Sample records for fore cast ing

  1. Ryan Sun Chee Fore | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ryan Sun Chee Fore About Us Ryan Sun Chee Fore - Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Manager Most Recent Riding the Clean Energy Wave: New Projects Aim to Improve Water Power...

  2. PREV'AIR, a platform for air quality monitoring and fore-, Menut, L.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    PREV'AIR, a platform for air quality monitoring and fore- casting Honoré C.1 , Menut, L.2, France 4 ADEME, Paris, France 5 CNRM Meteo-France, Toulouse, France 1 Introduction Since 2003, the PREV'AIR system has been delivering an information about air quality, dedicated to any people or organisation

  3. Kitty Inglis Jane Harvell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    Kitty Inglis Librarian Jane Harvell Head of Library Content Delivery & Digital Strategy (ActingFT, 2PT) Eleanor Craig Digital Content Librarian G7 Library Assistant Systems G3 Library Assistants G) Sally Faith Head of Library Planning & Administration Joanna Ball Head of Library Academic Services

  4. Automatic 3D modeling of palatal plaster casts Marco Andreetto

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Mostafa, Yaser S.

    duplicated by 3D printers. A second application where 3D models of palatal casts could also be usefulAutomatic 3D modeling of palatal plaster casts Marco Andreetto Dept. of Information Engineer corte@dei.unipd.it Abstract This work introduces a procedure for automatic 3D model- ing and discusses

  5. Modeling results for the ITER cryogenic fore pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, D. S.; Miller, F. K.; Pfotenhauer, J. M. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The cryogenic fore pump (CFP) is designed for ITER to collect and compress hydrogen isotopes during the regeneration process of torus cryopumps. Different from common cryopumps, the ITER-CFP works in the viscous flow regime. As a result, both adsorption boundary conditions and transport phenomena contribute unique features to the pump performance. In this report, the physical mechanisms of cryopumping are studied, especially the diffusion-adsorption process and these are coupled with standard equations of species, momentum and energy balance, as well as the equation of state. Numerical models are developed, which include highly coupled non-linear conservation equations of species, momentum and energy and equation of state. Thermal and kinetic properties are treated as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition. To solve such a set of equations, a novel numerical technique, identified as the Group-Member numerical technique is proposed. It is presented here a 1D numerical model. The results include comparison with the experimental data of pure hydrogen flow and a prediction for hydrogen flow with trace helium. An advanced 2D model and detailed explanation of the Group-Member technique are to be presented in following papers.

  6. Final Report - Modeling Results For the ITER Cryogenic Fore Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfotenhauer, John M; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical model characterizing the operation of a cryogenic fore-pump (CFP) for ITER has been developed at the University of Wisconsin Ė Madison during the period from March 15, 2011 through June 30, 2014. The purpose of the ITER-CFP is to separate hydrogen isotopes from helium gas, both making up the exhaust components from the ITER reactor. The model explicitly determines the amount of hydrogen that is captured by the supercritical-helium-cooled pump as a function of the inlet temperature of the supercritical helium, its flow rate, and the inlet conditions of the hydrogen gas flow. Furthermore the model computes the location and amount of hydrogen captured in the pump as a function of time. Throughout the modelís development, and as a calibration check for its results, it has been extensively compared with the measurements of a CFP prototype tested at Oak Ridge National Lab. The results of the model demonstrate that the quantity of captured hydrogen is very sensitive to the inlet temperature of the helium coolant on the outside of the cryopump. Furthermore, the model can be utilized to refine those tests, and suggests methods that could be incorporated in the testing to enhance the usefulness of the measured data.

  7. Casting methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marsden, Kenneth C.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Grover, Blair K.; Fielding, Randall S.; Wolfensberger, Billy W.

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A casting device includes a covered crucible having a top opening and a bottom orifice, a lid covering the top opening, a stopper rod sealing the bottom orifice, and a reusable mold having at least one chamber, a top end of the chamber being open to and positioned below the bottom orifice and a vacuum tap into the chamber being below the top end of the chamber. A casting method includes charging a crucible with a solid material and covering the crucible, heating the crucible, melting the material, evacuating a chamber of a mold to less than 1 atm absolute through a vacuum tap into the chamber, draining the melted material into the evacuated chamber, solidifying the material in the chamber, and removing the solidified material from the chamber without damaging the chamber.

  8. Ablation Casting Evaluation for High Volume Structural Castings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Casting Evaluation for High Volume Structural Castings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  9. Drop Traffic in Microfluidic Ladder Networks with Fore-Aft Structural Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevan Maddala; William S. Wang; Siva A. Vanapalli; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of pairs of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with slanted bypasses, which break the fore-aft structural symmetry. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative drop spacing, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand, or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all these behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that while ladder networks containing several identical bypasses are limited to nearly linear transformation of input delay between drops, mixed combination of bypasses can cause significant non-linear transformation enabling coding and decoding of input delays.

  10. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  11. Method of casting aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm.sup.3 to 0.6 g/cm.sup.3. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of alcogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent.

  12. Method of casting aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, J.F.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention describes a method for making monolithic castings of transparent silica aerogel with densities in the range from 0.001 g/cm[sup 3] to 0.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Various shapes of aerogels are cast in flexible polymer molds which facilitate removal and eliminate irregular surfaces. Mold dimensions are preselected to account for shrinkage of aerogel which occurs during the drying step of supercritical extraction of solvent. 2 figures.

  13. Salvaged castings and methods of salvaging castings with defective cast cooling bumps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Schaeffer, Jon Conrad (Greenville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Castings for gas turbine parts exposed on one side to a high-temperature fluid medium have cast-in bumps on an opposite cooling surface side to enhance heat transfer. Areas on the cooling surface having defectively cast bumps, i.e., missing or partially formed bumps during casting, are coated with a braze alloy and cooling enhancement material to salvage the part.

  14. Fachgebiet Konstruktion von Maschinensystemen Prof. Dr.Ing. Henning J. Meyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fachgebiet Konstruktion von Maschinensystemen Prof. Dr.Ing. Henning J. Meyer www.Ing. Henning Meyer Dipl.Ing. Christian Rusch Technische Universitšt Berlin Konstruktion von Maschinensystemen #12;Fachgebiet Konstruktion von Maschinensystemen Prof. Dr.Ing. Henning J. Meyer www

  15. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, Kenneth J. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants.

  16. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  17. Extrusion cast explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scribner, K.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved, multiphase, high performance, high energy, extrusion cast explosive compositions, comprising, a crystalline explosive material; an energetic liquid plasticizer; a urethane prepolymer, comprising a blend of polyvinyl formal, and polycaprolactone; a polyfunctional isocyanate; and a catalyst are disclosed. These new explosive compositions exhibit higher explosive content, a smooth detonation front, excellent stability over long periods of storage, and lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulants. 1 fig.

  18. Discussion of "Development and Verification of an Analytical Solution for Fore-casting Nonlinear Kinematic Flood Waves" by Sergio E. Serrano

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Kinematic Flood Waves" by Sergio E. Serrano Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, July/August 2006, Vol. 11, No presents an interesting method to forecast nonlinear kinematic flood waves (Serrano, 2006). As a first to the Kinematic Wave Equation (KWE). The range of time lags for which this analytical solution is applicable being

  19. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  20. Fort Inge and the Texas frontier, 1849-1869

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Thomas Tyree

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) May 1991 ABSTRACT Fort Inge and the Texas Frontier, 1849-1869. (May 1991) Thomas Tyree Smith B. S. in Ed. , Southwest Texas State University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joseph G. Dawson III Now an obscure site near Uvalde, Fort Inge was once...'s Report on the Eighth Nilitary Department, " Cartographic Division, DR 148, RG 77, NA. 12 NOTES 1. Frederick Law Olmsted, A Journey Through Texas: Or A Saddle- Trip On the Southwestern Frontier (New York: Dix, Edwards 6 Co. , 1857; rpr. , Austin...

  1. Investigador Departamento Nazario Ramrez, PhD Ing. Industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    IngenierŪa AgrŪcola Nazario RamŪrez, PhD Ing. Industrial Ciencias Marinas Ciencias Marinas Por segundo aŮo. Morell, PhD Correlate data from electronic databases to ocean measurements Pieter Van der Meer Durante el: Hurricane wind profile model Eric Harmsen, PhD QuŪmica Aurelio Mercado Aidalķ Joubert, PhD Proyecto: FŪsica

  2. 978-1-4244-5113-5/09/$25.00 c 2009 IEEE OppCast: Opportunistic Broadcast of Warning Messages in VANETs with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    - hop broadcast protocol is particularly difficult to design in VANETs with unreliable links. Schemes the opportunistic broadcast protocol (OppCast) that aims at minimizing the number of transmissions while achieving the propagation latency. An opportunistic forwarding protocol is designed accord- ingly as a MAC-layer broadcast

  3. Use of Xenon Difluoride to Clean Hazardous By-Products in Ion Implanter Source Housings, Turbo Pumps, and Fore-Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despres, J.; Chambers, B.; Bishop, S.; Kaim, R.; Letaj, S.; Sergi, S.; Sweeney, J.; Tang, Y.; Wilson, S.; Yedave, S. [ATMI, 7 Commerce Drive, Danbury, CT, 06810 (United States)

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the use of xenon difluoride to clean deposits in the source housing, source turbo pump, and source turbo pump fore-line of ion implanters. Xenon difluoride has previously been shown to be effective in increasing the lifetime of the ion source{sup 1,2} and this paper presents an extension of the technology to other areas within the tool. Process by-products that are deposited in the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line can not only pose productivity issues, in the case of coatings on insulators, but can also be flammable and toxic in the case of deposits formed within the turbo pump and fore-line. The results presented in this paper detail the initial successful examples of using xenon difluoride to clean these deposits.ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is capable of cleaning an insulator in an ion implanter. Typically during use an insulator will become increasingly coated with deposits that could lead to productivity problems. By introducing xenon difluoride into the source housing the insulator residues were effectively cleaned in-situ, thereby extending the maintenance interval and resulting in significant consumable savings.Similar deposits that form in the turbo pump and fore-line could not only lead to production problems due to turbo pump failure or fore-line build-up, but pose significant health risks during the ex-situ cleaning process. Through internal testing ATMI has shown that xenon difluoride is able to clean phosphorus and germanium deposits located within a turbo pump. Additionally, testing has demonstrated that the turbo pump fore-line can be cleaned in-situ without the need to remove these components, thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of fires. The cleaning reaction progress and by-products were monitored using FTIR spectrometry and thermocouples.In order to efficiently clean the source housing, turbo pump, and turbo pump fore-line xenon difluoride delivery must be optimized. This paper also details a hardware concept that maximizes xenon difluoride delivery and allows the clean to be done in a way that is viable for production ion implanters.

  4. CAST results and Axion review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Geralis; for the CAST collaboration

    2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) and the Axion Dark Matter eXperiment (ADMX), together with a brief review on prospects on Axion searches with a variety of experimental techniques. CAST has explored masses up to 0.64 eV setting the most stringent limit on the axion-photon coupling, apart for the micro-eV region where ADMX is the most competitive experiment. CAST is aiming at surpassing the 1eV WMAP upper limit and possibly revisiting the operation in vacuum with extra sensitive X-ray detectors, while ADMX, using improved extra sensitive SQUID amplifiers will explore the micro-eV mass range.

  5. Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project (AMD 304)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    block, bore and journal strategies 2.2 Fasteners, gaskets, sealing 2.3 Coolant and corrosion 2.4 FEA design, integration and analysis 2.5 Component casting and casting analysis...

  6. ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009casting Industry

  7. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  8. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  9. ITP Metal Casting: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Metal casting Industry ITP Metal Casting: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Metal casting Industry profile.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Edinburgh College of Art : cast collection and architecture†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoica, Ruxandra-Iulia; Stewart, Margaret

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Edinburgh Cast Collection comprises 265 plaster casts of Antique, Renaissance, and Gothic statues, bas reliefs, and architectural passages held at the Edinburgh College of Art and the University of Edinburgh. The plaster casts at the Edinburgh...

  11. "Dark Web: Exploring and Min-ing the Dark Side of the Web"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelsen, Claus

    in the internationally re- nowned Dark Web project will be reviewed, including: deep/dark web spider- ing (web sitesTitle: "Dark Web: Exploring and Min- ing the Dark Side of the Web" Speaker: Director, Prof will review the emerging research in Terrorism Informatics based on a web mining perspective. Recent progress

  12. AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    and Research in the College of Education, is the premier center in West TexasAcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University December 12, 2012 Irlbeck: This is AcademiCast--Texas Tech University's podcast series from the Office of the Provost

  13. RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    RELIABILITY-BASED CASTING PROCESS DESIGN OPTIMIZATION Richard Hardin1 , K.K. Choi1 , and Christoph 52242-1527 Keywords: Casting Process Design, Optimization, Reliability-Based Design Optimization purpose reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) software tool previously developed at the University

  14. Dimensional variability of production steel castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, F.E.; Risteu, J.W.; Vaupel, W.G.; DeMeter, E.C.; Voigt, R.C.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Work is ongoing to characterize the dimensional variability of steel casting features. Data are being collected from castings produced at representative Steel Founders` Society of America foundries. Initial results based on more than 12,500 production casting feature measurements are presented for carbon and low alloy steel castings produced in green sand, no-bake, and shell molds. A comprehensive database of casting, pattern, and feature variables has been developed so that the influence of the variables on dimensional variability can be determined. Measurement system analysis is conducted to insure that large measurement error is not reported as dimensional variability. Results indicate that the dimensional variability of production casting features is less than indicated in current US (SFSA) and international (ISO) standards. Feature length, casting weight, parting line and molding process all strongly influence dimensional variability. Corresponding pattern measurements indicate that the actual shrinkage amount for casting features varies considerably. This variation in shrinkage will strongly influence the ability of the foundry to satisfy customer dimensional requirements.

  15. ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations ITP Steel: Hydrogen and Nitrogen Control in Ladle and Casting Operations castingops.pdf More Documents & Publications...

  16. PNNL: Mechanistic-Based Ductility Prediction for Complex Mg Castings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PNNL: Mechanistic-Based Ductility Prediction for Complex Mg Castings PNNL: Mechanistic-Based Ductility Prediction for Complex Mg Castings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  17. ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and...

  18. ITP Metal Casting: Corrosion Testing Practices - High Alloy Corrosion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Casting: Corrosion Testing Practices - High Alloy Corrosion Program ITP Metal Casting: Corrosion Testing Practices - High Alloy Corrosion Program lehighfs.pdf More Documents...

  19. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials - 3. Automotive Metals-Cast Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2013-016 Ultra Large Castings for Lightweight...

  20. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, ďProduction and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste FormsĒ to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  1. Programme Coordination Professor Dr.-Ing. habil. Dr. h. c. Karl J. Thom-Kozmiensky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Mineral and Waste Processing, Waste Disposal and Geomechanics, Germany Professor Dr.-Ing. Daniel Goldmann and Geomechanics, Germany Dr. Robert Gruber President of the Association of Austrian Waste Disposal Companies (V÷EB

  2. ISIS polarimetry for ING support astronomers Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ISIS polarimetry for ING support astronomers Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes Pablo Rodr 0.1 Document history . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 ISIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 Setting up ISIS for spectropolarimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1

  3. Thermal transport properties of grey cast irons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, R.L. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Ford Research Lab.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Porter, W.D.; Wang, Hsin [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of grey cast iron have been measured as a function of graphite flake morphology, chemical composition, and position in a finished brake rotor. Cast iron samples used for this investigation were cut from ``step block`` castings designed to produce iron with different graphite flake morphologies resulting from different cooling rates. Samples were also machined from prototype alloys and from production brake rotors representing a variation in foundry practice. Thermal diffusivity was measured at room and elevated temperatures via the flash technique. Heat capacity of selected samples was measured with differential scanning calorimetry, and these results were used to calculate the thermal conductivity. Microstructure of the various cast iron samples was quantified by standard metallography and image analysis, and the chemical compositions were determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  4. AcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    West Texas' quail population. The region's quail numbers plummeted in 2010 in West Texas and western Oklahoma. So far, scientists have found lead, mercuryAcademiCast Transcript Texas Tech University August 30, 2013 Pierce

  5. Mini-PROTEAN Multi-Casting Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ļC for future use. 1.2 Specifications Materials of construction Clamps Glass filled polycarbonate Casting chamber, sealing plate Molded polycarbonate Gasket Silicone tubing Overall size 10 cm x 10 cm x 16

  6. Industrial motivations: Conceptual Automotive Styling Tools (CAST)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Industrial motivations: Conceptual Automotive Styling Tools (CAST) Karan Singh #12;Conceptual. ∑ What makes automotive design unique. ∑ Existing modeling trends. ∑ A proposed workflow for conceptual automotive design. #12;Conceptual design desirables ∑ Abstraction from underlying surface math. ∑ Invite

  7. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. G. Garza; S. Aune; D. Calvet; J. F. Castel; F. E. Christensen; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; T. Decker; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. GalŠn; J. A. GarcŪa; I. Giomataris; R. M. Hill; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; A. C. Jakobsen; D. Jourde; H. Mirallas; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; J. Ruz; A. TomŠs; T. Vafeiadis; J. K. Vogel

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  8. Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G. (Gettysburg, PA)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  9. Methods and apparatus for manufacturing monocrystalline cast silicon and monocrystalline cast silicon bodies for photovoltaics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

  10. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, D. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology] [comp.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  11. Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Druschitz, A.P. (Intermet Corp., Lynchburg, VA)

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The automotive industry is seeking to replace current car parts made of aluminum and iron castings with thin wall (down to 2 mm) iron castings to reduce the cost and weight of automobiles. The mechanical properties of thin wall ductile iron castings are affected strongly by the thickness of the castings. The thinner castings cool at a faster rate, and microstructural features that form during solidification, and subsequently, transform in the solid state, are strongly dependent on a geometrical parameter related to the ratio of surface area-to-volume of the casting. As this ratio becomes larger, castings cool faster. As a result, the nodule count on the observation plane of the specimens increases dramatically (>2000 nodules/mm2 in most specimens), i.e. as the thickness of castings decreases. Also, the matrix of the thin walled ductile iron castings becomes more ferritic as the ratio of surface area-to-volume decreases.

  12. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The wax patterns are used to create a ceramic shell by the application of a series of ceramic coatings, and the alloy is cast into the dewaxed shell mold (Fig. 1.1). However, the complexity of shape and the close dimensional tolerances required in the final casting make it difficult to determine tooling dimensions. The final linear dimension of the casting depends on the cumulative effects of the linear expansions or contractions in each step of the investment casting process (Fig. 1.2). In most cases, the mold geometry or cores restrict the shrinkage of the pattern or the cast part, and the final casting dimensions may be affected by time-dependent processes such as viscoelastic deformation of the wax, and viscoplastic creep and plastic deformations of the shell and alloy. The pattern die is often reworked several times to produce castings whose dimensions are within acceptable tolerances. To date, investment casting technology has been based on hands-on training and experience. Technical literature is limited to experimental, phenomenological studies aimed at obtaining empirical correlations for quick and easy application in industry. The goal of this project was to predict casting dimensions for investment castings in order to meet blueprint nominal during the first casting run. Several interactions have to be considered in a coupled manner to determine the shrinkage factors: these are the die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy interactions (as illustrated in Fig. 1.3). In this work, the deformations of the die-wax and shell-alloy systems were considered in a coupled manner, while the coupled deformation of the wax-shell system was not considered. Future work is needed in order to deliver to industry a computer program in which all three systems are coupled for determining the dimensions of the wax pattern, the shell mold, and casting in a sequential but coupled manner.

  13. Advanced Pattern Material for Investment Casting Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Douglas Neece Neil Chaudhry

    2006-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Cleveland Tool and Machine (CTM) of Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with Harrington Product Development Center (HPDC) of Cincinnati, Ohio have developed an advanced, dimensionally accurate, temperature-stable, energy-efficient and cost-effective material and process to manufacture patterns for the investment casting industry. In the proposed technology, FOPAT (aFOam PATtern material) has been developed which is especially compatible with the investment casting process and offers the following advantages: increased dimensional accuracy; increased temperature stability; lower cost per pattern; less energy consumption per pattern; decreased cost of pattern making equipment; decreased tooling cost; increased casting yield. The present method for investment casting is "the lost wax" process, which is exactly that, the use of wax as a pattern material, which is then melted out or "lost" from the ceramic shell. The molten metal is then poured into the ceramic shell to produce a metal casting. This process goes back thousands of years and while there have been improvements in the wax and processing technology, the material is basically the same, wax. The proposed technology is based upon an established industrial process of "Reaction Injection Molding" (RIM) where two components react when mixed and then "molded" to form a part. The proposed technology has been modified and improved with the needs of investment casting in mind. A proprietary mix of components has been formulated which react and expand to form a foam-like product. The result is an investment casting pattern with smooth surface finish and excellent dimensional predictability along with the other key benefits listed above.

  14. Compound cast product and method for producing a compound cast product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N. (3987 Murray Highlands Cir., Murrysville, PA 15668-1747); Viswanathan, Srinath (1104 Albermarle La., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    2002-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound cast product is formed in a casting mold (14) having a mold cavity (16) sized and shaped to form the cast product. A plurality of injectors (24) is supported from a bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). The injectors (24) are in fluid communication with the mold cavity (16) through the bottom side (26) of the casting mold (14). A molten material holder furnace (12) is located beneath the casting mold (14). The holder furnace (12) defines molten material receiving chambers (36) configured to separately contain supplies of two different molten materials (37, 38). The holder furnace (12) is positioned such that the injectors (24) extend downward into the receiving chamber (36). The receiving chamber (36) is separated into at least two different flow circuits (51, 52). A first molten material (37) is received in a first flow circuit (51), and a second molten material (38) is received into a second flow circuit (52). The first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into the mold cavity (16) by the injectors (24) acting against the force of gravity. The injectors (24) are positioned such that the first and second molten materials (37, 38) are injected into different areas of the mold cavity (16). The molten materials (37, 38) are allowed to solidify and the resulting compound cast product is removed from the mold cavity (16).

  15. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  16. Search for solar chameleons and relic axions with CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantatore, G; Zioutas, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New CAST research proposal covering the period 2015-2018 detailing motivations and novel techniques to search for solar Chameleons and new searches for relic Axions with the CAST dipole magnet

  17. The industrial ecology of the iron casting industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alissa J. (Alissa Jean)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal casting is an energy and materials intensive manufacturing process, which is an important U.S. industry. This study analyzes iron casting, in particular, for possible improvements that will result in greater efficiencies ...

  18. aqueous tape casting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K; Zioutas, Konstantin; 10.1103PhysRevLett.94.121301 2005-01-01 397 The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST): status and prospects Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The CAST...

  19. aged cast stainless: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K; Zioutas, Konstantin; 10.1103PhysRevLett.94.121301 2005-01-01 339 The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST): status and prospects Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The CAST...

  20. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6...

  1. 1D AND 3D SYSTEMS IN MACHINE AUTOMATION Dr.-Ing. Werner Stempfhuber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1D AND 3D SYSTEMS IN MACHINE AUTOMATION Dr.-Ing. Werner Stempfhuber Leica Geosystems AG Heerbrugg with "stringless technology". Today there is a large range of potential markets for new machine automation, mining and agricultural industries. The use of machine automation in these applications will alter

  2. UC DAVIS College of engIneerIng 2012 13 Annual report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    and industry, and included speakers from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, General Motors, CarnegieUC DAVIS College of engIneerIng 2012 ≠13 Annual report #12;College of engineering, UC Davis a relations College of engineering, UC Davis 1 Shields Avenue, Kemper Hall 1027 Davis, CA 95616 530

  3. Power Electronics and Electrical Drives Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    Power Electronics and Electrical Drives Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim BŲcker Research Topics Mechatronic Systems, Electrical Drives and Electric Vehicles Control, modeling and optimization of electrical drives vehiclesElectric vehicles RailCab Power Electronics Switched-mode power supplies High efficiency

  4. CAD BASED DRILLING USING CONVENTIONAL TWIST DRILLS PANAGIOTIS KYRATSIS*, Dr. Ing. NIKOLAOS BILALIS**, Dr. VASILIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    CAD BASED DRILLING USING CONVENTIONAL TWIST DRILLS PANAGIOTIS KYRATSIS*, Dr. Ing. NIKOLAOS BILALIS, antoniadis@dpem.tuc.gr Abstract: Twist drills are geometrically complex tools, which are used in industry and experimental approaches for drilling simulation. The present paper is based on the ground that the increasing

  5. Water Quality Protection and Management Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Herwig Lehmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rotation and Land Preparation easures 1. Farm Ponds 2. Water Harvesting Measures 1. Checkdam/Reservoir 2Water Quality Protection and Management Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Herwig Lehmann University of Hannover Use & Land Cover TopographyTopography Semi arid/Sub- humid Climatic Watershed Quantitative Water

  6. Humans influence every ecosystem on Earth, lead-ing to impairment of natural ecosystem structure and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    but coupling that potential with societal demands and eco- nomic feasibility.Valuation of ecosystem goods are ig- nored.Ascribing an economic value to some ecosystem goods and services,by contrastArticles Humans influence every ecosystem on Earth, lead- ing to impairment of natural ecosystem

  7. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS are the build-ing blocks of modern society. Efficient and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Storici, Francesca

    TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS are the build- ing blocks of modern society. Efficient and safe movement. How- ever, transportation systems by their very nature also affect the environment through operations, construction, and maintenance of transportation facilities, and through the travel behaviors they encourage

  8. E-Mobility Research Network Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dietmar Ghlich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universitšt

    E-Mobility Research Network Prof. Dr.- Ing. Dietmar GŲhlich #12;Research Area Energy Storage and Conversion E-Mobility Research Network | TU Berlin Page 2 #12;E-Mobility Research Network | TU Berlin Page 3 Chemical Engineering, Electrochemical Catalysis E-Mobility Research Interests and Competencies 1. Hydrogen

  9. Climate change is not "a problem" wait-ing for "a solution". It is an environ-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    41 Climate change is not "a problem" wait- ing for "a solution". It is an environ- mental, cultural humanity's place on Earth. My new book, Why We Disagree About Climate Change, dissects this idea of climate about it. It also develops a different way of approaching the idea of climate change and of working

  10. he history of technology is a rich and fascinat-ing subject, combining engineering with eco-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oriolo, Giuseppe

    T he history of technology is a rich and fascinat- ing subject, combining engineering with eco, Portuguese ships explored the un- charted coast of Africa, a daring exploit. It was a full 70 years before da- volved a compass for determining direction and a means for timing an object floating by the ship

  11. Shock chlorination is a method of disinfect-ing a water well. It is recommended when

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    period. Most water treatment equipment (such as water heaters, softeners and pressure tanks) should alsoShock chlorination is a method of disinfect- ing a water well. It is recommended when a water is the source of bacteria, the system will be contaminated again every time water is pumped into the plumbing

  12. BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POTATOES seec ing Potato Voriet-es

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR POTATOES seec ing Potato Voriet-es for Mic -gon 45Ę Richard Chase bal to a high quality potato crop for commer- inche in rows 34 inches apart. Based on a soil test cial outlet. Extensive potato Ibs K20/A. variety performance trials are conducted each year Harvests were made

  13. Electron beam melting and casting of zirconium and titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arzhakova, V.M.; Popov, E.I. [A.A. Bochvar All Union Scientific and Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubrovski, V.A.; Frolov, V.I. [PO ChMZ, Glazov (Russian Federation); Ladohin, S.V.; Levitsky, N.I.; Chernyavsky, V.B. [Scientific and Research Institute of Casting, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of electron beam melting (EBM) and casting Zirconium and Titanium alloys are discussed. The data on different schedules used for EBM of this metals as well as equipment for crucible melting and special equipment for casting are described. The results of production of Zirconium and Titanium alloy mold castings for various purposes are presented.

  14. Gelcasting Alumina Cores for Investment Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janney, M A; Klug, F J

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    General Electric currently uses silica investment casting cores for making superalloy turbine blades. The silica core technology does not provide the degree of dimensional control needed for advanced turbine system manufacture. The sum of the various process variables in silica core manufacturing produces cores that have more variability than is allowed for in advanced, power-generation gas turbine airfoils.

  15. Cast Stainless Steel Ferrite and Grain Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruud, Clayton O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Mathews, Royce; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-service inspection requirements dictate that piping welds in the primary pressure boundary of light-water reactors be subject to a volumetric examination based on the rules contained within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The purpose of the inspection is the reliable detection and accurate sizing of service-induced degradation and/or material flaws introduced during fabrication. The volumetric inspection is usually carried out using ultrasonic testing (UT) methods. However, the varied metallurgical macrostructures and microstructures of cast austenitic stainless steel piping and fittings, including statically cast stainless steel and centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS), introduce significant variations in the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic energy. These variations complicate interpretation of the UT responses and may compromise the reliability of UT inspection. A review of the literature indicated that a correlation may exist between the microstructure and the delta ferrite content of the casting alloy. This paper discusses the results of a recent study where the goal was to determine if a correlation existed between measured and/or calculated ferrite content and grain structure in CCSS pipe.

  16. Continuous Casting Consortium Report to POSCO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    in Fig. 2, the gas fuel (such as propane C3H8) and oxygen leaving the torch combust into a high of the heat is transported away through radiation and advection with the combustion gas and the rest- 1 - Continuous Casting Consortium Report to POSCO Modeling Steel Slab Heat Transfer During

  17. Metallic Fuel Casting Development and Parameter Optimization Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.S. Fielding; J. Crapps; C. Unal; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the advantages of metallic fuel is the abilility to cast the fuel slugs to near net shape with little additional processing. However, the high aspect ratio of the fuel is not ideal for casting. EBR-II fuel was cast using counter gravity injection casting (CGIC) but, concerns have been raised concerning the feasibility of this process for americium bearing alloys. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program has begun developing gravity casting techniques suitable for fuel production. Compared to CGIC gravity casting does not require a large heel that then is recycled, does not require application of a vacuum during melting, and is conducive to re-usable molds. Development has included fabrication of two separate benchscale, approximately 300 grams, systems. To shorten development time computer simulations have been used to ensure mold and crucible designs are feasible and to identify which fluid properties most affect casting behavior and therefore require more characterization.

  18. tHe LeAdING MBA IN JAPAN Japan's Leading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    tHe LeAdING MBA IN JAPAN MBA Japan #12;Japan's Leading Master of Business adMinistration prograM the mcgill mBa JaPan Program, oFFered By mcgill University's desaUtels FacUlty oF management, is the leading mBa Program in JaPan. the two-weekends-Per-month Format allows stUdents to comPlete a FUll, to

  19. Solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAST Collaboration; E. Arik; S. Aune; D. Autiero; K. Barth; A. Belov; B. BeltrŠn; S. Borghi; F. S. Boydag; H. Bršuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; L. Di Lella; O. B. Dogan; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; H. Fischer; J. Franz; J. GalŠn; E. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gůmez; M. Hasinoff; F. H. Heinsius; I. Hikmet; D. H. H. Hoffmann; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; D. Kang; T. Karageorgopoulou; M. Karuza; K. KŲnigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Kr?mar; K. Kousouris; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; C. Lasseur; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; V. Lozza; G. Lutz; G. Luzůn; D. Miller; J. Morales; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; A. Ortiz; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; A. Placci; G. Raiteri; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. RodrŪguez; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; Y. Semertzidis; P. Serpico; S. K. Solanki; R. Soufli; L. Stewart; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; J5D. Villar; J. Vogel; L. Walckiers; K. Zioutas

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The CAST (CERN Axion Solar Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside the magnet pipe of an LHC dipole. The analysis of the data recorded during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnet pipes has resulted in the most restrictive experimental limit on the coupling constant of axions to photons. In the second phase, CAST is operating with a buffer gas inside the magnet pipes in order to extent the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. We will present the first results on the $^{4}{\\rm He}$ data taking as well as the system upgrades that have been operated in the last year in order to adapt the experiment for the $^{3}{\\rm He}$ data taking. Expected sensitivities on the coupling constant of axions to photons will be given for the recent $^{3}{\\rm He}$ run just started in March 2008.

  20. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  1. Process for slip casting textured tubular structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinlage, Greg A. (West Lafayette, IN); Trumble, Kevin P. (West Lafayette, IN); Bowman, Keith J. (West Lafayette, IN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for centrifugal slip casting a textured hollow tube. A slip made up of a carrier fluid and a suspended powder is introduced into a porous mold which is rotated at a speed sufficient to create a centrifugal force that forces the slip radially outward toward the inner surface of the mold. The suspended powder, which is formed of particles having large dimensional aspect ratios such as particles of superconductive BSCCO, settles in a textured fashion radially outward toward the mold surface. The carrier fluid of the slip passes by capillary action radially outward around the settled particles and into the absorbent mold. A layer of mold release material is preferably centrifugally slip cast to cover the mold inner surface prior to the introduction of the BSCCO slip, and the mold release layer facilitates removal of the BSCCO greenbody from the mold without fracturing.

  2. Thin Wall Cast Iron: Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doru M. Stefanescu

    2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of thin-wall technology allows the designers of energy consuming equipment to select the most appropriate material based on cost/material properties considerations, and not solely on density. The technology developed in this research project will permit the designers working for the automotive industry to make a better informed choice between competing materials and thin wall cast iron, thus decreasing the overall cost of the automobile.

  3. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filippi, Arthur M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Sprecace, Richard P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention identifies methods and articles designed to circumvent metallurgical problems associated with hermetically closing an all cast iron nuclear waste package by welding. It involves welding nickel-carbon alloy inserts which are bonded to the mating plug and main body components of the package. The welding inserts might be bonded in place during casting of the package components. When the waste package closure weld is made, the most severe thermal effects of the process are restricted to the nickel-carbon insert material which is far better able to accommodate them than is cast iron. Use of nickel-carbon weld inserts should eliminate any need for pre-weld and post-weld heat treatments which are a problem to apply to nuclear waste packages. Although the waste package closure weld approach described results in a dissimilar metal combination, the relative surface area of nickel-to-iron, their electrochemical relationship, and the presence of graphite in both materials will act to prevent any galvanic corrosion problem.

  4. CAST: An Inspiring Axion Helioscope ala Sikivie

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zioutas, K.; Anastassopoulos, V. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece); Tsagri, M. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece); CERN, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Semertzidis, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Papaevangelou, T. [IRFU, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    CAST is a data taking axion helioscope using a recycled LHC test magnet, CERN's detector technology and cryogenics expertise. An imaging X-ray telescope improves substantially the detection sensitivity and axion-ID. Massive axion-like particles of the Kaluza-Klein type were first introduced to explain the paradox of the hot corona, which is even hotter at locations overlying magnetic spots. This is suggesting that the CAST detection principle might be at work there, but being somehow modified and performing better. Remarkably, the density profile of the Sun allows for resonance crossing (m{sub axion}c{sup 2{approx_equal}}h{omega}{sub plasma}), which axion helioscopes are aiming to reach. The restless Sun favours this occasionally even further. Then, such processes can give rise to a chimera of converted axions or the like, making the Sun appear, within known physics, as mysterious and unpredictable as it is. CAST axion limits were used to conclude also for the hidden sector paraphotons. This is then suggestive for novel helioscopes for exotica like paraphotons, chameleons, etc. Pierre Sikivie's pioneering idea was to use a magnetic field as a catalyst to transform particles from the dark sector to ours, and vice versa.

  5. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  6. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  7. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  8. Method and mold for casting thin metal objects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehrson, Brandon P; Moore, Alan F

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided herein are various embodiments of systems for casting thin metal plates and sheets. Typical embodiments include layers of mold cavities that are oriented vertically for casting the metal plates. In some embodiments, the mold cavities include a beveled edge such that the plates that are cast have a beveled edge. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled with a molten metal through an open horizontal edge of the cavity. In some embodiments, the mold cavities are filled through one or more vertical feed orifices. Further disclosed are methods for forming a thin cast metal plate or sheet where the thickness of the cast part is in a range from 0.005 inches to 0.2 inches, and the surface area of the cast part is in a range from 16 square inches to 144 square inches.

  9. Microstructural Modification of a Cast Iron by Magnetic Field Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Ludtka, Gail Mackiewicz- [ORNL; Ludtka, Gerard Michael [ORNL; Wilgen, John B [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study deals with the microstructural modification of a nodular cast iron during solidification under the influence of high magnetic fields (up to 18 tesla).

  10. AMD 405: Improved Automotive Suspension Components Cast with...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to cast as it is sensitive to cooling rate and is susceptible to hot tearing. Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and Heat Treatment Evaluate new, quicker, alternative methods for...

  11. Ultra Large Castings for Lightweight Vehicle Structures ?AMD...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review 2008 on February 25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08mccarty6.pdf More Documents & Publications Ultra Large Castings...

  12. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    properties, the high cost of materials, and an increased susceptibility to galvanic corrosion. This project aims to develop an integrated die casting (IDC) process that will...

