very wide range of variables affecting the detection process, depending on the type of detector being used. To provide such a cpability, we developed an ontology-driven information system (ODIS) for generating scenarios that can be used in creating scenarios for testing of algorithms for SNMmore » detection. The ontology-driven scenario generator (ODSG) is an ODIS based on information supplied by subject matter experts and other documentation. The details of the creation of the ontology, the development of the ontology-driven information system, and the design of the web user interface (UI) are presented along with specific examples of scenarios generated using the ODSG. We demonstrate that the paradigm behind the ODSG is capable of addressing the problem of semantic complexity at both the user and developer levels. Compared to traditional approaches, an ODIS provides benefits such as faithful representation of the users' domain conceptualization, simplified management of very large and semantically diverse datasets, and the ability to handle frequent changes to the application and the UI. Furthermore, the approach makes possible the generation of a much larger number of specific scenarios based on limited user-supplied information« less

  19. Ratios of W and Z cross sections at large boson $p_T$ as a constraint on PDFs and background to new physics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malik, Sarah Alam; Watt, Graeme

    2014-02-05

    We motivate a measurement of various ratios of W and Z cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at large values of the boson transverse momentum (p T ≳ M W,Z ). We study the dependence of predictions for these cross-section ratios on the multiplicity of associated jets, the boson p T and the LHC centre-of-mass energy. We present the flavour decomposition of the initial-state partons and an evaluation of the theoretical uncertainties. We also show that the W + /W - ratio is sensitive to the up-quark to down-quark ratio of parton distribution functions (PDFs), while other theoreticalmore » uncertainties are negligible, meaning that a precise measurement of the W + /W - ratio at large boson p T values could constrain the PDFs at larger momentum fractions x than the usual inclusive W charge asymmetry. The W ± /Z ratio is insensitive to PDFs and most other theoretical uncertainties, other than possibly electroweak corrections, and a precise measurement will therefore be useful in validating theoretical predictions needed in data-driven methods, such as using W (→ ℓν) + jets events to estimate the Z(→ νν¯) + jets background in searches for new physics at the LHC. Furthermore, the differential W and Z cross sections themselves, dσ/dp T , have the potential to constrain the gluon distribution, provided that theoretical uncertainties from higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections are brought under control, such as by inclusion of anticipated next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections.« less

  20. EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT FROM HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION: GAMMA-RAY ATTENUATION UP TO THE EPOCH OF COSMIC REIONIZATION AND THE FIRST STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Inoue, Susumu; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Makiya, Ryu; Totani, Tomonori; Niino, Yuu

    2013-05-10

    We present a new model of the extragalactic background light (EBL) and corresponding {gamma}{gamma} opacity for intergalactic gamma-ray absorption from z = 0 up to z = 10, based on a semi-analytical model of hierarchical galaxy formation that reproduces key observed properties of galaxies at various redshifts. Including the potential contribution from Population III stars and following the cosmic reionization history in a simplified way, the model is also broadly consistent with available data concerning reionization, particularly the Thomson scattering optical depth constraints from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). In comparison with previous EBL studies up to z {approx} 3-5, our predicted {gamma}{gamma} opacity is in general agreement for observed gamma-ray energy below 400/(1 + z) GeV, whereas it is a factor of {approx}2 lower above this energy because of a correspondingly lower cosmic star formation rate, even though the observed ultraviolet (UV) luminosity is well reproduced by virtue of our improved treatment of dust obscuration and direct estimation of star formation rate. The horizon energy at which the gamma-ray opacity is unity does not evolve strongly beyond z {approx} 4 and approaches {approx}20 GeV. The contribution of Population III stars is a minor fraction of the EBL at z = 0, and is also difficult to distinguish through gamma-ray absorption in high-z objects, even at the highest levels allowed by the WMAP constraints. Nevertheless, the attenuation due to Population II stars should be observable in high-z gamma-ray sources by telescopes such as Fermi or the Cherenkov Telescope Array and provide a valuable probe of the evolving EBL in the rest-frame UV. The detailed results of our model are publicly available in numerical form at http://www.slac.stanford.edu/{approx}yinoue/Download.html.

  1. Ratios of W and Z cross sections at large boson $p_T$ as a constraint on PDFs and background to new physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, Sarah Alam; Watt, Graeme

    2014-02-05

    We motivate a measurement of various ratios of W and Z cross sections at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at large values of the boson transverse momentum (p T ? M W,Z ). We study the dependence of predictions for these cross-section ratios on the multiplicity of associated jets, the boson p T and the LHC centre-of-mass energy. We present the flavour decomposition of the initial-state partons and an evaluation of the theoretical uncertainties. We also show that the W + /W - ratio is sensitive to the up-quark to down-quark ratio of parton distribution functions (PDFs), while other theoretical uncertainties are negligible, meaning that a precise measurement of the W + /W - ratio at large boson p T values could constrain the PDFs at larger momentum fractions x than the usual inclusive W charge asymmetry. The W /Z ratio is insensitive to PDFs and most other theoretical uncertainties, other than possibly electroweak corrections, and a precise measurement will therefore be useful in validating theoretical predictions needed in data-driven methods, such as using W (? ??) + jets events to estimate the Z(? ??) + jets background in searches for new physics at the LHC. Furthermore, the differential W and Z cross sections themselves, d?/dp T , have the potential to constrain the gluon distribution, provided that theoretical uncertainties from higher-order QCD and electroweak corrections are brought under control, such as by inclusion of anticipated next-to-next-to-leading order QCD corrections.

  2. COSMIC FLOW FROM TWO MICRON ALL-SKY REDSHIFT SURVEY: THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND DIPOLE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LAMBDACDM COSMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavaux, Guilhem; Mohayaee, Roya; Colombi, Stephane

    2010-01-20

    We generate the peculiar velocity field for the Two Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey (2MRS) catalog using an orbit-reconstruction algorithm. The reconstructed velocities of individual objects in 2MRS are well correlated with the peculiar velocities obtained from high-precision observed distances within 3000 km s{sup -1}. We estimate the mean matter density to be OMEGA{sub m} = 0.31 +- 0.05 by comparing observed to reconstructed velocities in this volume. The reconstructed motion of the Local Group in the rest frame established by distances within 3000 km s{sup -1} agrees with the observed motion and is generated by fluctuations within this volume, in agreement with observations. Having tested our method against observed distances, we reconstruct the velocity field of 2MRS in successively larger radii, to study the problem of convergence toward the cosmic microwave background (CMB) dipole. We find that less than half of the amplitude of the CMB dipole is generated within a volume enclosing the Hydra-Centaurus-Norma supercluster at around 40 h {sup -1} Mpc. Although most of the amplitude of the CMB dipole seems to be recovered by 120 h {sup -1} Mpc, the direction does not agree and hence we observe no convergence up to this scale. Due to dominant superclusters such as Shapley or Horologium-Reticulum in the southern hemisphere at scales above 120 h {sup -1} Mpc, one might need to go well beyond 200 h {sup -1} Mpc to fully recover the dipole vector. We develop a statistical model which allows us to estimate cosmological parameters from the reconstructed growth of convergence of the velocity of the Local Group toward the CMB dipole motion. For scales up to 60 h {sup -1} Mpc, assuming a Local Group velocity of 627 km s{sup -1}, we estimate OMEGA{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.11 +- 0.06 and sigma{sub 8} = 0.9 +- 0.4, in agreement with WMAP5 measurements at the 1sigma level. However, for scales up to 100 h {sup -1} Mpc, we obtain OMEGA{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.08 +- 0.03 and sigma{sub 8

  3. BLAST: CORRELATIONS IN THE COSMIC FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND AT 250, 350, AND 500 mum REVEAL CLUSTERING OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viero, Marco P.; Martin, Peter G.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; MacTavish, Carrie J.; Negrello, Mattia; Olmi, Luca