  13. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    recycling of engineered scrap, which preserves metal value. Applications in Our Nation's Industry This project will utilize an automotive door inner as the example casting, but...

  14. Reliability Tools for Resonance Inspection of Light Metal Castings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tools for Resonance Inspection of Light Metal Castings 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  15. SmartCast - Novel Textile Sensors for Embedded Pressure Sensing of Orthopedic Casts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilovic, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    set_sleep_mode(SLEEP_MODE_PWR_DOWN); //enter Power-down Mode4 #define SEL2_PB0 8 #define SEL1_PD7 7 #define PWR_CTRL_PINPD5 #define PWR_CTRL_SD_CARD 6 //SmartCast bitFields for

  16. Electromagnetic continuous casting project: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battles, J.E.; Rote, D.M.; Misra, B.; Praeg, W.F.; Hull, J.R.; Turner, L.R.; Shah, V.L.; Lari, R.J.; Gopalsami, N.; Wiencek, T.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the work on development of an electromagnetic casting process for steel, which was carried out at Argonne National Laboratory between January 1985 and December 1987. This effort was concerned principally with analysis and design work on magnet technology, liquid metal feed system, coolant system, and sensors and process controllers. Experimentation primarily involved (1) electromagnetic studies to determine the conditions and controlling parameters for stable levitation and (2) feed-system studies to establish important parameters that control and influence fluid flow from the liquid metal source to the caster. 73 refs., 91 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Cast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Technical Report describes progress made on the sub-projects awarded in the Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-05NT42457: Continuation of Crosscutting Technology Development at Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST). The final reports for each sub-project are attached in the appendix. Much of the research to be conducted with Cooperative Agreement funds will be longer-term, high-risk, basic research and will be carried out in five broad areas: a) Solid-solid separation b) Solid-liquid separation c) Chemical/Biological Extraction d) Modeling and Control, and e) Environmental Control.

  18. Phase Transformations in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon-Jun Kim

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as {sigma} and {chi} can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe-22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase ({sigma} + {chi}) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (MA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations. The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities; a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, {sigma} was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and {chi} by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  19. he economies of China and India are grow-ing at a rapid clip. But these nations seem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    30 T he economies of China and India are grow- ing at a rapid clip. But these nations seem with a vengeance, given their enormous populations. And their "real" eco- nomic improvements, once the costs

  20. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370?MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490?MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94Ė1.2?GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  1. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  2. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  3. Heat Treatment Procedure Qualification for Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor Robert C. Voigt

    2003-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The science of heat treatment has been well studied and is the basis from which existing specifications and practices for the heat treatment of steel castings have been developed. Although these existing specifications address the general needs of steel castings to be heat-treated, they do not take into account the variability in the parameters that govern the processes. The need for a heat treatment qualification procedure that accounts for this variability during heat treatment is an important step toward heat treatment quality assurance. The variability in temperatures within a heat treatment furnace is one such variable that a foundry has to contend with in its day-to-day activity. Though specifications indicate the temperatures at which a particular heat treatment has to be conducted, heat treatment specifications do not adequately account for all aspects of heat treatment quality assurance. The heat treatment qualification procedure will comprise of a robust set of rules and guidelines that ensure that foundries will still be able to operate within the set of constraints imposed on them by non-deterministic elements within the processes.

  4. Material accountancy for metallic fuel pin casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bucher, R.G.; Orechwa, Y.; Beitel, J.C.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The operation of the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) is based on the electrometallurgical processing of spent metallic reactor fuel. The pin casting operation, although only one of several operations in FCF, was the first to be on-line. As such, it has served to demonstrate the material accountancy system in many of its facets. This paper details, for the operation of the pin casting process with depleted uranium, the interaction between the mass tracking system (MTG) and some of the ancillary computer codes which generate pertinent information for operations and material accountancy. It is necessary to distinguish between two types of material balance calculations -- closeout for operations and material accountancy for safeguards. The two have much in common, for example, the mass tracking system database and the calculation of an inventory difference, but, in general, are not congruent with regard to balance period and balance spatial domain. Moreover, the objective, assessment, and reporting requirements of the calculated inventory difference are very different in the two cases.

  5. Casting Porosity-Free Grain Refined Magnesium Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwam, David [Case Western Reserve University] [Case Western Reserve University

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to identify the root causes for micro-porosity in magnesium alloy castings and recommend remedies that can be implemented in production. The findings confirm the key role played by utilizing optimal gating and risering practices in minimizing porosity in magnesium castings.?

  6. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  7. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  8. The Influence of Casting Conditions on the Microstructure of As-Cast U-10Mo Alloys: Characterization of the Casting Process Baseline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joshi, Vineet V.; Lavender, Curt A.; Paxton, Dean M.; Burkes, Douglas

    2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Sections of eight plate castings of uranium alloyed with 10 wt% molybdenum (U-10Mo) were sent from Y-12 to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for microstructural characterization. This report summarizes the results from this study.

  9. Method of casting silicon into thin sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanjurjo, Angel (San Jose, CA); Rowcliffe, David J. (Los Altos, CA); Bartlett, Robert W. (Tucson, AZ)

    1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon (Si) is cast into thin shapes within a flat-bottomed graphite crucible by providing a melt of molten Si along with a relatively small amount of a molten salt, preferably NaF. The Si in the resulting melt forms a spherical pool which sinks into and is wetted by the molten salt. Under these conditions the Si will not react with any graphite to form SiC. The melt in the crucible is pressed to the desired thinness with a graphite tool at which point the tool is held until the mass in the crucible has been cooled to temperatures below the Si melting point, at which point the Si shape can be removed.

  10. Fluid flow and heat transfer modeling for castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domanus, H.M.; Liu, Y.Y.; Sha, W.T.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Casting is fundamental to manufacturing of many types of equipment and products. Although casting is a very old technology that has been in existence for hundreds of years, it remains a highly empirical technology, and production of new castings requires an expensive and time-consuming trial-and-error approach. In recent years, mathematical modeling of casting has received increasing attention; however, a majority of the modeling work has been in the area of heat transfer and solidification. Very little work has been done in modeling fluid flow of the liquid melt. This paper presents a model of fluid flow coupled with heat transfer of a liquid melt for casting processes. The model to be described in this paper is an extension of the COMMIX code and is capable of handling castings with any shape, size, and material. A feature of this model is the ability to track the liquid/gas interface and liquid/solid interface. The flow of liquid melt through the sprue and runners and into the mold cavity is calculated as well as three-dimensional temperature and velocity distributions of the liquid melt throughout the casting process. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanfordís (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  12. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  13. Method to prevent/mitigate steam explosions in casting pits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Steam explosions can be prevented or mitigated during a metal casting process by the placement of a perforated flooring system in the casting pit. An upward flow of compressed gas through this perforated flooring system is introduced during the casting process to produce a buffer layer between any spilled molten metal and the cooling water in the reservoir. This buffer layer provides a hydrodynamic layer which acts to prevent or mitigate steam explosions resulting from hot, molten metal being spilled into or onto the cooling water.

  14. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must remain open until the casting is solidified and pressure is maintained on the solidifying casting. Fanned gates, particularly on the smaller section castings avoid jetting effects at the ingate end. The fan type ingate helps accomplish a rapid fill without high velocities. The molten metal has to fill the cavity before localized solidification occurs. This is best accomplished with a larger ingate to attain rapid filling without excessive velocity or jetting that occurs at high metal velocities. Straight gates are prone to case jetting of the metal stream even a low velocities. Fanned gates allow use of higher fill velocity without excessive jetting. A higher metal pressure provides a more complete fill of the die including improved compensation for solidification shrinkage. With the proper filling pattern, ingates, overflows and die temperature for a given die, very good tensile properties can be attained in squeeze casting. In general, the smaller squeeze castings require higher die temperatures. Computer models using the UES Procast and MagmaSoft finite element software can, after suitable adjustments, predict the flow pattern in the die cavity.

  15. Process and apparatus for casting multiple silicon wafer articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nanis, Leonard (Palo Alto, CA)

    1992-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus of casting silicon produced by the reaction between SiF.sub.4 and an alkaline earth metal into thin wafer-shaped articles suitable for solar cell fabrication.

  16. aluminum die casting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia 2005-01-01 7 Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis CiteSeer Summary: Abstract. Recent...

  17. aluminum casting technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ozgur. 2006-01-01 28 DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF CASTING PATTERN PLATES BY RAPID TOOLING. CiteSeer Summary: The primary target of this project consists of combining the...

  18. alloy die casting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush; Stephen P. Midson 5 Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis CiteSeer Summary: Abstract. Recent...

  19. additional die casting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into contact... Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Edberg, C. 5 Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis CiteSeer Summary: Abstract. Recent...

  20. aluminium die casting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    into contact... Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Edberg, C. 8 Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis CiteSeer Summary: Abstract. Recent...

  1. alloy die castings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush; Stephen P. Midson 5 Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis CiteSeer Summary: Abstract. Recent...

  2. An Energy Savings Model for the Heat Treatment of Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Rong; R. Sisson; J. Morral; H. Brody

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system of software, databases, and design rules have been developed, verified, and to be marketed to enable quantitative prediction and optimization of the heat treatment of aluminum castings to increase quality, increase productivity, reduce heat treatment cycle times and reduce energy consumption. The software predicts the thermal cycle in critical locations of individual components in a furnace, the evolution of microstructure, and the attainment of properties in heat treatable aluminum alloy castings. The model takes into account the prior casting process and the specific composition of the component. The heat treatment simulation modules can be used in conjunction with software packages for simulation of the casting process. The system is built upon a quantitative understanding of the kinetics of microstructure evolution in complex multicomponent alloys, on a quantitative understanding of the interdependence of microstructure and properties, on validated kinetic and thermodynamic databases, and validated quantitative models.

  3. Search for low Energy solar Axions with CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arik, E; Autiero, D; Barth, K; Belov, A; BeltrŠn, B; Borghi, S; Boydag, F S; Bršuninger, H; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; CebriŠn, S; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Dogan, O B; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; GalŠn, J; Gazis, E; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Gůmez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F H; Hikmet, I; Hoffmann, D H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovicic, K; Kang, D; Karageorgopoulou, T; Karuza, M; KŲnigsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Lozza, V; Lutz, G; Luzůn, G; Miller, D; Morales, A; Morales, J; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M; Placci, A; Raiteri, G; Raffelt, G; Riege, H; RodrŪguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Solanki, S K; Soufli, R; Stewart, L; Tsagri, M; Van Bibber, K; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have started the development of a detector system, sensitive to single photons in the eV energy range, to be suitably coupled to one of the CAST magnet ports. This system should open to CAST a window on possible detection of low energy Axion Like Particles emitted by the sun. Preliminary tests have involved a cooled photomultiplier tube coupled to the CAST magnet via a Galileian telescope and a switched 40 m long optical fiber. This system has reached the limit background level of the detector alone in ideal conditions, and two solar tracking runs have been performed with it at CAST. Such a measurement has never been done before with an axion helioscope. We will present results from these runs and briefly discuss future detector developments.

  4. Search for low Energy solar Axions with CAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanni Cantatore; for the CAST Collaboration; :; E. Arik; S. Aune; D. Autiero; K. Barth; A. Belov; B. BeltrŠn; S. Borghi; F. S. Boydag; H. Bršuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. CebriŠn; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; L. Di Lella; O. B. Dogan; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; H. Fischer; J. Franz; J. GalŠn; E. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gůmez; M. Hasinoff; F. H. Heinsius; I. Hikmet; D. H. H. Hoffmann; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; D. Kang; T. Karageorgopoulou; M. Karuza; K. KŲnigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Kr?mar; K. Kousouris; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; C. Lasseur; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; V. Lozza; G. Lutz; G. Luzůn; D. Miller; A. Morales; {deceased}; J. Morales; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; A. Ortiz; T. Papaevangelou; M. Pivovaroff; A. Placci; G. Raiteri; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. RodrŪguez; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; Y. Semertzidis; P. Serpico; S. K. Solanki; R. Soufli; L. Stewart; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; J. Villar; J. Vogel; L. Walckiers; K. Zioutas

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have started the development of a detector system, sensitive to single photons in the eV energy range, to be suitably coupled to one of the CAST magnet ports. This system should open to CAST a window on possible detection of low energy Axion Like Particles emitted by the sun. Preliminary tests have involved a cooled photomultiplier tube coupled to the CAST magnet via a Galileian telescope and a switched 40 m long optical fiber. This system has reached the limit background level of the detector alone in ideal conditions, and two solar tracking runs have been performed with it at CAST. Such a measurement has never been done before with an axion helioscope. We will present results from these runs and briefly discuss future detector developments.

  5. Nuclear-waste encapsulation by metal-matrix casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.G.; Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several encapsulation casting processes are described that were developed or used at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to embed simulated high-level wastes of two different forms (glass marbles and ceramic pellets) in metal matrices. Preliminary evaluations of these casting processes and the products are presented. Demonstrations have shown that 5- to 10-mm-dia glass marbles can be encapsulated on an engineering scale with lead or lead alloys by gravity or vacuum processes. Marbles approx. 12 mm in dia were successfully encapsulated in a lead alloy on a production scale. Also, 4- to 9-mm-dia ceramic pellets in containers of various sizes were completely penetrated and the individual pellets encased with aluminum-12 wt % silicon alloy by vacuum processes. Indications are that of the casting processes tested, aluminum 12 wt % silicon alloy vacuum-cast around ceramic pellets had the highest degree of infiltration or coverage of pellet surfaces.

  6. In Search Of Axions: The CAST Experiment George K. Fanourakis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, Hugh

    , Greece Abstract. The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment uses a decommissioned LHC test magnet-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany, 6 Instituto de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias

  7. Microstructure of thin-wall ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Omer N.; Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Step plate castings with section thicknesses of 1.5 mm to 6 mm and individual (single) castings with section thicknesses of 2 mm to 6 mm were produced using a ductile iron chemistry. Microstructures of these thin wall ductal iron castings were characterized quantitatively using an image analyzer. Matrix structure (amount of pearlite, ferrite, and massive carbides) and graphite structure (volume fraction, nodule size, nodule content, and nodularity) were investigated as a function of section thickness. Pearlite content, nodule count, and nodularity increased with decreasing section thickness, whereas the nodule size decreased. Nodule content exceeded 2000 nodules per mm{sup 2} at the thinnest sections. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the effect of casting parameters on the microstructure.

  8. Marry for What? Caste and Mate Selection in Modern India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    This paper analyzes how preferences for a noneconomic characteristic (e.g., caste) can affect equilibrium patterns of matching, and empirically evaluates this in the context of middle-class Indian arranged marriages. We ...

  9. Methods for manufacturing monocrystalline or near-monocrystalline cast materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a monocrystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm.

  10. Methods for manufacturing geometric multi-crystalline cast materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for casting one or more of a semi-conductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material. With such methods, a cast body of a geometrically ordered multi-crystalline form of the one or more of a semiconductor, an oxide, and an intermetallic material may be formed that is free or substantially free of radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 10 cm.

  11. Procedure for flaw detection in cast stainless steel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kupperman, David S. (Oak Park, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of ultrasonic flaw detection in cast stainless steel components incorporating the steps of determining the nature of the microstructure of the cast stainless steel at the site of the flaw detection measurements by ultrasonic elements independent of the component thickness at the site; choosing from a plurality of flaw detection techniques, one such technique appropriate to the nature of the microstructure as determined and detecting flaws by use of the chosen technique.

  12. Cast Metal Coalition Research and Development Closeout Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cast Metal Coalition, composed of more than 22 research providers and universities and 149 industrial partners, has completed a four-year research and development partnership with the Department of Energy. This report provides brief summaries of the 29 projects performed by the Coalition. These projects generated valuable information in such aspects of the metals industry as process prediction technologies, quality control, improved alloys, product machinability, and casting process improvements.

  13. Predicting Pattern Tooling and Casting Dimensions for Investment Casting, Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Cannell (EMTEC); Adrian S. Sabau (ORNL)

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The investment casting process allows the production of complex-shape parts and close dimensional tolerances. One of the most important phases in the investment casting process is the design of the pattern die. Pattern dies are used to create wax patterns by injecting wax into dies. The first part of the project involved preparation of reports on the state of the art at that time for all the areas under consideration (die-wax, wax-shell, and shell-alloy). The primary R&D focus during Phase I was on the wax material since the least was known about it. The main R&D accomplishments during this phase were determination of procedures for obtaining the thermal conductivity and viscoelastic properties of an unfilled wax and validating those procedures. Phase II focused on die-wax and shell-alloy systems. A wax material model was developed based on results obtained during the previous R&D phase, and a die-wax model was successfully incorporated into and used in commercial computer programs. Current computer simulation programs have complementary features. A viscoelastic module was available in ABAQUS but unavailable in ProCAST, while the mold-filling module was available in ProCAST but unavailable in ABAQUS. Thus, the numerical simulation results were only in good qualitative agreement with experimental results, the predicted shrinkage factors being approximately 2.5 times larger than those measured. Significant progress was made, and results showed that the testing and modeling of wax material had great potential for industrial applications. Additional R&D focus was placed on one shell-alloy system. The fused-silica shell mold and A356 aluminum alloy were considered. The experimental part of the program was conducted at ORNL and commercial foundries, where wax patterns were injected, molds were invested, and alloys were poured. It was very important to obtain accurate temperature data from actual castings, and significant effort was made to obtain temperature profiles in the shell mold. A model for thermal radiation within the shell mold was developed, and the thermal model was successfully validated using ProCAST. Since the fused silica shells had the lowest thermal expansion properties in the industry, the dewaxing phase, including the coupling between wax-shell systems, was neglected. The prefiring of the empty shell mold was considered in the model, and the shell mold was limited to a pure elastic material. The alloy dimensions were obtained from numerical simulations only with coupled shell-alloy systems. The alloy dimensions were in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data, validating the deformation module. For actual parts, however, the creep properties of the shell molds must also be obtained, modeled, and validated.

  14. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energyís (DOEís) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: ē Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. ē Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. ē Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. ē Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. ē Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  15. he application of rapid prototyping (RP) in fabricat-ing nonassembly robotic systems with inserts is pre-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavroidis, Constantinos

    T he application of rapid prototyping (RP) in fabricat- ing nonassembly robotic systems for the rapid and automatic design and fabrication of robotic sys- tems a reality is to study the application with inserts is pre- sented in this article. The development of robotic systems that have all necessary

  16. ribology is the science and technology of contact-ing solid surfaces in relative motion, including the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Yi

    ¬Ľ friction and lubrication under extreme conditions, such as high-temperature or nonequilibrium, includ- ing, including the study of lubricants, lubrication, friction, wear, and bearings. It is estimated that friction), and in the development of durable, low-friction surfaces and ultra-thin lubrication films. Friction between contacting

  17. 208 | Intermodal transportatIon: movIng FreIght In a global economy 7.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keskinocak, Pinar

    208 | Intermodal transportatIon: movIng FreIght In a global economy #12;7 7.1 Introduction Air become an indispensible part of the world's global economy, holding an important niche in the transport al mutawaly | 209© 2010 EnoTransportation Foundation.www.enotrans.com Reprinted from IntermodalTransportation:MovingFreightinaGlobalEconomy

  18. Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operat-ing parameters from a diesel engine during transient op-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    ABSTRACT Measurements of the soot emissions and engine operat- ing parameters from a diesel engine and are the subject of future research. INTRODUCTION Soot emissions from diesel engines are well known to have gov- erning the emission of particles from diesel engines are becoming ever more stringent. The soot

  19. Salary savings scheme 2011 (ING BANK) 11-10-2010 Personnel and Organization Department 1/1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franssen, Michael

    Salary savings scheme 2011 (ING BANK) 11-10-2010 Personnel and Organization Department 1!! The undersigned hereby declares not to participate in a "course-of-life" arrangement or a salary savings scheme-year and you can only participate in a salary savings scheme via one employer Alteration as of (enter date

  20. The solar eclipse is indeed a momentous, or at least visually entertain-ing and curious happening in astrology.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, John B.

    The solar eclipse is indeed a momentous, or at least visually entertain- ing and curious happening recordings of lunar and solar eclipses. 2 #12;The Dresden Codex was for the Mayans a way to predict eclipses likely that Martin Meinshausen proposed that this data was related to the timing of series of solar

  1. Seismic technology will be of key importance for evaluat-ing gas-hydrate resources, particularly across the Gulf of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Seismic technology will be of key importance for evaluat- ing gas-hydrate resources, particularly to be acquired. To apply seismic technology to gas-hydrate studies in the gulf in an optimal manner, it is essential to understand the seismic target that has to be analyzed. What is gas hydrate? Gas hydrate

  2. Casting evaluation of U-Zr alloy system fuel slug for SFR prepared by injection casting method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedeok-daro 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal fuel slugs of U-Pu-Zr alloys for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have conventionally been fabricated by a vacuum injection casting method. Recently, management of minor actinides (MA) became an important issue because direct disposal of the long-lived MA can be a long-term burden for a tentative repository up to several hundreds of thousand years. In order to recycle transuranic elements (TRU) retained in spent nuclear fuel, remote fabrication capability in a shielded hot cell should be prepared. Moreover, generation of long-lived radioactive wastes and loss of volatile species should be minimized during the recycled fuel fabrication step. In order to prevent the evaporation of volatile elements such as Am, alternative fabrication methods of metal fuel slugs have been studied applying gravity casting, and improved injection casting in KAERI, including melting under inert atmosphere. And then, metal fuel slugs were examined with casting soundness, density, chemical analysis, particle size distribution and microstructural characteristics. Based on these results there is a high level of confidence that Am losses will also be effectively controlled by application of a modest amount of overpressure. A surrogate fuel slug was generally soundly cast by improved injection casting method, melted fuel material under inert atmosphere.

  3. Method of reducing the green density of a slip cast article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangels, John A. (Flat Rock, MI); Dickie, Ray A. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method disclosed in this specification is one of reducing the green density of an article cast in a slip casting operation. The article is cast from a casting slip containing silicon metal particles, yttrium containing particles, and a small amount of a fluoride salt which is effective to suppress flocculation of the silicon metal particles by y.sup.+3 ions derived from the yttrium containing particles. The method is characterized by the following step. A small amount of compound which produces a cation which will partly flocculate the particles of silicon metal is added to the casting slip. The small amount of this compound is added so that when the casting slip is slip cast into a casting mold, the partly flocculated particles of silicon will interrupt an otherwise orderly packing of the particles of silicon and particles of yttrium. In this manner, the green density of the slip cast article is reduced and the article may be more easily nitrided.

  4. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone Ė a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  5. Yield improvement and defect reduction in steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Carlson

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project investigated yield improvement and defect reduction techniques in steel casting. Research and technology development was performed in the following three specific areas: (1) Feeding rules for high alloy steel castings; (2) Unconventional yield improvement and defect reduction techniques--(a) Riser pressurization; and (b) Filling with a tilting mold; and (3) Modeling of reoxidation inclusions during filling of steel castings. During the preparation of the proposal for this project, these areas were identified by the High Alloy Committee and Carbon and Low Alloy Committee of the Steel Founders' Society of America (SFSA) as having the highest research priority to the steel foundry industry. The research in each of the areas involved a combination of foundry experiments, modeling and simulation. Numerous SFSA member steel foundries participated in the project through casting trials and meetings. The technology resulting from this project will result in decreased scrap and rework, casting yield improvement, and higher quality steel castings produced with less iteration. This will result in considerable business benefits to steel foundries, primarily due to reduced energy and labor costs, increased capacity and productivity, reduced lead-time, and wider use and application of steel castings. As estimated using energy data provided by the DOE, the technology produced as a result of this project will result in an energy savings of 2.6 x 10{sup 12} BTU/year. This excludes the savings that were anticipated from the mold tilting research. In addition to the energy savings, and corresponding financial savings this implies, there are substantial environmental benefits as well. The results from each of the research areas listed above are summarized.

  6. Rapid prototyping: A paradigm shift in investment casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Pardo, B.T.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quest for fabricating complex metal parts rapidly and with minimal cost has brought rapid prototyping (RP) processes to the forefront of the investment casting industry. Relatively recent advances in DTM Corporation`s selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D Systems stereolithography (SL) processes have had a significant impact on the overall quality of patterns produced using these rapid prototyping processes. Sandia National Laboratories uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype and small lot production parts in support of a program called FASTCAST. The SLS process is used to fabricate patterns from materials such as investment casting wax, polycarbonate, and a new material called TrueForm PM{trademark}. With the timely introduction of each of these materials, the quality of patterns fabricated has improved. The development and implementation of SL QuickCast{trademark} software has enabled this process to produce highly accurate patterns for use in investment casting. This paper focuses on the successes with these new pattern materials and the infrastructure required to cast rapid prototyping patterns successfully. In addition, a brief overview of other applications of rapid prototyping at Sandia will be discussed.

  7. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dykes, Charles D. (303 Shore Rd., Milton, VT); Daniel, Sabah S. (303 Shore Rd., Pittsburgh, PA); Wood, J. F. Barry (303 Shore Rd., Burlington, VT 05401)

    1990-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  8. EXCELLENTIA CoLumbIA ENgINEErINg26 en million Americans suffer from osteoporosis, a gradual weakening of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    HEALTH EXCELLENTIA CoLumbIA ENgINEErINg26 T en million Americans suffer from osteoporosis Laboratory, is try- ing to figure out how to prevent and treat osteoporosis from both engineering analysis of osteoporosis. Guo and his team also plan to use their knowledge to better understand osteoporosis and bone loss

  9. CASTING DEFECT MODELING IN AN INTEGRATED COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS ENGINEERING APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To accelerate the introduction of new cast alloys, the simultaneous modeling and simulation of multiphysical phenomena needs to be considered in the design and optimization of mechanical properties of cast components. The required models related to casting defects, such as microporosity and hot tears, are reviewed. Three aluminum alloys are considered A356, 356 and 319. The data on calculated solidification shrinkage is presented and its effects on microporosity levels discussed. Examples are given for predicting microporosity defects and microstructure distribution for a plate casting. Models to predict fatigue life and yield stress are briefly highlighted here for the sake of completion and to illustrate how the length scales of the microstructure features as well as porosity defects are taken into account for modeling the mechanical properties. Thus, the data on casting defects, including microstructure features, is crucial for evaluating the final performance-related properties of the component. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was performed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Nemak Inc., and Chrysler Co. for the project "High Performance Cast Aluminum Alloys for Next Generation Passenger Vehicle Engines. The author would also like to thank Amit Shyam for reviewing the paper and Andres Rodriguez of Nemak Inc. Research sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office, as part of the Propulsion Materials Program under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. Part of this research was conducted through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program, which is sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program.

  10. Tape-cast sensors and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making electrochemical sensors in which an electrolyte material is cast into a tape. Prefabricated electrodes are then partially embedded between two wet layers of the electrolyte tape to form a green sensor, and the green sensor is then heated to sinter the electrolyte tape around the electrodes. The resulting sensors can be used in applications such as, but not limited to, combustion control, environmental monitoring, and explosive detection. A electrochemical sensor formed by the tape-casting method is also disclosed.

  11. Electron beam casting technology in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ladokhin, S.V. [Inst. of Foundry Problems, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report the results of the investigation of metals and alloys melting and casting in the EB skull installations in the former USSR are given. The technological equipment used for these purposes is described. The long term prospects for the technological and engineering developments for multicomponent alloy melting and casting, including those containing volatile elements are shown. The significant technological advantages of the electro-magnetic stirring used in the course of the EB melting are demonstrated. The important advantage of the technology described is the efficient processing of metals and alloys metals.

  12. Use of duplex stainless steel castings in control valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gossett, J.L. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels have enjoyed rapidly increasing popularity in recent years. For numerous reasons the availability of these alloys in the cast form has lagged behind the availability of the wrought form. Commercial demand for control valves in these alloys has driven development of needed information to move into production. A systematic approach was used to develop specifications, suppliers and weld procedures. Corrosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), sulfide stress cracking (SSC) and hardness results are also presented for several alloys including; CD3MN (UNS J92205), CD4MCu (UNS J93370) and CD7MCuN (cast UNS S32550).

  13. Improving the manufacturing yield of investment cast turbine blades through robust design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margetts, David (David Lawrence)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacturing of turbine blades is often outsourced to investment casting foundries by aerospace companies that design and build jet engines. Aerospace companies have found that casting defects are an important cost ...

  14. Construction and Preliminary HVS Tests of Pre-Cast Concrete Pavement Slabs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohler, Erwin R.; du Plessis, Louw; Theyse, Hechter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast Concrete Pavement Slabs with HVS Testing. Ē TechnicalCast Concrete Pavement Slabs with HVS Testing Signatures: E.subgrade. FWD testing on the centers of the concrete slabs

  15. Significant Energy and Material Reductions in the Continuous Casting of Certain Copper Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielson, W. D.

    This project addresses the continuous casting of barstock in certain copper alloys. A superheated reservoir of molten alloy is maintained in a continuously heated holding furnace (tundish) during casting. These tundishes are currently heated...

  16. Investigating Mould Heat Transfer in Thin Slab Casting with CON1D Begoa Santillana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    . Heat transfer in the thin slab casting mould is being investigated with the 1-D heat transfer model MODEL DESCRIPTION The heat transfer model, CON1D1 , models several aspects of the continuous casting

  17. CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel Exhaust Components...

  18. CF8C PLus: A New Cast Stainless Steel for High-Temperature Diesel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    engine * Cast stainless upgrade for SiMo cast-iron diesel engine exhaust components turbo-housing exhaust manifold C-15, 14.6L HD On- Highway Diesel Engine Materials Need: High...

  19. alloy-graphite casting annual: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K; Zioutas, Konstantin; 10.1103PhysRevLett.94.121301 2005-01-01 412 The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST): status and prospects Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The CAST...

  20. alloy-graphite castings technical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K; Zioutas, Konstantin; 10.1103PhysRevLett.94.121301 2005-01-01 437 The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST): status and prospects Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The CAST...

  1. Improving the Efficiency of Die Casting Machine Hydraulic Systems with the Retrofit of Adjustable Frequency Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambs, L.; Kosanovic, D.; Edberg, C.

    casting machine, DCM, consists of basically four fundamental systems. These are the casting mold or die, the clamping unit, the injection unit, and the hydraulic system. Die casting molds perfonn two crucial functions; imparting the desired shape..., speeding the solidification process. The clamping unit is responsible for opening and closing the mold halves, as well as exerting the force that holds the two halves of the mold together during injection. Most die casting machines use a type...

  2. Tailor Blank Casting - Control of sheet width using an electromagnetic edge dam in aluminium twin roll casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBrien, Martin; Allwood, Julian M.; Barekar, Nilam S.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    stock products such as coils of the manufacturing industries which take these stock d reshape them to make consumer products, for exam- rs. This makes the supply chain subtractiveóa large the metal cast is removed and does not reach the final roduct... , as bor casting tria For the c zero, a hori P m h + 2#3; si Using th plays an im metal conta separation as the solid sion in the dge dam (EMED); (b) longitudinal view, centreline of strip, EMED on; w, EMED on, far edge. the biggest challenge...

  3. SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    SIMULATION OF STRESSES DURING CASTING OF BINARY MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS M.G. Pokorny1 , C, Geesthacht, Germany Keywords: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Stress Simulation Abstract A visco-plastic deformation model is used to predict thermal stresses during casting of binary Mg-Al alloys. The predictions

  4. Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    Understanding the Role Water-cooling Plays during Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J the mold and solidifying metal during the continuous casting of steel and aluminum alloys for the control of cooling in casting processes for both steel and aluminum alloys are evaluated. Introduction

  5. Numerical Study of Steady Turbulent Flow through Bifurcated Nozzles in Continuous Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    . The effects of nozzle design and casting process operating variables on the jet characteristics exitingNumerical Study of Steady Turbulent Flow through Bifurcated Nozzles in Continuous Casting FADY M. NAJJAR, BRIAN G. THOMAS, and DONALD E. HERSHEY Bifurcated nozzles are used in continuous casting

  6. Edinburgh Research Explorer The Dalmarnock Fire Tests on a Cast Insitu Concrete Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Edinburgh Research Explorer The Dalmarnock Fire Tests on a Cast Insitu Concrete Structure Citation Fire Tests on a Cast Insitu Concrete Structure'. in Proceedings of the international Workshop Fire THE DALMARNOCK FIRE TESTS ON A CAST INSITU CONCRETE STRUCTURE Susan Deeny PhD Student University of Edinburgh, UK

  7. The Current State of Casting Yield: Results from the 1997 Steel Founders'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    , Chicago, IL, 1997. #12;lNTRODUCTlON It is commonly believed that the average metal yield in the steel casting industry is approximately 50 to 55 percent. A primary goal of conducting the casting yield survey additional costs in remelting scrapped steel (estimated to account for 7% of the total casting cost

  8. Statistical analysis of the mechanical properties of thin walled ductile iron castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrems, Karol K.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Dogan, Omer N.; Druschitz, A.P. (Intermet)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ductile iron castings have long been used in the automotive market. Ductile iron is inexpensive to produce and has desirable fracture resistance and mechanical properties. However, the weight of ductile iron is driving an effort to reduce wall thickness in order to increase fuel economy. Traditionally, cast iron has been cast into thick, bulky shapes. Reducing the section size of cast iron can be done, but pushes foundry practice into new areas. A consortium of foundries, foundry suppliers, and automotive manufacturers has been pursuing the use of thin walled ductile cast iron. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of three experimental heats of thin-wall castings in order to evaluate property trends and limits. Castings as thin as 1.7 mm (0.07 in) have been successfully cast. The study was designed to investigate the effects of thickness and different casting heats on the dependent variables of ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation-to-failure, reduction in area, and hardness. The ultimate tensile strength of the castings is found to increase as the casting thickness decreases. Conversely, the elongation-to-failure is found to decrease as the casting thickness decreases. Heat-to-heat differences were found, but they were usually within the scatter of the data.

  9. COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS Nicolas PERRY Ass. Prof., IRCCy.Bernard@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Abstract: In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization

  10. DIVISON 03 CONCRETE 03300 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -IN-PLACE CONCRETE A. Design Considerations 1. Testing and inspection will be required for cast-in-place concrete of the Building Code. All testing and inspection of concrete work will be contracted for and paid for directly by the University, regardless of building class. The A/E must specify all testing and inspection of concrete work

  11. The Dyslexia Foundation is Sponsoring a Web-Cast Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Dyslexia Foundation is Sponsoring a Web-Cast Conference The Dyslexia Foundation 4 Narragansett St./PO Box P-22 South Dartmouth, MA 02748 TheDyslexiaFoundation@gmail.com TheDyslexiaFoundation.org Reading/Literacy, Dyslexia and the Brain In Celebration of the 25th Anniversary of The Dyslexia Research

  12. Termination Casts: A Flexible Approach to Termination with General Recursion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weirich, Stephanie

    Termination Casts: A Flexible Approach to Termination with General Recursion Aaron Stump Computer distinguishes terminating terms and total functions from possibly diverging terms and partial functions type-form "Terminates t", expressing that term t is terminating; and then allow terms t to be coerced

  13. The Athlit ra: Classical and Hellenistic bronze casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oron, Asaf

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    half of the 10th century B. C. , are solid casts depicting a nude male with outstretched The earliest surviving examples of Greek sphyrelata are the figures of Apollo, Artemis, and Leto found at Dreros on Crete. The figures are currently dated...

  14. Cast Alloys for Advanced Ultra Supercritical Steam Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Holcomb, P. Wang, P. D. Jablonski, and J. A. Hawk,

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed steam inlet temperature in the Advanced Ultra Supercritical (A-USC) steam turbine is high enough (760 įC) that traditional turbine casing and valve body materials such as ferritic/martensitic steels will not suffice due to temperature limitations of this class of materials. Cast versions of several traditionally wrought Ni-based superalloys were evaluated for use as casing or valve components for the next generation of industrial steam turbines. The full size castings are substantial: 2-5,000 kg each half and on the order of 100 cm thick. Experimental castings were quite a bit smaller, but section size was retained and cooling rate controlled to produce equivalent microstructures. A multi-step homogenization heat treatment was developed to better deploy the alloy constituents. The most successful of these cast alloys in terms of creep strength (Haynes 263, Haynes 282, and Nimonic 105) were subsequently evaluated by characterizing their microstructure as well as their steam oxidation resistance (at 760 and 800 įC).