    2009-12-20

    We detect correlations in the cosmic far-infrared background due to the clustering of star-forming galaxies in observations made with the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope, at 250, 350, and 500 mum. We perform jackknife and other tests to confirm the reality of the signal. The measured correlations are well fitted by a power law over scales of 5'-25', with DELTAI/I = 15.1% +- 1.7%. We adopt a specific model for submillimeter sources in which the contribution to clustering comes from sources in the redshift ranges 1.3 <= z <= 2.2, 1.5 <= z <= 2.7, and 1.7 <= z <= 3.2, at 250, 350, and 500 mum, respectively. With these distributions, our measurement of the power spectrum, P(k{sub t}heta), corresponds to linear bias parameters, b = 3.8 +- 0.6, 3.9 +- 0.6, and 4.4 +- 0.7, respectively. We further interpret the results in terms of the halo model, and find that at the smaller scales, the simplest halo model fails to fit our results. One way to improve the fit is to increase the radius at which dark matter halos are artificially truncated in the model, which is equivalent to having some star-forming galaxies at z >= 1 located in the outskirts of groups and clusters. In the context of this model, we find a minimum halo mass required to host a galaxy is log(M{sub min}/M{sub sun}) = 11.5{sup +0.4}{sub -0.1}, and we derive effective biases b{sub eff} = 2.2 +- 0.2, 2.4 +- 0.2, and 2.6 +- 0.2, and effective masses log(M{sub eff}/M{sub odot})=12.9+-0.3, 12.8 +- 0.2, and 12.7 +- 0.2, at 250, 350 and 500 mum, corresponding to spatial correlation lengths of r{sub 0} = 4.9, 5.0, and 5.2+-0.7 h{sup -1}Mpc, respectively. Finally, we discuss implications for clustering measurement strategies with Herschel and Planck.

  4. November 12, 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cafs November 12, 2010 November 12, 2010 Print Friday, 12 November 2010 00:00 christine beavers Having a ball in the wild world of fullerenes Christine Beavers, Beamline 11.3.1 ...

  5. Parity Violation Constraints Using Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Menlo Park Harvard U. Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Ade, P. ; Cardiff U. ; Bock, J. ; Caltech Caltech, JPL ; Bowden, M. ; Cardiff U. KIPAC, Menlo Park Harvard U. Stanford ...

  6. Lighting Choices - White Background | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    all_bulbs_hires_web.eps (32.46 MB

  7. Lighting Choices - White Background | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image icon All of these lightbulbs-CFLs, LEDs, and energy-saving incandescents-meet the new energy standards that take effect from 2012-2014....

  8. Infrastructure Constraints in New England Background Memo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Monday, April 21, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), acting in its capacity as the Secretariat for the QER Task Force, will convene a two-part public meeting to examine energy infrastructure constraints in New England and regional approaches to addressing them.

  9. Background - Madison Dynamo Experiment - Cary Forest Group -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... allows us to follow the motion of the field in the flow. ... The complicated structure in the core would tend to be ... the net current generated can produce a large-scale ...

  10. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  11. OrganicHybrid PV Background.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which, is determined by the difference between the HOMO and LUMO levels of the donor material; this is controlled through prudent molecular design and synthesis of new materials. ...

  12. Weatherization Assistance Program - Background Data and Statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenberg, Joel Fred

    2010-03-01

    This technical memorandum is intended to provide readers with information that may be useful in understanding the purposes, performance, and outcomes of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Weatherization Assistance Program (Weatherization). Weatherization has been in operation for over thirty years and is the nation's largest single residential energy efficiency program. Its primary purpose, established by law, is 'to increase the energy efficiency of dwellings owned or occupied by low-income persons, reduce their total residential energy expenditures, and improve their health and safety, especially low-income persons who are particularly vulnerable such as the elderly, the handicapped, and children.' The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act PL111-5 (ARRA), passed and signed into law in February 2009, committed $5 Billion over two years to an expanded Weatherization Assistance Program. This has created substantial interest in the program, the population it serves, the energy and cost savings it produces, and its cost-effectiveness. This memorandum is intended to address the need for this kind of information. Statistically valid answers to many of the questions surrounding Weatherization and its performance require comprehensive evaluation of the program. DOE is undertaking precisely this kind of independent evaluation in order to ascertain program effectiveness and to improve its performance. Results of this evaluation effort will begin to emerge in late 2010 and 2011, but they require substantial time and effort. In the meantime, the data and statistics in this memorandum can provide reasonable and transparent estimates of key program characteristics. The memorandum is laid out in three sections. The first deals with some key characteristics describing low-income energy consumption and expenditures. The second section provides estimates of energy savings and energy bill reductions that the program can reasonably be presumed to be producing. The third section deals with estimates of program cost-effectiveness and societal impacts such as carbon reduction and reduced national energy consumption. Each of the sections is brief, containing statistics, explanatory graphics and tables as appropriate, and short explanations of the statistics in order to place them in context for the reader. The companion appendices at the back of the memorandum explain the methods and sources used in developing the statistics.

  13. Final Conservation Billing Credit Policy Supplement Background...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customers subject to I-937 must acquire conservation independent of BPA's conservation acquisition efforts. In 2007, as BPA was finalizing its Regional Dialogue Policy, several...

  14. Network Requirements Workshop - Documents and Background Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the science programs that ESnet serves. The case study is a network-centric narrative describing the science from two different perspectives - instruments and...

  15. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close Cite: APA ...

  16. Survey Background and Technical Information on CBECS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    place in, or is associated with, the buildings that house these commercial activities. Analysis of the structures, activities, and equipment associated with different types of...

  17. Spent Fuel Background Report Volume I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, D.

    1994-03-01

    This report is an overview of current spent nuclear fuel management in the DOE complex. Sources of information include published literature, internal DOE documents, interviews with site personnel, and information provided by individual sites. Much of the specific information on facilities and fuels was provided by the DOE sites in response to the questionnaire for data for spent fuels and facilities data bases. This information is as accurate as is currently available, but is subject to revision pending results of further data calls. Spent fuel is broadly classified into three categories: (a) production fuels, (b) special fuels, and (c) naval fuels. Production fuels, comprising about 80% of the total inventory, are those used at Hanford and Savannah River to produce nuclear materials for defense. Special fuels are those used in a wide variety of research, development, and testing activities. Special fuels include fuel from DOE and commercial reactors used in research activities at DOE sites. Naval fuels are those developed and used for nuclear-powered naval vessels and for related research and development. Given the recent DOE decision to curtail reprocessing, the topic of main concern in the management of spent fuel is its storage. Of the DOE sites that have spent nuclear fuel, the vast majority is located at three sites-Hanford, INEL, and Savannah River. Other sites with spent fuel include Oak Ridge, West Valley, Brookhaven, Argonne, Los Alamos, and Sandia. B&W NESI Lynchburg Technology Center and General Atomics are commercial facilities with DOE fuel. DOE may also receive fuel from foreign research reactors, university reactors, and other commercial and government research reactors. Most DOE spent fuel is stored in water-filled pools at the reactor facilities. Currently an engineering study is being performed to determine the feasibility of using dry storage for DOE-owned spent fuel currently stored at various facilities. Delays in opening the deep geologic repository and the decision to phase out reprocessing of production fuels are extending the need for interim storage. The report describes the basic storage conditions and the general SNF inventory at individual DOE facilities.

  18. Background-free balanced optical cross correlator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nejadmalayeri, Amir Hossein; Kaertner, Franz X

    2014-12-23

    A balanced optical cross correlator includes an optical waveguide, a first photodiode including a first n-type semiconductor and a first p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a first side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry, and a second photodiode including a second n-type semiconductor and a second p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a second side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry. A balanced receiver including first and second inputs is configured to produce an output current or voltage that reflects a difference in currents or voltages, originating from the first and the second photodiodes of the balanced cross correlator and fed to the first input and to the second input of the balanced receiver.

  19. Background Information for Independent Review Team. Lifecycle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States) Publication Date: 2014-10-24 OSTI Identifier: 1178415 Report Number(s): LLNL-TR--663374 DOE Contract Number: ...

  20. DOE Vendor Communication Plan I. Background

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OF E--NERGY COMPILATION OF OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL MATERIALS PROVIDED TO THE PRESIDENT-ELECT'S DOE TRANSITION TEAM 2008-2009 Cynthia Quarterman from Janet Barsy - Office of General [GAO Report; Other I Congressional Matters; FY 2008 DOE AFR S | December 1 " ... 2008, Memor-andum, to - Cynthia Quarterman from Janet Barsy - Requested Information [List of Pending 2 Litigation Cases; Federal Facility Agreements ...... ] December 5, 2008, Memorandum to Cynthia Quarterman from Janet Barsy -

  1. CBO PowerPoint Template (White background)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Congressional Budget Office Effects of Tax Credits for Electric Vehicles Ron Gecan, Ph.D. Microeconomic Studies Division June 17, 2013 This presentation provides information published in Effects of Federal Tax Credits for the Purchase of Electric Vehicles (September 2012), www.cbo.gov/publication/43576. Presentation to the 2013 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Energy Information Administration C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E Tradeoffs for Electric Vehicles ■ Lower operating costs

  2. Background information on RSO Test Deeming Guidance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    information on RSO Test Deeming Guidance BPA has now had over two years of experience implementing Slice under the Regional Dialogue contract. Slice product customers are required...