  15. Percutaneous Treatment of Biliary Cast Syndrome After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation: Comparison of Mechanical Versus Hydraulic Rheolytic Cast Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Benitez, R., E-mail: ruben.lopez@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Wielpuetz, M. O., E-mail: mark.wielpuetz@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Bryant, M. G. H., E-mail: bryant.mark@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Ganten, Tom, E-mail: Tom.ganten@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Richter, G. M., E-mail: g.richter@klinikum-stuttgart.de [Katharinenhospital, Klinikum Stuttgart (Germany); Flach, N., E-mail: flach.nicole@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Hallscheidt, P. J., E-mail: peter.hallscheidt@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University of Heidelberg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is the presence of casts within the intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary system after orthotopic liver transplantation. Our work compares two percutaneous methods for BCS treatment: the mechanical cast-extraction technique (MCE) versus the hydraulic cast-extraction (HCE) technique using a rheolytic system. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 patients were included in the study. Six patients were referred for HCE, and 18 patients were treated with MCE. A statistically significant larger number of sessions was required in the MCE group (21.0, range 11 to 72 sessions) (p = 0.033). Results: Median therapy duration was shorter in the HCE group at 2.4 months (range 2 to 5) compared with 6.7 months (range 3 to 39) in the MCE group (p < 0.001). Both patient acceptance was better and costs for total therapy were 40% less in the HCE group. No significant differences where found concerning clinical and biochemical improvement or graft and patient survival. Conclusion: The use of the hydraulic rheolytic system decreased total therapy time, thereby decreasing the induced inflammation time of the biliary tree. A significant benefit of HCE has been observed in our patients when we compare our results with those of MCE.

  16. Development of Thin Section Zinc Die Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, Frank [International Lead Zinc Research Org., Inc.] [International Lead Zinc Research Org., Inc.

    2013-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new high fluidity zinc high pressure die casting alloy, termed the HF alloy, was developed during laboratory trials and proven in industrial production. The HF alloy permits castings to be achieved with section thicknesses of 0.3 mm or less. Technology transfer activities were conducted to develop usage of the HF high fluidity alloy. These included production of a brochure and a one-hour webinar on the HF alloy. The brochure was then sent to 1,184 product designers in the Interzinc database. There was excellent reception to this mailing, and from this initial contact 5 technology transfer seminars were conducted for 81 participants from 30 companies across a wide range of business sectors. Many of the successful applications to date involve high quality surface finishes. Design and manufacturing assistance was given for development of selected applications.

  17. ITP Metal Casting: Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009casting

  18. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-SelectionóCast Stone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations and leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.

  19. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); Campbell, Steven L. (Middletown, OH)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  20. Conversion and Operation of CAST as a massive axion detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias, Nuno; Bordalo, Paula

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The axion was postulated after an elegant solution proposed by R. Peccei and H. Quinn to solve the strong CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics. The CAST experiment searches for axions created in the core of the Sun. It uses an LHC superconducting prototype magnet to trigger the axion conversion into detectable X-ray photons. During its First Phase, with the magnetic field region kept under vacuum, CAST searched with high sensitivity for axion masses up to 0.02 eV/c2, for higher values the conversion coherence is lost. This thesis reflects the work that allows CAST to extend its search up to axion masses of 1 eV/c2. To restore the lost coherence a buffer gas is introduced in the magnet cold bores, such that the photon arising from the Primakoff conversion acquires an effective mass. The axion mass can be effectively scanned by fine tuning the gas density. The conversion of the experiment required the study, design and construction of a complex gas handling system to deal with a rare helium isotope, 3He. It rep...

  1. Axion helioscopes update: the status of CAST and IAXO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dafni; F. J. Iguaz; on behalf of the CAST; IAXO collaborations

    2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost 35 years since their suggestion as a good solution to the strong CP-problem, axions remain one of the few viable candidates for the Dark Matter, although still eluding detection. Most of the methods for their detection are based on their coupling to photons, one of the most sensitive ones being the helioscope technique. We report on the current status of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope and the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). Recent results from the second part of CAST phase II, where the magnet bores were filled with 3He gas at variable pressure achieving sensibilities on the axion mass up to 1.2 eV, are presented. Currently, CAST is expecting to improve its sensitivity to solar axions with rest mass below 0.02 eV/c^2 after the upgrade of the X-ray detectors and with the implementation of a second X-ray optic. At the same time, it is exploring other possibilities at the low energy physics frontier. On the other hand IAXO, the fourth generation axion helioscope, aims to improve CAST's performance in terms of axion-photon coupling by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude. The details of the project building a dedicated magnet, optics and X-ray detectors are given.

  2. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, R.S.; Campbell, S.L.

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  3. In Situ Casting and Imaging of the Rat Airway Tree for Accurate 3D Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacob, Rick E.; Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Einstein, Daniel R.; Carson, James P.

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of anatomically accurate, animal-specific airway geometries is important for understanding and modeling the physiology of the respiratory system. One approach for acquiring detailed airway architecture is to create a bronchial cast of the conducting airways. However, typical casting procedures either do not faithfully preserve the in vivo branching angles, or produce rigid casts that when removed for imaging are fragile and thus easily damaged. We address these problems by creating an in situ bronchial cast of the conducting airways in rats that can be subsequently imaged in situ using 3D micro-CT imaging. We also demonstrate that deformations in airway branch angles resulting from the casting procedure are small, and that these angle deformations can be reversed through an interactive adjustment of the segmented cast geometry. Animal work was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  4. Brittle Failure Design Criteria for Ductile Cast Iron Spent-Fuel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Ductile and Brittle Failure Design Criteria for Ductile Cast Iron Spent-Fuel Shipping Containers This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an...

  5. Feasibility of cold rolling titanium strip cast by the plasma melt overflow process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaspar, T.A. [Ribbon Technology Corp., Columbus, OH (United States); Sukonnik, I.M. [Texas Instruments, Attleboro, MA (United States); Bird, R.K.; Brewer, W.D. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fabrication method tailored specifically for titanium alloys and intermetallics combined direct strip casting and cold rolling to produce foil products by completely eliminating hot working steps. Titanium strips 0.4-mm- to 0.7-mm-thick and 100-mm-wide were cast by the plasma melt overflow process. The cast strips were cold rolled to 0.15-mm-thick, fully dense foils. The effect of thermal and mechanical treatments on the microstructure of the cast strip was investigated. The cold rolled foils were characterized by measurement of average surface roughness, chemical composition, gas content and tensile properties.

  6. Biomimetic Materials by Freeze Casting MICHAEL M. PORTER,1,4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    ,8 to nanolithography9,10 and 3-D print- ing,11≠13 has been explored to develop synthetic biomimetic materials. Freeze

  7. Cast Metals Coalition Technology Transfer and Program Management Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gwyn, Mike

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cast Metals Coalition (CMC) partnership program was funded to ensure that the results of the Department of Energy's (DOE) metalcasting research and development (R&D) projects are successfully deployed into industry. Specifically, the CMC program coordinated the transfer and deployment of energy saving technologies and process improvements developed under separately funded DOE programs and projects into industry. The transition of these technologies and process improvements is a critical step in the path to realizing actual energy savings. At full deployment, DOE funded metalcasting R&D results are projected to save 55% of the energy used by the industry in 1998. This closely aligns with DOE's current goal of driving a 25% reduction in industrial energy intensity by 2017. In addition to benefiting DOE, these energy savings provide metalcasters with a significant economic advantage. Deployment of already completed R&D project results and those still underway is estimated to return over 500% of the original DOE and industry investment. Energy savings estimates through December 2008 from the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) portfolio of projects alone are 12 x 1012 BTUs, with a projection of over 50 x 1012 BTUs ten years after program completion. These energy savings and process improvements have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the CMC partnership. The CMC team consists of DOE's Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical societies in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders Society of America; and the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. CMC provides collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,100 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, new technologies enabling energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements are slow to develop, and have trouble obtaining a broad application. The CMC team was able to effectively and efficiently transfer the results of DOE's metalcasting R&D projects to industry by utilizing and delivering the numerous communication vehicles identified in the proposal. The three metalcasting technical associations achieved significant technology transition results under this program. In addition to reaching over 23,000 people per year through Modern Casting and 28,000 through Engineered Casting Solutions, AFS had 84 national publications and reached over 1,200 people annually through Cast Metals Institute (CMI) education courses. NADCA's education department reached over 1,000 people each year through their courses, in addition to reaching over 6,000 people annually through Die Casting Engineer, and publishing 58 papers. The SFSA also published 99 research papers and reached over 1,000 people annually through their member newsletters. In addition to these communication vehicles, the CMC team conducted numerous technical committee meetings, project reviews, and onsite visits. All of these efforts to distribute the latest metalcasting technologies contributed to the successful deployment of DOE's R&D projects into industry. The DOE/CMC partnership demonstrated significant success in the identification and review of relevant and easy-to-implement metalcasting energy-saving processes and technologies so that the results are quickly implemented and become general practice. The results achieved in this program demonstrate that sustained technology transfer efforts are a critical step in the deployment of R&D projects to industry.

  8. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Magali Mauchand; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  9. Furnace atmosphere effects on casting of eutectic superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gigliotti, M.F.X.; Greskovich, C.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of furnace atmosphere is a key factor in the use of silica-bonded alumina shell molds for the directional solidification of eutectic superalloys reinforced with tantalum monocarbide whiskers. The use of a furnace atmosphere which is simultaneously oxidizing to aluminum in the eutectic alloy and reducing to silica phases in the mold results in the formation of an alumina barrier layer in situ at the metal/mold interface and an absence of silica phases in the mold region adjacent to this barrier layer. The presence of this microstructure permits castings of eutectics at metal temperatures up to 1750/sup 0/C.

  10. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  11. Die Casting Copper Motor Rotors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * SEnergy studies onDie Casting Copper Motor

  12. Improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the Lost Foam Casting Process Improvement of

  13. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance for both the wrought and cast duplex alloys; (3) Castings generally have better toughness than their wrought counterparts in the temperature range of √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?80√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įC to +20√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įC; (4) All shield metal arc (SMA) test welds in DSS castings, with recommended or over matching filler metal, indicate that welding is not a significant factor when considering DSS applications.

  14. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance for both the wrought and cast duplex alloys; (3) Castings generally have better toughness than their wrought counterparts in the temperature range of -80 C to +20 C; (4) All shield metal arc (SMA) test welds in DSS castings, with recommended or over matching filler metal, indicate that welding is not a significant factor when considering DSS applications.

  15. Modeling and Analysis of The Pressure Die Casting Using Response Surface Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kittur, Jayant K.; Herwadkar, T. V. [KLS Gogte Institute of Technology, Belgaum -590 008, Karnataka (India); Parappagoudar, M. B. [Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Durg (C.G)-491001 (India)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure die casting is successfully used in the manufacture of Aluminum alloys components for automobile and many other industries. Die casting is a process involving many process parameters having complex relationship with the quality of the cast product. Though various process parameters have influence on the quality of die cast component, major influence is seen by the die casting machine parameters and their proper settings. In the present work, non-linear regression models have been developed for making predictions and analyzing the effect of die casting machine parameters on the performance characteristics of die casting process. Design of Experiments (DOE) with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to analyze the effect of effect of input parameters and their interaction on the response and further used to develop nonlinear input-output relationships. Die casting machine parameters, namely, fast shot velocity, slow shot to fast shot change over point, intensification pressure and holding time have been considered as the input variables. The quality characteristics of the cast product were determined by porosity, hardness and surface rough roughness (output/responses). Design of experiments has been used to plan the experiments and analyze the impact of variables on the quality of casting. On the other-hand Response Surface Methodology (Central Composite Design) is utilized to develop non-linear input-output relationships (regression models). The developed regression models have been tested for their statistical adequacy through ANOVA test. The practical usefulness of these models has been tested with some test cases. These models can be used to make the predictions about different quality characteristics, for the known set of die casting machine parameters, without conducting the experiments.

  16. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Light Metals Permanent Mold Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS] [CanmetMATERIALS

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Current vehicles use mostly ferrous components for structural applications. It is possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle by substituting these parts with those made from light metals such as aluminum and magnesium. Many alloys and manufacturing processes can be used to produce these light metal components and casting is known to be most economical. One of the high integrity casting processes is permanent mold casting which is the focus of this research report. Many aluminum alloy castings used in automotive applications are produced by the sand casting process. Also, aluminum-silicon (Al-Si) alloys are the most widely used alloy systems for automotive applications. It is possible that by using high strength aluminum alloys based on an aluminum-copper (Al-Cu) system and permanent mold casting, the performance of these components can be enhanced significantly. This will also help to further reduce the weight. However, many technological obstacles need to be overcome before using these alloys in automotive applications in an economical way. There is very limited information in the open literature on gravity and low-pressure permanent mold casting of high strength aluminum alloys. This report summarizes the results and issues encountered during the casting trials of high strength aluminum alloy 206.0 (Al-Cu alloy) and moderate strength alloy 535.0 (Al-Mg alloy). Five engineering components were cast by gravity tilt-pour or low pressure permanent mold casting processes at CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) and two production foundries. The results of the casting trials show that high integrity engineering components can be produced successfully from both alloys if specific processing parameters are used. It was shown that a combination of melt processing and mold temperature is necessary for the elimination of hot tears in both alloys.

  17. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Precision Casting of Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Von L. Richards

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses improvements in metal casting processes by reducing scrap and reducing the cost of production, due to scrap reduction from investment casting and yield improvement offered by lost foam casting as compared to no-bake or green sand molding. The objectives for the investment casting portion of the subtask are to improve knowledge of fracture toughness of mold shells and the sources of strength limiting flaws and to understand the effects of wax reclamation procedures on wax properties. Applying 'clean steel' approaches to pouring technology and cleanliness in investment casting of steel are anticipated to improve incoming materials inspection procedures as they affect the microstructure and toughness of the shell. This project focused on two areas of study in the production of steel castings to reduce scrap and save energy: (1) Reducing the amount of shell cracking in investment cast steel production; (2) Investigate the potential of lost foam steel casting The basic findings regarding investment casting shell cracking were: (1) In the case of post pouring cracking, this could be related to phase changes in silica upon cooling and could be delayed by pouring arrangement strategies that maintained the shell surface at temperature for longer time. Employing this delay resulted in less adherent oxidation of castings since the casting was cooler at the time o fair exposure. (2) A model for heat transfer through water saturated shell materials under steam pressure was developed. (3) Initial modeling result of autoclave de-waxing indicated the higher pressure and temperature in the autoclave would impose a steeper temperature gradient on the wax pattern, causing some melt flow prior to bulk expansion and decreasing the stress on the green shell. Basic findings regarding lost foam casting of steel at atmospheric pressure: (1) EPS foam generally decomposes by the collapse mode in steel casting. (2) There is an accumulation of carbon pick-up at the end of the casting opposite the gate. (3) It is recommended that lost foam castings in steel be gated for a quiescent fill in an empty cavity mold to prevent foam occlusion defects from the collapse mode. The energy benefit is primarily in yield savings and lower casting weight per function due to elimination of draft and parting lines for the larger lost foam castings. For the smaller investment casting, scrap losses due to shell cracking will be reduced. Both of these effects will reduce the metal melted per good ton of castings. There will also be less machine stock required per casting which is a yield savings and a small additional energy savings in machining. Downstream savings will come from heavy truck and railroad applications. Application of these processes to heavy truck castings will lighten the heavy truck fleet by about ten pounds per truck. Using ten years to achieve full penetration of the truck fleet at linear rate this will result in a fuel savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  18. Material development in the SI sub 3 N sub 4 system using glass encapsulated Hip'ing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP'ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  19. Probabilistic life design of refractories for steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). High Temperature Materials Lab.; Smith, J.D.; Moore, R.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Ceramic Engineering

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The failure probability of magnesia-graphite components was predicted using an established probabilistic life prediction design algorithm. The described algorithm is commonly employed in the design of load-bearing structural ceramics components; however, interest existed for the present study to demonstrate its use and applicability in the design (or failure probability analysis) of arbitrary refractory components. Two components were examined: (1) a 25.4 x 25.4 x 152 mm (1 x 1 by 6 in.) magnesia-graphite prismatic bar subjected to three-point flexure using a 101.6 mm (4 in.) span, and (2) a vertically suspended magnesia-graphite nozzle whose dimensions were 203 O.D. x 101.6 I.D. x 1,524 mm length (8 O.D. x 4 I.D. x 60 in. length). Magnesia-graphite strength data were combined with finite element analysis of the components and an appropriate multiaxial ceramic failure criterion to predict the failure probabilities of each. The latter exercise illustrated how laboratory-generated strength distributions may be used to predict the failure probability of a representative refractory component used in steel casting, while the former provided useful information of strength-dependence on size between two commonly used specimen geometries used for refractory strength tests. The results indicated an approach of probabilistic life design is applicable to refractory component design for the steel casting industry.

  20. The use of flexible synthetic rubbers for casts of complex fossils from natural moulds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benton, Michael

    The use of flexible synthetic rubbers for casts of complex fossils from natural moulds M. J. BENTON (Dugdale DD118) synthetic rubbers make excellent casting materials for the production of high). They described the methods of use and results from such commercially available silicone rubbers as Silastic 9161

  1. Feeding of High-Nickel Alloy Castings KENT D. CARLSON, SHOUZHU OU, and CHRISTOPH BECKERMANN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Feeding of High-Nickel Alloy Castings KENT D. CARLSON, SHOUZHU OU, and CHRISTOPH BECKERMANN Feeding of the nickel-based alloys CZ-100, M-35-1, and CW-12MW, as well as of the austenitic stainless steel CN-7M are shown to provide accurate FDs for the casting trial plates. The FDs of the high-nickel alloys (except CZ

  2. Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Cast Steel Containing Shrinkage Porosity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Cast Steel Containing Shrinkage Porosity RICHARD A. HARDIN and CHRISTOPH BECKERMANN A simulation methodology for predicting the fatigue life of cast steel components model is developed to reduce the dependence of the fatigue life predictions on the numerical mesh chosen

  3. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  4. Application of statistical methods for analyzing the relationship between casting distortion, mold filling, and interfacial heat transfer in sand molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. A. Owusu

    1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a statistical method of evaluating geometric tolerances of casting products using point cloud data generated by coordinate measuring machine (CMM) process. The focus of this report is to present a statistical-based approach to evaluate the differences in dimensional and form variations or tolerances of casting products as affected by casting gating system, molding material, casting thickness, and casting orientation at the mold-metal interface. Form parameters such as flatness, parallelism, and other geometric profiles such as angularity, casting length, and height of casting products were obtained and analyzed from CMM point cloud data. In order to relate the dimensional and form errors to the factors under consideration such as flatness and parallelism, a factorial analysis of variance and statistical test means methods were performed to identify the factors that contributed to the casting distortion at the mold-metal interface.

  5. Design and Implementation of a Real-time Spray Cooling Control System for Continuous Casting of Thin Steel Slabs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    @uiuc.edu Key words: Continuous casting, Secondary spray cooling, Real-time control, Heat Transfer Model

  6. EXCELLENTIA CoLumbIA ENgINEErINg22 eople suffering from brain diseases and conditions ranging from traumatic brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    HEALTH EXCELLENTIA CoLumbIA ENgINEErINg22 P eople suffering from brain diseases and conditions ranging from traumatic brain injury to brain cancer to progressive brain disorders could be helped if therapeu- tic drugs could be easily delivered to the affected areas. The blood-brain barrier (BBB

  7. ''Heat Transfer at the Mold-Metal Interface in Permanent Mold Casting of Aluminum Alloys'' Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Professor R. D. Pehlke, Principal Investigator, Dr. John M. Cookson, Dr. Shouwei Hao, Dr. Prasad Krishna, Kevin T. Bilkey

    2001-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting has been conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigation of squeeze casting at CMI-Tech Center (Now Hayes-Lemmerz Technical Center) and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive.

  8. A two-dimensional finite element thermomechanical approach to a global stress-strain analysis of steel continuous casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of steel continuous casting Michel Bellet, Alban Heinrich Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre de Mise en Forme.bellet@ensmp.fr Synopsis This paper addresses the two-dimensional finite element simulation of steel continuous casting state (temperature, deformation, stresses) of steel all along the continuous casting machine. Both plane

  9. Engineering scale demonstration of a prospective Cast Stone process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Fowley, M.; Hansen, E.; Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Williams, M.

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents an engineering-scale demonstration with non-radioactive simulants that was performed at SRNL using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. Over three days, the SCPF was used to fill a 1600 gallon container, staged outside the facility, with simulated Cast Stone grout. The container, staged outside the building approximately 60 ft from the SCPF, was instrumented with x-, y-, and z-axis thermocouples to monitor curing temperature. The container was also fitted with two formed core sampling vials. For the operation, the targeted grout production rate was 1.5 gpm. This required a salt solution flow rate of approximately 1 gpm and a premix feed rate of approximately 580 lb/h. During the final day of operation, the dry feed rate was increased to evaluate the ability of the system to handle increased throughput. Although non-steady state operational periods created free surface liquids, no bleed water was observed either before or after operations. The final surface slope at a fill height of 39.5 inches was 1-1.5 inches across the 8.5 foot diameter container, highest at the final fill point and lowest diametrically opposed to the fill point. During processing, grout was collected in cylindrical containers from both the mixer discharge and the discharge into the container. These samples were stored in a humid environment either in a closed box proximal to the container or inside the laboratory. Additional samples collected at these sampling points were analyzed for rheological properties and density. Both the rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield strength) and density were consistent with previous and later SCPF runs.

  10. Thermal casting process for the preparation of membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caneba, G.T.M.; Soong, D.S.

    1985-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for providing anisotropic polymer membrane from a binary polymer/solvent solution using a thermal inversion process. A homogeneous binary solution is cast onto a support and cooled in such a way as to provide a differential in cooling rate across the thickness of the resulting membrane sheet. Isotropic or anisotropic structures of selected porosities can be produced, depending on the initial concentration of polymer in the selected solvent and on the extent of the differential in cooling rate. This differential results in a corresponding gradation in pore size. The method may be modified to provide a working skin by applying a rapid, high-temperature pulse to redissolve a predetermined thickness of the membrane at one of its faces and then freezing the entire structure.

  11. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1987-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a model within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. 8 figs.

  12. CAST constraints on the axion-electron coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, K.; Davenport, M.; Lella, L. Di [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Dafni, T.; Galan, J.; GarcŪa, J.A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Altas Energias, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Braeuninger, H.; Englhauser, J.; Friedrich, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Collar, J.I. [Enrico Fermi Institute and KICP, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Eleftheriadis, C. [Aristoteles University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T. [National Center for Scientific Research ''Demokritos'', Athens (Greece); Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I. [IRFU, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (CEA-Saclay), Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fischer, H.; Franz, J., E-mail: Jaime.Ruz@cern.ch, E-mail: Julia.Vogel@cern.ch, E-mail: redondo@mpp.mpg.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In non-hadronic axion models, which have a tree-level axion-electron interaction, the Sun produces a strong axion flux by bremsstrahlung, Compton scattering, and axio-recombination, the ''BCA processes.'' Based on a new calculation of this flux, including for the first time axio-recombination, we derive limits on the axion-electron Yukawa coupling g{sub ae} and axion-photon interaction strength g{sub a?} using the CAST phase-I data (vacuum phase). For m{sub a}?<10 meV/c{sup 2} we find g{sub a?} g{sub ae} < 8.1 ◊ 10{sup ?23} GeV{sup ?1} at 95% CL. We stress that a next-generation axion helioscope such as the proposed IAXO could push this sensitivity into a range beyond stellar energy-loss limits and test the hypothesis that white-dwarf cooling is dominated by axion emission.

  13. Ferrite Measurement in Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steel Castings - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundin, C.D.; Zhou, G.; Ruprecht, W.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to determine ferrite rapidly, accurately and directly on a finished casting, in the solution annealed condition, can enhance the acceptance, save on manufacturing costs and ultimately improve service performance of duplex stainless steel cast products. If the suitability of a non-destructive ferrite determination methodology can be demonstrated for standard industrial measurement instruments, the production of cast secondary standards for calibration of these instruments is a necessity. With these concepts in mind, a series of experiments were carried out to demonstrate, in a non-destructive manner, the proper methodology for determining ferrite content. The literature was reviewed, with regard to measurement techniques and vagaries, an industrial ferrite measurement round-robin was conducted, the effects of casting surface finish, preparation of the casting surface for accurate measurement and the evaluation of suitable means for the production of cast secondary standards for calibration were systematically investigated. The data obtained from this research program provide recommendations to ensure accurate, repeatable, and reproducible ferrite measurement and qualifies the Feritscope for field use on production castings.

  14. MACHINING ELIMINATION THROUGH APPLICATION OF THREAD FORMING FASTENERS IN NET SHAPED CAST HOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleaver, Ryan J.; Cleaver, Todd H.; Talbott, Richard

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of this work was to eliminate approximately 30% of the machining performed in typical automotive engine and transmission plants by using thread forming fasteners in as-cast holes of aluminum and magnesium cast components. The primary issues at the source of engineers√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬? reluctance to implementing thread forming fasteners in lightweight castings are: * Little proof of consistency of clamp load vs. input torque in either aluminum or magnesium castings. * No known data to understand the effect on consistency of clamp load as casting dies wear. The clamp load consistency concern is founded in the fact that a portion of the input torque used to create clamp load is also used to create threads. The torque used for thread forming may not be consistent due to variations in casting material, hole size and shape due to tooling wear and process variation (thermal and mechanical). There is little data available to understand the magnitude of this concern or to form the basis of potential solutions if the range of clamp load variation is very high (> +/- 30%). The range of variation that can be expected in as-cast hole size and shape over the full life cycle of a high pressure die casting die was established in previous work completed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, (PNNL). This established range of variation was captured in a set of 12 cast bosses by designing core pins at the size and draft angles identified in the sited previous work. The cast bosses were cut into √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?nuts√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě that could be used in the Ford Fastener Laboratory test-cell to measure clamp load when a thread forming fastener was driven into a cast nut. There were two sets of experiments run. First, a series of cast aluminum nuts were made reflecting the range of shape and size variations to be expected over the life cycle of a die casting die. Taptite thread forming fasteners, (a widely used thread forming fastener suitable for aluminum applications), were driven into the various cored, as-cast nuts at a constant input torque and resulting clamp loads were recorded continuously. The clamp load data was used to determine the range of clamp loads to be expected. The bolts were driven to failure. The clamp load corresponding to the target input of 18.5 Nm was recorded for each fastener. In a like fashion, a second set of experiments were run with cast magnesium nuts and ALtracs thread forming fasteners, (a widely used thread forming fastener suitable for magnesium applications). Again all clamp loads were recorded and analyzed similarly to the Taptites in aluminum cast nuts. Results from previous work performed on the same test cell for a Battelle project using standard M8 bolts into standard M8 nuts were included as a comparator for a standard bolt and nut application. The results for the thread forming fasteners in aluminum cast holes were well within industry expectations of +/- 30% for out of the box and robustness range te

  15. eNgINeerINg g r A d U A T e P r O g r A M S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    IIT ArMOUr COllege Of eNgINeerINg g r A d U A T e P r O g r A M S Educating a nEw gEnEration of EnginEErs #12;A TrAdiTion of ExcEllEncE Armour College of Engineering was founded in 1893 as Armour Institute, dedicated to preparing students from all backgrounds for careers as engineers in a rapidly

  16. Industrial Assessments in the Cast Metals Industry: Common Problems and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, M. R.; Barnish, T. J.; Kasten, D.

    motor burnouts occur because of some other failure which increases ~otor temperature. Electricity and Deregulation The metal casting business is a large electrica user. Deregulation and contracting for electricity will cjlange how plants optimize...

  17. Influences on Burr Size During Face-Milling of Aluminum Alloys and Cast Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shefelbine, Wendy; Dornfeld, David

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    burrs. As with the aluminum alloys, the machining conditionsON BURR FORMATION As with the aluminum alloys, there is someFACE-MILLING OF ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOYS AND CAST IRON Wendy

  18. Casting Annotation as an Optimization Problem (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Overbeek, Ross

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Ross Overbeek of the Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes gives a presentation on "Casting Annotation as an Optimization Problem" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 25, 2010.

  19. aluminum die-casting plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus on the (more) Shi, XinMei 2012-01-01 4 Prediction of Thermal Fatigue in Tooling for Die-casting Copper via Finite Element Analysis CiteSeer Summary: Abstract. Recent...

  20. Casting a Wider Net: Distributed Resources for Metagenomics (2010 JGI/ANL HPC Workshop)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Meyer, Folker [ANL

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Folker Meyer from Argonne National Lab gives a presentation on "Casting a Wider Net: Distributed Resources for Metagenomics" at the JGI/Argonne HPC Workshop on January 26, 2010.

  1. Interfacial thermal conductance in spun-cast polymer films and polymer brushes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Interfacial thermal conductance in spun-cast polymer films and polymer brushes Mark D. Losego inorganic materials and anharmonic polymers have potentially intriguing thermal transport behavior. The low thermal conductivity of amorphous polymers limits significant interfacial effects to polymer film

  2. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility Re-direct Destination: A CF8C type stainless steel alloy and articles...

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Clean Steel Casting Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuyucak, Selcuk [CanmetMATERIALS; Li, Delin [CanmetMATERIALS

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusions in steel castings can cause rework, scrap, poor machining, and reduced casting performance, which can obviously result in excess energy consumption. Significant progress in understanding inclusion source, formation and control has been made. Inclusions can be defined as non-metallic materials such as refractory, sand, slag, or coatings, embedded in a metallic matrix. This research project has focused on the mold filling aspects to examine the effects of pouring methods and gating designs on the steel casting cleanliness through water modeling, computer modeling, and melting/casting experiments. Early in the research project, comprehensive studies of bottom-pouring water modeling and low-alloy steel casting experiments were completed. The extent of air entrainment in bottom-poured large castings was demonstrated by water modeling. Current gating systems are designed to prevent air aspiration. However, air entrainment is equally harmful and no prevention measures are in current practice. In this study, new basin designs included a basin dam, submerged nozzle, and nozzle extension. The entrained air and inclusions from the gating system were significantly reduced using the new basin method. Near the end of the project, there has been close collaboration with Wescast Industries Inc., a company manufacturing automotive exhaust components. Both computer modeling using Magma software and melting/casting experiments on thin wall turbo-housing stainless steel castings were completed in this short period of time. Six gating designs were created, including the current gating on the pattern, non-pressurized, partially pressurized, naturally pressurized, naturally pressurized without filter, and radial choke gating without filter, for Magma modeling. The melt filling velocity and temperature were determined from the modeling. Based on the simulation results, three gating designs were chosen for further melting and casting experiments on the same casting pattern using the lip pouring method. It was observed again that gating designs greatly influenced the melt filling velocity and the number of inclusion defects. The radial choked gating showed improvements in casting cleanliness and yield over the other gatings, even though no mold filters were used in the gating system.

  4. Residual stress measurement on ductile cast iron using critically refracted longitudinal (Lcr) wave technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chundu, Srinivasulu Naidu

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Temperature is an important factor that has significant effect on the velocity of L wave in ductile cast iron. Fully annealed and as-cast test bars were investigated to study the effect of temperature in the absence and presence of residual stresses.... Effect of Anisotropy in the Present Investigation l. Introduction . . 2. Examining the Test Bars for Anisotropy VIII. DETECTION OF STRESSES IN SHOT PEENED AND SHOT BLASTED DUCTILE IRON SAMPLES APPLYING LcR WAVE TECHNIQUE. . . . . . . . . . . . . A...

  5. Study of anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide films using internal reflection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberman, V.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have compared anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide (VDP) films, using internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited directly on the internal reflection element. We find that spin cast films are more anisotropic than their VDP counterparts, with the polyimide chains tending to align parallel to the substrate. Both films are found to contain more and less ordered regions. Within the ordered regions, the plane of the phenyl ring tends to align parallel to the substrate.

  6. Fastcast: Integration and application of rapid prototyping and computational simulation to investment casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, M.C.; Baldwin, M.D.; Atwood, C.L.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of several rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP and M) technologies is having a dramatic impact on investment casting. While the most successful of the rapid prototyping technologies are almost a decade old, relatively recent process advances in their application have produced some remarkable success in utilizing their products as patterns for investment castings. Sandia National Laboratories has been developed highly coupled experimental and computational capabilities to examine the investment casting process with the intention of reducing the amount of time required to manufacture castings, and to increase the quality of the finished product. This presentation will begin with process aspects of RP and M pattern production and handling, shell fabrication, burnout, and casting. The emphasis will be on how the use of Stereolithography (SL) or Selective Laser Sintered (SLS) patterns differs from more traditional wax pattern processes. Aspects of computational simulation to couple design, thermal analysis, and mold filling will be discussed. Integration of these topics is probably the greatest challenge to the use of concurrent engineering principles with investment casting. Sandia has conducted several experiments aimed at calibrating computer codes and providing data for input into these simulations. Studies involving materials as diverse as stainless steel and gold have been conducted to determine liquid metal behavior in molds via real time radiography. The application of these experiments to predictive simulations will be described.

  7. HANFORD CONTAINERIZED CAST STONE FACILITY TASK 1 PROCESS TESTING & DEVELOPMENT FINAL TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L L

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory testing and technical evaluation activities on Containerized Cast Stone (CCS) were conducted under the Scope of Work (SOW) contained in CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Contract No. 18548 (CHG 2003a). This report presents the results of testing and demonstration activities discussed in SOW Section 3.1, Task I--''Process Development Testing'', and described in greater detail in the ''Containerized Grout--Phase I Testing and Demonstration Plan'' (CHG, 2003b). CHG (2003b) divided the CCS testing and evaluation activities into six categories, as follows: (1) A short set of tests with simulant to select a preferred dry reagent formulation (DRF), determine allowable liquid addition levels, and confirm the Part 2 test matrix. (2) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF and a backup DRF, as selected in Part I, and using low activity waste (LAW) simulant. (3) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using radioactive LAW. (4) Waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant. (5) Engineering evaluations of explosive/toxic gas evolution, including hydrogen, from the cast stone product. (6) Technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with radioactive LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of the Parts 2 and 3 waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with other data from the applicable activity categories.

  8. Electromagnetic confinement for vertical casting or containing molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method adapted to confine a molten metal to a region by means of an alternating electromagnetic field. As adapted for use in the present invention, the alternating electromagnetic field given by B.sub.y =(2.mu..sub.o .rho.gy).sup.1/2 (where B.sub.y is the vertical component of the magnetic field generated by the magnet at the boundary of the region; y is the distance measured downward form the top of the region, .rho. is the metal density, g is the acceleration of gravity and .mu..sub.o is the permeability of free space) induces eddy currents in the molten metal which interact with the magnetic field to retain the molten metal with a vertical boudnary. As applied to an apparatus for the continuous casting of metal sheets or rods, metal in liquid form can be continuously introduced into the region defined by the magnetic field, solidified and conveyed away from the magnetic field in solid form in a continuous process.

  9. Electromagnetic augmentation for casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically levitating molten metal deposited in a mold within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled by the water-cooled walls of the mold to form a solid metal sheet. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet to provide a return path for eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the current in the AC conducting coils. In another embodiment, a DC conducting coil is coupled to the metal sheet for providing a direct current therein which interacts with the magnetic field to levitate the moving metal sheet. Levitation of the metal sheet in both molten and solid forms reduces its contact pressure with the mold walls while maintaining sufficient engagement therebetween to permit efficient conductive cooling by the mold through which a coolant fluid may be circulated. The magnetic fields associated with the currents in the aforementioned coils levitate the molten metal sheet while the mold provides for its lateral and vertical confinement. A leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the molten metal sheet is used to start the casing process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the yoke/coil arrangement and mold and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The yoke/coil arrangement may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of spaced, facing bedstead coils.

  10. New solar axion search in CAST with $^4$He filling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arik, M; Barth, K; Belov, A; Brauninger, H; Bremer, J; Burwitz, V; Cantatore, G; Carmona, J M; Cetin, S A; Collar, J I; Da Riva, E; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Dermenev, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Elias, N; Fanourakis, G; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Galan, J; Garcia, J A; Gardikiotis, A.; Garza, J G; Gazis, E N; Geralis, T; Georgiopoulou, E; Giomataris, I; Gninenko, S; Marzoa, M Gomez; Hasinoff, M D; Hoffmann, D H H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; K.Jakovcic; Karuza, M; Kavuk, M; Krcmar, M; Kuster, M; Lakic, B; Laurent, J M; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, A; Luzon, G; Neff, S; Niinikoski, T; Nordt, A; Ortega, I; Papaevangelou, T; Pivovaroff, M .J; Raffelt, G; Rodriguez, A; Rosu, M; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Shilon, I; Solanki, S K; Stewart, L; Tomas, A; Vafeiadis, T; Villar, J; Vogel, J K; Yildiz, S C; Zioutas, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for $a\\to\\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the X-ray refractive mass $m_\\gamma$ to the axion search mass $m_a$. After the vacuum phase (2003--2004), which is optimal for $m_a\\lesssim0.02$ eV, we used $^4$He in 2005--2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02--0.39 eV and $^3$He in 2009--2011 to scan from 0.39--1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to $^4$He in 2012 to investigate a narrow $m_a$ range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39--0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with $^4$He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to $g_{a\\gamma}< 1.47\\times10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to vacuum and aim for a s...