  3. Extragalactic Background Light from Hierarchical Galaxy Formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  4. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- CBECS Survey Background...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... Same as 1992 Cost of gas purchased from other than local distribution company Not collected Not collected Not collected Consumption and Expenditures Estimated cost (ranges) of ...

  5. Parity Violation Constraints Using Cosmic Microwave Background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept. ; Ade, P. ; Cardiff U. ; Bock, J. ; Caltech Caltech, JPL ; Bowden, M. ; Cardiff U. KIPAC, Menlo Park Harvard U. Stanford U., Phys. Dept. ; Brown, M.L. ; Cambridge U. ...

  6. Microsoft Word - Appendix A_Background.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... and Maintenance (LTSM) Program records at the DOE Grand ... Weldon Spring Site LTS&M Plan U.S. Department of Energy Doc. ... (DOE 2003c). The two communities closest to the Chemical ...

  7. Background information on the SSC project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, J.

    1991-10-01

    This report discusses the following information about the Superconducting Super Collider: Goals and milestones; civil construction; ring components; cryogenics; vacuum and cooling water systems; electrical power; instrumentation and control systems; and installation planning.

  8. Background Information/Chronology (sub/strategy)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Subscription process underway" was published in the January 1998 issue of the BPA Journal (PDF, 7 pages, 172 kb). On April 30, 1998, BPA's Power Business Line established a...

  9. APPLICANT BACKGROUND SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    personnel practices meet the requirements of Federal law. Your responses are voluntary. ... PRIVACY INFORMATION General The information is provided pursuant to Public Law 935-597 ...

  10. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment; Journal Volume: 764 Publisher: Elsevier Research Org: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), ...

  11. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O'Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  12. LOW INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM OVERVIEW Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The reports include number of units (homes) served, as well as appliances installed. Demographic information is also provided, including the number of children, elderly, and tribal...

  13. LOW INCOME ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM OVERVIEW Background

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forum guidelines used by BPA's utilities for determining cost effectiveness. Demographic information is also provided, including the number of children, elderly, and tribal...

  14. Vision-based threat detection in dynamic environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2007-08-01

    This report addresses the development of automated video-screening technology to assist security forces in protecting our homeland against terrorist threats. A prevailing threat is the covert placement of bombs inside crowded public facilities. Although video-surveillance systems are increasingly common, current systems cannot detect the placement of bombs. It is also unlikely that security personnel could detect a bomb or its placement by observing video from surveillance cameras. The problems lie in the large number of cameras required to monitor large areas, the limited number of security personnel employed to protect these areas, and the intense diligence required to effectively screen live video from even a single camera. Different from existing video-detection systems designed to operate in nearly static environments, we are developing technology to detect changes in the background of dynamic environments: environments where motion and human activities are persistent over long periods. Our goal is to quickly detect background changes, even if the background is visible to the camera less than 5 percent of the time and possibly never free from foreground activity. Our approach employs statistical scene models based on mixture densities. We hypothesized that the background component of the mixture has a small variance compared to foreground components. Experiments demonstrate this hypothesis is true under a wide variety of operating conditions. A major focus involved the development of robust background estimation techniques that exploit this property. We desire estimation algorithms that can rapidly produce accurate background estimates and detection algorithms that can reliably detect background changes with minimal nuisance alarms. Another goal is to recognize unusual activities or foreground conditions that could signal an attack (e.g., large numbers of running people, people falling to the floor, etc.). Detection of background changes and/or unusual

  15. An empirical determination of the intergalactic background light using near-infrared deep galaxy survey data out to 5 ?m and the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-04-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 ?m. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to ?-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) TeV. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  16. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Gnther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ? 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ?0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  17. System and method for the detection of anomalies in an image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Lakshman; Swaminarayan, Sriram

    2013-09-03

    Preferred aspects of the present invention can include receiving a digital image at a processor; segmenting the digital image into a hierarchy of feature layers comprising one or more fine-scale features defining a foreground object embedded in one or more coarser-scale features defining a background to the one or more fine-scale features in the segmentation hierarchy; detecting a first fine-scale foreground feature as an anomaly with respect to a first background feature within which it is embedded; and constructing an anomalous feature layer by synthesizing spatially contiguous anomalous fine-scale features. Additional preferred aspects of the present invention can include detecting non-pervasive changes between sets of images in response at least in part to one or more difference images between the sets of images.

  18. ARM - Facility News Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 30, 2007 [Facility News] New Radar Wind Profiler Joins AMF Instrument Suite in Germany Bookmark and Share The 1290 MHz wind profiler (foreground) joins the eddy correlation system (background) for the 9-month deployment in Germany. A new 1290 MHz radar wind profiler has joined the ARM Mobile Facility instrument suite for the Convective and Orographic Precipitation Study (COPS) in Germany. This system operates similarly to a Doppler radar and provides measurements of backscattered

  19. Project Profile: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cycle Baseload Power Tower Project Profile: Brayton Cycle Baseload Power Tower Wilson logo Wilson Solarpower, under the Baseload CSP FOA, proposed a utility-scale, Brayton cycle baseload power tower system with a capacity factor of at least 75% and LCOE of $0.09/kWh. Approach Photo of a tower in the background with slanted panels connected by a wire in the foreground. Wilson developed, built, tested, and evaluated two prototype components-an unpressurized thermal storage system and an

  20. How are the aftereffects of wildfire managed?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How are the aftereffects of wildfire managed? How are the aftereffects of wildfire managed? Wildfires cause flooding, increasing sediment movement. August 1, 2013 Las Conchas fire fighter in foreground; fire in Los Alamos Canyon in background Las Conchas fire fighters in Los Alamos Canyon LANL is located in high-desert region where the potential for wildfires is high. To protect the public and the environment from catastrophic wildfires, LANL regularly thins trees and clears underbrush. Santa Fe

  1. CX-005417: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Beaver Creek PropertyCX(s) Applied: B1.25Date: 03/07/2011Location(s): Okanogan County, WashingtonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  2. A high-elevation, multi-proxy biotic and environmental record...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial...

  3. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial...

  4. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    including salamanders otters muskrats minks rabbits beavers frogs lizards snakes fish and birds The combination of macro and micro vertebrates invertebrates terrestrial and...

  5. PRESENTATION TITLE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Comprehensive" system of water control regulation encompasses the entire White River ... BUILDING STRONG Summary of Regulation Criteria Beaver Dam: Provide an increment of ...

  6. Piscataquis County, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Places in Piscataquis County, Maine Abbot, Maine Atkinson, Maine Beaver Cove, Maine Blanchard, Maine Bowerbank, Maine Brownville, Maine Dover-Foxcroft, Maine Greenville, Maine...

  7. Washburn County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype A. Places in Washburn County, Wisconsin Barronett, Wisconsin Bashaw, Wisconsin Bass Lake, Wisconsin Beaver Brook, Wisconsin Birchwood, Wisconsin Casey, Wisconsin Chicog,...

  8. Notices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (2012 Roadmap Adjustments), Review Period Ends: 08172015, Contact: Joseph A. Campbell CAPT USN 703-602-3924. EIS No. 20150193, Draft, BLM, UT, Beaver Dam Wash National ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial...

  10. Furnas County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Subtype A. Places in Furnas County, Nebraska Arapahoe, Nebraska Beaver City, Nebraska Cambridge, Nebraska Edison, Nebraska Hendley, Nebraska Holbrook, Nebraska Oxford, Nebraska...

  11. Dr. David Snyder

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    buried ground surfaces persist in Little Beaver Creek and its two associated drainages. The analysis of the soils determined whether buried ground surfaces were present, and ...

  12. Raleigh County, West Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Places in Raleigh County, West Virginia Beaver, West Virginia Beckley, West Virginia Bradley, West Virginia Coal City, West Virginia Crab Orchard, West Virginia Daniels, West...

  13. EIS-0183: EPA Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Beaver Valley Power Station, Units 1 and 2, Plant Specific, Issuing Nuclear Power Plant Operating License for an Additional 20- Year Period, Pennsylvania DOEEIS-0183,...

  14. Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AND FUEL CELLS WORKSHOP AGENDA National Renewable Energy Laboratory Research Support Facility, Beaver Creek Conference Room Golden, Colorado June 11-13, 2012 WORKSHOP OBJECTIVES: * ...