  11. Results on axion physics from the CAST Experiment at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christos Eleftheriadis

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Axions are expected to be produced in the sun via the Primakoff process. They may be detected through the inverse process in the laboratory, under the influence of a strong magnetic field, giving rise to X-rays of energies in the range of a few keV. Such an Axion detector is the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), collecting data since 2003. Results have been published, pushing the axion-photon coupling g$_{a\\gamma}$ below the 10$^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ limit at 95% CL, for axion masses less than 0.02 eV. This limit is nearly an order of magnitude lower than previous experimental limits and surpassed for the first time limits set from astrophysical arguments based on the energy-loss concept. The experiment is currently exploring axion masses in the range of 0.02 eV $axion mass explored will be extended up to the limit of 1.1 eV, testing for the first time the region of theoretical axion models with the axion helioscope method.

  12. New solar axion search in CAST with $^4$He filling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; H. Bršuninger; J. Bremer; V. Burwitz; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; E. Da Riva; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; A. Dermenev; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. GalŠn; J. A. GarcŪa; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; E. Georgiopoulou; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; M. Gůmez Marzoa; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; M. Karuza; M. Kavuk; M. Kr?mar; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; G. Luzůn; S. Neff; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt A. RodrŪguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; I. Shilon; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. TomŠs; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for $a\\to\\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the X-ray refractive mass $m_\\gamma$ to the axion search mass $m_a$. After the vacuum phase (2003--2004), which is optimal for $m_a\\lesssim0.02$ eV, we used $^4$He in 2005--2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02--0.39 eV and $^3$He in 2009--2011 to scan from 0.39--1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to $^4$He in 2012 to investigate a narrow $m_a$ range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39--0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with $^4$He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to $g_{a\\gamma}< 1.47\\times10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  13. New solar axion search in CAST with $^4$He filling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; H. Bršuninger; J. Bremer; V. Burwitz; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; E. Da Riva; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; A. Dermenev; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; J. GalŠn; J. A. GarcŪa; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; E. Georgiopoulou; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; M. Gůmez Marzoa; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov?i?; M. Karuza; M. Kavuk; M. Kr?mar; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; G. Luzůn; S. Neff; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; I. Ortega; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt A. RodrŪguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; I. Shilon; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. TomŠs; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for $a\\to\\gamma$ conversion in the 9 T magnetic field of a refurbished LHC test magnet that can be directed toward the Sun. Two parallel magnet bores can be filled with helium of adjustable pressure to match the X-ray refractive mass $m_\\gamma$ to the axion search mass $m_a$. After the vacuum phase (2003--2004), which is optimal for $m_a\\lesssim0.02$ eV, we used $^4$He in 2005--2007 to cover the mass range of 0.02--0.39 eV and $^3$He in 2009--2011 to scan from 0.39--1.17 eV. After improving the detectors and shielding, we returned to $^4$He in 2012 to investigate a narrow $m_a$ range around 0.2 eV ("candidate setting" of our earlier search) and 0.39--0.42 eV, the upper axion mass range reachable with $^4$He, to "cross the axion line" for the KSVZ model. We have improved the limit on the axion-photon coupling to $g_{a\\gamma}< 1.47\\times10^{-10} {\\rm GeV}^{-1}$ (95% C.L.), depending on the pressure settings. Since 2013, we have returned to vacuum and aim for a significant increase in sensitivity.

  14. Results on axion physics from the CAST Experiment at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftheriadis, Christos A; Aune, S; Barth, K; Belov, A; Beltran, B; Bršuninger, H; Carmona, J; CebriŠn, S; Collar, J I; Dafni, T; Davenport, M; Di Lella, L; Englhauser, J; Fanourakis, G K; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Friedrich, P; Geralis, T; Giomataris, Ioanis; Gninenko, S; Gomez, H; Hasinoff, M; Heinsius, F H; Hoffmann, D H H; Irastorza, I G; Jacoby, J; Jakovcic, K; Kang, D; KŲnigsmann, K C; Kotthaus, R; Krcmar, M; Kousouris, K; Kuster, M; Laki, B; Lasseur, C; Liolios, A; Ljubicic, cA; Lutz, G; Luzůn, G; Miller, D; Morales, A; Morales, J; Nordt, A; Ortiz, A; Papaevangelou, T; Placci, A; Raffelt, G; Riege1, H; RodrŪguez, A; Ruz, J; Savvidis, I; Semertzidis, Y K; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Stewart, L; Villar, J; Vogel, J; Walckiers, L; Zioutas, K

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Axions are expected to be produced in the sun via the Primakoff process. They may be detected through the inverse process in the laboratory, under the influence of a strong magnetic field, giving rise to X-rays of energies in the range of a few keV. Such an Axion detector is the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), collecting data since 2003. Results have been published, pushing the axion-photon coupling g$_{a\\gamma}$ below the 10$^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ limit at 95% CL, for axion masses less than 0.02 eV. This limit is nearly an order of magnitude lower than previous experimental limits and surpassed for the first time limits set from astrophysical arguments based on the energy-loss concept. The experiment is currently exploring axion masses in the range of 0.02 eV $< m_a <$ 1.1 eV. In the next run, currently under preparation, the axion mass explored will be extended up to the limit of 1.1 eV, testing for the first time the region of theoretical axion models with the axion helioscope method.

  15. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christoph Beckermann; Kent Carlson

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment and associated processing, such as quenching, are critical during high strength steel casting production. These processes must be managed closely to prevent thermal and residual stresses that may result in distortion, cracking (particularly after machining), re-work, and weld repair. The risk of casting distortion limits aggressive quenching that can be beneficial to the process and yield an improved outcome. As a result of these distortions, adjustments must be made to the casting or pattern design, or tie bars must be added. Straightening castings after heat treatments can be both time-consuming and expensive. Residual stresses may reduce a casting√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s overall service performance, possibly resulting in catastrophic failure. Stress relieving may help, but expends additional energy in the process. Casting software is very limited in predicting distortions during heat treatment, so corrective measures most often involve a tedious trial-and-error procedure. An extensive review of existing heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling revealed that it is vital to predict the phase transformations and microstructure of the steel along with the thermal stress development during heat treatment. After reviewing the state-of-the-art in heat treatment residual stress and distortion modeling, an existing commercial code was selected because of its advanced capabilities in predicting phase transformations, the evolving microstructure and related properties along with thermal stress development during heat treatment. However, this software was developed for small parts created from forgings or machined stock, and not for steel castings. Therefore, its predictive capabilities for heat treatment of steel castings were investigated. Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of insufficient detail and breadth, and so new heat treatment experiments were designed and performed, casting and heat treating modified versions of the Navy-C ring (a classical test shape for heat treatment experiments) for several carbon and low alloy steels in order to generate data necessary to validate the code. The predicted distortions were in reasonable agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, the final distortions in the castings were small, making it difficult to determine how accurate the predictions truly are. It is recommended that further validation of the software be performed with the aid of additional experiments with large production steel castings that experience significant heat treatment distortions. It is apparent from this research that the mechanical properties of the bonded sand used for cores and sand molds are key in producing accurate stress simulation results. Because of this, experiments were performed to determine the temperature-dependent elastic modulus of a resin-bonded sand commonly utilized in the steel casting industry. The elastic modulus was seen to vary significantly with heating and cooling rates. Also, the retained room temperature elastic modulus after heating was seen to degrade significantly when the sand was heated above 125√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įC. The elastic modulus curves developed in this work can readily be utilized in casting simulation software. Additional experiments with higher heating rates are recommended to determine the behavior of the elastic modulus in the sand close to the mold-metal interface. The commercial heat treatment residual stress and distortion code, once fully validated, is expected to result in an estimated energy savings of 2.15 trillion BTU√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology.

  16. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Subodh K.

    2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A successful four-year project on the modeling and optimization of direct chill (DC) casting to reduce ingot cracking has been completed. The project involved close collaboration among private industries, national laboratories, and universities. During the four-year project, 16 quarterly meetings brought the industrial partners and the research team together for discussion of research results and research direction. The industrial partners provided guidance, facilities, and experience to the research team. The research team went to two industrial plants to measure temperature distributions in commercial 60,000-lb DC casting ingot. The collaborative research resulted in several major accomplishments or findings: (1) Surface cracks were shown to be a result of hot tearing rather than cold cracks, as was thought before this project. These cracks form on the surface of a DC cast ingot just above the impingement point of the secondary cooling water jets. The cracks form along dendrite and grain boundaries, where solute and impurity elements are highly segregated. This understanding led to the development of a new technique for determining the mechanical properties in the nonequilibrium mushy zone of alloys and to thermodynamic predictions of the hot tearing propensity of DC cast ingots. (2) The apparent heat transfer coefficient (HTC) at the ingot surface in the water cooling region during DC casting was determined on the basis of temperature measurements in commercial DC casting ingots and an inverse heat transfer analysis. HTCs were calculated as a function of temperature and time, and covered the different regimes of heat transfer expected during DC casting. The calculated values were extrapolated to include the effect of water flow rate. The calculated HTCs had a peak at around 200 C, corresponding to the high heat transfer rates during nucleate boiling, and the profile was consistent with similar data published in the literature. (3) A new method, termed the reheating-cooling method (RCM), was developed and validated for measuring mechanical properties in the nonequilibrium mushy zones of alloys. The new method captures the brittle nature of aluminum alloys at temperatures close to the nonequilibrium solidus temperature, while specimens tested using the reheating method exhibit significant ductility. The RCM has been used for determining the mechanical properties of alloys at nonequilibrium mushy zone temperatures. Accurate data obtained during this project show that the metal becomes more brittle at high temperatures and high strain rates. (4) The elevated-temperature mechanical properties of the alloy were determined. Constitutive models relating the stress and strain relationship at elevated temperatures were also developed. The experimental data fit the model well. (5) An integrated 3D DC casting model has been used to simulate heat transfer, fluid flow, solidification, and thermally induced stress-strain during casting. A temperature-dependent HTC between the cooling water and the ingot surface, cooling water flow rate, and air gap were coupled in this model. An elasto-viscoplastic model based on high-temperature mechanical testing was used to calculate the stress during casting. The 3D integrated model can be used for the prediction of temperature, fluid flow, stress, and strain distribution in DC cast ingots. (6) The cracking propensity of DC cast ingots can be predicted using the 3D integrated model as well as thermodynamic models. Thus, an ingot cracking index based on the ratio of local stress to local alloy strength was established. Simulation results indicate that cracking propensity increases with increasing casting speed. The composition of the ingots also has a major effect on cracking formation. It was found that copper and zinc increase the cracking propensity of DC cast ingots. The goal of this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project was to assist the aluminum industry in reducing the incidence of stress cracks in DC castings from a current level of 5% down to 2%. This could lead to energy savings

  17. Use of freeze-casting in advanced burner reactor fuel design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, A. L.; Yablinsky, C. A.; Allen, T. R. [Dept. of Engineering Physics, Univ. of Wisconsin Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Burger, J.; Hunger, P. M.; Wegst, U. G. K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 8000 Cummings Hall, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will detail the modeling of a fast reactor with fuel pins created using a freeze-casting process. Freeze-casting is a method of creating an inert scaffold within a fuel pin. The scaffold is created using a directional solidification process and results in open porosity for emplacement of fuel, with pores ranging in size from 300 microns to 500 microns in diameter. These pores allow multiple fuel types and enrichments to be loaded into one fuel pin. Also, each pore could be filled with varying amounts of fuel to allow for the specific volume of fission gases created by that fuel type. Currently fast reactors, including advanced burner reactors (ABR's), are not economically feasible due to the high cost of operating the reactors and of reprocessing the fuel. However, if the fuel could be very precisely placed, such as within a freeze-cast scaffold, this could increase fuel performance and result in a valid design with a much lower cost per megawatt. In addition to competitive costs, freeze-cast fuel would also allow for selective breeding or burning of actinides within specific locations in fast reactors. For example, fast flux peak locations could be utilized on a minute scale to target specific actinides for transmutation. Freeze-cast fuel is extremely flexible and has great potential in a variety of applications. This paper performs initial modeling of freeze-cast fuel, with the generic fast reactor parameters for this model based on EBR-II. The core has an assumed power of 62.5 MWt. The neutronics code used was Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) transport code. Uniform pore sizes were used in increments of 100 microns. Two different freeze-cast scaffold materials were used: ceramic (MgO-ZrO{sub 2}) and steel (SS316L). Separate models were needed for each material because the freeze-cast ceramic and metal scaffolds have different structural characteristics and overall porosities. Basic criticality results were compiled for the various models. Preliminary results show that criticality is achievable with freeze-cast fuel pins despite the significant amount of inert fuel matrix. Freeze casting is a promising method to achieve very precise fuel placement within fuel pins. (authors)

  18. Modeling and Optimization of Direct Chill Casting to Reduce Ingot Cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.K.; Ningileri, S.; Long, Z.; Saito, K.; Khraisheh, M.; Hassan, M.H.; Kuwana, K.; Han, Q.; Viswanathan, S.; Sabau, A.S.; Clark, J.; Hyrn, J. (ANL)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 68% of the aluminum produced in the United States is first cast into ingots prior to further processing into sheet, plate, extrusions, or foil. The direct chill (DC) semi-continuous casting process has been the mainstay of the aluminum industry for the production of ingots due largely to its robust nature and relative simplicity. Though the basic process of DC casting is in principle straightforward, the interaction of process parameters with heat extraction, microstructural evolution, and development of solidification stresses is too complex to analyze by intuition or practical experience. One issue in DC casting is the formation of stress cracks [1-15]. In particular, the move toward larger ingot cross-sections, the use of higher casting speeds, and an ever-increasing array of mold technologies have increased industry efficiencies but have made it more difficult to predict the occurrence of stress crack defects. The Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap [16] has recognized the challenges inherent in the DC casting process and the control of stress cracks and selected the development of 'fundamental information on solidification of alloys to predict microstructure, surface properties, and stresses and strains' as a high-priority research need, and the 'lack of understanding of mechanisms of cracking as a function of alloy' and 'insufficient understanding of the aluminum solidification process', which is 'difficult to model', as technology barriers in aluminum casting processes. The goal of this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project was to assist the aluminum industry in reducing the incidence of stress cracks from the current level of 5% to 2%. Decreasing stress crack incidence is important for improving product quality and consistency as well as for saving resources and energy, since considerable amounts of cast metal could be saved by eliminating ingot cracking, by reducing the scalping thickness of the ingot before rolling, and by eliminating butt sawing. Full-scale industrial implementation of the results of the proposed research would lead to energy savings in excess of 6 trillion Btu by the year 2020. The research undertaken in this project aimed to achieve this objective by a collaboration of industry, university, and national laboratory personnel through Secat, Inc., a consortium of aluminum companies. During the four-year project, the industrial partners and the research team met in 16 quarterly meetings to discuss research results and research direction. The industrial partners provided guidance, facilities, and experience to the research team. The research team went to two industrial plants to measure temperature distributions in commercial 60,000-lb DC casting ingot production. The project focused on the development of a fundamental understanding of ingot cracking and detailed models of thermal conditions, solidification, microstructural evolution, and stress development during the initial transient in DC castings of the aluminum alloys 3004 and 5182. The microstructure of the DC casting ingots was systematically characterized. Carefully designed experiments were carried out at the national laboratory and university facilities as well as at the industrial locations using the industrial production facilities. The advanced computational capabilities of the national laboratories were used for thermodynamic and kinetic simulations of phase transformation, heat transfer and fluid flow, solidification, and stress-strain evolution during DC casting. The achievements of the project are the following: (1) Identified the nature of crack formation during DC casting; (2) Developed a novel method for determining the mechanical properties of an alloy at the nonequilibrium mushy zone of the alloy; (3) Measured heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) between the solidifying ingot and the cooling water jet; (4) Determined the material constitutive model at high temperatures; and (5) Developed computational capabilities for the simulation of cracking formation in DC casting ingot. The models and the database de

  19. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O.K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting the change in fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water rectors (LWRs) at 280--330{degrees}C (535--625{degrees}F). The fracture toughness J-R curve and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known mineral in formation. Fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel is estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. The extent of thermal embrittlement is characterized by the room-temperature normalized'' Charpy-impact energy. A correlation for the extent of embrittlement at saturation,'' i.e., the minimum impact energy that would be achieved for the material after long-term aging, is given in terms of a material parameter, {Phi}, which is determined from the chemical composition. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained from correlations between room-temperature Charpy-impact energy and fracture toughness parameters. Fracture toughness as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which is determined from chemical composition. A common lower-bound'' J-R curve for cast stainless steels with unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given material specification, ferrite content, and temperature. Examples for estimating impact strength and fracture toughness of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are describes. 24 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Solar Axion search with Micromegas detectors in the CAST Experiment with $^{3}$He as buffer gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GarcŪa, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Axions are well motivated particles proposed in an extension of the SM as a solution to the strong CP problem. Also, there is the category of Axion-Like Particles (ALPs) which appear in extensions of the SM and share the same phenomenology of the axion. Axions and ALPs are candidates to solve the Dark Matter problem. CAST, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope is looking for solar axions since 2003. CAST exploit the helioscope technique using a decommissioned LHC dipole magnet in which solar axions could be reconverted into photons. Three of the four detectors operating at CAST are of the Micromegas type. The analysis of the data of the three Micromegas detectors during the 2011 data taking campaign at CAST is presented in this thesis, obtaining a limit on the coupling constant of g$_{a \\gamma}$ < 3.90 $\\times$ 10$^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at a 95$\\%$ of confidence level, for axion masses from 1 to 1.17 eV. CAST Micromegas detectors exploit different strategies developed for the reduction of the background level. Moreov...

  1. Determination of effective axion masses in the helium-3 buffer of CAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruz, J

    2011-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is a ground based experiment located in Geneva (Switzerland) searching for axions coming from the Sun. Axions, hypothetical particles that not only could solve the strong CP problem but also be one of the favored candidates for dark matter, can be produced in the core of the Sun via the Primakoff effect. They can be reconverted into X-ray photons on Earth in the presence of strong electromagnetic fields. In order to look for axions, CAST points a decommissioned LHC prototype dipole magnet with different X-ray detectors installed in both ends of the magnet towards the Sun. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV/c{sup 2}. During the second phase, CAST extends its mass sensitivity by tuning the electron density present in the magnetic field region. Injecting precise amounts of helium gas has enabled CAST to look for axion masses up to 1.2 eV/c{sup 2}. This paper studies the determination of the effective axion masses scanned at CAST during its second phase. The use of a helium gas buffer at temperatures of 1.8 K has required a detailed knowledge of the gas density distribution. Complete sets of computational fluid dynamic simulations validated with experimental data have been crucial to obtain accurate results.

  2. The effect of residuals on the presence of intergranular surface cracks on continuously cast billets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wijngaarden, M.J.U.T. van; Visagie, G.P.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    During 1991, Iscor Vereeniging experienced a dramatic increase in the rejection rate of specialty steel bars rolled from continuously cast billets due to the presence of seams on the bars. The seams originated from tearing of the billets during the first 2 passes in the roughing mill during hot rolling. The defective billets were found to contain fine intergranular cracks on the surface. Such cracks have been described in the literature and have been attributed to the presence of high levels of residuals resulting in the well-known phenomenon of surface hot shortness which results from the enrichment of residuals at the grain boundaries after preferential oxidation of iron during scaling of the steel. The present investigation revealed that the effect of residuals on intergranular surface cracking is a complex interaction between steel composition and casting conditions such as casting speed, intensity of secondary cooling, section size, and mold type. This paper quantifies the effect of residuals on the intergranular surface cracking of continuously cast billets and quantitatively relates the incidence of these cracks to parameters which can be controlled during steelmaking and continuous casting.

  3. Present status and future prospects of electro-magnetic casting for silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Kyojiro; Kawamura, Ritsuo; Misawa, Teruoki [Sumitomo SiTiX Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Research and Development Center

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development research of Electro-Magnetic Casting (EMC) for silicon crystal manufacturing technology has been carried out for years with the purpose of providing low cost multicrystalline silicon substrate for solar cells. The EMC technology is a new concept, in which electromagnetic force is utilized to suspend molten metal without contact to crucible wall for melting and solidification of silicon material. At present, the research has been carried out for the development of casting technique with an ingot size of 22 x 22 cm{sup 2} cross section, and the furnace construction for producing a 35 x 35 cm{sup 2} cross sectioned ingot has been begun. Solar cell conversion efficiencies using EMC ingot crystals are ranging from 13--14% at the present, and the quality of EMC material reaches within that of conventional mold casting material. By the improvements of higher casting speed, higher material quality and larger ingot size at the EMC technology, it is expected that a new casting technique for lower cost ingot production will be realized. The paper describes the features of EMC technology, the silicon EMC furnace, crystalline properties of EMC ingots, electric power consumption of EMC, and cost comparison of the EMC and Czychralski pulling methods.

  4. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

  5. Dorin, A. & Korb, K.B., "Building Virtual Ecosystems from Artificial Chemistry", in Proceed-ings of the 9th European Conference on Artificial Life, Almeida e Costa (ed.), Springer-Verlag,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorin, Alan

    of the 9th European Conference on Artificial Life, Almeida e Costa (ed.), Springer-Verlag, 2007 pp103Dorin, A. & Korb, K.B., "Building Virtual Ecosystems from Artificial Chemistry", in Proceed- ings

  6. Thermal stress analysis of fused-cast AZS refractories during production; Part 1: Industrial study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockcroft, S.L.; Brimacombe, J.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering); Walrod, D.G.; Myles, T.A. (Carborundum Co., Falconer, NY (United States). Monofrax-S Plant)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted to understand and prevent the formation of cracks in alumina-zirconia-silica (AZS) refractory blocks during solidification processing. A fundamental approach has been taken, centered on the development of a three-dimensional mathematical model to predict heat flow and stress generation in fused-cast AZS refractory blocks. In the first part of a two-part study, the voidless'' casting process has been carefully examined in an industrial setting. From a survey of the distribution, frequency of occurrence, and fracture surface morphology of cracks, an attempt was made to link the crack types found in the study to process variables. In-mold temperature data collected for a single casting throughout the normal cooling period have been used to validate the heat-flow model which is described in Part 2. The stress analysis, cause of the different cracks, and remedial action are also presented in Part 2.

  7. Examination of the solidification macrostructure of spheroidal and flake graphite cast irons using DAAS and ESBD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, G. [Metallurgy Division INTEMA, National University of Mar del Plata, CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 (B7608FDQ) Mar del Plata (Argentina); Calvillo, P.R. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Ghent University (Belgium); Boeri, R. [Metallurgy Division INTEMA, National University of Mar del Plata, CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 (B7608FDQ) Mar del Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: boeri@fi.mdp.edu.ar; Houbaert, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Ghent University (Belgium); Sikora, J. [Metallurgy Division INTEMA, National University of Mar del Plata, CONICET, J. B. Justo 4302 (B7608FDQ) Mar del Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: jsikora@fi.mdp.edu.ar

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation focuses on the study of the solidification macrostructure of sand cast flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons. The macrostructure is revealed by using a special technique developed earlier by the authors, called Direct Austempering After Solidification. The observations make use of conventional metallography and Electron Back Scattering Diffraction. The latter technique allows a more detailed observation of the morphology of the austenite grains and the microstructure of the matrix. The results of Electron Back Scattering Diffraction validate the observations made using the macrographic technique. It is verified that the solidification of both flake and spheroidal graphite cast irons is dominated by the growth of large austenite dendrites that form a grain pattern similar to that usually found in most metallic alloys.

  8. A high resolution finite volume method for efficient parallel simulation of casting processes on unstructured meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kothe, D.B.; Turner, J.A.; Mosso, S.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Ferrell, R.C. [Cambridge Power Computer Assoc. (United States)

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss selected aspects of a new parallel three-dimensional (3-D) computational tool for the unstructured mesh simulation of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) casting processes. This tool, known as {bold Telluride}, draws upon on robust, high resolution finite volume solutions of metal alloy mass, momentum, and enthalpy conservation equations to model the filling, cooling, and solidification of LANL castings. We briefly describe the current {bold Telluride} physical models and solution methods, then detail our parallelization strategy as implemented with Fortran 90 (F90). This strategy has yielded straightforward and efficient parallelization on distributed and shared memory architectures, aided in large part by new parallel libraries {bold JTpack9O} for Krylov-subspace iterative solution methods and {bold PGSLib} for efficient gather/scatter operations. We illustrate our methodology and current capabilities with source code examples and parallel efficiency results for a LANL casting simulation.

  9. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 M? deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 M? DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1◊ concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5◊ and 10◊ of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted using the 7.8 M Na LAW simulant (the simulant selected to represent LAW) for the first 15 days for four Tc getters (BFS1, BFS2, Sn(II)-treated apatite, and Sn(II) chloride) show no, to a very small, capacity to remove Tc from the LAW simulant. For the Tc-getter experiments in the 7.8 M LAW simulant, the majority of the effluent samples show very small drops in Tc concentrations for the 35-day compared to the 15-day samplings. However, the Tc concentration in the simulant blanks also dropped slightly during this period, so the effect of the getter contacting LAW simulant at 35 days compared to 15 days is minimal; except that the BFS1 1:10 test shows a slow but steady decrease in Tc concentration in the LAW simulant supernatant from the beginning to the 35 day contact at which point about 20% of the original Tc has been removed from solution. Lastly, the KMS getter gives the highest Kd value for Tc at 35 days where Kd values have increased to 104 mL/g. When considering the different I getters reacting with the 7.8 M LAW simulant, two getters are much more effective than the others: Ag zeolite and Syn Arg. The other getters have calculated iodide distribution coefficients that show very limited effectiveness in the caustic conditions created by the LAW simulant. These are preliminary results that will need more detailed analyses including both pre- and post-batch sorption getter solid-phase characterization using state-of-the-art instrumentation such as synchrotron X ray absorption spectroscopy, which can delineate the oxidation state of the Tc and likely iodine species as well as some of the getters key major components, sulfur and iron in the BFS, and tin and sulfur in the tin-bearing and sulfur-bearing getters. This report also describes future experimental studies to be performed to better elucidate the mechanisms controlling the Tc and I sequestration processes in the various getters and leach tests of getter-bearing Cast Stone monoliths.

  10. Method For Removing Volatile Components From A Gel-Cast Ceramic Article

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klug, Frederic Joseph (Schenectady, NY); DeCarr, Sylvia Marie (Schenectady, NY)

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  11. Microstructure Based Modeling of ? Phase Influence on Mechanical Response of Cast AM Series Mg Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, Erin I.; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Deda, Erin; Allison, John; Li, Mei; Forsmark, Joy; Zindel, Jacob; Godlewski, Larry

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnesium alloys have become popular alternatives to aluminums and steels for the purpose of vehicle light-weighting. However, Mg alloys are hindered from wider application due to limited ductility as well as poor creep and corrosion performance. Understanding the impact of microstructural features on bulk response is key to improving Mg alloys for more widespread use and for moving towards truly predicting modeling capabilities. This study focuses on modeling the intrinsic features, particularly volume fraction and morphology of beta phase present, of cast Mg alloy microstructure and quantifying their impact on bulk performance. Computational results are compared to experimental measurements of cast plates of Mg alloy with varying aluminum content.

  12. Metallurgical study of duplex stainless steel CD4Mcu Casting Material for Purex type nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LESHIKAR, G.A.

    2003-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The studies presented in this document evaluate the metallurgy of Cast Grade Alloys CD4MCu and CD4MCuN (ASTM A890, Grades 1A and 1B). CD4MCu has been used as a Purex-Type nozzle casting material since the early 1960's, when it was a new and exotic material. The current metallurgical knowledge base shows addition of nitrogen to the alloy is very beneficial (CD4MCuN), and rapid cooling (water quenching) is essential to achieving the sought-after material properties.

  13. Cast CF8C-Plus Stainless Steel for Turbocharger Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, P.J.; Shyam, A.; Evans, N.D.; Pattabiraman, K. (Honeywell Turbo Technologies

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project is to provide the critical test data needed to qualify CF8C-Plus cast stainless steel for commercial production and use for turbocharger housings with upgraded performance and durability relative to standard commercial cast irons or stainless steels. The turbocharger technologies include, but are not limited to, heavy-duty highway diesel engines, and passenger vehicle diesel and gasoline engines. This CRADA provides additional critical high-temperature mechanical properties testing and data analysis needed to quality the new CF8C-Plus steels for turbocharger housing applications.

  14. Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Ceramic Tape Casting Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE, Yuji SUZUKI, and Nobuhide KASAGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Ceramic Tape Casting Takashi OKAMASA, Gwang-Goo LEE@thtlab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract Micro-scale catalytic combustor fueled by butane is investigated. A cost-effective ceramic combustor is developed using high- precision tape-casting technology. Nano-porous alumina fabricated through

  15. Translating Water Spray Cooling of a Steel Bar Sand Casting Thomas J. Williams, Daniel Galles, and Christoph Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Translating Water Spray Cooling of a Steel Bar Sand Casting Thomas J. Williams, Daniel Galles, i.e., washed away, from the casting during solidification. The method uses a water-soluble binder and translation of a water spray to achieve directional solidification. The advantages of the ablation technique

  16. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

  17. System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scheffer, K.D.

    1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

  18. BALT & CAST: Middleware for Cognitive Nick Hawes, Michael Zillich and Jeremy Wyatt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wyatt, Jeremy

    researchers are working on middleware software for robotics, e.g. MARIE [C^ot¬īe et al., 2006]. These projectsBALT & CAST: Middleware for Cognitive Robotics Nick Hawes, Michael Zillich and Jeremy Wyatt School a toolkit for implementing architectures for intelli- gent robotic systems. This toolkit is based

  19. Hydrocarbon Signatures of Egg Maternity, Caste Membership and Reproductive Status in the Common Wasp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenseleers, Tom

    Hydrocarbon Signatures of Egg Maternity, Caste Membership and Reproductive Status in the Common-laid and worker-laid eggs has never been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to investigate if hydrocarbons on the surface of newly-laid eggs, and that there are pronounced quantitative differences in the hydrocarbon

  20. MCWASP, Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes XI TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    OF THE SOLIDIFICATION OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS ON MOLDS OF UNEVEN TOPOGRAPHIES. Nicholas Zabaras1 , Deep Samanta1 , Lijian Tan of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University; Ithaca, NY 14853-3801, USA Keywords: Solidification, Aluminum alloys, Cast surfaces, Mold topography, Inverse segregation, Imperfect contact, Air-gaps, Solid

  1. Simulation of Stresses during Casting of Binary Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Simulation of Stresses during Casting of Binary Magnesium-Aluminum Alloys M.G. POKORNY, C.A. MONROE made for aluminum alloys.[6≠8] Recently, Mathier and co-workers[9,10] performed a detailed com- parison between measured and predicted forces in the mush during solidification of dilute aluminum alloys

  2. The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    The Use of Water Cooling during the Continuous Casting of Steel and Aluminum Alloys J. SENGUPTA, B of aluminum alloy ingots, water is used to cool the mold in the initial stages of solidification between 50 and 300 mm for steel, and up to 500 to 750 mm for aluminum alloys), thin slabs (thickness

  3. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  4. Lifetime Modelling of Fatigue Crack Initiation from Casting Defects M. Geuffrard1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    methodology has been developed for defects occurring in turbine discs made from powder metallurgy nickel base results of such an investigation of the assessment of casting pores in aero-engine turbine blades procedure The material used in this investigation is AM1 Ni-based single crystal. Its composition is 7.8Cr

  5. Grain refinement and texture development of cast bi90sb10 alloy via severe plastic deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Im, Jae-taek

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work was to study learn about grain refinement mechanisms and texture development in cast n-type Bi90Sb10 alloy caused by severe plastic deformation. The practical objective is to produce a fine grained and textured...

  6. SunCast: Fine-grained Prediction of Natural Sunlight Levels for Improved Daylight Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    SunCast: Fine-grained Prediction of Natural Sunlight Levels for Improved Daylight Harvesting, USA {jklu,whitehouse}@cs.virginia.edu ABSTRACT Daylight harvesting is the use of natural sunlight to reduce the need for artificial lighting in buildings. The key challenge of daylight harvesting

  7. Reliability of Laser Welding Process for ZE41A-T5 Magnesium Alloy Sand Castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medraj, Mamoun

    Reliability of Laser Welding Process for ZE41A-T5 Magnesium Alloy Sand Castings Haider Al-Kazzaz1, National Research Council Canada, Montreal, Canada Laser welding is a promising joining method for magnesium alloys. The process reliability of 2-mm ZE41A-T5 butt joints welded by a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser

  8. Modelling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processing XI NON-MONOTONE TEMPERATURE BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lowengrub, John

    Modelling of Casting, Welding, and Advanced Solidification Processing XI NON-MONOTONE TEMPERATURE anisotropy, such as a needle crystal or dendrite, the interface can develop periodic non-monotone temperature in the equilibrium temperature close to the highly curved tip. This minimum results in the tip temperature itself

  9. The Power of The Dark Side: Using Cast Shadows for Visually-Guided Touching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Jara, Eduardo

    that the cast shadow of a robot arm on a surface can be detected by a camera and used to derive a time-to-contact estimate. We achieve 3D control of a robot arm relative to an unmodelled surface by integrating shadow

  10. S/w Quality Assurance CAST-TX 1 Software Quality Assurance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jeff

    (tian@engr.smu.edu) Southern Methodist University Dallas, Texas, USA Contents ∑ Software Quality: Why Management Nov. 30, 2002 Prof. Jeff Tian, SMU #12;S/w Quality Assurance CAST-TX 2 Software Quality: Why/usage-based testing and relia- bility engineering measurement and risk management Nov. 30, 2002 Prof. Jeff Tian, SMU

  11. Thin section casting program: Volume 2-A, Appendix to Volume 2: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains reports on the design, construction, and operation of the horizontal thin-section-casting dynamic simulator facility (H-DS) at the USS Technical Center's pilot facilities in Universal Pennsylvania (UPF). A dynamic simulator is a small-scale pilot facility that bridges the development gap between bench-scale work and a full-scale pilot facility. The main objectives of the H-DS program are (a) to provide a critical ''proof-of-concept'' of closed-pool (injection) feeding, and (b) an evaluation of a near-full-scale casting system for steel (1-inch-thick by 17-inch-wide product) using a twin-belt caster. As originally configured, this phase also included a vertical feeding dynamic simulator to be operated concurrently with the H-DS. Based on the DS results, large-scale pilot facilities were to be constructed using the most successful of two feeding approaches for final evaluation. This plan was later modified by only building an H-DS facility at UPF. A smaller version of the V-DS called the V-rig was built at Bethlehem. Expanded casting campaigns are to be conducted independently on each casting approach at UPF and Bethlehem's Research Laboratory. 14 refs.

  12. PREDICTION OF HEAT TREATMENT DISTORTION OF CAST STEEL C-RINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    PREDICTION OF HEAT TREATMENT DISTORTION OF CAST STEEL C-RINGS Brandon Elliott Brooks1 and Christoph extensive rework or redesign, recasting, or through additional machining steps. Predicting heat treatment. There has been extensive interest in the prediction of heat treatment distortion via computer simulation

  13. Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Prediction of Riser Carbon Macrosegregation due to Shrinkage Flow in Steel Casting Kent D of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 Abstract A new simulation model is developed that predicts carbon predicted with a new advanced feeding flow model that predicts melt pressure, feeding flow and porosity

  14. Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Prediction of burn-on and mould penetration in steel casting using simulation B. E. Brooks1 , C the mould surface and entrain onto the surface of the mould. A method has been developed to predict likely, burn-on and penetration defects can be predicted. The method is validated through comparison

  15. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems - Revison 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a revision of the procedure and correlations presented earlier in NUREG/CR-4513, ANL-90/42 (June 1991) for predicting the change in mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water reactors at 280-330 C (535-625 F). The correlations presented in this report are based on an expanded data base and have been optimized with mechanical-property data on cast stainless steels aged up to {approx}58,000 h at 290-350 C (554-633 F). The correlations for estimating the change in tensile stress, including the Ramberg/Osgood parameters for strain hardening, are also described. The fracture toughness J-R curve, tensile stress, and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known material information. Mechanical properties of a specific cast stainless steel are estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. Embrittlement of cast stainless steels is characterized in terms of room-temperature Charpy-impact energy. The extent or degree of thermal embrittlement at 'saturation,' i.e., the minimum impact energy that can be achieved for a material after long-term aging, is determined from the chemical composition of the steel. Charpy-impact energy as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which are also determined from the chemical composition. The initial impact energy of the unaged steel is required for these estimations. Initial tensile flow stress is needed for estimating the flow stress of the aged material. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained by correlating room-temperature Charpy-impact energy with fracture toughness parameters. The values of JIC are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. A common 'predicted lower-bound' J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, range of ferrite content, and temperature. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented.