  15. Interval Data Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interval Data Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Interval Data Systems Inc Address: 135 Beaver Street Place: Waltham, Massachusetts Zip: 02452 Region: Greater Boston...

  16. Carroll County, Arkansas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arkansas Alpena, Arkansas Beaver, Arkansas Berryville, Arkansas Blue Eye, Arkansas Eureka Springs, Arkansas Green Forest, Arkansas Oak Grove, Arkansas Retrieved from "http:...

  17. EIS-0486-NOI-2012.pdf

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The routes continue this easterly track north of Greenbrier, near Damascus and Quitman. ... Fairgrounds-Pavilion Building, 1107 Douglas Avenue, Beaver, OK 73932 * January 31, ...

  18. Property:EIA/861/ActivityRetailMarketing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + B BP Energy Company + true + Beaver City Corporation (Utility Company) + true + Blue Star Energy Services + true + Bluerock Energy, Inc. + true + Board of Water Electric &...

  19. INTERPRETATION OF THE ARCADE 2 ABSOLUTE SKY BRIGHTNESS MEASUREMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seiffert, M.; Levin, S. M.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Mirel, P.; Singal, J.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-06-10

    We use absolutely calibrated data between 3 and 90 GHz from the 2006 balloon flight of the ARCADE 2 instrument, along with previous measurements at other frequencies, to constrain models of extragalactic emission. Such emission is a combination of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) monopole, Galactic foreground emission, the integrated contribution of radio emission from external galaxies, any spectral distortions present in the CMB, and any other extragalactic source. After removal of estimates of foreground emission from our own Galaxy, and an estimated contribution of external galaxies, we present fits to a combination of the flat-spectrum CMB and potential spectral distortions in the CMB. We find 2{sigma} upper limits to CMB spectral distortions of {mu} < 6 x 10{sup -4} and |Y{sub ff}| < 1 x 10{sup -4}. We also find a significant detection of a residual signal beyond that, which can be explained by the CMB plus the integrated radio emission from galaxies estimated from existing surveys. This residual signal may be due to an underestimated galactic foreground contribution, an unaccounted for contribution of a background of radio sources, or some combination of both. The residual signal is consistent with emission in the form of a power law with amplitude 18.4 {+-} 2.1 K at 0.31 GHz and a spectral index of -2.57 {+-} 0.05.

  20. Modeling Background Radiation in our Environment Using Geochemical Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malchow, Russell L.; Marsac, Kara; Burnley, Pamela; Hausrath, Elisabeth; Haber, Daniel; Adcock, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Radiation occurs naturally in bedrock and soil. Gamma rays are released from the decay of the radioactive isotopes K, U, and Th. Gamma rays observed at the surface come from the first 30 cm of rock and soil. The energy of gamma rays is specific to each isotope, allowing identification. For this research, data was collected from national databases, private companies, scientific literature, and field work. Data points were then evaluated for self-consistency. A model was created by converting concentrations of U, K, and Th for each rock and soil unit into a ground exposure rate using the following equation: D=1.32 K+ 0.548 U+ 0.272 Th. The first objective of this research was to compare the original Aerial Measurement System gamma ray survey to results produced by the model. The second objective was to improve the method and learn the constraints of the model. Future work will include sample data analysis from field work with a goal of improving the geochemical model.

  1. Microsoft Word - Grant Background and Application Request 09...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    established to provide funding assistance for federally recognized tribes and tribal non-profit organizations related to BPA programs. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is...

  2. BACKGROUND GLOBAL STEEL OVERCAPACITY and OIL COUNTRY TUBULAR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) producers filed anti- dumping cases against South Korea, India, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam. ...

  3. Astroparticle physics with a customized low-background broad...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated ...

  4. Background radiation measurements at high power research reactors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: SC00112704 Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and ...

  5. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  6. Experimental study of neutron induced background noise on gated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Izumi, N. ; Hagmann, C. ; Stone, G. ; Hey, D. ; Glenn, S. ; Conder, A. ; Teruya, A. ; Sorce, C. ; Tommasini, R. ; Stoeffl, W. ; Springer, P. ; Landen, O. L. ; Eckart, M. ; ...

  7. Neutron inelastic scattering in natural Pb as a background in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National ...