  16. Development of lead-free copper alloy graphite castings. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of graphite particles in graphite containing copper alloy was further improved very significantly using several procedures and technological modifications. The developed techniques attacked the graphite distribution problem in two ways. Realizing that clustering of very fine (5um) graphite particles is one of the two major problems, a pretreatment process has been developed using aluminum powders to deagglomerate graphite particles. Along with this, a two-stage stirring technique was used to first incorporate and then to distribute uniformly the deagglomerated particles in the melt. During this year, based on these developments, several components were cast to evaluate the castability of Cu alloy-graphite melts. In addition, machinability tests were done to clearly established that addition of graphite particles improve the machinability of copper MMC alloys over and above that of monolithic copper alloys. The results show that the machining chip sizes and cutting forces of Cu alloys containing graphite particles are smaller than these of the corresponding monolithic Cu alloys. This clearly establishes that the presence of graphite particles in copper alloy improves the machinability in a fashion similar to lead additions to copper alloys. Centrifugal casting of shapes of different sizes appear to be a very attractive method for casting graphite containing copper alloys, since all the graphite particles (regardless of their distribution in the melt) are forced to segregate to the inner periphery of the castings where they impart a very desirable solid lubrication property for bushing and bearing use. A very large number of cylindrical elements of lead bearing copper alloys are now used for similar bearing bushing applications and the manufacturers of these type of bearings are under safety and health hazard pressure to remove lead. This year several parameters for centrifugal casting of copper graphite alloys have been established.

  17. Decommission ing Out-Of-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    and distribution system. Farm consolidation, rural electrification, and general modernization took many wells. There are thousands of these wells on farmsteads, acreages, and other rural areas throughout or in rural areas. There likely are hundreds, and possibly thousands, located in communities throughout

  18. ing delivery of shipment. For

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    satisfactory food is available and in which no monophage could sur- UfO: ~NETT G. GALEF, JR. AND MATTHEW BECK

  19. Probing the eV-Mass Range for Solar Axions with CAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, J K; Pivovaroff, M J; Soufli, R; van Bibber, K; CAST, C

    2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is searching for solar axions which could be produced in the core of the Sun via the so-called Primakoff effect. Not only would these hypothetical particles solve the strong CP problem, but they are also one of the favored candidates for dark matter. In order to look for axions originating from the Sun, CAST uses a decommissioned LHC prototype magnet. In its 10 m long magnetic field region of 9 Tesla, axions could be reconverted into X-ray photons. Different X-ray detectors are installed on both ends of the magnet, which is mounted on a structure built to follow the Sun during sunrise and sunset for a total of about 3 hours per day. The analysis of the data acquired during the first phase of the experiment with vacuum in the magnetic field region yielded the most restrictive experimental upper limit on the axion-to-photon coupling constant for axion masses up to about 0.02 eV. In order to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to a wider mass range, the CAST experiment continues its search for axions with helium in the magnet bores. In this way it is possible to restore coherence of conversion for larger masses. Changing the pressure of the helium gas enables the experiment to scan different axion masses in the range of up to about 1.2 eV. Especially at high pressures, a precise knowledge of the gas density distribution is crucial to obtain accurate results. In the first part of this second phase of CAST, {sup 4}He was used and the axion mass region was extended up to 0.39 eV, a part of phase space favored by axion models. In CAST's ongoing {sup 3}He phase the studied mass range is now being extended further. In this contribution the final results of CAST's {sup 4}He phase will be presented and the current status of the {sup 3}He run will be given. This includes latest results as well as prospects of future axion experiments.

  20. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope{reg_sign} and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope{reg_sign} were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought DSS and tested per ASTM A923 method B (Charpy impact test). Method A (sodium hydroxide etch test) was performed on one half of a fractured Charpy V-notch impact sample and Method C (ferric chloride corrosion weight loss test) was performed on another half. Test results for the three cast lots and one wrought lot indicate that ASTM A923 is relevant for detecting intermetallic phases in cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 round robin study, five laboratories conducted ASTM A923 Methods A & C on cast DSS material and the lab-to-lab reproducibility of the data was determined. Two groups of samples were sent to the participants. Group 1 samples were tested per ASTM A923 Method A, group 2 samples were tested by ASTM A923 Method C. Testing procedures for this round robin study were identical to those used in the ASTM A923 applicability study. Results from this round robin indicate that there is excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility of ASTM A923 with respect to cast DSS and that ASTM A923 could be expanded to cover both wrought and cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases, Ten heats of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) in the foundry solution annealed condition were tested per ASTM A923 Methods A, B, & C. Testing of these materials per ASTM A923 was used to determine if the foundry solution anneal procedures were adequate to completely eliminate any intermetallic phases, which may have precipitated during the casting and subsequent heat treatment processes. All heats showed no sign of intermetallic phase per Method A, passed minimum Charpy impact energy requirements per Method B (> 40 ft-lbs {at} -40 C (-40 F)), and showed negligible weight loss per Method C (< 10 mdd). These results indicate that the solution annealing procedure used by foundries is adequate to produce a product free from intermetallic phases.

  1. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬ģ and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬ģ were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought DSS and tested per ASTM A923 method B (Charpy impact test). Method A (sodium hydroxide etch test) was performed on one half of a fractured Charpy V-notch impact sample and Method C (ferric chloride corrosion weight loss test) was performed on another half. Test results for the three cast lots and one wrought lot indicate that ASTM A923 is relevant for detecting intermetallic phases in cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 round robin study, five laboratories conducted ASTM A923 Methods A & C on cast DSS material and the lab-to-lab reproducibility of the data was determined. Two groups of samples were sent to the participants. Group 1 samples were tested per ASTM A923 Method A, group 2 samples were tested by ASTM A923 Method C. Testing procedures for this round robin study were identical to those used in the ASTM A923 applicability study. Results from this round robin indicate that there is excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility of ASTM A923 with respect to cast DSS and that ASTM A923 could be expanded to cover both wrought and cast DSS. In the ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases, Ten heats of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) in the foundry solution annealed condition were tested per ASTM A923 Methods A, B, & C. Testing of these materials per ASTM A923 was used to determine if the foundry solution anneal procedures were adequate to completely eliminate any intermetallic phases, which may have precipitated during the casting and subsequent heat treatment processes. All heats showed no sign of intermetallic phase per Method A, passed minimum Charpy impact energy requirements per Method B (> 40 ft-lbs @ -40√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įC (-40√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬įF)), and showed negligible weight loss per Method C (< 10 mdd). These results indicate that the solution annealing procedure used by foundri

  2. Thermal stress analysis of fused-cast AZS refractories during production; Part 2: Development of thermo-elastic stress model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockcroft, S.L.; Brimacombe, J.K. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Centre for Metallurgical Process Engineering); Walrod, D.G.; Myles, T.A. (Carborundum Co., Falconer, NY (United States). Monofrax-S Plant)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mathematical models of heat flow and thermo-elastic stress, based on the finite-element method, have been developed and utilized to analyze the voidless,'' fused-cast, AZS, solidification process. The results of the mathematical analysis, in conjunction with information obtained in a comprehensive industrial study, presented in Part 1 of this paper, describe the mechanisms for the formation of the various crack types found in the fused-cast product. Thermal stresses are generated early in the solidification process by rapid cooling of the refractory surface as it contacts the initially cool mold and later in conjunction with the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation which occurs in the zirconia component of the AZS refractory. Applying this model, castings were made using a revised mold design. Preliminary results indicate these castings to be free of objectionable transverse cracks.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: ICME Guided Development of Advanced Cast Aluminum Alloys For Automotive Engine Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Ford at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about ICME guided development of advanced cast...

  4. A comparison of the marginal adaptation of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium and cast base metal copings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jean C; Lai, Li-Chung; Sheets, Cherilyn G; Earthman, James; Newcomb, Robert

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    without use of the lost wax method. 22 The cathode-arcusing the conventional lost wax casting technique and con-The die was dipped into a wax pot (Hotty; Renfert GmbH,

  5. Microstructure and residual stress evaluation of ductile cast iron using the critically refracted longitudinal (Lcr) wave propagation technique†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Robert Jeffrey

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual stress and microstructure evaluation of ductile cast iron using a nondestructive method (Critically Refracted Longitudinal Ultrasonic Wave Technique) was approached. Residual stresses, both good and bad graphite nodules, and different...

  6. Final Report, Volume 3, Guidance Document for the Evaluation of Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 3 comprises of the Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (A890-5A) which is equivalent to wrought 2507. The objective of this work was to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). The various tests which were carried out were ASTM A923 Test Method A, B and C (Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test, Charpy Impact Test and Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test), ferrite measurement using Feritscope{reg_sign}, ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method and X-Ray Diffraction, hardness measurement using Rockwell B and C and microstructural analysis using SEM and EDS.

  7. Method and apparatus for improved melt flow during continuous strip casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Follstaedt, D.W.; King, E.L.; Schneider, K.C.

    1991-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuous casting of metal strip using the melt overflow process is improved by controlling the weir conditions in the nozzle to provide a more uniform flow of molten metal across the width of the nozzle and reducing the tendency for freezing of metal along the interface with refractory surfaces. A weir design having a sloped rear wall and tapered sidewalls and critical gap controls beneath the weir has resulted in the drastic reduction in edge tearing and a significant improvement in strip uniformity. The floor of the container vessel is preferably sloped and the gap between the nozzle and the rotating substrate is critically controlled. The resulting flow patterns observed with the improved casting process have reduced thermal gradients in the bath, contained surface slag and eliminated undesirable solidification near the discharge area by increasing the flow rates at those points. 8 figures.

  8. Fatigue properties of die cast zinc alloys for automotive lock applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrems, Karol K.; Dogan, Omer N.; Goodwin, F.E. (International Lead and Zinc Research Organization, Research Triangle, NC)

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the 1970ís many automotive lock systems were converted from zinc die casting alloys to engineering plastics for reasons of weight and cost. Recent increases in requirements for precision and security have caused automotive and other lock designers to reconsider zinc alloy die-castings for these applications. To enable this, there is a need for mechanical property data comparable to that of the plastics materials used in these applications. In this work, rotary bending fatigue tests were performed on Alloys 3, 5, ZA-8 and AcuZinc 5 using an R.R. Moore fatigue machine. Testing was performed at 30 Hz and was stopped at 1x107 cycles. The fatigue limit results were compared to data reported in the literature for higher number of cycles and faster rotations.

  9. The effect of processing upon the fracture behavior of cast and forged low alloy steel wellhead components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desadier, Christopher Earl

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF PROCESS1NG UPON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF CAST AND FORGED LOW ALLOY STEEL WELLHEAD COMPONENTS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER EARL DESADIER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering EFFECT OF PROCESSING UPON THE FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF CAST AND FORGED LOW ALLOY STEEL WELLHEAD COMPONENTS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER EARL DESADIER Approved...

  10. Characterisation of Fourteenth-Century Bell-Casting Pit in Old Town Hall Sibiu, Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agata Olariu; Petre Munteanu-Besliu

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we have made an analytical investigation by neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence of a number of pieces found on the two hearths and the slag layer discovered at the Old Town Hall from Sibiu, Romania and some bells from the surrounding region of Sibiu. The elemental analyses suggest the fact that the hearths preserve traces of an activity of alloying of copper with tin for casting bells.

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Aging of Graphitic Cast Irons and Machinability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this task was to determine whether ductile iron and compacted graphite iron exhibit age strengthening to a statistically significant extent. Further, this effort identified the mechanism by which gray iron age strengthens and the mechanism by which age-strengthening improves the machinability of gray cast iron. These results were then used to determine whether age strengthening improves the machinability of ductile iron and compacted graphite iron alloys in order to develop a predictive model of alloy factor effects on age strengthening. The results of this work will lead to reduced section sizes, and corresponding weight and energy savings. Improved machinability will reduce scrap and enhance casting marketability. Technical Conclusions: √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę Age strengthening was demonstrated to occur in gray iron ductile iron and compacted graphite iron. √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę Machinability was demonstrated to be improved by age strengthening when free ferrite was present in the microstructure, but not in a fully pearlitic microstructure. √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę Age strengthening only occurs when there is residual nitrogen in solid solution in the Ferrite, whether the ferrite is free ferrite or the ferrite lamellae within pearlite. √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ę Age strengthening can be accelerated by Mn at about 0.5% in excess of the Mn/S balance Estimated energy savings over ten years is 13.05 trillion BTU, based primarily on yield improvement and size reduction of castings for equivalent service. Also it is estimated that the heavy truck end use of lighter castings for equivalent service requirement will result in a diesel fuel energy savings of 131 trillion BTU over ten years.

  12. Field measurements of lateral earth pressures on a pre-cast panel retaining wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prescott, David Monroe

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    t Member August 1973 ABSTRACT FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURES ON A PRE-CAST PANEL RETAINING WALL. (AUGUST 1973) David Monroe Prescott, B. S. , Texas A&M University; Directed by: Dr. Harry M. Coyle Terra Tec pneumatic earth pressure... Typical Calibration Curve for Terra Tec Cell 10 15 6 Typical Field Relationsihp Between Zero Gage Reading and Temperature-Pressure Cell 7 Measured Pressure Versus Time, Upper Row of Cells . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . . . . 16 19 8 Measured...

  13. Nonaqueous composition for slip casting or cold forming refractory material into solid shapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, L.C.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition is described for slip casting or cold forming non-oxide refractory material(s) into solid shape comprising finely divided solid refractory materials selected from the group consisting of metal boride, refractory carbide, nitride, silicide and a refractory metal of tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum and chromium suspended in a nonaqueous liquid slip composition consisting essentially of a deflocculent composed of a vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate resin dissolved in an organic solvent.

  14. ITP Metal Casting: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Metal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009casting Industry |

  15. Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the U.S. Department of Energy's Albany Research Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we will discuss some of the early pioneering work as well as some of our more recent research. The Albany Research Center (ARC) has been involved with the melting and processing of metals since it was established in 1942. In the early days, hardly anything was known about melting refractory or reactive metals and as such, virtually everything had to be developed in-house. Besides the more common induction heated air-melt furnaces, ARC has built and/or utilized a wide variety of furnaces including vacuum arc remelt ingot and casting furnaces, cold wall induction furnaces, electric arc furnaces, cupola furnaces and reverberatory furnaces. The melt size of these furnaces range from several grams to a ton or more. We have used these furnaces to formulate custom alloys for wrought applications as well as for such casting techniques as spin casting, investment casting and lost foam casting among many. Two early spin-off industrializations were Wah Chang (wrought zirconium alloys for military and commercial nuclear applications) and Oremet (both wrought and cast Ti). Both of these companies are now part of the ATI Allegheny Ludlum Corporation.

  16. High-Temperature Performance of Cast CF8C-Plus Austenitic Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covers and casings of small to medium size gas turbines can be made from cast austenitic stainless steels, including grades such as CF8C, CF3M, or CF10M. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Caterpillar have developed a new cast austenitic stainless steel, CF8C-Plus, which is a fully austenitic stainless steel, based on additions of Mn and N to the standard Nb-stabilized CF8C steel grade. The Mn addition improves castability, as well as increases the alloy solubility for N, and both Mn and N synergistically act to boost mechanical properties. CF8C-Plus steel has outstanding creep-resistance at 600-900 C, which compares well with Ni-based superalloys such as alloys X, 625, 617, and 230. CF8C-Plus also has very good fatigue and thermal fatigue resistance. It is used in the as-cast condition, with no additional heat-treatments. While commercial success for CF8C-Plus has been mainly for diesel exhaust components, this steel can also be considered for gas turbine and microturbine casings. The purposes of this paper are to demonstrate some of the mechanical properties, to update the long-term creep-rupture data, and to present new data on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of these materials, particularly in the presence of water vapor.

  17. Synthesis and casting of a lithium-bismuth compound for an ion-replacement electrorefiner.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDeavitt, S. M.

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The intermetallic compound Li{sub 3}Bi played an integral part in the demonstration of an ion replacement electrorefining method developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The Li{sub 3}Bi compound was generated in a tilt-pour casting furnace using high-purity lithium and bismuth metals as the initial charge. At first, small-scale ({approximately}20 g) experiments were conducted to determine the materials synthesis parameters. In the end, four larger-scale castings (500 g to 1250 g) were completed in a tantalum crucible. The metals were heated slowly to melt the charge, and the formation reaction proceeded vigorously above the melting point of bismuth ({approximately}270 C). For the large-scale melts, the furnace power was temporarily turned off at this point. After several minutes, the tantalum crucible stopped glowing, and the furnace power was turned on. The temperature was then increased to {approximately}1200 C to melt and homogenize the compound, and liquid Li{sub 3}Bi was cast into cold stainless steel molds. Approximately 3.7 kg of Li{sub 3}Bi was generated by this method.

  18. Nonintrusive sensing and control for intelligent processing and design of castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunerth, D.C.; Gray, J.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two technologies, laser ultrasonics (LUT) for detecting inclusions in liquid metals and x-ray stereography (XS) for detecting and locating porosity and inclusions in castings, were evaluated. LUT is a relatively new technology that has the potential to operate in the harsh environment of metal melting, without melt contamination, because of its noncontacting nature. It was shown that LUT can detect and monitor inclusions in liquid metal, but limitations exist that restrict its implementation as well as minimize the advantage gained from its noncontacting nature. In many applications it is acceptable for castings to have a limited amount of inclusions or porosity if these are not in a critical location. XS can determine the physical location of defects and, when integrated into a real-time radiographic system, is useful for quickly evaluating the quality of castings prior to adding value via finish steps. It was demonstrated that XS can achieve a location accuracy of 0.2 mm relative to a part surface and can be configured as an inexpensive add-on to existing real-time systems.

  19. Solar Axion search with Micromegas detectors in the CAST Experiment with $^{3}$He as buffer gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Pascual, Juan Antonio

    Axions are well motivated particles proposed in an extension of the Standard Model (SM) as a solution to the CP problem in strong interactions. On the other hand, there is the category of axion-like particles (ALPs) which appear in diverse extensions of the SM and share the same phenomenology of the axion. Axions and ALPs are hypothetical neutral particles that interact weakly with matter, being candidates to solve the Dark Matter problem. CAST, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope is looking for solar axions since 2003. CAST exploit the helioscope technique using a decommissioned LHC dipole magnet in which solar axions could be reconverted into photons. The magnet is mounted on a movable platform that allows tracking the Sun $\\sim$1.5 hours during sunset and during sunrise. The axion signal would be an excess of X-rays in the detectors located at the magnet bore ends and thus low background detectors are mandatory. Three of the four detectors operating at CAST are of the Micromegas type. The analysis of the data o...

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  1. Method for determining molten metal pool level in twin-belt continuous casting machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Timothy D. (Colchester, VT); Daniel, Sabah S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Dykes, Charles D. (Milton, VT)

    1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining level of molten metal in the input of a continuous metal casting machine having at least one endless, flexible, revolving casting belt with a surface which engages the molten metal to be cast and a reverse, cooled surface along which is directed high velocity liquid coolant includes the steps of predetermining the desired range of positions of the molten metal pool and positioning at least seven heat-sensing transducers in bearing contact with the moving reverse belt surface and spaced in upstream-downstream relationship relative to belt travel spanning the desired pool levels. A predetermined temperature threshold is set, somewhat above coolant temperature and the output signals of the transducer sensors are scanned regarding their output signals indicative of temperatures of the moving reverse belt surface. Position of the molten pool is determined using temperature interpolation between any successive pair of upstream-downstream spaced sensors, which follows confirmation that two succeeding downstream sensors are at temperature levels exceeding threshold temperature. The method accordingly provides high resolution for determining pool position, and verifies the determined position by utilizing full-strength signals from two succeeding downstream sensors. In addition, dual sensors are used at each position spanning the desired range of molten metal pool levels to provide redundancy, wherein only the higher temperature of each pair of sensors at a station is utilized.

  2. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mercier, Theresa M.; Russell, Renee L.; Cozzi, Alex; Daniel, William E.; Eibling, Russell E.; Hansen, E. K.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energyís (DOEís) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. The PA is needed to satisfy both Washington State IDF Permit and DOE Order requirements. Cast Stone has been selected for solidification of radioactive wastes including WTP aqueous secondary wastes treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. A similar waste form called Saltstone is used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to solidify its LAW tank wastes.

  3. This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working in language tutor-ing. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in cultural-related areas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working in language tutor- ing. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in cultural://www.guts.wisc.edu/programs/fll_tutor_info.html Want to meet new people interested in your language, develop cross-cultural communication skills, have

  4. Estimation of fracture toughness of cast stainless steels during thermal aging in LWR systems-revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O.K

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a revision of the procedure and correlations presented earlier in NUREG/CR-4513, ANL-90/42 (June 1991) for predicting the change in mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components due to thermal aging during service in light water reactors at 280-330{degrees}C (535-625{degrees}F). The correlations presented in this report are based on an expanded data base and have been optimized with mechanical-property data on cast stainless steels aged up to {approx}58,000 h at 290-350{degrees}C (554-633{degrees}F). The fracture toughness J-R curve, tensile stress, and Charpy-impact energy of aged cast stainless steels are estimated from known material information. Mechanical properties of a specific cast stainless steel are estimated from the extent and kinetics of thermal embrittlement. Embrittlement of cast stainless steels is characterized in terms of room-temperature Charpy-impact energy. Charpy-impact energy as a function of time and temperature of reactor service is estimated from the kinetics of thermal embrittlement, which are also determined from the chemical composition. The initial impact energy of the unaged steel is required for these estimations. Initial tensile flow stress is needed for estimating the flow stress of the aged material. The fracture toughness J-R curve for the material is then obtained by correlating room-temperature Charpy-impact energy with fracture toughness parameters. The values of J{sub IC} are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. A common {open_quotes}predicted lower-bound{close_quotes} J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, range of ferrite content, and temperature. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented.

  5. pn-CCDs in a Low-Background Environment: Detector Background of the CAST X-ray Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kuster; S. Cebrian; A. Rodriquez; R. Kotthaus; H. Braeuninger; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; D. Kang; G. Lutz; L. Strueder

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The CAST experiment at CERN (European Organization of Nuclear Research) searches for axions from the sun. The axion is a pseudoscalar particle that was motivated by theory thirty years ago, with the intention to solve the strong CP problem. Together with the neutralino, the axion is one of the most promising dark matter candidates. The CAST experiment has been taking data during the last two years, setting an upper limit on the coupling of axions to photons more restrictive than from any other solar axion search in the mass range below 0.1 eV. In 2005 CAST will enter a new experimental phase extending the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axion masses. The CAST experiment strongly profits from technology developed for high energy physics and for X-ray astronomy: A superconducting prototype LHC magnet is used to convert potential axions to detectable X-rays in the 1-10 keV range via the inverse Primakoff effect. The most sensitive detector system of CAST is a spin-off from space technology, a Wolter I type X-ray optics in combination with a prototype pn-CCD developed for ESA's XMM-Newton mission. As in other rare event searches, background suppression and a thorough shielding concept is essential to improve the sensitivity of the experiment to the best possible. In this context CAST offers the opportunity to study the background of pn-CCDs and its long term behavior in a terrestrial environment with possible implications for future space applications. We will present a systematic study of the detector background of the pn-CCD of CAST based on the data acquired since 2002 including preliminary results of our background simulations.

  6. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy SMARRT): Manufacturing Advanced Engineered Components Using Lost Foam Casting Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry Littleton; John Griffin

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was a subtask of Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?Energy SMARRT√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬Ě) Program. Through this project, technologies, such as computer modeling, pattern quality control, casting quality control and marketing tools, were developed to advance the Lost Foam Casting process application and provide greater energy savings. These technologies have improved (1) production efficiency, (2) mechanical properties, and (3) marketability of lost foam castings. All three reduce energy consumption in the metals casting industry. This report summarizes the work done on all tasks in the period of January 1, 2004 through June 30, 2011. Current (2011) annual energy saving estimates based on commercial introduction in 2011 and a market penetration of 97% by 2020 is 5.02 trillion BTU√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?s/year and 6.46 trillion BTU√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?s/year with 100% market penetration by 2023. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.03 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  7. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  8. Results and perspectives of the solar axion search with the CAST experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Ferrer-Ribas; M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; S. Borghi; H. Bršuninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; C. Ezer; G. Fanourakis; P. Friedrich; J. GalŠn; J. A. GarcŪa; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gůmez; E. Gruber; T. GuthŲrl; R. Hartmann; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakov\\vci?; M. Karuza; K. KŲnigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Kr?mar; M. Kuster; B. Laki?; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubi?i?; V. Lozza; G. Lutz; G. Luzůn; J. Morales; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt; T. Rashba; H. Riege; A. RodrŪguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; P. S. Silva; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. TomŠs; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The status of the solar axion search with the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) will be presented. Recent results obtained by the use of $^3$He as a buffer gas has allowed us to extend our sensitivity to higher axion masses than our previous measurements with $^4$He. With about 1 h of data taking at each of 252 different pressure settings we have scanned the axion mass range 0.39 eV$ \\le m_{a} \\le $ 0.64 eV. From the absence of an excess of x rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g$_{a\\gamma} \\le 2.3\\times 10^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% C.L., the exact value depending on the pressure setting. CAST published results represent the best experimental limit on the photon couplings to axions and other similar exotic particles dubbed WISPs (Weakly Interacting Slim Particles) in the considered mass range and for the first time the limit enters the region favored by QCD axion models. Preliminary sensitivities for axion masses up to 1.16 eV will also be shown reaching mean upper limits on the axion-photon coupling of g$_{a\\gamma} \\le 3.5\\times 10^{-10}$ GeV$^{-1}$ at 95% C.L. Expected sensibilities for the extension of the CAST program up to 2014 will be presented. Moreover long term options for a new helioscope experiment will be evoked.

  9. Fracture toughness studies of gray and ductile cast irons using a J-integral approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, Donna Lynne Woodall

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    function of distance (x) from the crack tip. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. K as a function of specimen c thickness (tl t2) Fracture toughness (KI ) as a Ic function of temperature (T) . . . Fracture toughness (KI ) as a Ic function of strain rate...-scatter image of the 80-60-03 nodular cast iron (etched) at 2000X magnification showing a nodule without the ferrite surrounding it. . 72 XV NOMENCLATURE a o ba G K K c Ic KO P P5 PO area under the load-displacement curve crack length initial...

  10. Casting of Devotional Images in the Himalayas: History, Tradition and Modern Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bue, Erberto Lo

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -,ic cr'Jcible 20 C'II high and 16 cn in external dia~eter. These crucib:es are imported from India a~d are used especially for casting copper. Firing the mould and melting the copper 5.40 p.m. The fire in t!1e kiln is reactlvated .... ith paper, dry... imported from China to ~epal in the 18th century) partially destroys the gilding, but gives the efrect of mild corrosion which successfully dupes ma~y'buyers of Tibetan and Himalayan a~tique5. Finally vermilion and other ritual substances may be smeared...

  11. On search for eV hidden sector photons in Super-Kamiokande and CAST experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergei Gninenko; Javier Redondo

    2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    If light hidden sector photons exist, they could be produced through kinetic mixing with solar photons in the eV energy range. We propose to search for this hypothetical hidden photon flux with the Super-Kamiokande and/or upgraded CAST detectors. The proposed experiments are sensitive to mixing strengths as small as 10^-9 for hidden photon masses in the sub eV region and, in the case of non-observation, would improve limits recently obtained from photon regeneration laser experiments in this mass region.

  12. Fracture toughness studies of gray and ductile cast irons using a J-integral approach†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floyd, Donna Lynne Woodall

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and silicon in which more carbon is present than can be retained in solid solution in austenite at the eutectic temperature. In gray cast iron, the iron and carbon solidify as a eutectic structure whose two phases are graphite and iron. Gray iron usually... contains from 1. 7 to 4. 5% carbon and 1 to 3% silicon. 27 The normal microstructure of gray iron is a matrix of pearlite (ferrite and cementite) with the graphite flakes dispersed throughout. Among the properties that the flake graphite 28 in gray...

  13. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup ?} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup ?}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The Cr oxidation front (depth to which soluble Cr was detected) for the Cast Stone sample exposed for 68 days to ambient outdoor temperatures and humid air (total age of sample was 131 days) was determined to be about 35 mm below the top sample surface exposed. The Tc oxidation front, depth at which Tc was insoluble, was not determined. Interpretation of the results indicates that the oxidation front is at least 38 mm below the exposed surface. The sample used for this measurement was exposed to ambient laboratory conditions and humid air for 50 days. The total age of the sample was 98 days. Technetium appears to be more easily oxidized than Cr in the Cast Stone matrix. The oxidized forms of Tc and Cr are soluble and therefore leachable. Longer exposure times are required for both the Cr and Tc spiked samples to better interpret the rate of oxidation. Tc spiked subsamples need to be taken further from the exposed surface to better define and interpret the leachable Tc profile. Finally Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV) appears to occur relatively fast. Results demonstrated that about 95 percent of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) during the setting and very early stage setting for a Cast Stone sample cured 10 days. Additional testing at longer curing times is required to determine whether additional time is required to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII) in Cast Stone or whether the Tc loading exceeded the ability of the waste form to reduce 100 % of the Tc(VII). Additional testing is required for samples cured for longer times. Depth discrete subsampling in a nitrogen glove box is also required to determine whether the 5 percent Tc extracted from the subsamples was the result of the sampling process which took place in air. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method) performed on depth discrete samples could not be correlated with the amount of chromium or technetium leached from the depth discrete subsamples or with the oxidation front inferred from soluble chromium and technetium (i.e., effective Cr and Tc oxidation fronts). Residual reduction capacity

  14. Development of Integrated Die Casting Process for Large Thin-Wall Magnesium Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S H IMaterialsDepartment of EnergyDie Casting

  15. ITP Metal Casting: Theoretical/Best Practice Energy Use in Metalcasting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009castingOperations

  16. Important notIce aBoUt yoUr rIghts Under the followIng colUmBIa UnIversIty retIrement plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    Important notIce aBoUt yoUr rIghts Under the followIng colUmBIa UnIversIty retIrement plans: ·ColumbiaUniversityRetirementPlanforOfficers ·ColumbiaUniversityRetirementPlanforSupportStaff ·ColumbiaUniversityRetirementPlanforSupportStaffAssociation ·ColumbiaUniversityVoluntaryRetirementSavingsPlan(VRSP) Human Resources Retirement Benefits

  17. An evaluation of direct pressure sensors for monitoring the aluminum die casting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted as part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project Die Cavity Instrumentation. One objective of that project was to evaluate thermal, pressure, and gas flow process monitoring sensors in or near the die cavity as a means of securing improved process monitoring and control and better resultant part quality. The objectives of this thesis are to (1) evaluate a direct cavity pressure sensor in a controlled production campaign at the GM Casting Advanced Development Center (CADC) at Bedford, Indiana; and (2) develop correlations between sensor responses and product quality in terms of the casting weight, volume, and density. A direct quartz-based pressure sensor developed and marked by Kistler Instrument Corp. was acquired for evaluating as an in-cavity liquid metal pressure sensor. This pressure sensor is designed for use up to 700 C and 2,000 bars (29,000 psi). It has a pressure overload capacity up to 2,500 bars (36,250 psi).

  18. Search for Solar Axions with the CCD Detector and X-ray Telescope at CAST Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosu, Madalin Mihai; Zioutas, Konstantin

    2015-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) is an experiment that uses the worldís highest sensitivity Helioscope to date for solar Axions searches. Axions are weakly interacting pseudoscalar particles proposed to solve the so-called Strong Charge-Parity Problem of the Standard Model. The principle of detection is the inverse Primakoff Effect, which is a mechanism for converting the Axions into easily detectable X-ray photons in a strong transverse magnetic field. The solar Axions are produced due to the Primakoff effect in the hot and dense core of from the coupling of a real and a virtual photon. The solar models predict a peak Axion luminosity at an energy of 3 keV originating mostly from the inner 20% of the solar radius. Thus an intensity peak at an energy of 3 keV is also expected in the case of the X-ray radiation resulting from Axion conversion. CAST uses a high precision movement system for tracking the Sun twice a day with a LHC dipole twin aperture prototype magnet, 9.26 meters long and with a field of...

  19. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  20. The mechanical response of a uranium-nobium alloy: a comparison of cast versus wrought processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cady, Carl M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T., III [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aikin, Robert M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Shuh - Rong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Mike F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korzekwa, Deniece R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kelly, Ann M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigorous experimentation and validation program is being undertaken to create constitutive models that elucidate the fundamental mechanisms controlling plasticity in uranium-6 wt.% niobium alloys (U-6Nb). The first, 'wrought', material produced by processing a cast ingot I'ia forging and forming into plate was studied. The second material investigated is a direct cast U-6Nb alloy. The purpose of the investigation is to detennine the principal differences, or more importantly, similarities, between the two materials due to processing. It is well known that parameters like grain size, impurity size and chemistry affect the deformation and failure characteristics of materials. Metallography conducted on these materials revealed that the microstructures are quite different. Characterization techniques like tension, compression, and shear were performed to find the principal differences between the materials as a function of stress state. Dynamic characterization using a split Hopkinson pressure bar in conjunction with Taylor impact testing was conducted to derive and thereafter validate constitutive material models. The Mechanical Threshold Strength Model is shown to accurately capture the constitutive response of these materials and Taylor cylinder tests are used to provide a robust way to verify and validate the constitutive model predictions of deformation by comparing finite element simulations with the experimental results. The primary differences between the materials will be described and predictions about material behavior will be made.

  1. Final Report, Volume 3, Guidance Document for the Evaluation of Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 3 is comprised of the Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (A890-5A) which is equivalent to wrought 2507. The objective of this work was to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). The various tests which were carried out were ASTM A923 Test Method A, B and C (Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test, Charpy Impact Test and Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test), ferrite measurement using Feritscope√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬ģ, ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method and X-Ray Diffraction, hardness measurement using Rockwell B and C and microstructural analysis using SEM and EDS.

  2. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trudel, David R. (Westlake, OH); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Arnaud, Guy (Morin Heights, CA); Bigler, Nicolas (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The filtering molten metal injector system includes a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and at least one molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the casting mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The molten metal injector projects into the holder furnace. The molten metal injector includes a cylinder defining a piston cavity housing a reciprocating piston for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace to the mold cavity. The cylinder and piston are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder or the piston includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity when the holder furnace contains molten metal. A conduit connects the piston cavity to the mold cavity. A molten metal filter is located in the conduit for filtering the molten metal passing through the conduit during the reciprocating movement of the piston. The molten metal intake may be a valve connected to the cylinder, a gap formed between the piston and an open end of the cylinder, an aperture defined in the sidewall of the cylinder, or a ball check valve incorporated into the piston. A second molten metal filter preferably covers the molten metal intake to the injector.

  3. A survey of foundries that cast red brass products to ascertain an effective pouring rate of molten metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom, Ronald Kee

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A SURVEY OF FOUNDRIES THAT CAST RED BRASS PRODUCTS TO ASCERTAIN AN EFPECTIVE POURING RATE OF MOLTEN METAL A Thesis by RONALD KEE TOM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Major Subject: Industrial Technology A SURVEY OF FOUNDRIES THAT CAST RED BRASS PRODUCTS TO ASCERTAIN AN EFFECTIVE POURING RATE OF MOLTEN METAL A Thesis by RONALD KEE TOM Approved as to style and content by...

  4. Tel: +44 (0) 1603 591574 Email: business@uea.ac.uk Web: www.uea.ac.uk/business Gender, caste and growth assessment in India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    is to change, gender relations have to be accounted for in growth policy and practice. In India, where caste Gender, caste and growth assessment in India Women in many countries don't tend to contribute to will experience different opportunities and benefits from those belonging to others. In 2006 the India country

  5. Brimacombe Memorial Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, October 1-4, 2000, Met Soc., CIM, pp. 595-611. Analysis of the Potential Productivity of Continuous Cast Molds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    to be on the order of 3 mm for most grades and casting conditions. The models are then applied to predict maximum to casting speed are predicted to be extremely high, exceeding 21 m/min for a conventional 800-mm long, 200 and liquid flux lubrication. This work suggests that if shortening mold length can solve lubrication, taper

  6. Estimation of Food Consumption fr om Pellets Cast by Captive Ural Owls ( Strix uralensis ) Aki Higuchi and Manabu T . Abe1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    551 Estimation of Food Consumption fr om Pellets Cast by Captive Ural Owls ( Strix uralensis ) Aki of the Ural Owl ( Strix uralensis) based on pellet analysis. Though it is possible to identify pr ey items- tat and manage for this species. In this study, ingested food and cast pellet mass were quantified

  7. Systematic Microstructural and Corrosion Performance Evaluation of CK-3MCuN and CN-3MN High Molybdenum Stainless Steel Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.D. Lundin; S. Wen; W. Liu; G. Zhou

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are widely accepted for their high strength, excellent weldability, and good corrosion resistance over a wide range of temperatures in highly oxidizing aqueous and gaseous media in chemical processing and other environments. With their desirable performance, high molybdenum austenitic stainless steel castings are increasingly applied in industry in a similar manner as wrought materials. In general, cast and wrought stainless and high alloy steels are anticipated to possess equivalent resistance to corrosive media, and they are frequently used in conjunction with each other. However, alloying element segregation usually is more evident in castings than in wrought counterparts. Segregation of alloying elements can lead to the formation of secondary phases, such as sigma. Mechanical properties and especially the corrosion resistance of castings may be affected by the secondary phases. In addition, improper heat treatment procedures c an also lead to the formation of carbides and secondary phases in high alloy and austenitic stainless steels.

  8. Report of Separate Effects Testing for Modeling of Metallic Fuel Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Decroix, David S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korzekwa, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aikin, Robert M. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fielding, R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Kennedy, R [Idaho National Laboratory

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to give guidance regarding the best investment of time and effort in experimental determination of parameters defining the casting process, a Flow-3D model of the casting process was used to investigate the most influential parameters regarding void fraction of the solidified rods and solidification speed for fluid flow parameters, liquid heat transfer parameters, and solid heat transfer parameters. Table 1 summarizes the most significant variables for each of the situations studied. A primary, secondary, and tertiary effect is provided for fluid flow parameters (impacts void fraction) and liquid heat transfer parameters (impacts solidification). In Table 1, the wetting angle represents the angle between the liquid and mold surface as pictured in Figure 1. The viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid and the surface tension is the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. When only considering solid heat transfer properties, the variations from case to case were very small. Details on this conclusion are provided in the section considering solid heat transfer properties. The primary recommendation of the study is to measure the fluid flow parameters, specifically the wetting angle, surface tension, and dynamic viscosity, in order of importance, as well as the heat transfer parameters latent heat and specific heat of the liquid alloy. The wetting angle and surface tension can be measured simultaneously using the sessile drop method. It is unclear whether there is a temperature dependency in these properties. Thus measurements for all three parameters are requested at 1340, 1420, and 1500 degrees Celsius, which correspond to the minimum, middle, and maximum temperatures of the liquid alloy during the process. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient between the mold and liquid metal, the latent heat of transformation, and the specific heat of the liquid metal all have strong influences on solidification. These parameters should be measured to achieve better simulation fidelity. Information on all the mentioned parameters is virtually nonexistent. Presently, all the parameters within the casting model are estimates based on pure U, or another alloy such as U-Ni.

  9. Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Tape-casting Ceramic Structure Yuya HORII, Yuji SUZUKI, and Nobuhide KASAGI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Development of Micro Catalytic Combustor Using Tape-casting Ceramic Structure Yuya HORII, Yuji through anodic oxidation of thermally-evaporated aluminum is employed for the catalyst support. A ceramic combustor with a 3-D manifold is made using high-precision tape-catsing method, and Pt/Al2 O3 catalyst layer

  10. Dynamic daylight control system implementing thin cast arrays of polydimethylsiloxane-based millimeter-scale transparent louvers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    Dynamic daylight control system implementing thin cast arrays of polydimethylsiloxane: Daylight control system Dynamic window system Energy-efficiency Transparent louvers a b s t r a c in standard office buildings. The development of daylight control systems that maximize the penetration

  11. Journal of Crystal Growth 287 (2006) 402407 Transition metals in photovoltaic-grade ingot-cast multicrystalline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    silicon (mc-Si) ingot casting for cost-effective solar cell wafer production. Highly sensitive to reduce metal contamination levels in mc-Si solar cells. In this manuscript, we assess the contamination-mail address: istratov@berkeley.edu (A.A. Istratov). #12;over 50% of solar cells worldwide). This source

  12. Tape Casting of Proton Conducting Ceramic Material RMI COSTA, JULIEN HAFSAOUI, ANA PAULA ALMEIDA DE OLIVEIRA, ARNAUD GROSJEAN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Introduction Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are promising power generating systems which are currently based to the shaping of YSZ-based SOFC: however, water-based tape casting of BCY10 appeared to be impracticable : 10.1007/s10800-008-9671-7 #12;2 temperature of YSZ-based SOFC is usually high (> 900 įC) in order

  13. Modeling Transient Slag-Layer Phenomena in the Shell/mold Gap in Continuous Casting of Steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Brian G.

    with oil lubrication, powder(/slag) lubrication leads to more uniform and usually lower heat transfer.[5-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams, the models are applied to study the effect of casting speed and mold-powder viscosity. The study finds that liquid-slag lubrication would produce negligible stresses. A lower mold

  14. Supplemental Immobilization Cast Stone Technology Development and Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Pierce, Eric M.; Cozzi, Alex; Chung, Chul-Woo; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment facility will have the capacity to separate all of the tank wastes into the HLW and LAW fractions, and the HLW Vitrification Facility will have the capacity to vitrify all of the HLW. However, a second immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A number of alternatives, including Cast Stoneóa cementitious waste formóare being considered to provide the additional LAW immobilization capacity.

  15. Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

  16. A comparison of the toughness of ductile iron to cast steel using modified charpy test specimens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, Keith Elison

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transition temperature exhibited by cast steel was surprising since these materials had 48 CA + I th + 0 s V) Cg Z CA I I Ci 0 ID ID z I CL o o C 0 lA I Ql P 0 a E EU pQ 0 I- IA (U I ID IA I I CD ( UIIU/P) NAOU3 'UIJON 49 V...) ( + V) V) Z I CI CQ Vl ( ICI CD CD El O CI Cl CD ! + + 8 CD O LA IJ III ( CL PJ m CD IA ( I((i((yP) At(Je((3 . u(JON 50 Ch X I VJ I Z V ) + L In 8 I LIJ In + r L 0 CU 0 ~O N In I o In It WIIIyf'j /5aaug 'm&ON Z...

  17. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I [Greensburg, PA

    2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  18. Cast, heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels having reduced alloying element content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Pankiw, Roman I. (Greensburg, PA) [Greensburg, PA

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A cast, austenitic steel composed essentially of, expressed in weight percent of the total composition, about 0.4 to about 0.7 C, about 20 to about 30 Cr, about 20 to about 30 Ni, about 0.5 to about 1 Mn, about 0.6 to about 2 Si, about 0.05 to about 1 Nb, about 0.05 to about 1 W, about 0.05 to about 1.0 Mo, balance Fe, the steel being essentially free of Ti and Co, the steel characterized by at least one microstructural component selected from the group consisting of MC, M.sub.23C.sub.6, and M(C, N).

  19. Prevention of Porosity Formation and Other Effects of Gaseous Elements in Iron Castings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albany Research Center

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron foundries have observed porosity primarily as interdendritic porosity in large freezing range alloys such as Ni-Hard I and hypoeutectic high Cr alloys or pinholes and fissure defects in gray and ductile irons. For most iron foundries, porosity problems occur sporadically, but even occasional outbreaks can be costly since even a very small amount of porosity can significantly reduce the mechanical properties of the castings. As a result when porosity is detected, the castings are scrapped and remelted, or when the porosity is undetected, defective parts are shipped to the consumer. Neither case is desirable. This project was designed to examine various factors contributing to the porosity formation in iron castings. Factors such as solubility of gases in liquid and solid iron alloys, surface tension of liquid iron alloys, and permeability of dendritic structures were investigated in terms of their effect on the porosity formation. A method was developed to predict how much nitrogen the molten alloy picks up from air after a given amount of holding time for a given melting practice. It was shown that small batches of iron melts in an induction furnace can end up with very high concentration of nitrogen (near solubility limit). Surface tension of liquid iron alloys was measured as a function of temperature. Effect of minor additions of S, Ti, and Al on the surface tension of liquid iron alloys was investigated. Up to 18% change in surface tension was detected by minor element additions. This translates to the same amount of change in gas pressure required in a bubble of a given size to keep the bubble stable. A new method was developed to measure the permeability of dendritic structures in situ. The innovative aspect of these experiments, with respect to previous interdendritic permeability measurements, was the fact that the dendritic structure was allowed to form in situ and was not cooled and re-heated for permeability tests. A permeability model was developed and tested using the results of the permeability experiments. The permeability model for flow parallel to the columnar dendrites predicted the experimental permeability results closely when the liquid volume fraction data from equilibrium calculations were used. The permeability gradient model was constructed in order to test the impact of interdendritic channel constriction on the flow of liquid through the mushy zone of a casting. The model examines two different regimes: (i) Dendritic solidification regime where the permeability is dominated by changes in liquid volume fraction and dendrite arm spacing, and (ii) Eutectic solidification regime where the permeability is dominated by changes in viscosity of eutectic mixture. It is assumed that the eutectic mixture behaves like a slurry whose viscosity increases with increasing solid fraction. It is envisioned that this model can be developed into a tool that can be very useful for metal casters.

  20. Age hardening and creep resistance of cast AlĖCu alloy modified by praseodymium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Zhihao; Qiu, Feng; Wu, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yingying; Jiang, Qichuan, E-mail: jqc@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of praseodymium on age hardening behavior and creep resistance of cast AlĖCu alloy were investigated. The results indicated that praseodymium facilitated the formation of the ?? precipitates during the age process and improved the hardness of the AlĖCu alloy. Besides, praseodymium resulted in the formation of the Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase in the grain boundaries and among the dendrites of the modified alloy. Because of the good thermal stability of Al{sub 11}Pr{sub 3} phase, it inhibits grain boundary migration and dislocation movement during the creep process, which contributes to the improvement in the creep resistance of the modified alloy at elevated temperatures. - Highlights: ē Pr addition enhances the hardness and creep resistance of the AlĖCu alloy. ē Pr addition facilitates the formation of the ?? precipitates. ē Pr addition results in the formation of the Al11Pr3 phase in the AlĖCu alloy.

  1. CAST solar axion search with 3^He buffer gas: Closing the hot dark matter gap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Arik; S. Aune; K. Barth; A. Belov; S. Borghi; H. Brauninger; G. Cantatore; J. M. Carmona; S. A. Cetin; J. I. Collar; E. Da Riva; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; C. Eleftheriadis; N. Elias; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer-Ribas; P. Friedrich; J. Galan; J. A. Garcia; A. Gardikiotis; J. G. Garza; E. N. Gazis; T. Geralis; E. Georgiopoulou; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gomez; M. Gomez Marzoa; E. Gruber; T. Guthorl; R. Hartmann; S. Hauf; F. Haug; M. D. Hasinoff; D. H. H. Hoffmann; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakovcic; M. Karuza; K. Konigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Krcmar; M. Kuster; B. Lakic; P. M. Lang; J. M. Laurent; A. Liolios; A. Ljubicic; V. Lozza; G. Luzon; S. Neff; T. Niinikoski; A. Nordt; T. Papaevangelou; M. J. Pivovaroff; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodriguez; M. Rosu; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; I. Shilon; P. S. Silva; S. K. Solanki; L. Stewart; A. Tomas; M. Tsagri; K. van Bibber; T. Vafeiadis; J. Villar; J. K. Vogel; S. C. Yildiz; K. Zioutas

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has finished its search for solar axions with 3^He buffer gas, covering the search range 0.64 eV < m_a <1.17 eV. This closes the gap to the cosmological hot dark matter limit and actually overlaps with it. From the absence of excess X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun we set a typical upper limit on the axion-photon coupling of g_ag < 3.3 x 10^{-10} GeV^{-1} at 95% CL, with the exact value depending on the pressure setting. Future direct solar axion searches will focus on increasing the sensitivity to smaller values of g_a, for example by the currently discussed next generation helioscope IAXO.

  2. Method and apparatus for separating continuous cast strip from a rotating substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Edward L. (Trenton, OH); Follstaedt, Donald W. (Middletown, OH); Sussman, Richard C. (West Chester, OH)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continuous casting of strip, ribbon and wire is improved by using a free jet nozzle which provides a fluid that follows a rotating substrate surface to the separation point. The nozzle includes an inclined surface having a ratio of its length to the gap between the substrate and the nozzle edge of 5:1 to 15:1. The inclined surface improves the ability of the jet to tangentially follow the substrate in a direction opposite to its rotation to the separation point. This also allows a close positioning of the nozzle to the substrate which serves to provide a back-up mechanical separation means by using the edge of nozzle lip. The nozzle may be rotated from its operating position for cleaning of the substrate and the nozzle.

  3. CLEAN CAST STEEL TECHNOLOGY: DETERMINATION OF TRANSFORMATION DIAGRAMS FOR DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chumbley. L., S.

    2005-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) constitute both ferrite and austenite as a matrix. Such a microstructure confers a high corrosion resistance with favorable mechanical properties. However, intermetallic phases such as sigma (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥) and chi (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬£) can also form during casting or high-temperature processing and can degrade the properties of the DSS. This research was initiated to develop time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling- transformation (CCT) diagrams of two types of cast duplex stainless steels, CD3MN (Fe 22Cr-5Ni-Mo-N) and CD3MWCuN (Fe-25Cr-7Ni-Mo-W-Cu-N), in order to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formation. The alloys were heat treated isothermally or under controlled cooling conditions and then characterized using conventional metallographic methods that included tint etching, and also using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (WDS). The kinetics of intermetallic-phase (√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥ + √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬£) formation were analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) equation in the case of isothermal transformations and a modified form of this equation in the case of continuous cooling transformations, The rate of intermetallic-phase formation was found to be much faster in CD3MWCuN than CD3MN due mainly to differences in the major alloying contents such as Cr, Ni and Mo. To examine in more detail the effects of these elements of the phase stabilities, a series of eight steel castings was designed with the Cr, Ni and Mo contents systematically varied with respect to the nominal composition of CD3MN. The effects of varying the contents of alloying additions on the formation of intermetallic phases were also studied computationally using the commercial thermodynamic software package, Thermo-Calc. In general, √?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Į√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ā√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬≥ was stabilized with increasing Cr addition and by increasing Mo addition. However, a delicate balance among Ni and other minor elements such as N and Si also exists. Phase equilibria in DSS can be affected by local composition fluctuations in the cast alloy. This may cause discrepancy between thermodynamic prediction and experimental observation.

  4. Properties of cast CF-8 stainless-steel weldments at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, J.G.Y.; Klamut, C.J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISABELLE is a 400 x 400 GeV proton-proton colliding beam accelerator now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The beams will be guided and focused by superconducting magnets. A total of 722 dipole beam bending magnets and 280 quadrupole beam focusing magnets are required. Centrifugally cast CF-8 stainless steel tubes were selected to provide a rigid support and to house the superconducting magnet assembly. The selection of this material for the support tubes is discussed by Dew-Hughes and Lee. Their study indicates that the presence of delta ferrite strengthens the material but causes a decrease in ductility if the ferrite content is greater than 10%. Brown and Tobler found that the fracture toughness is also decreased as the delta ferrite content is increased.

  5. Microstructure, microstructural stability and mechanical properties of sand-cast MgĖ4AlĖ4RE alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rzycho?, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.rzychon@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Krasi?skiego 8, 40 019 Katowice (Poland); Kie?bus, Andrzej [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Krasi?skiego 8, 40 019 Katowice (Poland); Lity?ska-Dobrzy?ska, Lidia [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta Street, 30-059 Krakůw (Poland)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a methodology for assessing the phase composition and the results of structural stability tests of the sand-cast MgĖ4AlĖ4RE alloy after annealing it at 175 and 250 įC for 3000 h. The microstructure was analyzed with optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The phase composition was determined with X-ray diffraction. The structure of the MgĖ4AlĖ4RE (AE44) alloy is composed of large grains of ?-Mg solid solution, needle-shaped precipitates of the Al{sub 11}RE{sub 3}phase, polyhedral precipitates of the Al{sub 2}RE phase and Al{sub 10}RE{sub 2}Mn{sub 7} phase. After annealing at 175 įC for 3000 h, no changes in the alloy structure are observed, whereas after annealing at 250 įC the precipitates of the Al{sub 11}RE{sub 3} phase are found to be in the initial stages of spheroidization. The coarse-grained structure and unfavorable morphology of the intermetallic phases in the sand-cast AE44 alloy, which are caused by low solidification rates, result in low creep resistance up to 200 įC and low mechanical properties at ambient temperature and at 175 įC. - Highlights: ē Complement the knowledge about the microstructure of Mg-Al-RE alloys. ē Clarify the mechanism of formation of Mg17Al12 phase above 180 įC. ē Applying a chemical dissolution of the ?-Mg in order to phase identification. ē Applying a statistical test to assess the spheroidization of precipitates. ē Quantitative description of microstructure of Mg-Al-RE alloys.

  6. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Lost Foam Thin Wall - Feasibility of Producing Lost Foam Castings in Aluminum and Magnesium Based Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasoyinu, Yemi [CanmetMATERIALS] [CanmetMATERIALS; Griffin, John A. [University of Alabama - Birmingham] [University of Alabama - Birmingham

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, production of near-net shape components by lost foam casting will make significant inroad into the next-generation of engineering component designs. The lost foam casting process is a cost effective method for producing complex castings using an expandable polystyrene pattern and un-bonded sand. The use of un-bonded molding media in the lost foam process will impose less constraint on the solidifying casting, making hot tearing less prevalent. This is especially true in Al-Mg and Al-Cu alloy systems that are prone to hot tearing when poured in rigid molds partially due to their long freezing range. Some of the unique advantages of using the lost foam casting process are closer dimensional tolerance, higher casting yield, and the elimination of sand cores and binders. Most of the aluminum alloys poured using the lost foam process are based on the Al-Si system. Very limited research work has been performed with Al-Mg and Al-Cu type alloys. With the increased emphasis on vehicle weight reduction, and given the high-strength-to-weight-ratio of magnesium, significant weight savings can be achieved by casting thin-wall (? 3 mm) engineering components from both aluminum- and magnesium-base alloys.

  7. Long-Term Oxidation of Candidate Cast Iron and Advanced Austenitic Stainless Steel Exhaust System Alloys from 650-800 C in Air with Water Vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Muralidharan, Govindarajan [ORNL; Leonard, Donovan N [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation behavior of SiMo cast iron, Ni-resist D5S cast iron, cast chromia-forming austenitic stainless steels of varying Cr/Ni content based on CF8C plus, HK, and HP, and a developmental cast alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steel of interest for diesel exhaust system components were studied for up to 5000 h at 650-800 C in air with 10% H2O. At 650 C, the Ni-resist D5S exhibited moderately better oxidation resistance than did the SiMo cast iron. However, the D5S suffered from oxide scale spallation issues at 700 C and higher, whereas the oxide scales formed on SiMo cast iron remained adherent from 700-800 C despite oxide scales hundreds of microns thick. The oxidation of the SiMo cast iron exhibited unusual temperature dependence, with periods of slower oxidation kinetics at 750-800 C compared to 650-700 C due to continuous silica-rich scale formation at the higher temperatures. The oxidation of the cast chromia-forming austenitics trended with the level of Cr and Ni additions, with small mass losses consistent with Cr oxy-hydroxide volatilization processes for the higher 25Cr/25-35Ni HK and HP type alloys, and transition to rapid Fe-base oxide formation and scale spallation in the lower 19Cr/12Ni CF8C plus type alloy. In contrast, small positive mass changes consistent with protective alumina scale formation were observed for the cast AFA alloy under all conditions studied. Implications of these findings for diesel exhaust system components are discussed.

  8. Variation in the sensitivity of organismal body temperature to climate change over local

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilman, Sarah

    climatic factors, including air temperature (Ta), surface temper- ature (Ts), solar radiation, cloud cover and communities (3≠6). Accurately fore- casting the direct physiological effects of temperature change

  9. Multifaced stone and ceramic moulds from Bronze Age Anatolia : building an analytical protocol of mould properties and behavior during the process of metal casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BiÁer, Katherine K. (Katherine Kershen)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three phase analytical protocol is developed to systematize the study of multifaceted serpentinite bronze-casting moulds from Bronze Age Anatolia (ca. 3500-1700 B.C.). These moulds represent a class of metal processing ...

  10. An evaluation of joint repair methods for cast iron natural gas distribution mains and the preliminary development of an alternative joint seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Thomas Edward

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 10 percent of the natural gas pumped into distribution systems is unaccounted for. A significant portion of this amount is leakage from joints in 50 to 100 year old cast iron main. Because of the cumulative ...

  11. Atomistic modeling of nanowires, small-scale fatigue damage in cast magnesium, and materials for MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, Martin L. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Talmage, Mellisa J. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); McDowell, David L., 1956- (,-Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); West, Neil (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Gullett, Philip Michael (Mississippi State University , MS); Miller, David C. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Spark, Kevin (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Diao, Jiankuai (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO); Horstemeyer, Mark F. (Mississippi State University , MS); Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Gall, K (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lightweight and miniaturized weapon systems are driving the use of new materials in design such as microscale materials and ultra low-density metallic materials. Reliable design of future weapon components and systems demands a thorough understanding of the deformation modes in these materials that comprise the components and a robust methodology to predict their performance during service or storage. Traditional continuum models of material deformation and failure are not easily extended to these new materials unless microstructural characteristics are included in the formulation. For example, in LIGA Ni and Al-Si thin films, the physical size is on the order of microns, a scale approaching key microstructural features. For a new potential structural material, cast Mg offers a high stiffness-to-weight ratio, but the microstructural heterogeneity at various scales requires a structure-property continuum model. Processes occurring at the nanoscale and microscale develop certain structures that drive material behavior. The objective of the work presented in this report was to understand material characteristics in relation to mechanical properties at the nanoscale and microscale in these promising new material systems. Research was conducted primarily at the University of Colorado at Boulder to employ tightly coupled experimentation and simulation to study damage at various material size scales under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. Experimental characterization of nano/micro damage will be accomplished by novel techniques such as in-situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), 1 MeV transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). New simulations to support experimental efforts will include modified embedded atom method (MEAM) atomistic simulations at the nanoscale and single crystal micromechanical finite element simulations. This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the LDRD project titled 'Atomistic Modeling of Nanowires, Small-scale Fatigue Damage in Cast Magnesium, and Materials for MEMS'. This project supported a strategic partnership between Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Colorado at Boulder by providing funding for the lead author, Ken Gall, and his students, while he was a member of the University of Colorado faculty.

  12. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific and Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pankiw, Roman I; Muralidharan, G. (Murali); Sikka, Vinod K.

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and the upper use temperature by 86 to 140 degrees fahrenheit (30 to 60 degrees celsius). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 35 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of approximately $230 million/year. The higher-strength H-Series cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat treating industry, including radiant burner tubes. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc., with research participation by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies.

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Improved Die Casting Process to Preserve the Life of the Inserts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam, PI; Xuejun Zhu, Sr. Research Associate

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project was to study the combined effects of die design, proper internal cooling and efficient die lubricants on die life. The project targeted improvements in die casting insert life by: Optomized Die Design for Reduced Surface Temperature: The life of die casting dies is significantly shorter when the die is exposed to elevated temperature for significant periods of time. Any die operated under conditions leading to surface temperature in excess of 1050oF undergoes structural changes that reduce its strength. Optimized die design can improve die life significantly. This improvement can be accomplished by means of cooling lines, baffles and bubblers in the die. A key objective of the project was to establish criteria for the minimal distance of the cooling lines from the surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. The Uddeholm Dievar steel evaluated in this program showed superior resistance to thermal fatigue resistance. Based on the experimental evidence, cooling lines could be placed as close as 0.5"¬Ě from the surface. Die Life Extension by Optimized Die Lubrication: The life of die casting dies is affected by additions made to its surface with the proper lubricants. These lubricants will protect the surface from the considerable temperature peaks that occur when the molten melt enters the die. Dies will reach a significantly higher temperature without this lubricant being applied. The amount and type of the lubricant are critical variables in the die casting process. However, these lubricants must not corrode the die surface. This effort was supported with alloys and machining by BohlerUddeholm, Dunn Steel, HH Stark and Rex Buckeye. In plant testing and evaluation was conducted as in-kind cost share at St. Clair Die Casting. Chem- Trend participated in the program with die lubricants and technical support. Experiments conducted with these lubricants demonstrated good protection of the substrate steel. Graphite and boron nitride used as benchmarks are capable of completely eliminating soldering and washout. However, because of cost and environmental considerations these materials are not widely used in industry. The best water-based die lubricants evaluated in this program were capable of providing similar protection from soldering and washout. In addition to improved part quality and higher production rates, improving die casting processes to preserve the life of the inserts will result in energy savings and a reduction in environmental wastes. Improving die life by means of optimized cooling line placement, baffles and bubblers in the die will allow for reduced die temperatures during processing, saving energy associated with production. The utilization of optimized die lubricants will also reduce heat requirements in addition to reducing waste associated with soldering and washout. This new technology was predicted to result in an average energy savings of 1.1 trillion BTU's/year over a 10 year period. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on commercial introduction in 2010, a market penetration of 70% by 2020 is 1.26 trillion BTU's/year. Along with these energy savings, reduction of scrap and improvement in casting yield will result in a reduction of the environmental emissions associated with the melting and pouring of the metal which will be saved as a result of this technology. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.025 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  14. The Effect of Equilibrating Mounted Dental Stone Casts in Maximum Intercuspation on the Occlusal Harmony of an Indirect Restoration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Peter Andrew

    2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF EQUILIBRATING MOUNTED DENTAL STONE CASTS IN MAXIMUM INTERCUSPATION ON THE OCCLUSAL HARMONY OF AN INDIRECT RESTORATION A Thesis by PETER ANDREW BENSON Submitted to The Office of Graduate and Professional Studies... of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, William W. Nagy Committee Members, Peter M. Buschang Carl G. Wirth Head of Department, William W. Nagy...

  15. The Effect of Applied Pressure During Feeding of Critical Cast Aluminum Alloy Components With Particular Reference to Fatigue Resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.T. Berry; R. Luck; B. Zhang; R.P. Taylor

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    the medium to long freezing range alloys of aluminum such as A356, A357, A206, 319 for example are known to exhibit dispersed porosity, which is recognized as a factor affecting ductility, fracture toughness, and fatigue resistance of light alloy castings. The local thermal environment, for example, temperature gradient and freezing from velocity, affect the mode of solidification which, along with alloy composition, heat treatment, oxide film occlusion, hydrogen content, and the extent to which the alloy contracts on solidification, combine to exert strong effects on the porosity formation in such alloys. In addition to such factors, the availability of liquid metal and its ability to flow through the partially solidified casting, which will be affect by the pressure in the liquid metal, must also be considered. The supply of molten metal will thus be controlled by the volume of the riser available for feeding the particular casting location, its solidification time, and its location together with any external pressure that might be applied at the riser.

  16. Modeling of material and energy flow in an EBCHR casting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerberg, K.W. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical and experimental analysis is made of fluid flow and heat transfer in a continuous casting system with an electron-beam energy source. For a cylindrical ingot confined in a water-cooled crucible, a two-dimensional, steady-state model is developed which includes the effects of free convection in the pool and conduction in the two-phase and solid regions. A modified Galerkin finite element method is used to solve for the flow and temperature fields simultaneously with the upper and lower boundaries of the pool. The calculation grid deforms along vertical spines as these phase boundaries move. Heat flows are measured in a steady-state experiment involving a short ingot and no pouring. Heat transfer coefficients representing contact resistance are determined, and measured heat flows are compared with model values. Flow and temperature fields along with solidification-zone boundaries are calculated for the experimental case and a case in which the ingot cooling is improved.

  17. Modeling of material and energy flow in an EBCHR casting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerberg, K.W. [Aspen Technology, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McClelland, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical and experimental analysis is made of fluid flow and heat transfer in a continuous casting system with an electron-beam energy source. For a cylindrical ingot confined in a water-cooled crucible, a two-dimensional, steady-state model is developed which includes the effects of free convection in the pool and conduction in the two-phase and solid regions. A modified Galerkin finite element method is used to solve for the flow and temperature fields simultaneously with the upper and lower boundaries of the pool. The calculation grid deforms along vertical spines as these phase boundaries move. Heat flows are measured in a steady-state experiment involving a short ingot and no pouring. Heat transfer coefficients representing contact resistance are determined, and measured heat flows are compared with model values. Flow and temperature fields along with solidification-zone boundaries are calculated for the experimental case and a case in which the ingot cooling is improved.

  18. Evidence for an X-ray Emitting Galactic Bulge: Shadows Cast by Distant Molecular Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sangwook Park; John P. Finley; Steven L. Snowden; Thomas M. Dame

    1996-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A mosaic of 7 ROSAT PSPC pointed observations in the direction of (l,b ~ 10,0 deg) reveals deep X-ray shadows in the 0.5-2.0 keV band cast by dense molecular gas. The comparison between the observed on-cloud and off-cloud X-ray fluxes indicates that ~43% of the diffuse X-ray background in this direction in both the 3/4 keV and 1.5 keV bands originates behind the molecular gas, which is located at 2-4 kpc from the Sun. Given the short mean free path of X-rays in the 3/4 keV band in the Galactic plane (~1 kpc assuming an average space density of 1 cm^-3), this large percentage of the observed flux which originates beyond the molecular gas most likely indicates a strong enhancement in the distribution of X-ray emitting gas in the Galactic center region, possibly associated with a Galactic X-ray bulge.

  19. Fracture mechanics analysis of cast duplex stainless steel elbows containing a surface crack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delliou, P.A. le; Semete, P. [Electricite de France, Moret Sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Ignaccolo, S. [Electricite de France, Villeurbanne (France). Direction de l`Equipement

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Some components of the primary loop of a PWR are made of cast duplex stainless steel. This kind of steel may age even at relatively low temperatures, (below 400 C, which is within the temperature range of PWR service conditions), leading to a significant decrease of its toughness. This is why a large research program was initiated on the fracture behavior of aged duplex stainless steel elbows in France. The main task of this program was to test three 2/3-scale models of aged PWR primary loop elbows. The first two tests (called SEM1 and SEM2) were conducted under in-plane closure bending at 320 C; the third (called SEM3) was conducted under constant internal pressure and in-plane closure bending at 60 C. The first two elbows contained a semi-elliptical notch machined into the outer surface of one flank, oriented either longitudinally (SEM1 test) or circumferentially (SEM2 test); the third elbow contained both notches described above, one on each flank. This paper presents the results of the experiments, the finite element calculations and the ductile fracture mechanics analyses that were performed.

  20. Microstructural characteristics and corrosion behavior of a super duplex stainless steel casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martins, Marcelo [Industrial Manager of SULZER BRASIL S/A and Professor of the Sao Paulo Salesian University Center (UNISAL), Americana Division, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo.martins@sulzer.com; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos [Department of Materials, Aeronautical and Automotive Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP Brazil (Brazil)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The machining of super duplex stainless steel castings is usually complicated by the difficulty involved in maintaining the dimensional tolerances required for given applications. Internal stresses originating from the solidification process and from subsequent heat treatments reach levels that exceed the material's yield strength, promoting plastic strain. Stress relief heat treatments at 520 deg. C for 2 h are an interesting option to solve this problem, but because these materials present a thermodynamically metastable condition, a few precautions should be taken. The main objective of this work was to demonstrate that, after solution annealing at 1130 deg. C and water quenching, stress relief at 520 deg. C for 2 h did not alter the duplex microstructure or impair the pitting corrosion resistance of ASTM A890/A890M Grade 6A steel. This finding was confirmed by microstructural characterization techniques, including light optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Corrosion potential measurements in synthetic sea water containing 20,000 ppm of chloride ions were also conducted at three temperatures: 5 deg. C, 25 deg. C and 60 deg. C.

  1. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that all the waste forms had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium; (2) Rhenium diffusivity: Cast Stone 2M specimens, when tested using EPA 1315 protocol, had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium based on rhenium as a surrogate for technetium. All other waste forms tested by ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 test methods had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 9 for Tc based on rhenium release. These studies indicated that use of Re(VII) as a surrogate for 99Tc(VII) in low temperature secondary waste forms containing reductants will provide overestimated diffusivity values for 99Tc. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use Re as a surrogate 99Tc in future low temperature waste form studies. (3) Iodine diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that the three waste forms had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 11 for iodine. Therefore, it may be necessary to use a more effective sequestering material than silver zeolite used in two of the waste forms (Ceramicrete and DuraLith); (4) Sodium diffusivity: All the waste form specimens tested by the three leach methods (ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315) exceeded the target LI value of 6; (5) All three leach methods (ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308 and EPA 1315) provided similar 99Tc diffusivity values for both short-time transient diffusivity effects as well as long-term ({approx}90 days) steady diffusivity from each of the three tested waste forms (Cast Stone 2M, Ceramicrete and DuraLith). Therefore, any one of the three methods can be used to determine the contaminant diffusivities from a selected waste form.

  2. Long-term embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels in LWR systems. Semiannual report, April--September 1992: Volume 7, No. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This progress report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on longterm thermal embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels in LWR systems during the six months from April--September 1992. A procedure and correlations are presented for predicting Charpy-impact energy, tensile flow stress, fracture toughness J-R curve, tearing modulus, and J{sub IC} of aged cast stainless steels from known material information. The ``saturation`` impact strength and fracture toughness of a specific cast stainless steel, i.e., the minimum value that would be achieved for the material after long-term service, is estimated from the chemical composition of the steel. Mechanical properties as a function of time and temperature of reactor service are estimated from impact energy and flow stress of the unaged material and the kinetics of embrittlement, which are also determined from chemical composition. The J{sub IC} values are determined from the estimated J-R curve and flow stress. Examples of estimating mechanical properties of cast stainless steel components during reactor service are presented. A common ``lower-bound`` J-R curve for cast stainless steels of unknown chemical composition is also defined for a given grade of steel, ferrite content, and temperature.

  3. A Comparison of Creep-Rupture Tested Cast Alloys HR282, IN740 and 263 for Possible Application in Advanced Ultrasupercritical Steam Turbine and Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski, P D; Evens, N; Yamamoto, Y; Maziasz, P

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Cast forms of traditionally wrought Ni-base precipitation-strengthened superalloys are being considered for service in the ultra-supercritical conditions (760įC, 35MPa) of next-generation steam boilers and turbines. After casting and homogenization, these alloys were given heat-treatments typical for each in the wrought condition to develop the gamma-prime phase. Specimens machined from castings were creep-rupture tested in air at 800įC. In their wrought forms, alloy 282 is expected to precipitate M23C6 within grain boundaries, alloy 740 is expected to precipitate several grain boundary phases including M23C6, G Phase, and ? phase, and alloy 263 has M23C6 and MC within its grain boundaries. This presentation will correlate the observed creep-life of these cast alloys with the microstructures developed during creep-rupture tests, with an emphasis on the phase identification and chemistry of precipitated grain boundary phases. The suitability of these cast forms of traditionally wrought alloys for turbine and boiler components will also be discussed.

  4. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Quarterly project status report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensive progress in development of an HTC (heat transfer coefficient) Evaluator and in the preparation of the experiments at CMI and Amcast have been achieved in the last three months. The interface of the HTC Evaluator has been developed in Visual C++ for the PC platform. It provides a tool to collect and store the published data on heat transfer coefficients in a database for further analysis. It also supports the mathematical model for evaluation of heat transfer coefficients. More than 100 papers related to this project have been cited and most of them have been collected. The preparation of the experiments at CMI is almost completed. A hockey-puck mold has been selected for the experiments for squeeze casting and semi-solid casting. A direct cavity pressure measurement system was purchased from Kistler. The pressure probes and data acquisition software as well as the necessary accessories have been delivered. The instrumented mold modification has been designed and the modifications completed. At Amcast Automotive, a new wheel-like mold for low-pressure permanent mold casting was designed. The CAD file for mold fabrication has been generated. The modeling of the casting has been done. An extensive survey on the ultrasonic gap formation measurement was fulfilled. It is concluded that the ultrasonic probe is capable of measuring a gap under the authors` casting conditions. In the last three months, four project meetings has been organized and held with the industrial partners.

  5. A recommended safety program for the Mabry Foundry and Machine Company and Iron Castings Incorporated of Beaumont, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Begnaud, Edward Marshall

    1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A RECONEENDED SAFETY PROGRAN FOR THE MABRY FOUNDRY AND NACHINE CONPANY AND IRON CASTINSS INCORPORATED OF BEAUNONT, TEXAS Edward Naz'shall Begnaud Appz'oved as to style and content by: n o osa ee n v sos') LfBRARY, A 4 M COLLEGE OF Texgt A... RECOMMENDED SAFETY PROGRAM FOR THE MABRY FOUNDRY AND MACHINE COMPANY AND IRON CASTINGS INCORPORATED OF BEAUMONT, TNXAS Edward Marshall Bsgnaud ll I Submitted to ths Graduate School of the Agricultuxal and. Mechanical College of Texas in Partial...

  6. Enhanced heat transfer surface for cast-in-bump-covered cooling surfaces and methods of enhancing heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.

  7. Elden Tefft: An Informal Look at a Founding Father of Twentieth Century Bronze Casting in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voorhees, Craig

    2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    melts and runs out down a hole left in the bottom of the mold. This leaves a hollow in the dried plaster in exactly the same shape left by the wax model. The hole in the bottom of the mold is then plugged up and melted bronze is poured into the mold... and the bronze solidifies in the hollow left behind in the plaster when the wax melted and ran out. The lost wax process gets its name because the wax disappears when the mold is heated. Using the lost wax casting technique, large and complex sculptures can...

  8. E(Race)ing gender: Stratified identities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Le Thuy Thi

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    VITA 87 INTRODUCTION In October of 1991, Anita Faye Hill came forward with her story of sexual misconduct at the Senate confirmation hearings of Supreme Court nominee, Clarence Thomas. Responding to speculations about her motives for exposing Thomas...'s experience of race when the two forces intersect? In hterary circles as in legal forums, we see this complex negotiation of identity, as exemplified in Anita Hill's testimony, throughout the landscape of African American women's writings. More than fifty...

  9. IllumInatIng of Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    funding sources 29 master's and do degrees awarded 23,000+ recipients of CTS-produced newsletters. You will find both the quantitative and qualitative accounts of CTS--the statistics and the stories identity and launched our signature publication Catalyst to better capture the innovative spirit and energy

  10. Ing Arvid Nesheim | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetecGtel JumpCounty,Jump7Open EnergyHydrogen Jump to:Infotility JumpJump to:

  11. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction (E-SMARRT): Optimization of Heat Treatments on Stainless Steel Castings for Improved Corrosion Resistance and Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John N. DuPont; Jeffrey D. Farren; Andrew W. Stockdale; Brett M. Leister

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It is commonly believed that high alloy steel castings have inferior corrosion resistance to their wrought counterparts as a result of the increased amount of microsegregation remaining in the as-cast structure. Homogenization and dissolution heat treatments are often utilized to reduce or eliminate the residual microsegregation and dissolve the secondary phases. Detailed electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and light optical microscopy (LOM) were utilized to correlate the amount of homogenization and dissolution present after various thermal treatments with calculated values and with the resultant corrosion resistance of the alloys.The influence of heat treatment time and temperature on the homogenization and dissolution kinetics were investigated using stainless steel alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. The influence of heat treatment time and temperature on the impact toughness and corrosion reistance of cast stainless steel alloys CF-3, CF-3M, CF-8, and CF-8M was also investigated.

  12. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  13. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information form the voxel model for display to the user.

  14. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mazias, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McGreevy, Tim (Morton, IL); Pollard,Michael James (East Peoria, IL); Siebenaler, Chad W. (Peoria, IL); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon. Such solution strengthening enhances the high temperature precipitation-strengthening benefits of fine dispersions of NbC. Such solid solution effects also enhance the stability of the austenite matrix from resistance to excess sigma phase or chrome carbide formation at higher service temperatures. The presence of sulfides is substantially eliminated.

  15. Hybrid optics for the visible produced by bulk casting of sol-gel glass using diamond-turned molds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C.; Maxey, L.C.; Cunningham, J.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moreshead, W.V.; Nogues, J.L.R. [Geltech Inc., Alachua, FL (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent combinations of diffractive and refractive functions in the same optical component allow designers additional opportunities to make systems more compact and enhance performance. This paper describes a research program for fabricating hybrid refractive/diffractive components from diamond-turned molds using the bulk casting of sol-gel silica glass. The authors use the complementary dispersive nature of refractive and diffractive optics to render two-color correction in a single hybrid optical element. Since diamond turning has matured as a deterministic manufacturing technology, techniques previously suitable only in the infrared are now being applied to components used at visible wavelengths. Thus, the marriage of diamond turning and sol-gel processes offers a cost-effective method for producing highly customized and specialized optical components in high quality silica glass. With the sol-gel casting method of replication, diamond-turned mold costs can be shared over many pieces. Diamond turning takes advantage of all of the available degrees of freedom in a single hybrid optical element: aspheric surface to eliminate spherical aberration, kinoform surface for control of primary chromatic aberration, and the flexibility to place the kinoform on non-planar surfaces for maximum design flexibility. The authors discuss the critical issues involved in designing the hybrid element, single point diamond-turning the mold, and fabrication in glass using the sol-gel process.

  16. Development of three-wavelength CCD image pyrometer used for the temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Zhi; Bai, Haicheng [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops an imaging based three-color pyrometer for the monitoring of temperature distribution in a continuous casting billet. A novel optical device, together with an embedded electronic system, is designed to sequentially collect a dark image and three thermal images with specified wavelengths on a same monochromatic charge-coupled-device (CCD). The three thermal images provide the basis for the determination of target temperature, while the dark image is used to online eliminate the dark noise of CCD with a differential method. This image pyrometer is not only independent of target emissivity but also overcomes the dissimilarity of measuring accuracy between the micro-sensors of CCD resulted from the non-uniformity of pixelsí intensity response and the vignetting of optical system. Furthermore, a precise two-color temperature field measuring model on the CCD pyrometer is established, based on which a self-adaptive light-integration mechanism is presented. Compared with the traditional fixed light-integration method, the measuring range of the pyrometer is greatly extended and its sensitivity in low temperature segment is improved. The test results in a steel factory demonstrate that the pyrometer is capable of meeting the requirement of surface temperature measurements about casting billets. Reliability and accuracy of measurement results are also discussed herein.

  17. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys in a complex salt solution: A slow positron beam study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.F. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Qin, Q.L. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Yang, W. [Wuhan University] [Wuhan University; Wen, W. [University of Kentucky] [University of Kentucky; Zhai, T. [University of Kentucky] [University of Kentucky; Yu, B. [University of Alberta] [University of Alberta; Liu, D.Y. [University of Alberta] [University of Alberta; Luo, A. [GM Research and Development Center] [GM Research and Development Center; Song, GuangLing [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and corrosion behavior of high pressure die-cast (HPDC) and super vacuum die-cast (SVDC) AM60B magnesium alloys were investigated in a complex salt solution using slow positron beam technique and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The experiments revealed that a CaCO3 film was formed on the surface of the alloys and that the rate of CaCO3 formation for the SVDC alloy with immersion time was slower than that of the HPDC alloy. The larger volume fraction of b-phase in the skin layer of the SVDC alloy than that of the HPDC alloy was responsible for the better corrosion resistance.

  18. A National Assistance Extension Program for Metal Casting: a foundation industry. Final report for the period February 16, 1994 through May 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRP award was proposed as an umbrella project to build infrastructure and extract lessons about providing extension-enabling services to the metal casting industry through the national network of Manufacturing Technology Center`s (MTC`s). It targeted four discrete task areas required for the MCC to service the contemplated needs of industry, and in which the MCC had secured substantial involvement of partner organizations. Task areas identified included Counter-Gravitational Casting, Synchronous Manufacturing, Technology Deployment, and Facility and Laboratory Improvements. Each of the task areas includes specific subtasks which are described.

  19. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent review by the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association, the Aluminum Association, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (DOE/OIT) described the status of advanced ceramics for aluminum processing, including monolithics, composites, and coatings. The report observed that monolithic ceramics (particularly oxides) have attractive properties such as resistance to heat, corrosion, thermal shock, abrasion, and erosion [1]. However, even after the developments of the past 25 years, there are two key barriers to commercialization: reliability and cost-effectiveness. Industry research is therefore focused on eliminating these barriers. Ceramic coatings have likewise undergone significant development and a variety of processes have been demonstrated for applying coatings to substrates. Some processes, such as thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines, exhibit sufficient reliability and service life for routine commercial use. Worldwide, aluminum melting and molten metal handling consumes about 506,000 tons of refractory materials annually. Refractory compositions for handling molten aluminum are generally based on dense fused cast silica or mullite. The microstructural texture is extremely important because an interlocking mass of coarser grains must be bonded together by smaller grains in order to achieve adequate strength. At the same time, well-distributed microscopic pores and cracks are needed to deflect cracks and prevent spalling and thermal shock damage [2]. The focus of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective, low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both smelting and casting environments. The primary goal was to develop improved coatings and functionally graded materials that will possess superior combinations of properties, including resistance to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting. When these materials are successfully deployed in aluminum smelting and casting operations, their superior performance and durability will give end users marked improvements in uptime, defect reduction, scrap/rework costs, and overall energy savings resulting from higher productivity and yield. The implementation of results of this program will result in energy savings of 30 trillion Btu/year by 2020. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) project, riser tube used in the low-pressure die (LPD) casting of aluminum was selected as the refractory component for improvement. In this LPD process, a pressurized system is used to transport aluminum metal through refractory tubes (riser tubes) into wheel molds. It is important for the tubes to remain airtight because otherwise, the pressurized system will fail. Generally, defects such as porosity in the tube or cracks generated by reaction of the tube material with molten aluminum lead to tube failure, making the tube incapable of maintaining the pressure difference required for normal casting operation. Therefore, the primary objective of the project was to develop a riser tube that is not only resistant to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting, but is also less permeable, so as to achieve longer service life. Currently, the dense-fused silica (DFS) riser tube supplied by Pyrotek lasts for only 7 days before undergoing failure. The following approach was employed to achieve the goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions; (4) Optimize refractory formulations to minimize wetting by molten aluminum, and characterize erosion, corrosion, and spallation rates under realistic service conditions; and (5) Scale up the processing methods to full-sized components and perform field testi

  20. Material development in the SI{sub 3}N{sub 4} system using glass encapsulated Hip`ing. Final report, Phase 2: DOE/ORNL Ceramic Technology Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbin, N.D.; Sundberg, G.J.; Siebein, K.N.; Willkens, C.A.; Pujari, V.K.; Rossi, G.A.; Hansen, J.S.; Chang, C.L.; Hammarstrom, J.L.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers a two-year program to develop fully dense Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix SiC whisker composites with enhanced properties over monolithic Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} materials. The primary goal was to develop a composite with a fracture toughness > 10 MPa{radical}m, capable of using high pressure glass encapsulated HIP`ing. Coating methods were developed to apply thin (<150nm) stoichiometric BN layers to SiC whiskers and also to apply a dual coating of SiC over carbon to the whiskers. Fracture toughness of the composites was determined to increase as the quantity of whiskers (or elongated grains) with their axis perpendicular to the crack plane increased. Of the interface compositions evaluated in this effort, carbon was determined to be the most effective for increasing toughness. The highest toughnesses (6.8--7.0 MPa{radical}m) were obtained with uniaxially aligned carbon coated whiskers. There was no evidence of the carbon coating compromising the oxidation resistance of the composites at 1370{degree}C.

  1. Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes IX Edited by Peter R. Sahm, Preben N. Hansen and James G. Conley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gary

    Modeling of Casting, Welding and Advanced Solidification Processes IX Edited by Peter R. Sahm to the Modelling of Welding Phenomena G. A. Taylor, M. Hughes and K. Pericleous Centre for Numerical Modelling of welding phenomena is presented. The framework includes models from both the fields of Computational Fluid

  2. Final report to the strategic environmental research and development program on near-net shape casting of uranium-6% niobium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gourdin, W.H.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication methods traditionally used in the fabrication of depleted uranium parts within the Department of Energy (DOE) are extremely wasteful, with only 3% of the starting material actually appearing as finished product. The current effort, funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was conceived as a means to drastically reduce this inefficiency and the accompanying waste by demonstrating the technology to cast simple parts close to their final shape in molds made from a variety of materials. As a part of this coordinated study, LLNL was given, and has achieved, two primary objectives: (1) to demonstrate the feasibility of using refractory metal for reusable molds in the production of castings of uranium-6 wt% niobium alloy (U-6Nb); and (2) to demonstrate the utility of detailed simulations of thermal and fluid flow characteristics in the understanding and improvement of the near-net shape casting process. In both cases, our efforts were focused on a flat plate castings, which serve as simple prototypical parts. This report summarizes the results of LLNL work in each area.

  3. Introduction to Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (IEOR) It is fair to say the industrial engineers and operations researchers cast the widest net of all

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Introduction to Industrial Engineering and Operations Research (IEOR) It is fair to say the industrial engineers and operations researchers cast the widest net of all engineers with regard themselves from others. In healthcare, for example, industrial engineers are more commonly known

  4. Xarxes i Serveis en Smart Cities II Nom de l'assignatura (cat., cast., angl.): Xarxes i Serveis en Smart Cities II, Redes y Servicios en Smart Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PolitŤcnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Xarxes i Serveis en Smart Cities II 1 Nom de l'assignatura (cat., cast., angl.): Xarxes i Serveis en Smart Cities II, Redes y Servicios en Smart Cities II, Networks and Services in Smart Cities II de diferents tipus d'algoritmes per anŗlisis predictiu en smart cities. Analitzar el comportament de

  5. Development of Stronger and More Reliable Cast Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) Based on Scientific Design Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muralidharan, G.; Sikka, V.K.; Pankiw, R.I.

    2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this program was to increase the high-temperature strength of the H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C). Meeting this goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The higher strength H-Series of cast stainless steels (HK and HP type) have applications for the production of ethylene in the chemical industry, for radiant burner tubes and transfer rolls for secondary processing of steel in the steel industry, and for many applications in the heat-treating industry. The project was led by Duraloy Technologies, Inc. with research participation by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and industrial participation by a diverse group of companies. Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) was also a partner in this project. Each team partner had well-defined roles. Duraloy Technologies led the team by identifying the base alloys that were to be improved from this research. Duraloy Technologies also provided an extensive creep data base on current alloys, provided creep-tested specimens of certain commercial alloys, and carried out centrifugal casting and component fabrication of newly designed alloys. Nucor Steel was the first partner company that installed the radiant burner tube assembly in their heat-treating furnace. Other steel companies participated in project review meetings and are currently working with Duraloy Technologies to obtain components of the new alloys. EIO is promoting the enhanced performance of the newly designed alloys to Ohio-based companies. The Timken Company is one of the Ohio companies being promoted by EIO. The project management and coordination plan is shown in Fig. 1.1. A related project at University of Texas-Arlington (UT-A) is described in Development of Semi-Stochastic Algorithm for Optimizing Alloy Composition of High-Temperature Austenitic Stainless Steels (H-Series) for Desired Mechanical and Corrosion Properties (ORNL/TM-2005/81/R1). The final report on another related project at the University of Tennessee by George Pharr, Easo George, and Michael Santella has been published as Development of Combinatorial Methods for Alloy Design and Optimization (ORNL/TM-2005-133). The goal of the project was to increase the high-temperature strength by 50% and upper use temperature by 86 to 140 F (30 to 60 C) of H-Series of cast austenitic stainless steels. Meeting such a goal is expected to result in energy savings of 38 trillion Btu/year by 2020 and energy cost savings of $185 million/year. The goal of the project was achieved by using the alloy design methods developed at ORNL, based on precise microcharacterization and identification of critical microstructure/properties relationships and combining them with the modern computational science-based tools that calculate phases, phase fractions, and phase compositions based on alloy compositions. The combined approach of microcharacterization of phases and computational phase prediction would permit rapid improvement of the current alloy composition of an alloy and provide the long-term benefit of customizing alloys within grades for specific applications. The project was appropriate for the domestic industry because the current H-Series alloys have reached their limits both in high-temperature-strength properties and in upper use temperature. The desire of Duraloy's industrial customers to improve process efficiency, while reducing cost, requires that the current alloys be taken to the next level of strength and that the upper use temperature limit be increased. This project addressed a specific topic from the subject call: to develop materials for manufacturing processes that will increase high-temperature strength, fatigue resistance, corrosion, and wear resistance. The outcome of the project would benefit manufacturing processes in the chemical, steel, and heat-treating industries.

  6. Effects of Thermocapillary Forces during Welding of 316L-Type Wrought, Cast and Powder Metallurgy Austenitic Stainless Steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgobba, Stefano; 10.1016/S0924-0136(03)00373-X

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is now under construction at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). This 27 km long accelerator requires 1248 superconducting dipole magnets operating at 1.9 K. The cold mass of the dipole magnets is closed by a shrinking cylinder with two longitudinal welds and two end covers at both extremities of the cylinder. The end covers, for which fabrication by welding, casting or Powder Metallurgy (PM) was considered, are dished-heads equipped with a number of protruding nozzles for the passage of the different cryogenic lines. Structural materials and welds must retain high strength and toughness at cryogenic temperature. AISI 316L-type austenitic stainless steel grades have been selected because of their mechanical properties, ductility, weldability and stability of the austenitic phase against low-temperature spontaneous martensitic transformation. 316LN is chosen for the fabrication of the end covers, while the interconnection components to be welded on the protrud...

  7. Final Technical Report Quantification and Standardization of Pattern Properties for the Control of the Lost Foam Casting Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Michaels

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project takes a fresh look at the ''white side'' of the lost foam casting process. We have developed the gel front hypothesis for foam pyrolysis behavior and the magnetic metal pump method for controlling lost foam casting metal fill event. The subject of this report is work done in the improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process. The original objective of this project was to improve the control of metal fill by understanding the influence of foam pattern and coating properties on the metal fill event. Relevant pattern properties could then be controlled, providing control of the metal fill event. One of the original premises of this project was that the process of metal fill was relatively well understood. Considerable previous work had been done to develop fluid mechanical and heat transfer models of the process. If we could just incorporate measured pattern properties into these models we would be able predict accurately the metal fill event. As we began to study the pyrolysis behavior of EPS during the metal fill event, we discovered that the chemical nature of this event had been completely overlooked in previous research. Styrene is the most prevalent breakdown product of EPS pyrolysis and it is a solvent for polystyrene. Much of the styrene generated by foam pyrolysis diffuses into intact foam, producing a molten gel of mechanically entangled polystyrene molecules. Much of the work of our project has centered on validation of this concept and producing a qualitative model of the behavior of EPS foam undergoing pyrolysis in a confined environment. A conclusion of this report is that styrene dissolution in EPS is a key phenomenon in the pyrolysis process and deserves considerable further study. While it is possible to continue to model the metal fill event parametrically using empirical data, we recommend that work be undertaken by qualified researchers to directly characterize and quantify this phenomenon for the benefit of modelers, researchers, and workers in the field. Another original premise of this project was that foam pattern and coating properties could be used to efficiently control metal fill. After studying the structure of EPS foam in detail for the period of this contract, we have come to the conclusion that EPS foam has an inherent variability at a scale that influences metal fill behavior. This does not allow for the detailed fine control of the process that we originally envisioned. We therefore have sought other methods for the control of the metal fill event. Of those, we now believe that the magnetic metal pump shows the most promise. We have conducted two casting trials using this method and preliminary results are very encouraging. A conclusion of our report is that, while every effort should continue to be made to produce uniform foam and coatings, the use of the magnetic metal pump should be encouraged and closed loop control mechanisms should be developed for this pouring method.

  8. Predicting the Influence of Pore Characteristics on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die Casting Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Li, Dongsheng

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die casting Mg materials on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM50 and AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope to obtain the overall information on the pore characteristics. The experimentally quantified pore characteristics are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructures with different pore sizes, pore volume fractions and pore size distributions. Pores are explicitly represented in the synthetic microstructures and meshed out for the subsequent finite element analysis. In the finite element analysis, an intrinsic critical strain value is used for the Mg matrix material, beyond which work-hardening is no longer permissible. With no artificial failure criterion prescribed, ductility levels are predicted for the various microstructures in the form of strain localization. Mesh size effect study is also conducted, from which a mesh size dependent critical strain curve is determined. A concept of scalability of pore size effects is then presented and examined with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve. The results in this study show that, for the regions with lower pore size and lower volume fraction, the ductility generally decreases as the pore size and pore volume fraction increase whereas, for the regions with larger pore size and larger pore volume fraction, other factors such as the mean distance between the pores begin to have some substantial influence on the ductility. The results also indicate that the pore size effects may be scalable for the models with good-representative pore shape and distribution with the use of the mesh size dependent critical strain curve.

  9. Ultrasonic Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructure: Discrimination between Equiaxed- and Columnar-Grain Material Ė An Interim Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Good, Morris S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Watson, Bruce E.; Peters, Timothy J.; Dixit, Mukul; Bond, Leonard J.

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components used in the nuclear power industry is neither as effective nor reliable as is needed due to detrimental effects upon the interrogating ultrasonic beam and interference from ultrasonic backscatter. The root cause is the coarse-grain microstructure inherent to this class of materials. Some ultrasonic techniques perform better for particular microstructural classifications and this has led to the hypothesis that an ultrasonic inspection can be optimized for a particular microstructural class, if a technique exists to reliably classify the microstructure for feedback to the inspection. This document summarizes scoping experiments of in-situ ultrasonic methods for classification and/or characterization of the material microstructures in CASS components from the outside surface of a pipe. The focus of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic methods and provide an interim report that documents results and technical progress. An initial set of experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that in-service characterization of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) is feasible, and that, if reliably performed, such data would provide real-time feedback to optimize in-service inspections in the field. With this objective in mind, measurements for the experiment were restricted to techniques that should be robust if carried forward to eventual field implementation. Two parameters were investigated for their ability to discriminate between different microstructures in CASS components. The first parameter was a time-of-flight ratio of a normal incidence shear wave to that of a normal incidence longitudinal wave (TOFRSL). The ratio removed dependency on component thickness which may not be accurately reported in the field. The second parameter was longitudinal wave attenuation. The selected CASS specimens provided five equiaxed-grain material samples and five columnar-grain material samples for a two-class discrimination problem. Qualitative TOFRSL estimates and a threshold algorithm classified all 10 material samples correctly and indicated a reliable and robust technique. Qualitative longitudinal wave attenuation estimates and a threshold algorithm also classified all 10 materials samples correctly; however, the technique was not as robust as TOFRSL. The experiments provided promising results and demonstrated that good potential exists for future development of techniques to implement real-time classification of CASS material. However, the reported measurements need to be substantiated with measurements on additional specimens.

  10. Effects of the Exposure to Corrosive Salts on the Frictional Behavior of Gray Cast Iron and a Titanium-Based Metal Matrix Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Truhan, Jr., John J [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of increasingly aggressive road-deicing chemicals has created significant and costly corrosion problems for the trucking industry. From a tribological perspective, corrosion of the sliding surfaces of brakes after exposure to road salts can create oxide scales on the surfaces that affect friction. This paper describes experiments on the effects of exposure to sodium chloride and magnesium chloride sprays on the transient frictional behavior of cast iron and a titanium-based composite sliding against a commercial brake lining material. Corrosion scales on cast iron initially act as abrasive third-bodies, then they become crushed, spread out, and behave as a solid lubricant. The composition and subsurface microstructures of the corrosion products on the cast iron were analyzed. Owing to its greater corrosion resistance, the titanium composite remained scale-free and its frictional response was markedly different. No corrosion scales were formed on the titanium composite after aggressive exposure to salts; however, a reduction in friction was still observed. Unlike the crystalline sodium chloride deposits that tended to remain dry, hygroscopic magnesium chloride deposits absorbed ambient moisture from the air, liquefied, and retained a persistent lubricating effect on the titanium surfaces.

  11. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McGreevy, Tim (Washington, IL); Pollard, Michael James (Peoria, IL); Siebenaler, Chad W. (Dunlap, IL); Swindeman, Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A CF8C type stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 18.0 weight percent to about 22.0 weight percent chromium and 11.0 weight percent to about 14.0 weight percent nickel; from about 0.05 weight percent to about 0.15 weight percent carbon; from about 2.0 weight percent to about 10.0 weight percent manganese; and from about 0.3 weight percent to about 1.5 weight percent niobium. The present alloys further include less than 0.15 weight percent sulfur which provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. The disclosed alloys also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon.

  12. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CF8C stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J.; McGreevy, Tim; Pollard, Michael James; Siebenaler, Chad W.; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2006-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A CF8C type stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 18.0 weight percent to about 22.0 weight percent chromium and 11.0 weight percent to about 14.0 weight percent nickel; from about 0.05 weight percent to about 0.15 weight percent carbon; from about 2.0 weight percent to about 10.0 weight percent manganese; and from about 0.3 weight percent to about 1.5 weight percent niobium. The present alloys further include less than 0.15 weight percent sulfur which provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. The disclosed alloys also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon.

  13. Biomaterials 23 (2002) 44834492 A novel porous cells scaffold made of polylactidedextran blend by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -casting and particle-leaching [19,20], phase-separation [21], emulsion freeze dry- ing [22], gas-foaming [23] and 3D-printing

  14. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Annual project status report for the period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first year of this three-year project, substantial progress has been achieved. This project on heat transfer coefficients in metal permanent mold casting is being conducted in three areas. They are the theoretical study at the University of Michigan, the experimental investigations of squeeze casting and semi-solid casting at CMI-Tech Center, and the experimental investigation of low pressure permanent mold casting at Amcast Automotive. U-M did an initial geometry which was defined for ProCAST to solve, and then a geometry half the size was defined and solved using the same boundary conditions. A conceptual mold geometry was examined and is represented as an axisymmetric element.Furthermore, the influences of the localized heat transfer coefficients on the casting process were carefully studied. The HTC Evaluator has been proposed and initially developed by the U-M team. The Reference and the Database Modules of the HTC Evaluator have been developed, and extensively tested. A series of technical barriers have been cited and potential solutions have been surveyed. At the CMI-Tech Center, the Kistler direct cavity pressure measurement system has been purchased and tested. The calibrations has been evaluated. The probe is capable of sensing a light finger pressure. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The experimental mold has been designed and modified. The first experiment is scheduled for October 14, 1998. The geometry of the experimental hockey-puck casting has been given to the U-M team for numerical analysis.

  15. Multifunctional virus scaffolds fore energy applications : nanomaterials synthesis and two dimensional assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Ki Tae

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological systems inherently posses the ability to synthesize and assemble nanomaterials with remarkable precision, as evident in biomineralization. These unique abilities of nature continue to inspire us to develop new ...

  16. SUNY-ESF (Partner Institution) 1 Fore stry Drive , Syracuse , NY 13210

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raina, Ramesh

    lor of Landscape Archite cture (B.L.A.) Landscape Architecture (HEGIS Code 0204) Bache lor of Scie nce in sustainable construction and renewable materials. Environmental Biology (HEGIS Code 0420) Environmental

  17. /users/nfj/work/41/may/ms7146ForesC/7146.dvi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materialsj o n p o. ¬Ķ

  18. 'Fore!' heads up, wide use of more flexible metallic glass coming your

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomassUniversity |DepartmentEnergyPhysicsway

  19. WA_03_010_SHELL_SOLAR_INDUSTRIES_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_Fore.pdf |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02Report |to 40% Whole-House2007Department ofDepartment

  20. Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

  1. Cast polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic module manufacturing technology improvements. Semiannual technical report, 1 January 1996--30 June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)] [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two specific objectives of Solarex`s program are to reduce the manufacturing cost for polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic modules to less than $1.20/watt and to increase the manufacturing capacity by a factor of three. This report highlights accomplishments during the period of January 1 through June 30, 1996. Accomplishments include: began the conversion of production casting stations to increase ingot size; operated the wire saw in a production mode with higher yields and lower costs than achieved on the ID saws; developed and qualified a new wire guide coating material that doubles the wire guide lifetime and produces significantly less scatter in wafer thickness; completed a third pilot run of the cost-effective Al paste back-surface-field (BSF) process, verifying a 5% increase in cell efficiency and demonstrating the ability to process and handle the BSF paste cells; completed environmental qualification of modules using cells produced by an all-print metallization process; optimized the design of the 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm polycrystalline silicon solar cells; demonstrated the application of a high-efficiency process in making 15.2-cm by 15.2-cm solar cells; demonstrated that cell efficiency increases with decreasing wafer thickness for the Al paste BSF cells; qualified a vendor-supplied Tedlar/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) laminate to replace the combination of separate sheets of EVA and Tedlar backsheet; demonstrated the operation of a prototype unit to trim/lead attach/test modules; and demonstrated the operation of a wafer pull-down system for cassetting wet wafers.

  2. Formation and characterization of microstructure of as-cast MgĖ6GdĖ4YĖxZnĖ0.5Zr (x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 wt.%) alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Y.J. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, C. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zheng, F.Y. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Peng, L.M., E-mail: plm616@sjtu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Y.; Ding, W.J. [National Engineering Research Center of Light Alloy Net Forming, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    MgĖ6GdĖ4YĖxZnĖ0.5Zr (x = 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 wt.%) alloys were prepared via conventional ingot metallurgy (I/M) in this study. The as-cast microstructures of these alloys were established by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations. Lamellar stacking order (SF) and 14H-type long period stacking order (LPSO) structure within ?-Mg matrix are formed in the three as-cast alloys. The eutectic secondary phase is (Mg,Zn){sub 24}(Gd,Y){sub 5} for the alloy containing 0.3 wt.% Zn, while, it is (Mg,Zn){sub 3}(Gd,Y) for the alloys containing 0.5 wt.% Zn and 0.7 wt.% Zn. Moreover, X phase-(Mg,Zn){sub 12}(Gd,Y) is formed in the latter two as-cast alloys. - Highlights: ē LPSO structure has first been found in as-cast MgĖ6GdĖ4YĖxZnĖ0.5Zr. ē X-phase exists in as-cast MgĖ6GdĖ4YĖ0.3(0.5)ZnĖ0.5Zr. ē Zn content results in different ?-phase in the studied alloys.

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  4. Final Report, Volume 5, Data Package for ASTM A923 Supporting Inclusion of A890-5 Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Cast Equivalent of 2507)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 5 is the Data Package for the evaluation of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Castings prepared at the end of work comprised in volumes 3 and 4. The document deals with the various evaluation methods used in the work documented in volume 3 and 4. This document covers materials regarding evaluation of the A890-5A material in terms of inclusion in ASTM A923. The various tests which were conducted on the A890-5A material are included in this document.

  5. Final Report, Volume 5, Data Package for ASTM A923 Supporting Inclusion of A890-5A Super Duplex Stainless Steel ( Cast Equivalent of 2507)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 5 is the Data Package for the evaluation of Super Duplex Stainless Steel Castings prepared at the end of work comprised in volumes 3 and 4. The document deals with the various evaluation methods used in the work documented in volume 3 and 4. This document covers materials regarding evaluation of the A890-5A material in terms of inclusion in ASTM A923. The various tests which were conducted on the A890-5A material are included in this document.

  6. Final Report, Volume 4, The Develpoment of Qualification Standards forCast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope{reg_sign} and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation was carried out between the ferrite content, hardness values and the type of fracture. SEM was also carried out on the corrosion samples in order to see the difference on the surface after corrosion analysis has been carried out. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy was carried out on the material acquired from Foundry D in order to determine the variation in the amount of the chemical composition of various elements when the material is subjected to different heat treatment schedules. X-Ray analysis was also carried out in order to verify whether it is possible to identify the different phases present in the material. Volume percentage of ferrite was also calculated from X-Ray diffraction and compared with the Feritscope{reg_sign} and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count data in order to determine whether X-Ray Diffraction is a suitable method for carrying out qualitative analysis of different phases present. From the various tests that were conducted, it was concluded that since ASTM A923 Methods adequately identifies the presence of intermetallic phases in A890-5A grade Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel A890-5A can be directly included in ASTM A923. Correlation was determined between all the ASTM A923 Test Methods A, B and C and Test Method B were identified as the best method for detecting the presence of detrimental intermetallic phases. The micrographs from the A890-4A grade (now in ASTM A923) were identified as applicable for the A890-5A grade to compare and detect the presence of intermetallic phases. Using these micrographs one can verify whether an A890-5A sample has an unaffected, affected or a possibly affected structure. It was also observed that when compared to the A890-4A grade A890-5A grade is more sensitive to heat treatment. From the ferrite and hardness measurement a correlation was developed between toughness, volume percentage ferrite and hardness of the material. From SEM and EDS the type of intermetallic phase present and its chemical composition was determined. The best method for calculating volume percentage ferrite was determined between the Ferits

  7. Final Report, Volume 4, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬ģ and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation was carried out between the ferrite content, hardness values and the type of fracture. SEM was also carried out on the corrosion samples in order to see the difference on the surface after corrosion analysis has been carried out. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy was carried out on the material acquired from Foundry D in order to determine the variation in the amount of the chemical composition of various elements when the material is subjected to different heat treatment schedules. X-Ray analysis was also carried out in order to verify whether it is possible to identify the different phases present in the material. Volume percentage of ferrite was also calculated from X-Ray diffraction and compared with the Feritscope√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬ģ and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count data in order to determine whether X-Ray Diffraction is a suitable method for carrying out qualitative analysis of different phases present. From the various tests that were conducted, it was concluded that since ASTM A923 Methods adequately identifies the presence of intermetallic phases in A890 √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬? 5A grade Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel A890 √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬? 5A can be directly included in ASTM A923. Correlation was determined between all the ASTM A923 Test Methods A, B and C and Test Method B were identified as the best method for detecting the presence of detrimental intermetallic phases. The micrographs from the A890-4A grade (now in ASTM A923) were identified as applicable for the A890-5A grade to compare and detect the presence of intermetallic phases. Using these micrographs one can verify whether an A890-5A sample has an unaffected, affected or a possibly

  8. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Quarterly project status report, January 1, 1998--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, Shouwei; Cookson, J.M.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been numerous developments in the current project over the last three months. The most appropriate geometries for performing the interfacial heat transfer studies have been discussed with both of our Industrial Partners. Both companies have molds which may be available for adaptation to record the thermal history during casting required for determining interfacial heat transfer coefficients. The details of what instrumentation would be the most appropriate remain to be worked out, but the instrumentation would likely include thermocoupling in the mold cavity as well as in the mold wall, as well as pressure sensors in the squeeze casting geometry molds and ultrasonic gap monitoring in the low pressure and gravity fed permanent mold geometry molds. The first advisory committee meeting was held on February 6th, and the steering committee was apprised of the objectives of the program. The capabilities of the Industrial Partners were reviewed, as well as the need for the project to make use of resources from other CMC projects. The second full Advisory Committee Meeting will be held in early May.

  9. Fabrication and Performance of Ni-YSZ Anode Supported Cell for Coal Derived Syngas Application by Tape Casting and Spin Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, Mingyang (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Jiang, Yinglu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Johnson, C.D.; Xingbo, Liu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni-YSZ anode supported cell has been developed for direct utilization of coal derived syngas as fuel in the temperature range of 700-850į C. The porous Ni-YSZ anode substrate was prepared based on processes of slip casting and lamination of anode tape. Then thin-film YSZ electrolyte was deposited on pre-sintered anode substrate via a colloidal spin coating technique and an optimized final sintering route. Dense and crackfree YSZ electrolyte was successfully obtained after sintering at 1440C for 4hrs. Processing factors like pre-sintering of anode, solvent, coating cycles and sintering route on the final properties of YSZ film was studied. A power density of 0.62W/cm2 has been achieved for the anode supported cell tested in 97%H2/3%H2O at 800įC. EIS test results indicated the cell performance was essentially influenced by interfacial resistance and charge transfer process.

  10. Search for solar axion emission from 7Li and D(p,gamma)3He nuclear decays with the CAST gamma-ray calorimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAST Collaboration; S. Andriamonje; S. Aune; D. Autiero; K. Barth; A. Belov; B. Beltran; H. Brauninger; J. M. Carmona; S. Cebrian; J. I. Collar; T. Dafni; M. Davenport; L. Di. Lella; C. Eleftheriadis; J. Englhauser; G. Fanourakis; E. Ferrer. Ribas; H. Fischer; J. Franz; P. Friedrich; T. Geralis; I. Giomataris; S. Gninenko; H. Gomez; M. Hasinoff; F. H. Heinsius; D. H. H. Hoffmann; I. G. Irastorza; J. Jacoby; K. Jakovcic; D. Kang; K. Konigsmann; R. Kotthaus; M. Krcmar; K. Kousouris; M. Kuster; B. Lakic; C. Lasseur; A. Liolios; A. Ljubicic; G. Lutz; G. Luzon; D. W. Miller; J. Morales; A. Ortiz; T. Papaevangelou; A. Placci; G. Raffelt; H. Riege; A. Rodriguez; J. Ruz; I. Savvidis; Y. Semertzidis; P. Serpico; L. Stewart; J. D. Vieira; J. Villar; J. Vogel; L. Walckiers; K. Zioutas

    2010-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of a search for a high-energy axion emission signal from 7Li (0.478 MeV) and D(p,gamma)3He (5.5 MeV) nuclear transitions using a low-background gamma-ray calorimeter during Phase I of the CAST experiment. These so-called "hadronic axions" could provide a solution to the long-standing strong-CP problem and can be emitted from the solar core from nuclear M1 transitions. This is the first such search for high-energy pseudoscalar bosons with couplings to nucleons conducted using a helioscope approach. No excess signal above background was found.

  11. Search for 14.4-KeV Solar Axions Emitted in the M1-Transition of Fe-57 Nuclei with CAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andriamonje, S.; Aune, S.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Autiero, D.; /CERN /Lyon, IPN; Barth, K.; /CERN; Belov, A.; /Moscow, INR; Beltran, B.; /Zaragoza U. /Queen's U., Kingston; Brauninger, H.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; /Zaragoza U.; Collar, J.I.; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP; Dafni, T.; /DAPNIA, Saclay /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /Zaragoza U.; Davenport, M.; /CERN; Di Lella, L.; /CERN /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore; Eleftheriadis, C.; /Aristotle U., Thessaloniki; Englhauser, J.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Fanourakis, G.; /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; /Freiburg U.; Friedrich, P.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Geralis, T.; /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Moscow, INR /Zaragoza U. /British Columbia U. /Freiburg U. /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /DAPNIA, Saclay /Zaragoza U. /Frankfurt U. /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Freiburg U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Democritos Nucl. Res. Ctr. /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /CERN /Aristotle U., Thessaloniki /Boskovic Inst., Zagreb /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Zaragoza U. /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Zaragoza U. /CERN /DAPNIA, Saclay /CERN /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Darmstadt, Tech. Hochsch. /Zaragoza U. /Aristotle U., Thessaloniki /Patras U. /Brookhaven /CERN /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /CERN /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP /Zaragoza U. /Freiburg U. /CERN /CERN /Patras U.

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We have searched for 14.4 keV solar axions or more general axion-like particles (ALPs), that may be emitted in the M1 nuclear transition of 57Fe, by using the axion-to-photon conversion in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) with evacuated magnet bores (Phase I). From the absence of excess of the monoenergetic X-rays when the magnet was pointing to the Sun, we set model-independent constraints on the coupling constants of pseudoscalar particles that couple to two photons and to a nucleon g{sub ay}|-1.19g{sub aN}{sup 0}+g{sub aN}{sup 3}| < 1.36 x 10{sup -16} GeV{sup -1} for ma < 0.03 eV at the 95% confidence level.

  12. To provide high dependability in a multithreaded system despite hardware faults, the system must detect and cor-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasubramonian, Rajeev

    , the system must detect and cor- rect errors in its shared memory system. Recent research has explored dynamic the commodity computing market. Second, the industrial roadmap [7] and recent research [17] fore- cast increases susceptible to having their charges dis- rupted by alpha particles or cosmic radiation [21]. Many researchers

  13. Engaging the public and stakeholders in the develop-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demand Forecast Ad- visory Committee Reviews the methods, demand forecasting tools, input assumptions and forecast results, used in developing the Council's demand fore- casts Natural Gas Advisory Committee Reviews the Council's fuel price forecasting assumptions and models for natural gas, oil, and coal System

  14. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 26 FEBRUARY 2014 | DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE2120 Taming hurricanes with arrays of o shore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    models (Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) and Hurricane Weather Research and Fore- casting to themselves? This study uses an advanced climate­weather computer model that correctly treats the energy only right behind the walls, and limit the access of populations to coastal zones. Large arrays of wind-wave

  15. National Aeronautics and Space Administration www.nasa.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    - ronmental review and is ready for environmental testing. SDO will help scientists zoom in on solar activity understanding of the causes of these phenomena, thus improving fore- casts of solar storms. Environmental testsViewSun-Loving Spacecraft is Go for Environmental Test Pg 3 A BIG Renaming--the Emmett Chappelle Chapter Pg 5 Goddard

  16. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Integration Studies Our researchers measure the impact of wind and solar power plant output and the additional to improve fore- cast accuracy and usability for power plant system operators. Operational Impacts to predict wind plant output remains low for short-term (hourly or daily) operation in wind power plants. We

  17. Simulated Convective Invigoration Processes at Trade Wind Cumulus Cold Pool ZHUJUN LI AND PAQUITA ZUIDEMA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuidema, Paquita

    convection and cold pools using a nested≠Weather Research and Fore- casting Model simulation of 19 January ratio drops in simulated cold pools fall within the envelope of observed cases, and the wind enhancement pools invigorating convection at their downwind boundary and suppressing thermals in- side the stable

  18. Mathematical models of natural gas consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scitovski, Rudolf

    Mathematical models of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan of natural gas consumption Kristian Sabo, Rudolf Scitovski, Ivan Vazler , Marijana Zeki-Susac ksabo of natural gas consumption hourly fore- cast on the basis of hourly movement of temperature and natural gas

  19. Scientific databases have recently become a challenging research area for a number of reasons: 1) the amount of data stored in scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Matthew

    measures, solar radiation, and output of numeric models of ground≠water flow or weather forecasting of reasons: 1) the amount of data stored in scientific databases is rapidly increasing, with orders of magnitude increases on the horizon, 2) the data are becoming increasing complex, as more complicated data

  20. VISUALIZATION OF ELASTIC BODY DYNAMICS FOR AUTOMOTIVE ENGINE SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    drives, hydraulic systems and gas flow in combustion chambers. It also includes AVL Excite, a soft- ware-body system: linear elastic bod- ies (crankshaft, conrod, etc) connected by joints (bear- ings, dampers, etc a brief overview of the typical workflow of a user working with Excite be- fore the 3D view

  1. BULLBTIN OF THE UNITED STATES FISII COMMISSION. 109 37.-PREBERVXNG FlBM IN BCOTLAND B Y 'J'IIE ROOWEN PROCKtBB.*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The commercial advantages of tlie new process are there- fore considerablc. 2. A box of dried ling similar preservation of dried fish,an experiment with fresh hs~iseemsto have been equally successful. Tho fish fish accord- ing to the above process amounts in this country to SG&[$31.63], the cost of cask being S4

  2. Center for Biotechnology Prof. Dr.-Ing. Gerhard Sagerer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Ralf

    developed innovative new courses of study which attract gifted students from all over the world. The CeBiTec not only shines in the international world of science; it also has important cooperation partners in many such as the application of biofuels, and for new microscope techniques, to name just a few. The CeBiTec has continually

  3. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Heinz Pitsch Templergraben 64

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    and computational studies over the last few decades have been focused on the utilization of Pt nanoparticles as novel functional catalysts for ORR in fuel cells, primarily because of their high surface to volume ratio. Durability of Pt based nanocatalysts in acidic media is one of the key issues hindering

  4. The ING Instrumentation Conference Discussion, Options for a Competitive Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. Walton; S. J. Smartt

    2000-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An expert panel initiated discussion on a number of key questions facing the role of 4-m and small telescopes in the new era of 8-m telescopes. The panel and audience agreed that the 4-m class telescope role would necessarily evolve, but would still be important in the coming years. The need for an active development programme of competitive instrumentation for 4-m class telescopes, and in particular the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) was stressed. In conjunction with this, the need to de-commission instrumentation made redundant by 8-m class telescopes was noted. New operational modes, including greater emphasis on survey programmes, and possibly queue scheduling, coupled with changes to the procedures for allocating time were seen as desirable. The panel and audience supported the Isaac Newton Group's emphasis on the development of instrumentation to exploit its imminent deployment of the WHT's facility Adaptive Optics system.

  5. Computational pproach to the Statistical echanics of rotein ol ing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    , 1995 bstract A statistical mechanical approach to the protein folding problem is devel- oped based of the statistical mechanics of protein folding by com- puter simulation. Even though we have taken advantage of new". A theoretical understanding of the protein-folding problem, i.e. how proteins fold to their native states from

  6. June 2426, 2008 Prof. Dr.-Ing. Henning Jrgen Meyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    machine model in the DGM Calculation of control deviation Planning data Levelling of the screed SteeringD Machine Control System #12;June 2426, 2008 ETH Zurich Content ∑ Initial Situation ∑ System design Principle of 3-D-Levelling and Navigation Position Machine geometry Machine model Calculation of the real

  7. The physical function-ing of a city sometimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    time and space scales ­ hence they are important and must be incorporated in weather, air pollution combustion (C) from vehicles, industry and buildings rather than the biological processes of photosynthesis of energy and water can be affected dramatically by the specific construction mate- rials, land cover

  8. Chapter XVIII An e'Learn ing Portal to Teach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    . Grunwald University ofFlorida, USA B. Hoover University ~/Florida, USA G.L. Bruland University ofHawai 'i

  9. REPORT ON THIRD NATIONAL RING-ING WORKSHOP: CINTSA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    contact: Paul Martin 30 Himeville Drive Bluewater Bay Port Elizabeth 62 l0 Tel: 041 559 711 (o) 041 66s

  10. General Motors Perspective Dr.-Ing.Wolfgang Oelerich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon fiber composite vessels Range: 320 km Over 2.5 million km (1.5 million miles) More than 19 measures to increase effective composite strength: Materials: fiber strength variability, translation Tank cost sources: Carbon fiber 40%, other 60% Hydrogen storage system costs are linear in Hydrogen

  11. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Heinz Pitsch Templergraben 64

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Norbert

    CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Simulationen unterstŁtzen. Im Rahmen des Exzellenzclusters ,,Tailor-made Fuels from Biomass" wird am Institut fŁr Technische Verbrennung die chemische Kinetik von alternativen

  12. STEM-ing the Tide | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy atLLC - FE DKT. 10-160-LNG - ORDERSTATE ENERGY PROGRAMJuly 2012STEM

  13. Preliminary investigation of grain refinement in a U-0.2 wt % V alloy casting by true isothermal transformation at 516{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, D.H.; Flores, R.; Kershaw, R.P.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory-scale isothermal transformation from beta phase to alpha phase at 516 C was accomplished using one U-0.2 wt % V alloy composition and with specimens up to 7.6 mm in thickness. Gravity was used to transfer individual specimens from a furnace at 720 C to one at 516 C. The lower-temperature, furnace contained two copper blocks between which the specimens were quenched by contact. The furnace also contained a partial atmosphere of helium. Results duplicate those of Reisse et al. at this temperature. Their work was done on smaller samples. Grain sizes obtained were consistently ASTM 7 to 8 (20 to 30 {mu}m), indicating that the cooling rates at the center of even the thicker samples were adequate to miss the nose of the (upper) TTT curve. The microstructure obtained, including the grain size, appears to be equivalent to that obtained by carefully controlled wrought processing, but we believe these castings lack the strong crystallographic textures that exist in wrought products.

  14. Heat transfer at the mold-metal interface in permanent mold casting of aluminum alloys project. Quarterly project status report, October 1--December 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pehlke, R.D.; Hao, S.W.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The first series of experiments at the CMI-Tech Center was successfully conducted on October 14 and 15 with the participation of the University of Michigan team. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the die surface temperatures (or near the surface) have a close correlation with the metal pressure profiles. Considering the difference in timing of the peak die temperatures, the high melt temperature and hotter die temperature for Inter 54 might cause a longer solidification time, and the pressure would decrease more slowly than for Inter 12. The slopes of the metal pressure profiles at the low pressure setting are almost linear. This may mean that the low metal pressure couldn`t effectively keep a pressure channel opened. In other words, as temperature decreased, the solid fraction increased and the solidified shell strengthened, and the pressure, which couldn`t overcome the resistance, would drop linearly. However, at the high pressure, there are inflection points in the pressure profiles. The inflection points are at about 8,500 psi for both the low and the high melt temperature settings. This suggests that the metal pressure was sufficient enough to overcome the resistance of the solidified shell before the inflection point was reached. A preliminary microstructure analysis shows that the dendrite arms at the location near the gate are much coarser than that at the top of the casting. The influence of intensification pressure on microstructure needs further verification and study.

  15. Effect of tungsten addition on the toughness and hardness of Fe{sub 2}B in wear-resistant Fe-B-C cast alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhifu, E-mail: hzf@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xing, Jiandong; Lv, Liangliang

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of tungsten additions of 0%, 1.12%, 2.04%, and 3.17% (in wt.%) on the morphology, fracture toughness and micro-hardness of Fe{sub 2}B in Fe-B-C cast alloy were investigated. The results indicate that, with the increase of tungsten addition, the morphology and distribution of Fe{sub 2}B have no change and a new W-containing phase, except the (Fe, W){sub 2}B with a certain tungsten solution, does not form, and that the fracture toughness of Fe{sub 2}B increases first and then decreases, while the hardness increases first and then has a little change. Compared with the fracture toughness (3.8 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}) of Fe{sub 2}B without tungsten addition, the toughness at 2.04 wt.% tungsten can be improved by about above 80% and achieves about 6.9 MPa{center_dot}m{sup 1/2}, and variation characteristics of hardness and toughness of Fe{sub 2}B were also testified by viewing the indentation marks and cracks on the Fe{sub 2}B, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Poor toughness of Fe2B decreases obviously the wear resistance of the alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As W content increases, Fe2B's toughness increases first and then decreases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As W content increases, Fe2B's hardness first increases and then has little change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toughness at 2.04 % W can be improved by above 80% more than that at 0% W.

  16. Moving Toward SuSTainable ForeSTry: S t r a t e g i e s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Forest Management 3 How This Handbook Is Organized 4 Chapter 1 Your Role In Sustainable Forest Management Contracts 12 Chapter 2 Forest Management And Water Quality 13 Strategy #1: Minimize Soil Erosion From Your In Your Forest 66 Chapter 7 Opportunities And Financial Incentives For 69 Sustainable Forest Management

  17. Short-Term Load Forecasting This paper discusses the state of the art in short-term load fore-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    spectrum of time intervals. In therange of seconds, when load variationsare small and random, the automatic by a number of generation control functions such as hydro scheduling, unit commitment, hydro-ther- mal present, functions such as fuel, hydro, and maintenance scheduling are performed to ensure that the load

  18. Ablation Casting Evaluation for High Volume Structural Castings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 A Strategic26-OPAMATTENDEEES:ofDepartment of(December

  19. Comment on the reported fiber attenuations in the visible regime in 'Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng Xian; Loh, Wei H.; Richardson, David J

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We comment on the recent paper by Zhou et al. [Appl. Opt.45, 4433 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.004433], in which transmission losses of 0.2-0.3 dB/m were claimed across the wavelength range 420-900 nm in a high-index (nd=1.80518 at 587.6 nm) SF6 glass-based photonic crystal fiber fabricated by novel die-cast technique. If confirmed, these losses are at least 1 order of magnitude lower than previous reported losses of SF6 photonic crystal fibers from other fabrication approaches. Here we present a statistic survey on the relationship between the refractive index and the bulk material attenuation, based on a large number of commercial Schott optical glasses with the nd ranging between 1.40 and 2.05. It shows that the loss of a high-index (nd=1.80) glass optical fiber should be at the levels of 10-50 dB/m at 420 nm and 1-10 dB/m at 500 nm, respectively. Moreover, the material attenuation of such a high-index glass fiber should intrinsically show a large decay, from 10-50 dB/m at 420 nm to the level of 1 dB/m at 700 nm, which arises from the tail on the UV absorption edge of the high-index glass extending to the visible region. Therefore, we conclude that: (1) the low loss of 0.2-0.3 dB/m reported in the cited paper is abnormally one or two magnitudes lower than the material attenuation that a high-index (nd=1.80) glass optical fiber should have in the range between 420 and 500 nm and that (2) the flat loss curve between 420 and 700 nm in the cited paper deviates greatly from the intrinsic behavior of a high-index (nd=1.80) glass fiber.

  20. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Method for Welds in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping JCN N6398, Task 1B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS); dissimilar metal welds; piping with corrosion-resistant cladding; weld overlays, inlays and onlays; and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. In this effort, PNNL supports cooperation with Commissariat ŗ líEnergie Atomique (CEA) to assess reliable inspection of CASS materials. The NRC Project Manager has established a cooperative effort with the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). CEA, under funding from IRSN, are supporting collaborative efforts with the NRC and PNNL. Regarding its work on the NDE of materials, CEA is providing its modeling software (CIVA) in exchange for PNNL offering expertise and data related to phased-array detection and sizing, acoustic attenuation, and back scattering on CASS materials. This collaboration benefits the NRC because CEA performs research and development on CASS for …lectricitť de France (EdF). This technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of welds in CASS pressurizer (PZR) surge line nuclear reactor piping. A set of thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) was implanted into three CASS PZR surge-line specimens (pipe-to-elbow welds) that were fabricated using vintage CASS materials formed in the 1970s, and flaw responses from these cracks were used to evaluate detection and sizing performance of the PA-UT methods applied. This effort was comprised of multiple elements that included use of microstructural knowledge (dimensional analysis, grain orientation, and grain type) as well as sound field modeling to more effectively modify inspection parameters and enhance the inspection outcomes. Advanced probe design and sound field simulations were employed to enhance detection and characterization of circumferentially oriented flaws, and an assessment of lateral (circumferential) flaw localization capability and performance was also conducted. An evaluation of flaw detection, length sizing, depth sizing, and signal-to-noise ratio was performed for all flaws in the subject specimens, as a function of various inspection parameters, and finally, measurements were made to quantify and assess the baseline CASS material noise and its potential impact on flaw detection.

  1. Filter casting nanoscale porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, Joel Ryan; Nyce, Gregory Walker; Kuntz, Joshua David

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing nanoporous material includes the steps of providing a liquid, providing nanoparticles, producing a slurry of the liquid and the nanoparticles, removing the liquid from the slurry, and producing a monolith.

  2. Filter casting nanoscale porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayes, Joel Ryan; Nyce, Gregory Walker; Kuntz, Jushua David

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing nanoporous material includes the steps of providing a liquid, providing nanoparticles, producing a slurry of the liquid and the nanoparticles, removing the liquid from the slurry, and producing monolith.

  3. Spray casting of metallic preforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID); Sears, James W. (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal alloy is melted in a crucible and ejected from the bottom of the crucible as a descending stream of molten metal. The descending stream is impacted with a plurality of primary inert gas jets surrounding the molten metal stream to produce a plume of atomized molten metal droplets. An inert gas is blown onto a lower portion of the plume with a plurality of auxiliary inert gas jets to deflect the plume into a more restricted pattern of high droplet density, thereby substantially eliminating unwanted overspray and resulting wasted material. The plume is projected onto a moving substrate to form a monolithic metallic product having generally parallel sides.

  4. DOE CAST ALL EMPLOYEE NOTIFICATION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsNovember 13, 2014Contributing DataDepartmentGuideandandBestSupportAwards

  5. 0. Beckermann Department of Mechanical Engineering,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    by conducting a series of experiments covering a wide range of hot and cold wall temperatures. It is found the steady-state interface is almost vertical andparallel to the cold wall. Strong subcool- ing results number of applications, including latent heat storage, materials process- ing, crystal growth, casting

  6. Silicon ingot casting: Heat Exchanger Method (HEM)/multi-wire slicing: Fixed Abrasive Slicing Technique (FAST), Phase IV. Quarterly progress report No. 2, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmid, F.; Khattak, C.P.; Basaran, M.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon ingot size cast by HEM has been extended to 34 cm x 34 cm x 10 cm. A 20 kg ingot has been solidified at 3 kg/hr with no crucible attachment or ingot cracking problems. Another ingot of 26 kg weight has also been solidified. The heat treatment used to develop a graded structure caused cracking on the inside surface of the first large crucibles. The thermal conditions were altered to minimize high gradients and the cracking was eliminated. A high degree of single crystallinity has been maintained as the size of the ingots has been increased. A graphite retainer made out of flat plates was used to produce an ingot with flat sides and rounded curves. It is now possible to electroplate diamonds only on the cutting edge of the wire. The advantages associated with diamonds on the cutting edge only are lower kerf, improved accuracy by improved seating in the support rollers, and less degradation of the rollers. This has resulted in less wander of wires and will reduce costs by using less diamonds and less degradation of rollers. The main failure mechanism of wires - diamond pullout - has been minimized by using filler diamonds to prevent erosion of the nickel matrix. It has been shown that an electroplated wirepack can be used to slice three 10 cm diameter silicon ingots without significant diamond pullout. IPEG analysis of value added costs of sheet formation using conservative and optimistic extension of HEM and FAST technologies yields $27.05/m/sup 2/ ($0.191/w) and $13.49/m/sup 2/ (0.095/w), respectively. Assuming cost goals of other tasks are met, the projected costs are $0.654/w, conservatively, and $0.539/w, optimistically, for photovoltaic modules.

  7. Protrusion of fore-arc mantle serpentinites together with HP and UHP rocks along major strike-slip fault zones, Northern Subduction Complex, Hispaniola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -slip fault zones, Northern Subduction Complex, Hispaniola Benoit-Michel SAUMUR (bsaum014@uottawa.ca), Kéiko H in the Northern Subduction Complex of Hispaniola. We discuss the origins of the serpentinites and implications and inliers exposing Cretaceous to mid-Eocene basement in Northern Hispaniola are highlighted. Arc volcanic

  8. Dr.Ing. defense, June 8, 2005 Studies on Selection of Controlled Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    combinations 8. Self-optimizing control structures for a Petlyuk distillation column 9. Energy savings by over-fractionation

  9. Neural Networks in 3D medical scan visualization Dzenan Zuki, Dipl. Ing., dzenanz@gmail.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanz, Volker

    II br. 52, 71322 Vogosa, Bosnia and Herzegovina University of Sarajevo / Faculty of Electrical, Zmaja od Bosne bb - Kampus, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina University of Sarajevo / Electrical

  10. METODOLOGIA DE LA PROGRAMACION II -Junio de 2003 Ing. Tec. Gest. Prof. Luis Castillo Vidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Luis

    MIRANDA CABRERA,FRANCISCO JAVIER NPRES MONTERO GARCIA,JUAN MANUEL SUS (sept=tp) MONTERO LUQUE,JUAN MANUEL

  11. METODOLOGIA DE LA PROGRAMACION II -Junio de 2003 Ing. Tec. Gest. Prof. Luis Castillo Vidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castillo, Luis

    MERIDA QUERO,FRANCISCO JESUS - - NPRES MIRANDA CABRERA,FRANCISCO JAVIER - - NPRES MONTERO GARCIA,JUAN MANUEL (***) (***) (***) MONTERO LUQUE,JUAN MANUEL (*) NOT+ (*) MONTIJANO POSADA,MIGUEL ANGEL - - NPRES

  12. Computer systems and methods for visualizStolte; Chris ing data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stolte, Chris; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a visual plot using a hierarchical structure of a dataset. The dataset comprises a measure and a dimension. The dimension consists of a plurality of levels. The plurality of levels form a dimension hierarchy. The visual plot is constructed based on a specification. A first level from the plurality of levels is represented by a first component of the visual plot. A second level from the plurality of levels is represented by a second component of the visual plot. The dataset is queried to retrieve data in accordance with the specification. The data includes all or a portion of the dimension and all or a portion of the measure. The visual plot is populated with the retrieved data in accordance with the specification.

  13. NTNU Dr. ing. Thesis 2001:43 Ivar J. Halvorsen Notation and Nomenclature 19

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    I: Design 25 2 Distillation Theory 27 2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.3 The Continuous Distillation Column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.3.1 Degrees of Freedom in Operation of a Distillation Column . 37 2.3.2 External and Internal Flows

  14. Bala, K., P. Dutre (eds.). Render-ing Techniques 2005. Springer-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keinan, Alon

    . Reliable Distributed Systems: Technologies, Web Ser- vice, and Applications. Springer- Verlag Kleinberg, J. Gehrke. Database Management Systems, 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill Schneider, F.B. Trust in Cyber- space to Maple. Prentice Hall Schwartz, D. Introduction to UNIX. Prentice Hall 1997 Birman, K. Building Secure

  15. INFORMATION EXCELLENTIA CoLumbIA ENgINEErINg 249

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    - ruginosa, a bacteria that inhabits the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis, is an example. "These

  16. UC DAVIS College of engIneerIng 2011-12 Annual report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    speakers Diane Bryant ('85), senior vice president and general manager of Intel's Datacenter and Connected

  17. Prof. Ing. Alessandro A.Golkar, PhD 10 Emerson Pl., Boston, MA 02114

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    recommendations for US Augustine Report. 2009 ≠ 2010 BP plc (with MIT) Offshore Oil and Gas Production Platforms the Solution from University to Company to Market", May 2013 Moscow Aviation Institute, "Federated Satellite

  18. Agrar-und Umweltwissenschaftliche Fakultt (AUF) Dekan: Prof. Dr. Elmar Mohr Prodekanin: Prof. Dr. Inge Broer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rostock, Universitšt

    : N.N. 40 00 Theologische Fakultšt (THF) Dekan: Prof. Dr. Klaus Hock Prodekan: Prof. Dr. Heinrich (MNF) Dekan: Prof. Dr. Klaus Neymeyr Prodekan: Prof. Dr. Martin KŲckerling Studiendekan: Prof. Dr. Dieter Bauer 60 00 Juristische Fakultšt (JUF) Dekan: Prof. Dr. Hubertus Gersdorf Prodekan: Prof. Dr

  19. Protective interior wall and attach8ing means for a fusion reactor vacuum vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Richard D. (Greeley, CO); Upham, Gerald A. (Valley Center, CA); Anderson, Paul M. (San Diego, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of connected plates mounted on the inside wall of the vacuum vessel of a magnetic confinement reactor in order to provide a protective surface for energy deposition inside the vessel. All fasteners are concealed and protected beneath the plates, while the plates themselves share common mounting points. The entire array is installed with torqued nuts on threaded studs; provision also exists for thermal expansion by mounting each plate with two of its four mounts captured in an oversize grooved spool. A spool-washer mounting hardware allows one edge of a protective plate to be torqued while the other side remains loose, by simply inverting the spool-washer hardware.

  20. in more conventi onal books on ing, and its intended use is for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Washington HG-30, Seattle, WA 98195. The Atlas of Physical and Chemi- cal Properties of Puget Sound and Its- mation for anyone maki ng decisions based on physical and chemical char- acteristics of Puget Sound in this atlas. The first readil) avai lable graphic description of Puget Sound water quality data over a sustall

  1. A survey of intrusion detection in wireless network applications Robert Mitchell, Ing-Ray Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Ray

    tool that can defend against the real-world cyber attacks threatening critical systems. These attacks include the Stuxnet attack on Iranian engineering facilities [1,2], proof of concept attacks on insulin pumps [3] and cardiac devices [4], the DoS attack on a German power grid opera- tor [5

  2. Materials Data on Ho2InGe2 (SG:127) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Kristin Persson

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  3. Dipartimento N. laboratori Denominazione del Laboratorio Responsabile del Laboratorio note SEALAB Ing. Stefano Bencetti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genova, Universitŗ degli Studi di

    ) Termodinamica, 6) Sintesi e caratterizzazione di materiali metallici, 7) Studio, protezione e recupero

  4. Curriculum Vitae Signe Kjelstrup, Prof. Dr.techn. et dr. ing.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    , 1971, Grade reported to the King of Norway. Lic.techn. NTH, 1974. Thesis: Complex formations in Alkali-Aluminium Fluoride Melts. Passed with distinction. Dr.techn. NTH, 1982. Thesis: On the Energetics of Coupled

  5. ing the distribution of those galaxies, the way they clump and spread out, scientists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Ahmet

    matter or the anti- gravity push of dark energy. In October, the SDSS team revealed its analysis researchers had reached: The uni- verse is dominated by dark energy. This year scientists got their most direct view of dark energy in action. In July, physi- cists superimposed the galaxy-clustering data

  6. Institute for Micro System Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil Jrg Mller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Ralf

    solar cell, potentially high efficient and low cost, is devel- oped, which is based on a rapid melting on crystalline thick film silicon solar cells on glass substrates and polymer fuel cells Micro Total Analysis silicon Recrystallized Thick Film Sili- con Solar Cells on Glass A new type of polycrystalline silicon

  7. personality factors related to individual eat-ing patterns and will improve our knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    of the relationships between factors asso- ciated with EB and food intake. Influence of consumption of beer with- out, sometimes hindering anti-drug tests. The influence of the consumption of beer without alcohol of the match according to the type of drink, either 750 mL of beer without alcohol (BWA) or the same volume

  8. How Firm a Foundation: Faith and Practice in the Works of William Inge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Philip M.

    2012-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    . If the narrative in My Son was his own life story, God was, to use one of his own phrases, ďan ornery bastard.Ē God exacts a price for living a life of leisure and lust; he takes away precious children with the stroke of a razor blade, and he visits gloom upon... tested and punished while on Earth. It is the paradox of faith that you must be both afraid of the wrath of God yet also forgiven for all your sins in the name of his son. This contrast of hope and resurrection with fear and anguish...

  9. ingLessons in AppLied innovAtion from stAte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    as words become trending topics on Twitter. If you remove the likes of Justin Bieber and Lady Gaga from

  10. Wolfram Hoefer, Dr.-Ing. Assistant Professor Department of Landscape Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    -09 Design development for the outdoor exhibition Earth from Above at Battery Park City, NYC. Co-PI design" (Munich Green), City of Munich 2003 House Garden (Speyer, Germany), private client 2001 Part time free

  11. Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Utz von Wagner Technische Universitt Berlin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universitšt

    , and friction in pendulum joints is modeled as a composition of dry (Coulomb-like) friction and viscous damping

  12. ings regarding the emerging complexity of pu-tatively simple metals under pressure (1, 2, 5,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    , in Proceedings of the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi," R. J. Hemley, G. Chiarotti, M. Bernasconi- dation. W.G. acknowledges support from REU Site for Undergraduate Research Training in Geoscience (NSF

  13. UIC Brand and MessagIng gUIde Our Story

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    GUIDE 1 #12;smart accessible superior education confident global urban world-class city hardworking our status as a public university and the diversity of this world-class city. Approachable We offer rank among the top in the nation, and our graduates become leaders in their chosen fields. Smart We

  14. College of ARCHITeCTURe, ART & PlAnnIng Department of Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that is supported by the interactive nature of at least one smart material. During two trips to New York City, we-Active Polymer at an Architectural Scale | ETHZ and EMPA Arch 4101/4102 /5101 & 7912 Smart Materials as smart materials. Materials are considered smart materials if they can respond to an external stimulus

  15. INFORMATION EXCELLENTIA CoLumbIA ENgINEErINg202

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hone, James

    build circuits from libraries of proven designs. Yet new technologies pose many problems for tradition energy use. "The path towards green computing systems starts with more efficient communication

  16. Liste des Publications du Dr. Ing. Didier El Baz (HDR 1998) Habilitation Diriger des Recherches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrand, FranÁois

    jury, J.-C. Miellou : prťsident, D. Bertsekas : rapporteur, F. Robert : rapporteur, P. Spiteri. Revues Internationales RI1 D. El Baz, V. Boyer, J. Bourgeois, E. Dedu, Distributed part differentiation in a smart surface, ŗ paraÓtre dans Mechatronics. RI2 V. Boyer, D. El Baz, M. Elkihel, Solving knapsack

  17. ANALISI MATEMATICA II -Ing. Aerospaziale PROVA PRATICA (15/6/2009) Cognome e nome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ogni foglio che si consegna. 1. Determinare, se esistono, le soluzioni definite in tutto R dell'equazione differenziale y = -3e3x y - e6x y2 . (8 punti) 2. Data la regione del piano xz D = (x, z) R2 : x 0 , 4 x2 + z ogni foglio che si consegna. 1. Determinare, se esistono, le soluzioni definite in tutto R dell

  18. ANALISI MATEMATICA II -Ing. Aerospaziale PROVA PRATICA (16/9/2009) Cognome e nome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    y + x2 . Determinare, se esistono, i valori di R per i quali ogni soluzione y(x) dell) = 2 cos2 , - 2 , 2 , calcolare l'area della regione di piano racchiusa da e la lunghezza di . (8) trovarne i punti critici e classificarli; b) determinare, se esistono, massimo e minimo assoluti di f nel

  19. Power Electronics and Electrical Drives Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Bcker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    High power and torque densities High power and torque densities Research Topics PMSM / IPMSM Modeling

  20. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOilBuilding EnergyMCKEESPORT

  1. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOilBuilding

  2. CANTON LAKESHORE CANTON E BEST CON NEAUT GIDD INGS EAST N ELLSWORT

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4 OilU.S.5AreOilBuildingLiquids Reserve

  3. Biography U. D√ľsterloh Degree: PD Dr.- Ing. habil. Institution: Clausthal University of Technology.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find Find More LikeAndreas Hampel Dr. KuhlmanU.

  4. Stochastic Characterization of Cast Metal Microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinzig, M.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goal of this work is to provide a means to characterize the final structure of a metal that has solidified from a melt. The thermally controlled solidification of a binary alloy, nucleated at isolated sites, is described by the evolution of a probability distribution function (PDF). The relevant equation required for propagating the PDF is developed with variables for grain size and distance to nearest neighbor. The phenomena of nucleation, growth, and impingement of the grains are discussed, and used as the basis for developing rate equations that evolve the PDF. The complementary equations describing global heat and solute transfer are discussed, and coupled with the microstructure evolution equations for grain growth and PDF evolution. The full set of equations is solved numerically and results are compared with experimental data for the plutonium 1 weight percent gallium system. The three principal results of this work are: (1) The formulation of transient evolution equations for the PDF description of nucleation, growth, and impingement of a distribution of grain sizes and locations; (2) Solution of the equations to give a correlation for final average grain size as a function of material parameters, nucleation site density, and cooling rate; and (3) Solution of the equations for final distribution of grain size as a result of the initial random spatial distribution of nucleation sites.

  5. Ultra Large Castings For Lightweight Vehicle Structures

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    criterion other than visual inspection. * Implemented changes to part design, tooling, and process parameters to improve the mechanical properties of the shotgun. * E.g.,...

  6. The Feasibility of Casting Sculpture in Kirksite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Lewis Howard

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of equal parts of ammonium chloride and lithium n chloride. When soldering, use an 82.5 percent cadmium or 17.5 percent zinc solder with no flux.3 ē^ Metals Handbook. op. cit. , I, p. 1158. ^J. F. Lancaster. The Metallurgy of Welding, Brazing... Silver Chromium Gold These platings are most commonly applied for decorative purposes, but they also improve resistance to corrosion and abrasion. All plated coatings are somewhat porous; and, when moisture penetrates through the pores, some...

  7. ITP Metal Casting: Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    foundries spend a higher proportion of their funds available for capital improvements on pollution control equipment. The industry as a whole, however, invests significantly in...

  8. Structural Cast Magnesium Development (SCMD) AMD 111

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to harsh service conditions High service loads Exposed underbody placement (galvanic corrosion mitigation critical) Elevated temperature (125 o C) Fixed cradle geometry...

  9. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  10. Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    Development and Benchmark of New Multi-Coefficient Double-Hybrid Density Functional Theory with SCS-MP2 and MP Cheng University PLACE Rm716, CCMS & New Physics Building, NTU Abstract We have developed a series. The performance of MC-DFT can be further improved combining energies from ab initio MP2 and SCS-MP2 calculation

  11. Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    -Ming Lu National Center for High Performance Computing PLACE Rm716, CCMS & New Physics Building, NTU

  12. Method of casting patterned dielectric structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pattern of dielectric structures are formed directly on a substrate in a single step using sol-gel chemistry and molding procedures. The resulting dielectric structures are useful in vacuum applications for electronic devices. Porous, lightweight structures having a high aspect ratio that are suitable for use as spacers between the faceplate and baseplate of a field emission display can be manufactured using this method.

  13. Breaking the mould: Casting on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    such materials. Current commercial applications include super-capacitors for mobile energy storage, extremely

  14. Master thesis Supercooled Simultaneous Composite Casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Kim, Yong Ki () Department of Ferrous Technology (Computational Metallurgy) Graduate Institute, Yong Ki Department of Ferrous Technology (Computational Metallurgy) Graduate Institute of Ferrous in the Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (Computational Metallurgy) Pohang, Korea December 24th , 2008

  15. Silicon cast wafer recrystallization for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hantsoo, Eerik T. (Eerik Torm)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current industry-standard methods of manufacturing silicon wafers for photovoltaic (PV) cells define the electrical properties of the wafer in a first step, and then the geometry of the wafer in a subsequent step. The ...

  16. Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    -Einstein condensates SPEAKER Prof. Shih-Chuan Gou Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education PLACE Rm716, CCMS & New Physics Building, NTU Abstract Atomic Bose-Einstein condensates conned to a dual a test of the scaling laws for defect formation by quenching a Bose gas to degeneracy in this geometry

  17. Joint CQSE and CASTS Seminar Weekly Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    in the field of photocatalysis since Asahi et al.'s experiment in 2001. Nevertheless,the physical origins

  18. Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr. ErnestMID-CAREERofBacterium |Magna10Components

  19. Interstat Issue 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that these viewpoints will inspire others to write also, whether pro or con. It is a stimulating way to exercise our minds and promote a good old-fashioned debate on whatever topic is brought to the fore. In conclusion, I agree with Roberta Rogow's aoristic suggestion... has happened to truth?" Truth is how we interpret facts so what may be true for you may not be true for me. I am not try ing to get involved in the Atlanta Con debate because I wasn't there so I have no facts to base my "truth" upon. Those of you who...

  20. Response of Pan American Balsamscale, Soil, and Livestock to Prescribed Burning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutz, J.L.; Greene, T.G.; Scifres, C.J.; Koerth, B.H.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and November 4, 1982 and on May 7 and October 21 , 1983 were measured by clipping vegetation to ground line in 10 randomly placed 0.25 m2 quad rats per subplot. Herbage was separated into grasses and forbs be fore ovendrying and weighing. Mulch... tiller was defined as a living stem or whorl of leaves of any size originating from the base of the plant. Reproductive culms on tagged plants were counted on June 15 and November 3, 1982. Only culms bear ing infloresences were counted...