  8. MCNP6 Cosmic & Terrestrial Background Particle Fluxes -- Release 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMath, Garrett E.; McKinney, Gregg W.; Wilcox, Trevor

    2015-01-23

    Essentially a set of slides, the presentation begins with the MCNP6 cosmic-source option, then continues with the MCNP6 transport model (atmospheric, terrestrial) and elevation scaling. It concludes with a few slides on results, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.

  9. Inelastic neutron scattering as a possible background for neutrinoless...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Boswell, Melissa S 1 ; Devlin, Matthew J. 1 ; Elliott, Steven R 1 ; Fotiadis, Nikolaos 1 ; Hime, Andrew 1 ; Nelson, Ronald O. 1 ; Guiseppe, Vincente E. 2 ; ...

  10. Explanatory Notes Explanatory Notes The EIA-782 Surveys Background

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    data at a State level on 14 petroleum products for various retail and wholesale marketing categories. The Form EIA-782B collects resellerretailer monthly price and volume...

  11. Initial Characterization of Unequal-Length, Low-Background Proportiona...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference ...

  12. Background Fact Sheet Transfer of Depleted Uranium and Subsequent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requires U.S.-origin unobligated domestically enriched, domestic-origin uranium to support continued tritium ...

  13. Metal Alloy Compositions And Process Background Of The Invention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flemings, Merton C.; Martinez-Ayers, Raul A.; de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Yurko, James A.

    2003-11-11

    A skinless metal alloy composition free of entrapped gas and comprising primary solid discrete degenerate dendrites homogeneously dispersed within a secondary phase is formed by a process wherein the metal alloy is heated in a vessel to render it a liquid. The liquid is then rapidly cooled while vigorously agitating it under conditions to avoid entrapment of gas while forming solid nuclei homogeneously distributed in the liquid. Agitation then is ceased when the liquid contains a small fraction solid or the liquid-solid alloy is removed from the source of agitation while cooling is continued to form the primary solid discrete degenerate dendrites in liquid secondary phase. The solid-liquid mixture then can be formed such as by casting.

  14. Mineralogical characterization of saprolite at the FRC background...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    was 0.17 gkg. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses indicate that quartz, illite, and microcline (K-feldspar) are the dominant...

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy: a background text. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Some of the most common forms of renewable energy are presented in this textbook for students. The topics include solar energy, wind power hydroelectric power, biomass ocean thermal energy, and tidal and geothermal energy. The main emphasis of the text is on the sun and the solar energy that it yields. Discussions on the sun's composition and the relationship between the earth, sun and atmosphere are provided. Insolation, active and passive solar systems, and solar collectors are the subtopics included under solar energy. (BCS)

  16. New Measurements of the Cosmic Background Radiation Spectrum

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Smoot, G. F.; De Amici, G.; Levin, S.; Witebsky, C.

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  17. Indian Renewable Energy Status Report: Background Report for DIREC 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, D. S.; Busche, S.; Cowlin, S.; Engelmeier, T.; Jaritz, J.; Milbrandt, A.; Wang, S.

    2010-10-01

    India has great potential to accelerate use of endowed renewable resources in powering its growing economy with a secure and affordable energy supply. The Government of India recognizes that development of local, renewable resources will be critical to ensure that India is able to meet both economic and environmental objectives and has supported the development of renewable energy through several policy actions. This paper describes the status of renewable energy in India as of DIREC 2010. It begins by describing the institutional framework guiding energy development in India, the main policy drivers impacting energy, and the major policy actions India has taken that impact renewable energy deployment. The paper presents estimates of potential for wind, solar, small hydro, and bioenergy and the deployment of each of these technologies to date in India. The potential for India to meet both large-scale generation needs and provide access to remote, unelectrified populations are covered. Finally, the enabling environment required to facilitate rapid scale of renewables is discussed, including issues of technology transfer and the status of financing in India.

  18. Signal photon flux and background noise in a coupling electromagnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Li Fangyu ; Yang Nan ; Fang Zhenyun ; Wen Hao 1 ; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr. 2 ; Stephenson, Gary V. 3 + Show Author Affiliations Department of Physics, Chongqing ...

  19. Low background techniques in CANDLES (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publication Date: 2015-08-17 OSTI Identifier: 22488722 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1672; Journal ...

  20. Measurement of low radioactivity background in a high voltage...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Agency (IAEA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO...