Sample records for force microscopy afm

  1. Dynamic Force AFM (Asylum) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    specifically for biological applications and can be used to: Study individual protein or DNA molecules in situ Image the surface of living cells Measure the adhesive forces of...

  2. Detection of Percolating Paths in PMMA/CB Segregated Network Composites Using Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ou, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gupta, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Parker, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gerhardt, Dr. Rosario [Georgia Institute of Technology; Seal, Katyayani [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite specimens possessing polyhedral segregated network microstructures require a very small amount of nanosize filler, <1 vol %, to reach percolation because percolation occurs by accumulation of the fillers along the edges of the deformed polymer matrix particles. In this paper, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) were used to confirm the location of the nanosize fillers and the corresponding percolating paths in polymethyl methacrylate/carbon black composites. The EFM and C-AFM images revealed that the polyhedral polymer particles were coated with filler, primarily on the edges as predicted by the geometric models provided.

  3. Contribution to crystallographic slip assessment by means of topographic measurements achieved with atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahloun, C. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Badji, R. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Welding and NDT Research Centre, B. P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Bacroix, B., E-mail: bacroix@lpmtm.univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouabdallah, M. [E.N.P, 10 av. Hassan Badi, 16200 El Harrah Alger (Algeria)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively characterize the plastic glide occurring during tensile deformation of a duplex 2205 stainless steel sample. We demonstrate that an appropriate treatment of the topographic image issued from AFM measurements allows precise and quantitative information about the characteristics of plastic deformation and especially the amount of crystallographic slip.

  4. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  5. Accurate capacitive metrology for atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents accurate capacitive sensing metrology designed for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) originally developed in the MIT Precision Motion Control Lab. The capacitive measurements use a set of ...

  6. Size effects in bimetallic nickelgold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansoz, Frederic

    Size effects in bimetallic nickel­gold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy the local plastic behavior and hardness properties of electrodeposited bimetallic Ni­Au NWs ranging from 60 rights reserved. Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Nanowire; Nickel; Gold; Nanoindentation 1

  7. afm force measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

  8. Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

  9. Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, James L.; Huey, Bryan D., E-mail: bhuey@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Grishin, Ilya; Kolosov, Oleg V. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Gyu Choi, Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanosecond scale threshold switching is investigated with conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM) for an amorphous GeSe film. Switched bits exhibit 2–3 orders of magnitude variations in conductivity, as demonstrated in phase change based memory devices. Through the nm-scale AFM probe, this crystallization was achieved with pulse durations of as low as 15?ns, the fastest reported with scanning probe based methods. Conductance AFM imaging of the switched bits further reveals correlations between the switched volume, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration. The influence of film heterogeneities on switching is also directly detected, which is of tremendous importance for optimal device performance.

  10. The AFM was originally developed as an adaptation of another scanning probe microscopy technology, the scanning tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    The AFM was originally developed as an adaptation of another scanning probe microscopy technology, the scanning tunneling microscope, to image nonconductive materials through direct physical contact between-scale displacement resolutions of the AFM enable the topographical scanning of mechanically compliant materials

  11. STM/AFM (PicoSPM) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STMAFM (PicoSPM) STMAFM (PicoSPM) EMSL's Molecular Imaging, Inc. PicoSPM(tm) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)atomic force microscopy (AFM) supports a wide range of...

  12. Spatial dependence of polycrystalline FTO’s conductance analyzed by conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peixoto, Alexandre Pessoa; Costa, J. C. da [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, PO Box 4386, Brasília - DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) is a highly transparent, electrically conductive polycrystalline material frequently used as an electrode in organic solar cells and optical-electronic devices [1–2]. In this work a spatial analysis of the conductive behavior of FTO was carried out by Conductive-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM). Rare highly oriented grains sample give us an opportunity to analyze the top portion of polycrystalline FTO and compare with the border one. It is shown that the current flow essentially takes place through the polycrystalline edge at grain boundaries.

  13. Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

  14. Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

  15. Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

  16. Physical mechanisms of megahertz vibrations and nonlinear detection in ultrasonic force and related microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, J. L.; Huey, B. D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Tovee, P. D.; Kolosov, O. V., E-mail: o.kolosov@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of high frequency (HF) vibrations at MHz frequencies in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) advanced nanoscale property mapping to video rates, allowed use of cantilever dynamics for mapping nanomechanical properties of stiff materials, sensing ?s time scale phenomena in nanostructures, and enabled detection of subsurface features with nanoscale resolution. All of these methods critically depend on the generally poor characterized HF behaviour of AFM cantilevers in contact with a studied sample, spatial and frequency response of piezotransducers, and transfer of ultrasonic vibrations between the probe and a specimen. Focusing particularly on Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM), this work is also applicable to waveguide UFM, heterodyne force microscopy, and near-field holographic microscopy, all methods that exploit nonlinear tip-surface force interactions at high frequencies. Leveraging automated multidimensional measurements, spectroscopic UFM (sUFM) is introduced to investigate a range of common experimental parameters, including piezotransducer excitation frequency, probed position, ultrasonic amplitude, cantilever geometry, spring constant, and normal force. Consistent with studies of influence of each of these factors, the data-rich sUFM signatures allow efficient optimization of ultrasonic-AFM based measurements, leading to best practices recommendations of using longer cantilevers with lower fundamental resonance, while at the same time increasing the central frequency of HF piezo-actuators, and only comparing results within areas on the order of few ?m{sup 2} unless calibrated directly or compared with in-the-imaged area standards. Diverse materials such as Si, Cr, and photoresist are specifically investigated. This work thereby provides essential insight into the reliable use of MHz vibrations with AFM and provides direct evidence substantiating phenomena such as sensitivity to adhesion, diminished friction for certain ultrasonic conditions, and the particular benefit of UFM and related methods for nanoscale mapping of stiff materials.

  17. Investigation of leakage current paths in n-GaN by conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Bumho; Park, Yongjo, E-mail: yp0520@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Daeyoung; Nanishi, Yasushi [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kisu [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of) [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sewoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kuk [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: yp0520@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of) [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated electrical characteristics of leakage current paths in n-GaN layer grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The C-AFM mapping shows two kinds of leakage current paths existing in the n-GaN layer: open-core dislocation and pure screw dislocation. From the localized I-V curves measured by C-AFM, we confirmed that the open-core screw dislocation shows more significant leakage current. We explained these results in terms of a modified Schottky band model based on donor states formed by oxygen segregation at the (10?10) sidewall of the open-core screw dislocation.

  18. Switching surface polarization of atomic force microscopy probe utilizing photoisomerization of photochromic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aburaya, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Hikaru; Kageshima, Masami; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt to develop an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with optically switchable polarization is described. Modification with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules was attempted onto a Si substrate that is a prototype for a probe surface. Polarization switching caused by alternate irradiation of UV and visible lights were detected using the electrostatic force?>spectroscopy (EFS) technique. Si substrates modified with spiropyran and azobenzene exhibited reversible polarization switching that caused changes in CPD of about 100 and 50 mV, respectively. Modification with spiropyran was also attempted onto a Si probe and resulted in a CPD change of about 100 mV. It was confirmed that modification of an AFM probe or substrate with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules can generate surface polarization switching of a mechanically detectable level.

  19. Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe AFM Compound Microscope Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope The atomic force microscope (AFM) compound microscope is designed primarily for fluorescence imaging in the...

  20. High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1 J. Karthik,2 D. G. Cahill,1,2 L. W September 2011; published online 24 October 2011) We report high temperature piezoresponse force microscopy resistive heater allows local temperature control up to 1000 C with minimal electrostatic interactions

  1. Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im-portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) nanomanipu-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im- portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force on the order of 10 nm, however, automation has re- mained an elusive goal, primarily because of the spatial multi-tip arrays) or by automating the manipulation process, thus bypassing the time-consuming and labor

  2. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  3. Dielectric spectroscopy at the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy: A simple model linking materials properties and experimental response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A., E-mail: luisalejandro-miccio@ehu.es; Colmenero, Juan [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegría, Ángel [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an atomic force microscope for studying molecular dynamics through dielectric spectroscopy with spatial resolution in the nanometer scale is a recently developed approach. However, difficulties in the quantitative connection of the obtained data and the material dielectric properties, namely, frequency dependent dielectric permittivity, have limited its application. In this work, we develop a simple electrical model based on physically meaningful parameters to connect the atomic force microscopy (AFM) based dielectric spectroscopy experimental results with the material dielectric properties. We have tested the accuracy of the model and analyzed the relevance of the forces arising from the electrical interaction with the AFM probe cantilever. In this way, by using this model, it is now possible to obtain quantitative information of the local dielectric material properties in a broad frequency range. Furthermore, it is also possible to determine the experimental setup providing the best sensitivity in the detected signal.

  4. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by Atomic Force Microscopy with colloidal probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Puricelli; Massimiliano Galluzzi; Carsten Schulte; Alessandro Podestà; Paolo Milani

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells' fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cell elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured elastic modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in cell elasticity induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  5. Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: zhangwj3072@163.com [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Nanoscale cellular ultra-structures of macrophages were observed. •The binding affinities of Fc?Rs were measured directly on macrophages. •The nanoscale distributions of Fc?Rs were mapped on macrophages. -- Abstract: Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of Fc?Rs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of Fc?Rs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of Fc?Rs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the Fc?Rs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of Fc?Rs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of Fc?Rs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy.

  6. Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Carpentier; Mario S. Rodrigues; Luca Costa; Miguel V. Vitorino; Elisabeth Charlaix; Joel Chevrier

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which explains this behavior.

  7. Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpentier, Simon; Costa, Luca; Vitorino, Miguel V; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which expla...

  8. Atomic force microscopy of biochemically tagged DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogletree, D.F.; Kolbe, W.; Spengler, S.; Salmeron, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)); Hansma, H.G.; Bezanilla, M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)); Sano, T.; Smith, C.S.; Cantor, C.R. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small fragments of DNA of known length were made with the polymerase chain reaction. These fragments had biotin molecules covalently attached at their ends. They were subsequently labeled with a chimeric protein fusion between streptavidin and two immunoglobulin G-binding domains of staphyloccocal protein A. This tetrameric species was expected to bind up to four DNA molecules via their attached biotin moieties. The DNA-protein complex was deposited on mica and imaged with an atomic force microscope. The images revealed the protein chimera at the expected location at the ends of the strands of DNA as well as the expected dimers, trimers, and tetramers of DNA bound to a single protein. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  9. On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Daniel James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

  10. A system dynamics approach to user independence in high speed atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Daniel James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As progress in molecular biology and nanotechnology continues, demand for rapid and high quality image acquisition has increased to the point where the limitations of atomic force microscopes (AFM) become impediments to ...

  11. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  12. On the use of peak-force tapping atomic force microscopy for quantification of the local elastic modulus in hardened cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trtik, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.trtik@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Josef [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Volz, Udo [Bruker Nano GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface of epoxy-impregnated hardened cement paste was investigated using a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging mode that allows for the quantitative mapping of the local elastic modulus. The analyzed surface was previously prepared using focussed ion beam milling. The same surface was also characterized by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrate the capability of this quantitative nanomechanical mapping to provide information on the local distribution of the elastic modulus (from about 1 to about 100 GPa) with a spatial resolution in the range of decananometers, that corresponds to that of low-keV back-scattered electron imaging. Despite some surface roughness which affects the measured nanomechanical properties it is shown that topography, adhesion and Young's modulus can be clearly distinguished. The quantitative mapping of the local elastic modulus is able to discriminate between phases in the cement paste microstructure that cannot be distinguished from the corresponding back-scattered electron images.

  13. An in-vivo study of electrical charge distribution on the bacterial cell wall by Atomic Force Microscopy in vibrating force mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Marliere; Samia Dhahri

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an in-vivo electromechanical Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of charge distribution on the cell wall of Gram plus Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria, naturally adherent to a glass substrate, in physiological conditions. The method presented in this paper relies on a detailed study of AFM approach-retract curves giving the variation of the interaction force versus distance between tip and sample. In addition to classical height and mechanical (as stiffness) data, mapping of local electrical properties, as bacterial surface charge, was proved to be feasible at a spatial resolution better than few tens of nanometers. This innovative method relies on the measurement of the cantilever's surface stress through its deflection far from (higher than 10nm) the repulsive contact zone. The variations of surface stress come from modification of electrical surface charge of the cantilever (as in classical electrocapillary measurements) likely stemming from its charging during contact of both tip and sample electrical double layers. This method offers an important improvement in local electrical and electrochemical measurements at the solid-liquid interface particularly in high-molarity electrolytes when compared to technics focused on the direct use of electrostatic force. It thus opens a new way to directly investigate in-situ biological electrical surface processes involved in numerous practical and fundamental problems as bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cell, etc.

  14. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Dhaliwal, A. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, Punjab-148106 (India); Sonkawade, R. G. [School of Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025 (India)

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV {sup 60}Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  15. The study of organic crystals by atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Ernest Ho Hin

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.10 AFM amplitude profile of ASA (001) under ambient conditions before and after contact with dicalcium phosphate. . . . . . . . 47 4.1 Picture of the Multimode AFM instrument with labelled parts. . 49 4.2 3-D height profile of a standard... List of Abbreviations AN Anthracene ANQ Anthraquinone API Active pharmaceutical ingredient ASA Aspirin ATR Attenuated total reflection BFDH Bravais-Friedel-Donnay-Harker model CSD Cambridge Structural Database DSC Differential scanning calorimetry DPI...

  16. Scanning Force Microscopy Studies on Molecular Packing and Friction Anisotropy in Thin Films of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    Scanning Force Microscopy Studies on Molecular Packing and Friction Anisotropy in Thin Films in bulk, was studied using differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, magic angle solid were investigated at the molecular level by a combination of multimode scanning force microscopy (SFM

  17. Selection of higher eigenmode amplitude based on dissipated power and virial contrast in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Alfredo J.; Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Solares, Santiago D., E-mail: ssolares@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the effect of the amplitude ratio of the higher to the fundamental eigenmode in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the phase contrast and the dissipated power contrast of the higher eigenmode. We explore the optimization of the amplitude ratio in order to maximize the type of contrast that is most relevant to the particular study. Specifically, we show that the trends in the contrast range behave differently for different quantities, especially the dissipated power and the phase, with the former being more meaningful than the latter (a similar analysis can be carried out using the virial, for which we also provide a brief example). Our work is based on numerical simulations using two different conservative-dissipative tip-sample models, including the standard linear solid and the combination of a dissipation coefficient with a conservative model, as well as experimental images of thin film Nafion{sup ®} proton exchange polymers. We focus on the original bimodal AFM method, where the higher eigenmode is driven with constant amplitude and frequency (i.e., in “open loop”).

  18. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  19. Nanopatterning of Si/SiGe Two-dimensional Hole Gases by PFOTS-aided AFM Lithography of Carrier Supply Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanopatterning of Si/SiGe Two-dimensional Hole Gases by PFOTS-aided AFM Lithography of Carrier The nanopatterning of Si/SiGe layers by PFOTS (perfluorooctyl trichlorosilane) -aided AFM (atomic force microscopy and then transfer patterns in to underlying SiGe layers by a two-step selective wet etching. Minimum linewidths

  20. Study of anion adsorption at the gold--aqueous solution interface by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, S.; Mulvaney, P.; Grieser, F. (Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)); Zukoski, C.F. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The forces between a gold coated colloidal silica sphere and a pure gold plate have been measured in aqueous solution as a function of electrolyte concentration using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Forces in the presence of gold(III) chloride (HAuCl[sub 4]), sodium chloride, and trisodium citrate were recorded as a function of concentration. Each of these anion species is present during the formation of colloidal gold by the reduction of gold(III) chloride with trisodium citrate. In pure water the force between the gold surfaces was exclusively attractive. In sodium chloride or trisodium citrate solution a repulsive interaction was observed which is attributed to the adsorption of these anions at the gold/water interface. The observed interaction force in gold(III) chloride solution was always attractive, the surface potential never exceeding 20 mV. Data taken in aqueous solutions of citrate and chloride ions together suggested that the citrate ions were preferentially adsorbed to the surface of the gold. Addition of gold(III) chloride to the AFM liquid cell after the pre-adsorption of citrate anions caused the force of interaction to change from a repulsvie force to an attractive one initially as the gold(III) chloride was reduced to gold by the citrate anions. 33 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -differential-interference-contrast microscopy; Scanning force microscopy; Natural radiation damage 1. Introduction Alpha-recoil tracks (ARTsAlpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force

  2. A calibration method for lateral forces for use with colloidal probe force microscopy cantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintanilla, M. A. S.; Goddard, D. T. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration method is described for colloidal probe cantilevers that enables friction force measurements obtained using lateral force microscopy (LFM) to be quantified. The method is an adaptation of the lever method of Feiler et al. [A. Feiler, P. Attard, and I. Larson, Rev. Sci. Instum. 71, 2746 (2000)] and uses the advantageous positioning of probe particles that are usually offset from the central axis of the cantilever. The main sources of error in the calibration method are assessed, in particular, the potential misalignment of the long axis of the cantilever that ideally should be perpendicular to the photodiode detector. When this is not taken into account, the misalignment is shown to have a significant effect on the cantilever torsional stiffness but not on the lateral photodiode sensitivity. Also, because the friction signal is affected by the topography of the substrate, the method presented is valid only against flat substrates. Two types of particles, 20 {mu}m glass beads and UO{sub 3} agglomerates attached to silicon tapping mode cantilevers were used to test the method against substrates including glass, cleaved mica, and UO{sub 2} single crystals. Comparisons with the lateral compliance method of Cain et al. [R. G. Cain, S. Biggs, and N. W. Page, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 227, 55 (2000)] are also made.

  3. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells., University of Pittsburgh The most efficient organic solar cell today is made from blending conjugated donors and acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Most microscopic characterization

  4. Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Senli [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for surface potential imaging based on half-harmonic band excitation (BE) in Kelvin probe force microscopy is demonstrated. Using linear and half-harmonic BE enables quantitative correction of the cantilever transfer function. Half-harmonic band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy (HBE KPFM) thus allows quantitative separation of surface potential and topographic contributions to the signal, obviating the primary sources of topographic cross-talk. HBE KPFM imaging and voltage spectroscopy methods are illustrated for several model systems.

  5. On advancement of high speed atomic force microscope technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SooHoo, Kimberly E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High speed atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a developing process in which nanoscale objects, such as crystal structures or strands of DNA, can be imaged at rates fast enough to watch processes as they occur. Although current ...

  6. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  7. Comparative quantification and statistical analysis of ?? and ? precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 by TEM and AFM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Garcia, Adrian Luis, E-mail: agarciag@ipn.mx; Dominguez-Lopez, Ivan, E-mail: idominguezl@ipn.mx; Lopez-Jimenez, Luis, E-mail: llopez1002@ipn.mx; Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D. Oscar, E-mail: obarceinas@ipn.mx

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of nanometric precipitates in metallic alloys has been traditionally performed using transmission electron microscopy, which is nominally a low throughput technique. This work presents a comparative study of quantification of ?? and ? precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM quantification was compared with 2-D stereological results reported elsewhere. Also, a method was developed, using specialized software, to characterize nanometric size precipitates observed in dark-field TEM micrographs. Statistical analysis of the quantification results from both measurement techniques supports the use of AFM for precipitate characterization. Once the precipitate stoichiometry has been determined by appropriate analytical techniques like TEM, as it is the case for ?? and ? in AA7075-T651, the relative ease with which specimens are prepared for AFM analysis could be advantageous in product and process development, and quality control, where a large number of samples are expected for analysis on a regular basis. - Highlights: • Nanometric MgZn{sub 2} precipitates in AA7075-T651 were characterized using AFM and TEM. • Phase-contrast AFM was used to differentiate metal matrix from MgZn{sub 2} precipitates. • TEM and AFM micrographs were analyzed using commercially available software. • AFM image analysis and TEM 2-D stereology render statistically equivalent results.

  8. Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

  9. A GLRT AND BOOTSTRAP APPROACH TO DETECTION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE FORCE MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    A GLRT AND BOOTSTRAP APPROACH TO DETECTION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE FORCE MICROSCOPY Pei­Jung Chung a model that, although simplistic, captures the features of the problem. We present a GLRT and bootstrap based on the gen- eralized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), and bootstrap. The GLRT is used because besides

  10. AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

  11. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

  12. Note: Switching crosstalk on and off in Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, Leo, E-mail: l.polak@vu.nl; Wijngaarden, Rinke J. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Division of Physics and Astronomy, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Man, Sven de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)] [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) electronic crosstalk can occur between the excitation signal and probe deflection signal. Here, we demonstrate how a small modification to our commercial instrument enables us to literally switch the crosstalk on and off. We study in detail the effect of crosstalk on open-loop KPFM and compare with closed-loop KPFM. We measure the pure crosstalk signal and verify that we can correct for it in the data-processing required for open-loop KPFM. We also demonstrate that open-loop KPFM results are independent of the frequency and amplitude of the excitation signal, provided that the influence of crosstalk has been eliminated.

  13. Magnetic force microscopy method and apparatus to detect and image currents in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ann. N. (13170-B Central SE #188, Albuquerque, NM 87123); Anderson, Richard E. (2800 Tennessee NE, Albuquerque, NM 87110); Cole, Jr., Edward I. (2116 White Cloud NE, Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic force microscopy method and improved magnetic tip for detecting and quantifying internal magnetic fields resulting from current of integrated circuits. Detection of the current is used for failure analysis, design verification, and model validation. The interaction of the current on the integrated chip with a magnetic field can be detected using a cantilevered magnetic tip. Enhanced sensitivity for both ac and dc current and voltage detection is achieved with voltage by an ac coupling or a heterodyne technique. The techniques can be used to extract information from analog circuits.

  14. In situ atomic force microscopy imaging of electroprecipitated nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, R.; Mo, Y.; Scherson, D.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ atomic force microscopy images of nickel hydrous oxide films electrodeposited on the basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in alkaline electrolytes have shown that a stepwise oxidation leads to irreversible formation of wide crevices throughout the material. Upon subsequent stepwise reduction, the gaps close leaving a hairline type crack which follows the profile of the crevice. These potential induced structural rearrangements have been attributed to stresses induced by differences in the densities of the nickel hydrous oxide in the two oxidation states. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopf, Juliane [ORNL; Pierce, Eric M [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  16. Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface.

  17. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 286 (2005) 324328 Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials 286 (2005) 324­328 Light-free magnetic resonance force for Physical Sciences, College Park, MD, USA Available online 4 November 2004 Abstract Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its

  18. A serial-kinematic nanopositioner for high-speed atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadikhaye, Sachin P., E-mail: sachin.wadikhaye@uon.edu.au; Yong, Yuen Kuan; Reza Moheimani, S. O. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexure-guided serial-kinematic XYZ nanopositioner for high-speed Atomic Force Microscopy is presented in this paper. Two aspects influencing the performance of serial-kinematic nanopositioners are studied in this work. First, mass reduction by using tapered flexures is proposed to increased the natural frequency of the nanopositioner. 25% increase in the natural frequency is achieved due to reduced mass with tapered flexures. Second, a study of possible sensor positioning in a serial-kinematic nanopositioner is presented. An arrangement of sensors for exact estimation of cross-coupling is incorporated in the proposed design. A feedforward control strategy based on phaser approach is presented to mitigate the dynamics and nonlinearity in the system. Limitations in design approach and control strategy are discussed in the Conclusion.

  19. Advances in quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging by mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitry, P.; Bourillot, E.; Plassard, C.; Lacroute, Y.; Lesniewska, E. [ICB, UMR CNRS 6303 CNRS-University of Bourgogne, Dijon F-21078 (France); Tetard, L. [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on advances toward quantitative non-destructive nanoscale subsurface investigation of a nanofabricated sample based on mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy with heterodyne detection, addressing the need to correlate the role of actuation frequencies of the probe f{sub p} and the sample f{sub s} with depth resolution for 3D tomography reconstruction. Here, by developing a simple model and validating the approach experimentally through the study of the nanofabricated calibration depth samples consisting of buried metallic patterns, we demonstrate avenues for quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging. Our findings enable the reconstruction of the sample depth profile and allow high fidelity resolution of the buried nanostructures. Non-destructive quantitative nanoscale subsurface imaging offers great promise in the study of the structures and properties of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  20. Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, René M., E-mail: roverney@u.washington.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called “intrinsic friction analysis” (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

  1. Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Departamento de Física de Materiales UPV/EHU, Fac. de Química, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

  2. Single asperity tribochemical wear of silicon nitride studied by atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickinson, J. Thomas

    are hard, inert, and stable at high temperatures, making them attractive for use in extreme en- vironments lubrication, which results in low fric- tion and almost no wear, has been observed on sufficiently smooth of conditions. In the AFM geometry, the tip serves as an idealized single asperity interacting with a nearly

  3. Atomic modelling of crystal/complex fluid/crystal contacts--Part II. Simulating AFM tests via the GenMol code for investigating the impact of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    the GenMol code for investigating the impact of CO2 storage on kaolinite/brine/kaolinite adhesion G. Pepe Force Microscopy (AFM) tests at a kaolinite/brine/kaolinite contact, the confined fluid in sub). Two external solutions are tested. Solution S1 is a neutral brine (pH¼7.5) leading to a possible

  4. Force microscopy of layering and friction in an ionic liquid Judith Hotha,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    shape of the force vs. distance curve is explained by a model for the interaction between tip, gold of the compliant force sensor between branches of the oscillatory force curve. Frictional force between-viscosity, yet load- bearing lubricant [1-4]. The load-bearing ability stems from the formation of solvation

  5. Electrical transport and mechanical properties of alkylsilane self-assembled monolayers on silicon surfaces probed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Young; Qi, Yabing; Ashby, Paul D.; Hendriksen, Bas L.M.; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The correlation between molecular conductivity and mechanical properties (molecular deformation and frictional responses) of hexadecylsilane self-assembled monolayers was studied with conductive probe atomic force microscopy/friction force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum. Current and friction were measured as a function of applied pressure, simultaneously, while imaging the topography of self-assembled monolayer molecule islands and silicon surfaces covered with a thin oxide layer. Friction images reveal lower friction over the molecules forming islands than over the bare silicon surface, indicating the lubricating functionality of alkylsilane molecules. By measuring the tunneling current change due to changing of the height of the molecular islands by tilting the molecules under pressure from the tip, we obtained an effective conductance decay constant ({beta}) of 0.52/{angstrom}.

  6. AFM imaging reveals the tetrameric structure of the TRPM8 channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Andrew P.; Egressy, Kinga; Lim, Annabel [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Edwardson, J. Michael, E-mail: jme1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily have been shown to assemble as tetramers. Here we have determined the subunit stoichiometry of the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). TRPM8 channels were isolated from transfected cells, and complexes were formed between the channels and antibodies against a V5 epitope tag present on each subunit. The complexes were then subjected to AFM imaging. A frequency distribution of the molecular volumes of antibody decorated channels had a peak at 1305 nm{sup 3}, close to the expected size of a TRPM8 tetramer. The frequency distribution of angles between pairs of bound antibodies had two peaks, at 93{sup o} and 172{sup o}, confirming that the channel assembles as a tetramer. We suggest that this assembly pattern is common to all members of the TRP channel superfamily.

  7. Investigations into Protein-Surface Interactions via Atomic Force Microscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Settle, Jenifer Kaye

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    microscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Chapter one provides background information on protein surfaces interactions. Chapter 2 summarizes the techniques and surfaces utilized in the investigations in the following chapters. Chapter 3 provides background...

  8. AFM imaging reveals the tetrameric structure of the TRPC1 channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrera, Nelson P. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Shaifta, Yasin [Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); McFadzean, Ian [Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Science Research Division, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Ward, Jeremy P.T. [Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Henderson, Robert M. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Edwardson, J. Michael [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jme1000@cam.ac.uk

    2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We have determined the subunit stoichiometry of the transient receptor potential C1 (TRPC1) channel by imaging isolated channels using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A frequency distribution of the molecular volumes of individual channel particles had two peaks, at 170 and 720 nm{sup 3}, corresponding with the expected sizes of TRPC1 monomers and tetramers, respectively. Complexes were formed between TRPC1 channels and antibodies against a V5 epitope tag present on each subunit. The frequency distribution of angles between pairs of bound antibodies had two peaks, at 88{sup o} and 178{sup o}. This result again indicates that the channel assembles as a tetramer.

  9. Apparatus for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jun (Berkeley, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Salmeron, Miguel (El Cerrito, CA); Xiao, Xudong (Kowloon, CN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged.

  10. Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jun (Berkeley, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Salmeron, Miguel (El Cerrito, CA); Xiao, Xudong (Kowloon, CN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged.

  11. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB) - CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 87 Avenue du Dr A. Schweitzer, F-33608 PESSAC (France); Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain (France)

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

  12. Micro- and nanodomain imaging in uniaxial ferroelectrics: Joint application of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru; Zelenovskiy, P. S. [Ferroelectric Laboratory, Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the most effective methods of the domain visualization in model uniaxial ferroelectrics of lithium niobate (LN) and lithium tantalate (LT) family, and relaxor strontium-barium niobate (SBN) have been reviewed in this paper. We have demonstrated the synergetic effect of joint usage of optical, confocal Raman, and piezoelectric force microscopies which provide extracting of the unique information about formation of the micro- and nanodomain structures. The methods have been applied for investigation of various types of domain structures with increasing complexity: (1) periodical domain structure in LN and LT, (2) nanodomain structures in LN, LT, and SBN, (3) nanodomain structures in LN with modified surface layer, (4) dendrite domain structure in LN. The self-assembled appearance of quasi-regular nanodomain structures in highly non-equilibrium switching conditions has been considered.

  13. Noncontact atomic force microscopy simulator with phase-locked-loop controlled frequency detection and excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nony, L; Schaer, D; Pfeiffer, O; Wezel, A; Meyer, E; Nony, Laurent; Baratoff, Alexis Prof.; Schaer, Dominique; Pfeiffer, Oliver; Wezel, Adrian; Meyer, Ernst

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation of an atomic force microscope operating in the constant amplitude dynamic mode is described. The implementation mimics the electronics of a real setup including a digital phase-locked loop (PLL). The PLL is not only used as a very sensitive frequency detector, but also to generate the time-dependent phase shifted signal driving the cantilever. The optimum adjustments of individual functional blocks and their joint performance in typical experiments are determined in detail. Prior to testing the complete setup, the performances of the numerical PLL and of the amplitude controller were ascertained to be satisfactory compared to those of the real components. Attention is also focused on the issue of apparent dissipation, that is, of spurious variations in the driving amplitude caused by the nonlinear interaction occurring between the tip and the surface and by the finite response times of the various controllers. To do so, an estimate of the minimum dissipated energy that is detectable by the instru...

  14. VOLUME 76, NUMBER 8 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 19 FEBRUARY 1996 Compliance Measurements of Confined Polystyrene Solutions by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Chemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6 4 Department of Chemistry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1096 (Received 16 August 1995) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) as a local probe for elastohydrodynamic lubrication is discussed. Compliances are measured with a modified

  15. Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

  16. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com [Radiant Technologies, Inc., 2835C Pan American Fwy NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  17. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ?10?100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  18. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  19. Si/SiGe Nanostructures Fabricated by Atomic Force Microscopy Oxidation Xiang-Zheng Bo, Leonid P. Rokhinson, Haizhou Yin, D. C. Tsui, and J. C. Sturm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Si/SiGe Nanostructures Fabricated by Atomic Force Microscopy Oxidation Xiang-Zheng Bo, Leonid P features in strained SiGe alloys. When directly oxidizing SiGe alloys, minimum line widths of 20nm were on SiGe alloys is slightly less than that on Si. Finally, this method was used to successfully cut

  20. Effect of plasma CVD operating temperature on nanomechanical properties of TiC nanostructured coating investigated by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanaghi, Ali, E-mail: alishanaghi@gmail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour, E-mail: sabour01@modares.ac.ir [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangarani, Shahrokh, E-mail: sh.ahangarani@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? The TiC{sub x} nanostructure coatings have been deposited by PACVD method. ? Dominant mechanism of growth structure at 490 °C is island-layer type. ? TiC{sub x} nanostructure coating applied at 490 °C, exhibits lowest friction coefficient. ? Young's moduli are 289.9, 400 and 187.6 GPa for 470, 490 and 510 °C, respectively. ? This higher elastic modulus and higher hardness of nanocoating obtain at 490 °C. -- Abstract: The structure, composition, and mechanical properties of nanostructured titanium carbide (TiC) coatings deposited on H{sub 11} hot-working tool steel by pulsed-DC plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition at three different temperatures are investigated. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are carried out by atomic force microscopy to determine the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, surface roughness, and friction coefficient. The nanostructured TiC coatings prepared at 490 °C exhibit lower friction coefficient (0.23) than the ones deposited at 470 and 510 °C. Increasing the deposition temperature reduces the Young's modulus and hardness. The overall superior mechanical properties such as higher hardness and lower friction coefficient render the coatings deposited at 490 °C suitable for wear resistant applications.

  1. Calibration of measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy using a contact detection method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Zhen; Jeong, Younkoo; Menq, Chia-Hsiang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An accurate experimental method is proposed for on-spot calibration of the measurement sensitivities of multiple micro-cantilever dynamic modes in atomic force microscopy. One of the key techniques devised for this method is a reliable contact detection mechanism that detects the tip-surface contact instantly. At the contact instant, the oscillation amplitude of the tip deflection, converted to that of the deflection signal in laser reading through the measurement sensitivity, exactly equals to the distance between the sample surface and the cantilever base position. Therefore, the proposed method utilizes the recorded oscillation amplitude of the deflection signal and the base position of the cantilever at the contact instant for the measurement sensitivity calibration. Experimental apparatus along with various signal processing and control modules was realized to enable automatic and rapid acquisition of multiple sets of data, with which the calibration of a single dynamic mode could be completed in less than 1 s to suppress the effect of thermal drift and measurement noise. Calibration of the measurement sensitivities of the first and second dynamic modes of three micro-cantilevers having distinct geometries was successfully demonstrated. The dependence of the measurement sensitivity on laser spot location was also experimentally investigated. Finally, an experiment was performed to validate the calibrated measurement sensitivity of the second dynamic mode of a micro-cantilever.

  2. Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp, E-mail: rahe@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (?f) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the ?f(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the ?f signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f{sub 0} and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of ?f with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the ?f with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the ?f(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f{sub 0} drift. We present isosurfaces of the ?f minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO{sub 3}(101{sup ¯}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.

  3. Optical, ferroelectric, and piezoresponse force microscopy studies of pulsed laser deposited Aurivillius Bi?FeTi?O?? thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooriyattil, Sudheendran [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Physics, Sree Kerala Varma College, Thrissur-680011, Kerala (India); Pavunny, Shojan P., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu, E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com; Barrionuevo, Danilo; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu, E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bi?FeTi?O?? (BFTO) based Aurivillius ferroelectric thin films were fabricated on strontium ruthanate coated amorphous fused silica substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. Optical, ferroelectric, and piezoresponse properties of these thin films were investigated. The estimated refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) for these films were in the range from 2.40 to 2.59 and 0.012 to 0.19, respectively. The bandgap of the BFTO thin layers was estimated to be 2.88 eV. Domain switching and hysteresis loops of BFTO films were studied utilizing piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The measured apparent polarization (P{sub r}) and coercive field (E{sub c}) for the samples were 20 ?C/cm² and 250 kV/cm, respectively. The amplitude and phase hysteresis curves obtained from PFM characterization reveal that these films can be switched below 5 V. These results suggest that BFTO in thin film form is a promising material for photo ferroelectric and optoelectronic devices applications.

  4. Characterization of microscale wear in a ploysilicon-based MEMS device using AFM and PEEM-NEXAFS spectromicroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, D. S.; Konicek, A. R.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Sumant, A. V.; de Boer, M. P.; Corwin, A. D.; Carpick, R. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison); (Univ. of Pennsylvania); (SNL)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanisms of microscale wear in silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are elucidated by studying a polysilicon nanotractor, a device specifically designed to conduct friction and wear tests under controlled conditions. Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) was combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantitatively probe chemical changes and structural modification, respectively, in the wear track of the nanotractor. The ability of PEEM-NEXAFS to spatially map chemical variations in the near-surface region of samples at high lateral spatial resolution is unparalleled and therefore ideally suited for this study. The results show that it is possible to detect microscopic chemical changes using PEEM-NEXAFS, specifically, oxidation at the sliding interface of a MEMS device. We observe that wear induces oxidation of the polysilicon at the immediate contact interface, and the spectra are consistent with those from amorphous SiO{sub 2}. The oxidation is correlated with gouging and debris build-up in the wear track, as measured by AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Potential variations around grain boundaries in impurity-doped BaSi? epitaxial films evaluated by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsukahara, D.; Baba, M.; Honda, S.; Toko, K. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Imai, Y. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Hara, K. O.; Usami, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Werner, J. H. [Institute for Photovoltaics, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany); Suemasu, T. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Institute for Photovoltaics, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart 70569 (Germany)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Potential variations around the grain boundaries (GBs) in antimony (Sb)-doped n-type and boron (B)-doped p-type BaSi? epitaxial films on Si(111) were evaluated by Kelvin probe force microscopy. Sb-doped n-BaSi? films exhibited positively charged GBs with a downward band bending at the GBs. The average barrier height for holes was approximately 10 meV for an electron concentration n ? 10¹? cm?³. This downward band bending changed to upward band bending when n was increased to n = 1.8 × 10¹?cm?³. In the B-doped p-BaSi? films, the upward band bending was observed for a hole concentration p ? 10¹?cm?³. The average barrier height for electrons decreased from approximately 25 to 15 meV when p was increased from p = 2.7 × 10¹? to p = 4.0 × 10¹? cm?³. These results are explained under the assumption that the position of the Fermi level E{sub f} at GBs depends on the degree of occupancy of defect states at the GBs, while E{sub f} approached the bottom of the conduction band or the top of the valence band in the BaSi? grain interiors with increasing impurity concentrations. In both cases, such small barrier heights may not deteriorate the carrier transport properties. The electronic structures of impurity-doped BaSi? are also discussed using first-principles pseudopotential method to discuss the insertion sites of impurity atoms and clarify the reason for the observed n-type conduction in the Sb-doped BaSi? and p-type conduction in the B-doped BaSi?.

  6. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  7. Topography, complex refractive index, and conductivity of graphene layers measured by correlation of optical interference contrast, atomic force, and back scattered electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaupel, Matthias, E-mail: Matthias.vaupel@zeiss.com; Dutschke, Anke [Training Application Support Center, Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH, Königsallee 9-21, 37081 Göttingen (Germany); Wurstbauer, Ulrich; Pasupathy, Abhay [Department of Physics, Columbia University New York, 538 West 120th Street, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Hitzel, Frank [DME Nanotechnologie GmbH, Geysostr. 13, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical phase shift by reflection on graphene is measured by interference contrast microscopy. The height profile across graphene layers on 300?nm thick SiO{sub 2} on silicon is derived from the phase profile. The complex refractive index and conductivity of graphene layers on silicon with 2?nm thin SiO{sub 2} are evaluated from a phase profile, while the height profile of the layers is measured by atomic force microscopy. It is observed that the conductivity measured on thin SiO{sub 2} is significantly greater than on thick SiO{sub 2}. Back scattered electron contrast of graphene layers is correlated to the height of graphene layers.

  8. Nanoscale Electromechanics of Ferroelectric and Biological Systems: A New Dimension in Scanning Probe Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Rodriguez, Brian J [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Karapetian, Edgar [ORNL; Mirman, B [Suffolk University, Boston; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functionality of biological and inorganic systems ranging from nonvolatile computer memories and microelectromechanical systems to electromotor proteins and cellular membranes is ultimately based on the intricate coupling between electrical and mechanical phenomena. In the past decade, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) has been established as a powerful tool for nanoscale imaging, spectroscopy, and manipulation of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Here, we give an overview of the fundamental image formation mechanism in PFM and summarize recent theoretical and technological advances. In particular, we show that the signal formation in PFM is complementary to that in the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques, and we discuss the implications. We also consider the prospect of extending PFM beyond ferroelectric characterization for quantitative probing of electromechanical behavior in molecular and biological systems and high-resolution probing of static and dynamic polarization switching processes in low-dimensional ferroelectric materials and heterostructures.

  9. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  10. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  11. Modeling and control of undesirable dynamics in atomic force microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Rifai, Osamah M

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenal resolution and versatility of the atomic force microscope (AFM), has made it a widely-used instrument in nanotechnology. In this thesis, a detailed model of AFM dynamics has been developed. It includes a new ...

  12. Direct observation of electron emission from the grain boundaries of chemical vapour deposition diamond films by tunneling atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    .1063/1.3475506 Direct observation of electron emission site on boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films using or energy harvesting devices. Electron emission studies usually use doped polycrystalline diamond films observation of the emission sites over a large area of polycrystalline diamond using tunneling atomic force

  13. Direct observation of fatigue in epitaxially grown Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films using second harmonic piezoresponse force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murari, Nishit M [University of Puerto Rico; Hong, Seungbum [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Lee, Ho Nyung [ORNL; Katiyar, Ram S. [University of Puerto Rico

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we present a direct observation of fatigue phenomena in epitaxially grown Pb(Zr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin films using second harmonic piezoresponse force microscopy (SH-PFM). We observed strong correlation between the SH-PFM amplitude and phase signals with the remnant piezoresponse at different switching cycles. The SH-PFM results indicate that the average fraction of switchable domains decreases globally and the phase delays of polarization switching differ locally. In addition, we found that the fatigue developed uniformly over the whole area without developing region-by-region suppression of switchable polarization as in polycrystalline PZT thin films.

  14. afm: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (see fig. 1) c 12 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

  15. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: scanning probe microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus on stainless steels. Dr. An is an internationally recognized expert on scanning probe microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning ... Last Updated:...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: scanning tunneling microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    focus on stainless steels. Dr. An is an internationally recognized expert on scanning probe microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy and scanning ... Last Updated:...

  18. Structural Evolution and Alignment of Cylinder-Forming PS-b-PEP Thin Films in Confinement Studied by Time-Lapse Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    ultimately lead to the essentially perfect alignment of cylindrical microdomains. INTRODUCTION The generation in trough 30 cylinders on crest 1 µm Figure 1. AFM image showing macroscopic alignment of in-plane cylindrical copolymer microdomains. In the thin film region, copolymers align inside nanochannels, whereas

  19. Study of structural order in porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'yakova, Yu. A.; Suvorova, E. I.; Orekhov, Andrei S.; Orekhov, Anton S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Gainutdinov, R. V.; Klechkovskaya, V. V., E-mail: klechvv@ns.crys.ras.ru; Tereschenko, E. Yu. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Tkachenko, N. V.; Lemmetyinen, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland)] [Tampere University of Technology (Finland); Feigin, L. A.; Kovalchuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structure of porphyrin-fullerene dyad ZnDHD6ee monolayers formed on the surface of aqueous subphase in a Langmuir trough and transferred onto solid substrates has been studied. The data obtained are interpreted using simulation of the structure of isolated molecules and their packing in monolayer and modeling of diffraction patterns from molecular aggregates having different sizes and degrees of order. Experiments on the formation of condensed ZnDHD6ee monolayers are described. The structure of these monolayers on a water surface is analyzed using {pi}-A isotherms. The structure of the monolayers transferred onto solid substrates is investigated by electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The unit-cell parameters of two-dimensional domains, which are characteristic of molecular packing in monolayers and deposited films, are determined. Domains are found to be organized into a texture (the molecular axes are oriented by the [001] direction perpendicular to the substrate). The monolayers contain a limited number of small 3D domains.

  20. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S., E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  1. In-situ scanning probe microscopy of electrodeposited nickel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, James J.; Dibble, Dean C.

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance characteristics and material properties such as stress, microstructure, and composition of nickel coatings and electroformed components can be controlled over a wide range by the addition of small amounts of surface-active compounds to the electroplating bath. Saccharin is one compound that is widely utilized for its ability to reduce tensile stress and refine grain size in electrodeposited nickel. While the effects of saccharin on nickel electrodeposition have been studied by many authors in the past, there is still uncertainty over saccharin's mechanisms of incorporation, stress reduction, and grain refinement. In-situ scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a tool that can be used to directly image the nucleation and growth of thin nickel films at nanometer length scales to help elucidate saccharin's role in the development and evolution of grain structure. In this study, in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques are used to investigate the effects of saccharin on the morphological evolution of thin nickel films. By observing mono-atomic height nickel island growth with and without saccharin present we conclude that saccharin has little effect on the nickel surface mobility during deposition at low overpotentials where the growth occurs in a layer-by-layer mode. Saccharin was imaged on Au(l11) terraces as condensed patches without resolved packing structure. AFM measurements of the roughness evolution of nickel films up to 1200 nm thick on polycrystalline gold indicate that saccharin initially increases the roughness and surface skewness of the deposit that at greater thickness becomes smoother than films deposited without saccharin. Faceting of the deposit morphology decreases as saccharin concentration increases even for the thinnest films that have 3-D growth.

  2. Single molecule force spectroscopy by AFM indicates helical structure of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croquette, Vincent

    for a broad range of problems, particularly in materials and life sciences. The ability to apply and measure to detergents and cosmetics [17]. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes [3

  3. Note: Mechanical etching of atomic force microscope tip and microsphere attachment for thermal radiation scattering enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brissinger, D.; Parent, G., E-mail: gilles.parent@univ-lorraine.fr; Lacroix, D. [Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, UMR 7563, BP70239, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France)] [Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, UMR 7563, BP70239, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Note describes a mechanical etching technique which can be used to prepare silicon tips used in atomic force microscopy apparatus. For such devices, dedicated tips with specific shapes are now commonly used to probe surfaces. Yet, the control of the tip morphology where characteristic scales are lower than 1 ?m remains a real challenge. Here, we detail a controlled etching process of AFM probes apex allowing micrometer-sized sphere attachment. The technique used and influent parameters are discussed and SEM images of the achieved tips are given. Deceptive problems and drawbacks that might occur during the process are also covered.

  4. ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (865) 574-7308 ORNL microscopy pencils patterns in polymers at the nanoscale Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers used atomic force microscopy to draw nanoscale patterns in a...

  5. Molecular-scale investigations of structures and surface charge distribution of surfactant aggregates by three-dimensional force mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.

  6. Design and performance of a combined secondary ion mass spectrometry-scanning probe microscopy instrument for high sensitivity and high-resolution elemental three-dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Gerard, Mathieu [Department 'Science and Analysis of Materials' (SAM), Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Gysin, Urs; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Wegmann, Urs [Department of Physics, Universitaet Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Maier, Urs [Ferrovac GmbH, Thurgauerstr. 72, CH-8050 Zuerich (Switzerland); Odriozola, Aitziber Herrero; Uehli, Daniel [SPECS Zurich GmbH, Technoparkstr. 1, CH-8005 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 {mu}m in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program 'SARINA,' which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on Al/Cu and polystyrene/poly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach.

  7. Leading Edge High-Speed AFM Reveals the Dynamics of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    into the working of biological processes. Conventional AFM is only used to image static snapshots of biomolecules example of molecular motor action (Figure 1B) in their AFM movies of the isolated stator subcomplex was attached. The AFM, however, could visualize the conformational change that the b subunits of the stator

  8. A MEMS device for In Situ TEM/AFM/SEM/STM Testing of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    is measured by recording the lateral deflection of the buckling beam [9]. In (b), the displacement is measured the transmission electron microscope (TEM); Wong, et al. [5] bent nanotubes with an AFM operated in lateral force shown in Figure 1. In (a), after a long slender beam is buckled, the displacement of the specimen

  9. Stress-enhanced ion diffusion at the vicinity of a crack tip as evidenced by atomic force microscopy in silicate glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    microscopy in silicate glasses F. Ce´larie´ a , M. Ciccotti b , C. Marlie`re c,* a Institute of Non The slow advance of a crack in soda-silicate glasses was studied at nanometer scale by in-situ and real in the silicate structure [A. Meyer et al., Phys. Rev. Let. 93 (2004) 027801]. � 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  10. PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Open micro-fluidic system for atomic force microscopy-guided in situ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by light harvesting complexes, which funnel that energy into the reaction centers of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, causing a charge separation that provides the driving force to split water cells and has the potential to be exploited by direct extraction of energetic electrons from

  11. EMSL - Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscopy Capability Details * Electron microscopes with tomography, cryo, scanning, photoemission and high-resolution (sub-nanometer) imaging capabilities* Focused ion beam...

  12. afm sintez sloev: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (see fig. 1) c 15 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

  13. afm probe tip: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

  14. afm indentation study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

  15. Investigating the aggregation of ?-amyloid peptide (A???) and its interactions with lipid bilayers using advanced microscopy techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mari, Meropi

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    that there are various different methods, such as AFM, CARS microscopy and Raman spectroscopy as well as neutron scattering that are capable of fast imaging. Overall, all these techniques contributed in a complementary study of A??? aggregation states under extreme...

  16. Polymers with hydro-responsive topography identified using high throughput AFM of an acrylate microarray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Andrew L.

    Atomic force microscopy has been applied to an acrylate polymer microarray to achieve a full topographic characterisation. This process discovered a small number of hydro-responsive materials created from monomers with ...

  17. True atomic-scale imaging of a spinel Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}(111) surface in aqueous solution by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitta, Mitsunori, E-mail: m-kitta@aist.go.jp; Kohyama, Masanori [Research Institute for Ubiquitous Energy Devices, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka 563-8577 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spinel-type lithium titanium oxide (LTO; Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) is a negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries. Revealing the atomic-scale surface structure of LTO in liquid is highly necessary to investigate its surface properties in practical environments. Here, we reveal an atomic-scale image of the LTO(111) surface in LiCl aqueous solution using frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat terraces and single steps having heights of multiples of 0.5?nm were observed in the aqueous solution. Hexagonal bright spots separated by 0.6?nm were also observed on the flat terrace part, corresponding to the atomistic contrast observed in the ultrahigh vacuum condition, which suggests that the basic atomic structure of the LTO(111) surface is retained without dramatic reconstruction even in the aqueous solution.

  18. Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm?1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

  19. Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

  20. Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Optical Microscopy and 4Optical Microscopy and 4 Pi MicroscopyPi Microscopy Carolyn A. SuttonCarolyn A. Sutton PH 464PH 464 #12;OverviewOverview The OpticalThe Optical MicroscopeMicroscopy 4 Pi Microscopy4 Pi Microscopy Optical Microscope for Metallography #12;Optical Microscope: OriginsOptical

  1. Electron Microscopy Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Microscopy Center Argonne Home > EMC > EMC Home Electron Microscopy Center Web Site has moved This page has moved to http:www.anl.govcnmgroupelectron-microscopy-cente...

  2. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  3. afm detects wga-binding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chip and a used ceramic plate, so that it is compatible with the Autoprobe CP AFM. Main Materials and tools: a. Used ceramic plates b. AFM tip on a holder chip (see fig. 1) c 17...

  4. Scanning probe microscopy studies of semiconductor surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, W.H. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work involving atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed which involves strain-induced, self-assembling nanostructures in compound semiconductor materials. Specific examples include one-dimensional quantum wires of InAs grown by MBE on GaAs(001) and zero-dimensional quantum dots of InP grown by MOCVD on InGaP which is lattice matched to GaAs(001).

  5. Microscopy image segmentation tool: Robust image data analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valmianski, Ilya, E-mail: ivalmian@ucsd.edu; Monton, Carlos; Schuller, Ivan K. [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Nanoscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a software package called Microscopy Image Segmentation Tool (MIST). MIST is designed for analysis of microscopy images which contain large collections of small regions of interest (ROIs). Originally developed for analysis of porous anodic alumina scanning electron images, MIST capabilities have been expanded to allow use in a large variety of problems including analysis of biological tissue, inorganic and organic film grain structure, as well as nano- and meso-scopic structures. MIST provides a robust segmentation algorithm for the ROIs, includes many useful analysis capabilities, and is highly flexible allowing incorporation of specialized user developed analysis. We describe the unique advantages MIST has over existing analysis software. In addition, we present a number of diverse applications to scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  6. Climate forcing Climate forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKinnon, Jennifer

    parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

  7. afm cr2o3 nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 41 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

  8. The magnetic resonance force microscope: A new microscopic probe of magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Midzor, M.; Roukes, M.L. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Wigen, P.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Childress, J.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) marries the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), to produce a three-dimensional imaging instrument with high, potentially atomic-scale, resolution. The principle of the MRFM has been successfully demonstrated in numerous experiments. By virtue of its unique capabilities the MRFM shows promise to make important contributions in fields ranging from three-dimensional materials characterization to bio-molecular structure determination. Here the authors focus on its application to the characterization and study of layered magnetic materials; the ability to illuminate the properties of buried interfaces in such materials is a particularly important goal. While sensitivity and spatial resolution are currently still far from their theoretical limits, they are nonetheless comparable to or superior to that achievable in conventional MRI. Further improvement of the MRFM will involve operation at lower temperature, application of larger field gradients, introduction of advanced mechanical resonators and improved reduction of the spurious coupling when the magnet is on the resonator.

  9. Correlation between fundamental binding forces and clinical prognosis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic force microscopy was used to “fish” for binding reactions between a fibronectin-coated probe (i.e., substrate simulating an implant device) and each of 15...

  10. Genome scanning : an AFM-based DNA sequencing technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmouelhi, Ahmed (Ahmed M.), 1979-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome Scanning is a powerful new technique for DNA sequencing. The method presented in this thesis uses an atomic force microscope with a functionalized cantilever tip to sequence single stranded DNA immobilized to a mica ...

  11. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  12. Phase modulated multiphoton microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karki, Khadga Jung; Pullerits, Tonu

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the modulation of the phases of the laser beams of ultra-short pulses leads to modulation of the two photon fluorescence intensity. The phase modulation technique when used in multi-photon microscopy can improve the signal to noise ratio. The technique can also be used in multiplexing the signals in the frequency domain in multi-focal raster scanning microscopy. As the technique avoids the use of array detectors as well as elaborate spatiotemporal multiplexing schemes it provides a convenient means to multi-focal scanning in axial direction. We show examples of such uses. Similar methodology can be used in other non-linear scanning microscopies, such as second or third harmonic generation microscopy.

  13. Computational microscopy for sample analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikoma, Hayato

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational microscopy is an emerging technology which extends the capabilities of optical microscopy with the help of computation. One of the notable example is super resolution fluorescence microscopy which achieves ...

  14. Contributions of Bacterial Surface Polymers, Electrostatics, and Cell Elasticity to the Shape of AFM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    silicon nitride AFM tip and three different Escherichia coli K12 strains, each having a different length development, and marine biofouling. Although macroscopic properties of bacteria such as hydrophobicity

  15. AFM and TEM study of cyclic slip localization in fatigued ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Man, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: man@ipm.cz; Petrenec, M. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Obrtlik, K. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Polak, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy were applied to the study of surface relief evolution at emerging persistent slip bands (PSBs) in individual grains of ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel cycled with constant plastic strain amplitude. Only the combination of both methods can reveal the true shape and fine details of extrusions and intrusions. Quantitative data on the changes of the surface topography of persistent slip markings and on the kinetics of extrusion growth during the fatigue life were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy of surface foils revealed PSBs with the typical, well-known ladder structure. Experimental data on cyclic slip localization in PSBs are compared with those in fcc metals and discussed in terms of vacancy models of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation.

  16. Nonlinear vibrational microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holtom, Gary R. (Richland, WA); Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney (Richland, WA); Zumbusch, Andreas (Munchen, DE)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.

  17. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  18. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  19. Method for measurement of friction forces on single cells in microfluidic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Hongshen

    both dry and wet conditions, are well estab- lished.16,17 The measurement of friction at micrometer the friction between dry microscopic surfaces, including atomic force microscopy, fric- tion-force microscopyMethod for measurement of friction forces on single cells in microfluidic devices Lazar

  20. Probing graphene defects and estimating graphene quality with optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Shen [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kyu Jang, Sung [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jae Song, Young, E-mail: yjsong@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungjoo, E-mail: leesj@skku.edu [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); College of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a simple and accurate method for detecting graphene defects that utilizes the mild, dry annealing of graphene/Cu films in air. In contrast to previously reported techniques, our simple approach with optical microscopy can determine the density and degree of dislocation of defects in a graphene film without inducing water-related damage or functionalization. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal Raman and atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis were performed to demonstrate that our nondestructive approach to characterizing graphene defects with optimized thermal annealing provides rapid and comprehensive determinations of graphene quality.

  1. Thin polymer films of block copolymers and blend/nanoparticle composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalloudis, Michail

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical microscopy techniques were used to investigate systematically the self-assembled nanostructure behaviour of two different ...

  2. Multifunctional Composites and Devices for Sensing and Energy Harvesting 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleveland, Michael Allen

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    melting method, the magenetocaloric samples were created. Multi-length scales characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray diffraction (XRD...

  3. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

  4. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

  5. Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Reynaud; A. Lambrecht

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present notes are organized as the lectures given at the Les Houches Summer School "Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics" in August 2013. The first section contains an introduction and a description of the current state-of-the-art for Casimir force measurements and their comparison with theory. The second and third sections are a pedagogical presentation of the main features of the theory of Casimir forces for 1-dimensional model systems and for mirrors in 3-dimensional space.

  6. Ultrafast pump-probe force microscopy with nanoscale resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cerullo, “Confocal ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy: A newand H. J. Maris, “Time-resolved pump-probe experiments withand U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-porbe near-field optical

  7. Characterization of Dynamic Surface Processes by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Jingru

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hydrogen terminated as synthesized but may slowly become oxidized to oxygen termi- nated under long time storage

  8. Antibody recognition force microscopy shows that outer membrane...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells during anaerobic growth, when Fe(III) served as the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface with hematite, while MtrC was...

  9. Ultrasonic-Based Mode-Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgram |FrankUltrafastHydrogen and FuelInnovation

  10. Workshop on Atomic Force Microscopy, Nanometrology and More | GE Global

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat isJoin the ChallengeHistory

  11. Focused ion beam modification of atomic force microscopy tips for near-field scanning optical microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krogmeier, Jeffrey R.; Dunn, Robert C.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spatial resolution be- yond the classical diffraction limit.1–3 While the technique can be implemented in several configurations, the most popular utilizes a metal-coated, tapered fiber optic probe to deliver light to nanometric dimensions. Introduced... by Betzig et al. in 1991,2 these metal-coated fiber optic probes have been successfully utilized to study single molecules, thin films, and in limited cases, biological samples.1,3 For the latter, the high spring constant of the fiber optic probes has...

  12. Toward single cell traction microscopy within 3D collagen matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Matthew S. [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Long, Rong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Feng, Xinzeng [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Huang, YuLing [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Hui, Chung-Yuen [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wu, Mingming, E-mail: mw272@cornell.edu [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical interaction between the cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) regulates cellular behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and migration. Cells require the three-dimensional (3D) architectural support of the ECM to perform physiologically realistic functions. However, current understanding of cell–ECM and cell–cell mechanical interactions is largely derived from 2D cell traction force microscopy, in which cells are cultured on a flat substrate. 3D cell traction microscopy is emerging for mapping traction fields of single animal cells embedded in either synthetic or natively derived fibrous gels. We discuss here the development of 3D cell traction microscopy, its current limitations, and perspectives on the future of this technology. Emphasis is placed on strategies for applying 3D cell traction microscopy to individual tumor cell migration within collagen gels. - Highlights: • Review of the current state of the art in 3D cell traction force microscopy. • Bulk and micro-characterization of remodelable fibrous collagen gels. • Strategies for performing 3D cell traction microscopy within collagen gels.

  13. Device Research Conference, June 2003 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM Oxidation and Epitaxial Regrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    61st Device Research Conference, June 2003 129 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM-energy patterning process based on AFM lithography (to avoid defects from e-beam and RIE) and Si/SiGe). Single-hole transistor, which is the first reported SiGe quantum device with heterojunction passivation

  14. Characterization of Polymer Blends: Optical Microscopy (*Polarized, Interference and Phase Contrast Microscopy*) and Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan [ORNL; Darling, Seth B. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 15 surveys the characterization of macro, micro and meso morphologies of polymer blends by optical microscopy. Confocal Microscopy offers the ability to view the three dimensional morphology of polymer blends, popular in characterization of biological systems. Confocal microscopy uses point illumination and a spatial pinhole to eliminate out-of focus light in samples that are thicker than the focal plane.

  15. Grafting a homogeneous transition metal catalyst onto a silicon AFM probe: a promising strategy for chemically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AFM tips with adsorbed acid and palladium nanoparticles were used for silyl ether hydrolysis,16 Suzuki giving access to diverse nanoscale transformations of the surface-bound functional groups. This new functional groups of the self- assembled monolayers (SAMs) are still quite rare and remain highly challenging

  16. Feedforward Control of a Piezoelectric Flexure Stage for AFM Yang Li and John Bechhoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bechhoefer, John

    to physics [1], [2]; by the publication, by control engineers, of the first textbook on modern control theory of an interesting "cross-over" work that analyzes physical systems from a control perspective [4]. While influencesFeedforward Control of a Piezoelectric Flexure Stage for AFM Yang Li and John Bechhoefer Abstract

  17. Measurements of dynamic forces between drops with the AFM: novel considerations in comparisons between experiment and theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    in aqueous electrolyte with added sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant have been studied. Measurements were made-defined solid surfaces as a function of surface separation down to nanometre separations.1­5 Such experiments, in food processing and personal care product formulations, and for many biological functions such as cell­cell

  18. Measurements of Dynamic Forces between Drops with the AFM: Novel Considerations in Comparisons between Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    ) on the substrate in aqueous electrolyte with added sodium dodecylsulfate surfactant have been studied. Measurements-defined solid surfaces as a function of surface separation down to nanometre separations.1-5 Such experiments, in food processing and personal care product formulations, and for many biological functions such as cell-cell

  19. Lift Forces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count theLienertLift Forces in Bubbly

  20. Electrostrictive and electrostatic responses in contact mode voltage modulated Scanning Probe Microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Balke, Nina [ORNL] [ORNL; Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL] [ORNL; Tselev, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromechanical response of solids underpins image formation mechanism of several scanning probe microscopy techniques including the piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM). While the theory of linear piezoelectric and ionic responses are well developed, the contributions of quadratic effects including electrostriction and capacitive tip-surface forces to measured signal remain poorly understood. Here we analyze the electrostrictive and capacitive contributions to the PFM and ESM signals and discuss the implications of the dielectric tip-surface gap on these interactions.

  1. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  2. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  3. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  4. Kevin M. Rosso | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. Rosso Instruments STMAFM (PicoSPM) EMSL's Molecular Imaging, Inc. PicoSPM(tm) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)atomic force microscopy (AFM) supports a wide range of...

  5. SENSING AND SEPARATING BIOMOLECULES AT BIOINTERFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Hyunsook

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................... 24 Epifluorescence microscopy .......................................................... 24 Atomic force microscopy (AFM)................................................... 25 viii CHAPTER... solution obtained from fluorescence anisotropy measurements...................................................... 34 2.4 Surface binding isotherms.......................................................................... 38 2.5 Binding between...

  6. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    865.574.7308 ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites in batteries ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale images of the nucleation and...

  7. From Self-Assembly to Controlled-Assembly, From Optical Manipulation to AFM Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafiei, Farbod

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moving nanoparticles/atoms to study the nearfield interaction between them is one of the many approaches to explore the optical and electrical properties of these assemblies. Traditional approach included the self assembly by spinning or drying nanoparticles in aqua on the substrate is well practiced. Lithography technique is another popular approach to deposit limited nano/micro patterns on substrates. Later optical and mechanical manipulations were used to have more control over moving individual elements of nano and microstructures and even atoms. Optical tweezers, optical trapping and AFM manipulation are examples of these precise approaches.

  8. Anisotropic and tunable characteristics of the colloidal behavior of metal oxide surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullard, Joseph Warren, 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electroosmotic behavior of the rutile polymorph of titanium dioxide was explored as a function of crystallographic orientation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to make high-resolution force spectroscopy ...

  9. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boularas, A., E-mail: boularas@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Clain, S. [Universidade do Minho, Centro de Matemática, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Université Paul Sabatier, Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600?nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20?V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  10. Graphene thickness dependent adhesion force and its correlation to surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourzand, Hoorad [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Tabib-Azar, Massood, E-mail: azar.m@utah.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, adhesion force of graphene layers on 300?nm silicon oxide is studied. A simple model for measuring adhesion force for a flat surface with sub-nanometer roughness was developed and is shown that small surface roughness decreases adhesion force while large roughness results in an effectively larger adhesion forces. We also show that surface roughness over scales comparable to the tip radius increase by nearly a factor of two, the effective adhesion force measured by the atomic force microscopy. Thus, we demonstrate that surface roughness is an important parameter that should be taken into account in analyzing the adhesion force measurement results.

  11. Submitted to Device Research Conference, June 2003 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM Oxidation and Epitaxial Regrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Submitted to Device Research Conference, June 2003 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM-energy patterning process based on AFM lithography (to avoid defects from e-beam and RIE) and Si/SiGe). A single-hole transistor, which is the first reported SiGe quantum device with heterojunction passivation

  12. Silicon Epitaxial Regrowth Passivation of SiGe Nanostructures Pattered by AFM Xiang-Zheng Bo, Leonid P. Rokhinson, and J. C. Sturm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silicon Epitaxial Regrowth Passivation of SiGe Nanostructures Pattered by AFM Oxidation Xiang@princeton.edu ABSTRACT SiGe quantum devices were demonstrated by AFM oxidation and selective wet etching with features temperature regrowth of epitaxial silicon over strained SiGe has been tested. The silicon regrowth on Si0.8Ge0

  13. Scanning probe microscopy: Sulfate minerals in scales and cements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, C. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principles of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are illustrated with examples from oilfield mineralogy, particularly emphasizing sulfate minerals involved in scale formation and cement hydration chemistry. The topography of the (010) cleavage surface of gypsum observed by atomic force microscopy shows atomically flat terraces separated by shallow steps often only one unit cell high. SPM allows direct observation of processes on mineral surfaces while they are in contact with solutions. The dissolution etching and crystal growth of gypsum and barite are discussed and rates of step migration estimated. The orientation of steps is related to the crystallographic axes. The action of phosphonate crystal growth inhibitor on gypsum and of a chelating scale solvent on barite are also shown. The multiphase microstructure of an oilwell cement clinker is described in relation to its hydration chemistry in contact with water and its reaction with sulfate ions.

  14. Dynamic imaging with electron microscopy

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Campbell, Geoffrey; McKeown, Joe; Santala, Melissa

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Livermore researchers have perfected an electron microscope to study fast-evolving material processes and chemical reactions. By applying engineering, microscopy, and laser expertise to the decades-old technology of electron microscopy, the dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) team has developed a technique that can capture images of phenomena that are both very small and very fast. DTEM uses a precisely timed laser pulse to achieve a short but intense electron beam for imaging. When synchronized with a dynamic event in the microscope's field of view, DTEM allows scientists to record and measure material changes in action. A new movie-mode capability, which earned a 2013 R&D 100 Award from R&D Magazine, uses up to nine laser pulses to sequentially capture fast, irreversible, even one-of-a-kind material changes at the nanometer scale. DTEM projects are advancing basic and applied materials research, including such areas as nanostructure growth, phase transformations, and chemical reactions.

  15. www.afm-journal.de 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4320

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    -scale, including wind turbine blades or aircraft wings, which preclude bulk thermal annealing. Accelerated Selfwww.afm-journal.de FULLPAPER © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4320 www.Materials. Biomimicry of these diverse functions in synthetic materials is achieved by embedding a network

  16. Free vibrations of U-shaped atomic force microscope probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A., E-mail: jaturner@unl.edu [Mechanical and Materials Engineering, W342 Nebraska Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact resonance atomic force microscope (AFM) methods have been used to quantify the elastic and viscoelastic properties of a variety of materials such as polymers, ceramics, biological materials, and metals with spatial resolution on the order of tens of nanometers. This approach involves measurement of the resonant frequencies of the AFM probe both for the free case and the case for which the tip is in contact with a sample. Vibration models of the probe and tip-sample contact models are then used to determine the sample properties from the frequency behavior and to create images of the sample properties. This work has been primarily focused on rectangular, single-beam probes for which the vibration models are relatively simple. Recently, U-shaped AFM probes have been developed to allow local heating of samples and the resonances of these probes are much more complex. In this article, a simplified analytical model of these U-shaped probes is described. This three beam model includes two beams clamped at one end and connected with a perpendicular cross beam at the other end. The beams are assumed only to bend in flexure and twist but their coupling allows a wide range of possible dynamic behavior. Results are presented for the first ten modes and the mode shapes are shown to have complex coupling between the flexure and twisting of the beams, particularly for the higher modes. All resonant frequency results are in good agreement with finite element results for the three probe designs and two values of thickness considered (all wavenumbers are within 3.0%). This work is anticipated to allow U-shaped probes to be used eventually for quantitative measurements of sample material properties during heating using a contact resonance approach.

  17. RESEARCH ENGINEER IN ADVANCED ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    RESEARCH ENGINEER IN ADVANCED ANALYTICAL ELECTRON MICROSCOPY Department of Materials Science. #12;Job Description (for website) Job Title: Research Engineer in Advanced Analytical Electron or an engineering discipline and four years of demonstrated experience in electron microscopy. Requirements

  18. Electron Microscopy | Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Atomic-resolution imaging of internal materials structure with scanning transmission and transmission electron microscopy Spectroscopic characterization with...

  19. Three-Nucleon Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter U. Sauer

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries towards calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian; they represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the decription of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces.

  20. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

  1. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E; Parvin, Bahram

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  2. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callahan, Daniel E. (Martinez, CA); Parvin, Bahram (Mill Valley, CA)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time; quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  3. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print Thursday, 22 January 2015 12:10 X-ray microscopy...

  4. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disordered graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Shan-Wen; Peres, Nuno M. R.; Santos, J. E.; Ribeiro, R. M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy currents on locally disorderedcharacteristic curves of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)for the calculation of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)

  5. Signatures of hydrophobic collapse in extended proteins captured with force spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Julio M.

    of the different driving forces in protein folding. atomic force microscopy molecular dynamics protein folding chemicals. Protein folding probed under these conditions has revealed two-state folding for many small to each other. It is widely accepted that, under such conditions, protein folding is driven mostly

  6. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  7. NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randrup, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

  8. Forces from Connes' geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We try to give a pedagogical introduction to Connes' derivation of the standard model of electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces from gravity.

  9. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

  10. Specific adhesion of peptides on semiconductor surfaces in experiment and simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Michael

    with distilled water and drying in air, sample surfaces have been investigated by atomic-force microscopy (AFM phases of peptides on inorganic semiconductor surfaces. The peptide-covered surface fraction can differ

  11. Evolution of AlN buffer layers on Silicon and the effect on the property of the expitaxial GaN film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zang, Keyan

    The morphology evolution of high-temperature grown AlN nucleation layers on (111) silicon has been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The structure and morphology of subsequently grown GaN film were characterized ...

  12. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Colliex, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  13. Distance dependence of the phase signal in eddy current microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roll, Tino; Fischer, Ulrich; Schleberger, Marika

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy using a magnetic tip is a promising tool for investigating conductivity on the nano-scale. By the oscillating magnetic tip eddy currents are induced in the conducting parts of the sample which can be detected in the phase signal of the cantilever. However, the origin of the phase signal is still controversial because theoretical calculations using a monopole appoximation for taking the electromagnetic forces acting on the tip into account yield an effect which is too small by more than two orders of magnitude. In order to determine the origin of the signal we used especially prepared gold nano patterns embedded in a non-conducting polycarbonate matrix and measured the distance dependence of the phase signal. Our data clearly shows that the interacting forces are long ranged and therefore, are likely due to the electromagnetic interaction between the magnetic tip and the conducting parts of the surface. Due to the long range character of the interaction a change in conductivity of $\\Del...

  14. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  15. Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

  16. Federal Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  17. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

  18. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}?{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

  19. Strategic forces briefing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  20. Spatially resolved quantitative mapping of thermomechanical properties and phase transition temperatures using scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V; Nikiforov, Maxim P

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for the thermomechanical characterization of phase transitions in polymeric materials (polyethyleneterephthalate) by band excitation acoustic force microscopy is developed. This methodology allows the independent measurement of resonance frequency, Q factor, and oscillation amplitude of a tip-surface contact area as a function of tip temperature, from which the thermal evolution of tip-surface spring constant and mechanical dissipation can be extracted. A heating protocol maintained a constant tip-surface contact area and constant contact force, thereby allowing for reproducible measurements and quantitative extraction of material properties including temperature dependence of indentation-based elastic and loss moduli.

  1. 3D Force and Displacement Sensor for SFA and AFM Measurements Kai Kristiansen,, Patricia McGuiggan,| Greg Carver, Carl Meinhart, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meinhart, Carl

    , respectively. (2) A less common method is the resistive method using resistance, semiconductor, or piezoresistive strain gauges in a quarter-bridge, half-bridge, or full-bridge configuration4-7 to also give

  2. Fast scanning two-photon microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Jeremy T

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast scanning two-photon microscopy coupled with the use light activated ion channels provides the basis for fast imaging and stimulation in the characterization of in vivo neural networks. A two-photon microscope capable ...

  3. Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Wenhai Han Introduction to Scanning Microwave Microscopy Mode Application Note Introduction Mapping through" and meanwhile achieve sufficient sensitivity and resolution. With the invention of scanning been developed to probe materials properties. These include scanning near-field to scanning microwave

  4. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    152 6 Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanostructure Characterization S. J. Pennycook. Introduction The scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is an invaluable tool atom. The STEM works on the same principle as the normal scanning electron microscope (SEM), by forming

  5. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigations of Complex Oxides Monday, May 23, 2011 - 3:30pm SSRL Conference room 137-322 Professor Tom Vogt, NanoCenter & Department of...

  6. In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of Interfaces in Li-ion Batteries: Challenges and In-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy Studies of...

  7. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced Martensitic Transformation in a CuZnAI Shape Memory Alloy. In Situ Photoelectron Emission Microscopy of a Thermally Induced...

  8. Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

  9. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  10. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials Investigations of electrode interface and architecture...

  11. Unbalanced electromagnetic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig Martin

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coils V ? 4 Vertical spring suspension experiment V ? 5 Horizontal suspension experiment 74 V ? 6 Linear plot of data for egg-shaped coil; horizontal suspension experiment V ? 7 Log-log plot of data for egg-shaped coil; horizontal suspension... segment L on straight line current segment L 53 V-1 Geometrical configuration of experimental coils. . . 62 V ? 2 Retational system for measuring force in various size points 65 xi ~Fi ure V ? 3 Rotational system for measuring force in egg-shaped...

  12. The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L. [126 Spencer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  13. Scanning probe microscopy of nucleic acids and thin organic films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marat Olegovich Gallyamov

    2011-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed the models and algorithms to describe two main artefacts of AFM: (i) broadening effect and (ii) decreased heights of profiles for individual objects adsorbed on a hard substrate. It was shown how to measure elastic properties of a single adsorbed microobject. From the viewpoint of contact deformation theory we analysed mechanism of AFM visualisation of an atomic (molecular) structure of a flat surface. We tested technique of immobilisation on a substrate for free single-stranded RNA molecules in an extended state. Using AFM we visualised stages of processes of RNA release from protein coat of tobacco mosaic virus particles. The asymmetry of this process regarding two ends of a macromolecule was confirmed. The dynamics of compaction for DNA T4 molecules was traced using AFM in real time regime. The partially compacted macromolecules were clearly resolved. We detected that the partially compacted structures consisted of toroidal parts formed by different macromolecular strands. The real geometry of the compacted structures was reconstructed on the basis of systematic AFM measurements. That allowed us to calculate the amount of molecules combining each condensed DNA particle. We demonstrated clear benefits of horizontal deposition method for formation of LB films. Using AFM we achieved molecular resolution for some thin film coating and detected lattice parameters with the precision determined by the errors within a few percent. We demonstrated that the structure of the film is determined by the concurrence of several factors: by the closest packing principle for hydrocarbon tails, by the values of surface areas of polar heads at water subphase as well as by the substrate influence.

  14. High-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope using a linear quadratic Gaussian controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, H., E-mail: h.habib@student.adfa.edu.au; Pota, H. R., E-mail: h.pota@adfa.edu.au; Petersen, I. R., E-mail: i.petersen@adfa.edu.au [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2612 (Australia)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM’s piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method.

  15. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  16. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

  17. Contractor Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  18. Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

  19. Portable dual field gradient force multichannel flow cytometer device with a dual wavelength low noise detection scheme

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Conrad D; Galambos, Paul C; Derzon, Mark S; Graf, Darin C; Pohl, Kenneth R; Bourdon, Chris J

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods for combining dielectrophoresis, magnetic forces, and hydrodynamic forces to manipulate particles in channels formed on top of an electrode substrate are discussed. A magnet placed in contact under the electrode substrate while particles are flowing within the channel above the electrode substrate allows these three forces to be balanced when the system is in operation. An optical detection scheme using near-confocal microscopy for simultaneously detecting two wavelengths of light emitted from the flowing particles is also discussed.

  20. Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

    Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and G. YAMAUCHI decreases the spreading of a non-wetting liquid on low energy solids (1­4). Similar work with high energy ratio (r a/A (da/dA) 1), a is the apparent contact angle, a is the actual area of surface

  1. A 4 K cryogenic probe for use in magnetic resonance force microscopy experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Doran D.; Alexson, Dimitri A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)] [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); Garbini, Joseph L. [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The detailed design of a mechanically detected nuclear magnetic resonance probe using the SPAM (Springiness Preservation by Aligning Magnetization) geometry, operating at 4 K, in vacuum, and a several-Tesla magnetic field is described. The probe head is vibration-isolated well enough from the environment by a three-spring suspension system that the cantilever achieves thermal equilibrium with the environment without the aid of eddy current damping. The probe uses an ultra-soft Si cantilever with a Ni sphere attached to its tip, and magnetic resonance is registered as a change in the resonant frequency of the driven cantilever. The RF system uses frequency sweeps for adiabatic rapid passage using a 500 ?m diameter RF coil wound around a sapphire rod. The RF coil and optical fiber of the interferometer used to sense the cantilever's position are both located with respect to the cantilever using a Garbini micropositioner, and the sample stage is mounted on an Attocube nanopositioner.

  2. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. C. , Reactivity of ozone on solid potassium iodide.and mechanisms of aqueous ozone reactions with bromide,for Dry Deposition of Ozone to Seawater Surfaces. Journal of

  3. CREATE-IGERT Trainees (Cont.) Patrick O'Dell Atomic force microscopy to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    and plant cell wall synthesis for biofuels Tracy Zeng ­ Cell wall formation and fermentation processes Hyrum Gillespie ­ Engineering vector-borne viral citrus disease resistance Tiffany Glavan ­ Transgenic

  4. Structural Characterization of Micromechanical Properties in Asphalt Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Robert Grover

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    -nuclear aromatics and hetero-aromatic molecules (asphaltenes), viscous naphtheno-aromatic hydrocarbons (heavy oils) and heterocyclic and polar compounds (resins). The initial relative amount and arrangement of 9 asphaltenes, resins and oils are highly... between the PDM morphology and the colloidal system where the asphaltenes are stabilized by polar aromatics in a sea of naphthene aromatics and saturated compounds. This does not necessarily invalidate the model but suggests that it is possibly too...

  5. Observation of Changes in Bacterial Cell Morphology Using Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sodium salt (MOPS) buffer (as a control), and the surface topography of the cells was examined after. Topographic images, phase images, traces of surface topography, and analyses of surface roughness were the topography of the cell was altered by the different treatments. The surface roughness was quantified in terms

  6. Preamplifying cantilevers for dynamic atomic force microscopy Benedikt Zeyen,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of periodic interactions between the probe and the substrate when the laser is aligned on the paddle for measurements on periodically poled lithium niobate ferroelectric material is presented. A comparison

  7. Surface characterization of cross-linked elastomers by shear modulation force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colby, Ralph H.

    (isobutylene-co-4-methylstyrene) (BIMS) is a synthetic terpolymer which can be stoichiometrically cross-linked by N agreement with rubber elasticity theory was obtained in both cases. The SMFM was then used to monitor), a synthetic terpolymer of isobutylene (IB), paramethylstyrene (PMS), and parabromomethylstyrene (Br

  8. Parallel Atomic Force Microscopy and NMR Spectroscopy To Investigate Self-Assembled Protein-Nucleotide Aggregates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dellaire, Graham

    - tially be quite useful for a wide variety of systems, since it would allow for the linkage of mesoscale

  9. Measuring Forces between Protein Fibers by Microscopy Christopher W. Jones,* J. C. Wang,y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Matthew

    b-amyloid, actin, and tubulin. INTRODUCTION Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder in which and the associated pathologies can be found in Eaton and Hofrichter (1990). The main pathology of sickle cell anemia a genetic mutation leads to the transcription of sickle hemoglobin (HbS). A good review of sickle cell

  10. Mode-synthesizing atomic force microscopy and mode-synthesizing sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passain, Ali; Thundat, Thomas George; Tetard, Laurene

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of analyzing a sample that includes applying a first set of energies at a first set of frequencies to a sample and applying, simultaneously with the applying the first set of energies, a second set of energies at a second set of frequencies, wherein the first set of energies and the second set of energies form a multi-mode coupling. The method further includes detecting an effect of the multi-mode coupling.

  11. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of CdTe Tetrapods Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J.B. Li, L.W. Wang, A.P. Alivisatos, Nature 430 (2004) 190-Meisel, E.C. Scher, A.P. Alivisatos, Nature Materials 2 [16]Tanaka, K. Sivula, A.P. Alivisatos, J.M.J. Frechet, Journal

  12. Atomic Force Microscopy of Photosystem II and Its Unit Cell Clustering Quantitatively Delineate the Mesoscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geissler, Phillip

    the Mesoscale Variability in Arabidopsis Thylakoids Bibiana Onoa1 , Anna R. Schneider2 , Matthew D. Brooks3 Quantitatively Delineate the Mesoscale Variability in Arabidopsis Thylakoids. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101470. doi:10

  13. Atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopy analysis of palladium and silver nanophase materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sattler, Klaus

    . INTRODUCTION Nanophase materials consolidated from atom clusters produced by the gas condensation method be made by gas condensation, not only at the labo- ratory scale but also in commercial production and properties of nano- phase materials assembled by consolidating gas-condensed atom clusters in vacuum have

  14. Image Scanning Microscopy Claus B. Muller and Jorg Enderlein*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enderlein, Jörg

    Image Scanning Microscopy Claus B. Mu¨ller and Jo¨rg Enderlein* III. Institute of Physics, Georg microscopy technique is introduced, image scanning microscopy (ISM), which combines conventional confocal-laser scanning microscopy with fast wide-field CCD detection. The technique allows for doubling the lateral

  15. Potential applications of microscopy for steam coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVanney, K.F.; Clarkson, R.J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy has been an extremely useful tool for many industrial sectors in the past. This paper introduces some of the potential applications of using coal and fly ash carbon microscopy for the combustion process and steam coal industry. Coal and fly ash carbon microscopic classification criteria are described. Plant sample data are presented which demonstrate that these techniques can be useful for coal selection and for problem solving in the coal-fired power plant environment. Practical recommendations for further study are proposed.

  16. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  17. Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Variable-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (graphene), and formation of self-assembled monolayers. Thin film and cluster growth ­ characterizing AFM Operations Ì Includes AES, XPS, and LEED Ì Sample Preparation: Thin Film Growth, Ion Sputtering preparation ­ offers heating up to 1100 K, cooling down to 100 K, ion sputtering, evaporation sources for film

  18. RESEARCH NEWS VOLUME 12 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY SPECIAL ISSUE 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    . The resolution of AFM is limited by the sharpness of the tip and its geometry. Unfortunately, tips degrade during, and a potentially biodegradable semiconductor, 5,5'-bis-(7-dodecyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)- 2,2'-bithiophene (DDFTTF

  19. Spatial resolution in vector potential photoelectron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, R. [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)] [R. Browning Consultants, 1 Barnhart Place, Shoreham, New York 11786 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental spatial resolution of vector potential photoelectron microscopy is found to be much higher than expected because of the cancellation of one of the expected contributions to the point spread function. We present a new calculation of the spatial resolution with support from finite element ray tracing, and experimental results.

  20. Relativistic forces in Lagangian mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Muñoz Díaz

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a general definition of \\emph{relativistic force} in the context of Lagrangian mechanics. Once this is done we prove that the only relativistic forces which are linear on the velocities are those coming from differential 2-forms defined on the configuration space. In this sense, electromagnetic fields provide a mechanical system with the simplest type of relativistic forces.

  1. Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    Ultrathin Topological Insulator Bi2Se3 Nanoribbons Exfoliated by Atomic Force Microscopy Seung Sae, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 ABSTRACT Ultrathin topological insulator nanostructures), the layered bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3), a single Dirac-cone topological insulator with a large bulk gap, can

  2. Understanding external forces acting on cells control lipid membrane structure and dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Understanding external forces acting on cells control lipid membrane structure and dynamics Overview: Plasma membranes composed of a variety of lipids and proteins are complex and dynamic structures optical microscopy. Much of the molecular insights into the structure and dynamics of these structures has

  3. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Hongxia [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Chen, Yong [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Xun [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ma, Shuyuan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ye, Hongyan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai, Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  4. Casimir force driven ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Emig

    2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the non-linear dynamics of two parallel periodically patterned metal surfaces that are coupled by the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between them. The resulting Casimir force generates for asymmetric patterns with a time-periodically driven surface-to-surface distance a ratchet effect, allowing for directed lateral motion of the surfaces in sizeable parameter ranges. It is crucial to take into account inertia effects and hence chaotic dynamics which are described by Langevin dynamics. Multiple velocity reversals occur as a function of driving, mean surface distance, and effective damping. These transport properties are shown to be stable against weak ambient noise.

  5. Work Force Restructuring Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of EnergyThePatricia Hoffman is theDr.Ulrike1, 2014Force

  6. Pairing forces in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution, the author mentions some features of pairing forces that are unique to nuclei and cover some areas of major interest in nuclear structure research, that involve pairing. At the level of most nuclear structure studies, nuclei are treated as consisting of two kinds of fermions (protons and neutrons) in a valence space with rather few levels. These features give rise to unique aspects of pairing forces in nuclei: (1) n-p pairing in T = 0 as well as the usual T = 1 pairing that is characteristic of like fermions; (2) a need to correct pairing calculations for the (1/N) effects that can typically be neglected in superconducting solids. An issue of current concern is the nature of the pairing interaction: several recent studies suggest a need for a density dependent form of the pairing interaction. There is a good deal of feedback between the questions of accurate calculations of pairing interactions and the form and magnitude of the pairing interaction. Finally, the authors discuss some many-body wave functions that are a generalization of the BCS wave function form, and apply them to a calculation of energy level spacings in superdeformed rotational bands.

  7. Single particle microscopy with nanometer resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georg Jacob; Karin Groot-Berning; Sebastian Wolf; Stefan Ulm; Luc Couturier; Ulrich G. Poschinger; Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler; Kilian Singer

    2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate nanoscopic transmission microscopy relying on a deterministic single particle source. This increases the signal-to-noise ratio with respect to conventional microscopy methods, which employ Poissonian particle sources. We use laser-cooled ions extracted from a Paul trap, and demonstrate remote imaging of transmissive objects with a resolution of 8.6 $\\pm$ 2.0nm and a minimum two-sample deviation of the beam position of 1.5nm. Detector dark counts can be suppressed by 6 orders of magnitudes through gating by the extraction event. The deterministic nature of our source enables an information-gain driven approach to imaging. We demonstrate this by performing efficient beam characterization based on a Bayes experiment design method.

  8. Frontiers of in situ electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Haimei; Zhu, Yimei; Meng, Shirley Ying

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. It provides key information on the structural dynamics of a material during transformations and the correlation between structure and properties of materials. With the recent advances in instrumentation, including aberration corrected optics, sample environment control, the sample stage, and fast and sensitive data acquisition, in situ TEM characterization has become more and more powerful. In this article, a brief review of the current status and future opportunities of in situ TEM is included. It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by inmore »this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects.« less

  9. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of cold gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santra, Bodhaditya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultracold quantum gases offer unique possibilities to study interacting many-body quantum systems. Probing and manipulating such systems with ever increasing degree of control requires novel experimental techniques. Scanning electron microscopy is a high resolution technique which can be used for in situ imaging, single site addressing in optical lattices and precision density engineering. Here, we review recent advances and achievements obtained with this technique and discuss future perspectives.

  11. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials Print X-ray microscopy is powerful in that it can probe large volumes of material at high spatial resolution with...

  12. Flash Scanning Electron Microscopy Raphael Sznitman, Aurelien Lucchi, Marco Cantoni,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Flash Scanning Electron Microscopy Raphael Sznitman, Aurelien Lucchi, Marco Cantoni, Graham Knott. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is an invaluable tool for biologists and neuroscientists to study brain earlier methods, we explicitly balance the conflicting requirements of spending enough time scanning

  13. Video-rate Scanning Confocal Microscopy and Microendoscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nichols, Alexander J.

    Confocal microscopy has become an invaluable tool in biology and the biomedical sciences, enabling rapid, high-sensitivity, and high-resolution optical sectioning of complex systems. Confocal microscopy is routinely used, ...

  14. Quantitative imaging of living cells by deep ultraviolet microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeskind, Benjamin J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developments in light microscopy over the past three centuries have opened new windows into cell structure and function, yet many questions remain unanswered by current imaging approaches. Deep ultraviolet microscopy ...

  15. New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    New Developments in Transmission Electron Microscopy for Nanotechnology** By Zhong Lin Wang* 1. Electron Microscopy and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology, as an international initiative for science manufacturing are the foundation of nanotechnology. Tracking the historical background of why nanotechnology

  16. Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy Conor L. Evans1§ , Xiaoyin Xu anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to image brain structure and pathology ex vivo. Although. Definitive diagnosis still requires brain biopsy in a significant number of cases. CARS microscopy

  17. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  18. Scanning electron microscopy of intestinal villous structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    briefly in running water for 30 minutes and were dehydrated through graded ethanol series (1 hour each in 50, 70, 80, 95 and 100 %). Dehydrated specimens were dried in a carbon dioxide critical point drier to avoid exposure of the specimens to any surface tension forces when drying. The dried specimens were

  19. Physical sectioning in 3D biological microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guntupalli, Jyothi Swaroop

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ...................................................................... 61 G Stepan’s models of regenerative chatter in metal cutting........................... 62 H Chatter model for KESM............................................................................ 64 ix CHAPTER Page I Summary... based on the source of vibration: frictional, regenerative, mode-coupling, and thermo-mechanical [7]. Frictional chatter gets its excitation energy from the friction force either between the workpiece and the tool 15 flank, or between the section...

  20. Physical sectioning in 3D biological microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guntupalli, Jyothi Swaroop

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ...................................................................... 61 G Stepan?s models of regenerative chatter in metal cutting........................... 62 H Chatter model for KESM............................................................................ 64 ix CHAPTER Page I Summary... based on the source of vibration: frictional, regenerative, mode-coupling, and thermo-mechanical [7]. Frictional chatter gets its excitation energy from the friction force either between the workpiece and the tool 15 flank, or between the section...

  1. Sub-microsecond-resolution probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginger, David; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Moore, David; Rayermann, Glennis; Reid, Obadiah

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are provided herein for time-resolved analysis of the effect of a perturbation (e.g., a light or voltage pulse) on a sample. By operating in the time domain, the provided method enables sub-microsecond time-resolved measurement of transient, or time-varying, forces acting on a cantilever.

  2. Fast electron microscopy via compressive sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Kurt W; Anderson, Hyrum S; Wheeler, Jason W

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Various technologies described herein pertain to compressive sensing electron microscopy. A compressive sensing electron microscope includes a multi-beam generator and a detector. The multi-beam generator emits a sequence of electron patterns over time. Each of the electron patterns can include a plurality of electron beams, where the plurality of electron beams is configured to impart a spatially varying electron density on a sample. Further, the spatially varying electron density varies between each of the electron patterns in the sequence. Moreover, the detector collects signals respectively corresponding to interactions between the sample and each of the electron patterns in the sequence.

  3. New Microscopy Patent Awarded | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilverNephelineNeuralNewIdeasofNew Microscopy Patent

  4. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

  5. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

  6. Multimode laser cooling and ultra-high sensitivity force sensing with nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Slatyer, Harri J; Buchler, Ben C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-induced forces can be used to manipulate and cool the mechanical motion of oscillators. When the oscillator is used as a force sensor, such as in atomic force microscopy, active feedback is an enticing route to enhancing measurement performance. Here, we show broadband multimode cooling of $-23$ dB down to a temperature of $8 \\pm 1$~K in the stationary regime. Through the use of periodic quiescence feedback cooling, we show improved signal-to-noise ratios for the measurement of transient signals. We compare the performance of real feedback to numerical post-processing of data and show that both methods produce similar improvements to the signal-to-noise ratio of force measurements. We achieved a room temperature force measurement sensitivity of $< 2\\times10^{-16}$ N with integration time of less than $0.1$ ms. The high precision and fast force microscopy results presented will potentially benefit applications in biosensing, molecular metrology, subsurface imaging and accelerometry.

  7. Radiological AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A full range of data acquisition and analysis algorithms is included in the upgraded control software. The entire microscope is housed in an acoustic isolation box mounted on...

  8. Multimode AFM (Nanoscope) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and biomolecule structures at surfaces; and samples undergoing electrochemical and corrosion processes. Resolution ranges from the submicron-length scale (nanoscale) to the...

  9. Dynamics of Cell Shape and Forces on Micropatterned Substrates Predicted by a Cellular Potts Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philipp J. Albert; Ulrich S. Schwarz

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Micropatterned substrates are often used to standardize cell experiments and to quantitatively study the relation between cell shape and function. Moreover, they are increasingly used in combination with traction force microscopy on soft elastic substrates. To predict the dynamics and steady states of cell shape and forces without any a priori knowledge of how the cell will spread on a given micropattern, here we extend earlier formulations of the two-dimensional cellular Potts model. The third dimension is treated as an area reservoir for spreading. To account for local contour reinforcement by peripheral bundles, we augment the cellular Potts model by elements of the tension-elasticity model. We first parameterize our model and show that it accounts for momentum conservation. We then demonstrate that it is in good agreement with experimental data for shape, spreading dynamics, and traction force patterns of cells on micropatterned substrates. We finally predict shapes and forces for micropatterns that have not yet been experimentally studied.

  10. In-situ and ex-situ observations of lithium de-intercalation from LiCoO? : atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clémençon, Anne

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium cobalt dioxide is the most commonly used material for positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries. During lithium de-intercalation from this material, ... undergoes a number of phase transitions, which ...

  11. Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    points; Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses Section A Appendix 4 July 2011 4-3 d. a projectile print within or cutting the outer ring is 2 points; and e. a projectile...

  12. Prediction of vehicle impact forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  13. Prediction of vehicle impact forces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  14. A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Paul, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

  15. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial Layers on Silicon Nanoparticles for Lithium Ion In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy Probing of Native Oxide and Artificial...

  16. NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SENSOR RESEARCH (NCSR) Research Engineer Fluorescence Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrys, Mark

    manuals, prepare standard operating procedures and ensure documentation is maintained. · Manage online projects. · Undertake the commissioning and maintenance of microscopy equipment. · Collate operations

  17. In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Storage Materials In-Situ Electron Microscopy of Electrical Energy Storage Materials In-situ characterization and diagnostics of mechanical degradation in electrodes...

  18. Strong wind forcing of the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    latitudes, tropical storm force winds may be sufficient tolocation where hurricane force winds arrive at the region.shear data. The wind stress used to force these model was

  19. U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

  20. Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zihua Weng

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in the interplanetary space between the sun and the earth.

  1. Magnetic properties of nanomagnetic and biomagnetic systems analyzed using cantilever magnetometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aste, Andreas

    and also for the rare earth elements Gd, Dy and Tb at various temperatures. In addition, the magnetic, such as that of Brown's paradox [5]. Micromechanical cantilevers used in atomic force microscopy [6] (AFM) are highly sensitive force and torque sensors and therefore ideal tools for detecting magnetic properties of small

  2. Complete information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belianinov, Alex [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last three decades, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a primary tool for exploring and controlling the nanoworld. A critical part of the SPM measurements is the information transfer from the tip-surface junction to a macroscopic measurement system. This process reduces the many degrees of freedom of a vibrating cantilever to relatively few parameters recorded as images. Similarly, the details of dynamic cantilever response at sub-microsecond time scales of transients, higher-order eigenmodes and harmonics are averaged out by transitioning to millisecond time scale of pixel acquisition. Hence, the amount of information available to the external observer is severely limited, and its selection is biased by the chosen data processing method. Here, we report a fundamentally new approach for SPM imaging based on information theory-type analysis of the data stream from the detector. This approach allows full exploration of complex tip-surface interactions, spatial mapping of multidimensional variability of material s properties and their mutual interactions, and SPM imaging at the information channel capacity limit.

  3. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  4. Comparison of Segmentation Algorithms For Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Javier

    - mentation techniques are less accurate than k-means clustering with multiple clusters. Segmentation accuracy fluorescence microscopy; k-means cluster; image segmentation; cell edge; bivariate simi- larity index NUMEROUSComparison of Segmentation Algorithms For Fluorescence Microscopy Images of Cells Alden A. Dima,1

  5. Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Photoacoustic microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz Sarah J. Van microscopy of tyrosinase reporter gene in vivo Arie Krumholz,a Sarah J. VanVickle-Chavez,b Junjie Yao for tyrosinase, the primary enzyme responsible for expression of melanin in melanogenic cells. Optical res

  6. Nuclear force in Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

  7. Forcing in Strategic Belief Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tohmè, Fernando; Gangle, Rocco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forcing is a methodology for building models of Set Theory satisfying certain properties. Since its inception by Paul Cohen, in the early 1960s, it has been applied to several areas in Mathematical Logic, becoming a powerful tool in the analysis of axiomatic systems. In this paper we extend the applicability of forcing to game-theoretic strategic belief models. In particular, we propose a very general notion of solutions for such games by enlarging Brandenburger's $RmAR$ condition via extension through generic types.

  8. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  9. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  10. 1996, Journal of Microscopy 181, 225-237 (and vol 182, p 240.) Multimodal microscopy by digital image processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    , Blakistone and Kyryk 1990 compared applications of polarised light, bright eld, DIC and scanning electron microscopy SEM in the paper industry. Fluorescence microscopy adds further possible imaging modes to light. 1 #12;1 Introduction Di erent imaging modes with the light microscope convey complementary infor

  11. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  12. October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

  13. Nanoscale Optical Devices: Force, Torque and Modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhancements produced by a bowtie (Butterworth Heinemann,stronger binding forces. For bowtie structures, the field

  14. Effect of substrate compliance on the global unilateral post-buckling of coatings: AFM observations and finite element calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, G. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex, (France)]. E-mail: guillaume.parry@etu.univ-poitiers.fr; Colin, J. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Coupeau, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Foucher, F. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Cimetiere, A. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Grilhe, J. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-critical regime of straight-sided wrinkles on compliant substrates of polycarbonate has been observed by atomic force microscope and investigated by means of finite element simulations. The effect of coupling between the film and its substrate has revealed a global buckling phenomenon, characterized by critical loads lower than those found in the case of a rigid substrate. Characteristic shapes of the buckled structure have been also found to spread over a region wider than the delaminated zone itself. A law relating the film deflexion to the stress has finally been established for any film/substrate system.

  15. LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text

  16. Ultrahigh Torsional Stiffness and Strength of Boron Nitride Jonathan Garel,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Oded

    microscopy (AFM), torsion, nanomechanics, faceting Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are, together with graphene

  17. The Engineering of Optical Conservative Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Junjie; Ding, Kun; Du, Guiqiang; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T; Ng, Jack

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical forces have been fruitfully applied in a broad variety of areas that not only span the traditional scientific fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in more applied fields. It is customary and useful to split the optical force into the (conservative) gradient force and the (non-conservative) scattering and absorption force. These forces are different in attributes. The ability to tailor them will open great potential in fundamental optics and practical applications. Here, we present an analytical and a numerical approach to calculate these forces, and, with these tools, we create a fairly general class of 2D conservative optical force field. In general, particles immersed in an optical force do not obey equilibrium statistical mechanics, making the analysis complicated. With conservative forces, these issues are resolved.

  18. Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J.J.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Salmeron, M.

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of mechanical energy transfer from the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope on the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films of octadecylamine on mica. The formation of the self-assembled film proceeds in two successive stages, the first being a fast adsorption from solution that follows a Langmuir isotherm. The second is a slower process of island growth by aggregation of the molecules dispersed on the surface. We found that the dynamics of aggregation can be altered substantially by the addition of mechanical energy into the system through controlled tip-surface interactions. This leads to either the creation of pinholes in existing islands as a consequence of vacancy concentration, and to the assembly of residual molecules into more compact islands.

  19. Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

  20. advanced microscopy techniques: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Syllabus MSE 581: Advanced Electron Microscopy Course description: Present the theory of...

  1. advanced electron microscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Syllabus MSE 581: Advanced Electron Microscopy Course description: Present the theory of...

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications for Catalysis. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Theoretical Study of Water Adsorption on Fe3O4: Implications...

  3. Optical fiber based ultrashort pulse multispectral nonlinear optical microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Adam Michael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) utilizing femtosecond laser pulses is well suited for imaging living tissues. This work reports on the design and development of an optical fiber based multispectral NLOM developed around a laser generating...

  4. Target-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hepler Blackwell, Megan Leticia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) can be used to delineate prominent architectonic features in the human brain, but increased contrast is required to visualize more subtle distinctions. The goal ...

  5. Doppler optical coherence microscopy for studies of cochlear mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Stanley S.

    The possibility of measuring subnanometer motions with micron scale spatial resolution in the intact mammalian cochlea using Doppler optical coherence microscopy (DOCM) is demonstrated. A novel DOCM system is described ...

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 033904 (2011). Web: http:prl.aps.orgpdfPRLv107i3e033904...

  7. Combined confocal Raman and quantitative phase microscopy system for biomedical diagnosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jeon Woong

    We have developed a novel multimodal microscopy system that incorporates confocal Raman, confocal reflectance, and quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) into a single imaging entity. Confocal Raman microscopy provides detailed ...

  8. Centrifugal force in Kerr geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sai Iyer; A R Prasanna

    1992-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have obtained the correct expression for the centrifugal force acting on a particle at the equatorial circumference of a rotating body in the locally non-rotating frame of the Kerr geometry. Using this expression for the equilibrium of an element on the surface of a slowly rotating Maclaurin spheroid, we obtain the expression for the ellipticity (as discussed earlier by Abramowicz and Miller) and determine the radius at which the ellipticity is maximum.

  9. Hydrodynamic forces on piggyback pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, M.L.; Sayer, P. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing number of new offshore pipelines have been designed as bundles, mainly because of overall cost reductions. One popular way of combining two pipelines with different diameters is the piggyback configuration, with the smaller pipeline strapped on top of the main pipeline. The external hydrodynamic forces on this combination are at present very roughly estimated; pipeline engineers need more data to support their designs. This paper presents experimental results for the in-line hydrodynamic loading on three different piggyback set-ups. The models comprised a 0.4 m main pipeline, and three piggyback pipelines with diameters of 0.038 m, 0.059 m and 0.099 m. Each small pipeline was separately mounted to the main pipeline, with a gap equal to its own diameter. These model sizes lie approximately between half- and full-scale. Experiments were undertaken for K{sub C} between 5 and 42, and R{sub e} in the range 0.0 * 10{sup 4} to 8.5 * 10{sup 5}. The results based on Morison`s equation indicate that a simple addition of the separate forces acting on each cylinder underestimates the actual force by up to 35% at low K{sub C} (< {approximately} 10) and by as much as 100% in the drag-dominated regime (K{sub C} > {approximately} 20).

  10. Friction forces in cosmological models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

  11. Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaniewski, Anna Monro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    v List of Tables vii 1 Introduction 1.1 Photovoltaicsand J. V. Manca. Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. , 15:713,polymer blends. Prog. Photovoltaics Res. Appl. , 15:727,

  12. NANOMETER-SCALE INVESTIGATIONS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY INTO THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON THE SURFACE STRUCTURE OF HAIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durkan, C.; Wang, N.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    that the CPD between the hair and the cantilever was 0.4-0.6 V. In Figs. 4(a) and (b), we show the topography and KPFM images of a small area, and in Fig. 4(c), the surface potential (in colour) is overlaid on the 3-d topography. It is known that the surface... in the topography and the potential map, it is also a possibility that it is the deposits themselves that possess a lower surface potential than the hair surface they are on, and that this is where the overall negative charge on hair originates. A cross...

  13. Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaniewski, Anna Monro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for harvesting solar energy by Anna Monro Zaniewski Amaterials for harvesting solar energy Copyright 2012 by Annafor harvesting solar energy by Anna Monro Zaniewski Doctor

  14. Fabrication of Ti/TiOx tunneling barriers by tapping mode atomic force microscopy induced local oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München

    through thin 5 nm titanium films using the very local electric field between the tip and the sample the chamber is filled with pure nitrogen bubbling through deionised water. By mixing dry and humid nitrogen

  15. Novel approaches to investigate behaviors of bacteria by atomic force microscopy and circulating tumor cells through microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, David Steven

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The adaptability and apparent ingenuity of renegade and intruding cells within the human body present formidable challenges in warding off disease. As the longevity of humans increases, cancer will afflict greater numbers, ...

  16. Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaniewski, Anna Monro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is called the short circuit current. The value of thecircuit voltage and short circuit current. The fill factorvoltage (V OC ), short circuit current (I SC ) and ?ll

  17. Magnetic force microscopy and x-ray scattering study of 70550 nm2 pseudo-spin-valve nanomagnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grütter, Peter

    The magnetic properties of lithographically defined mul- tilayered magnetic solids with three dimensions reversal is affected by the shape and reduced dimensions of these nanomagnets are of considerable interest or metallic spacer. Future high-density MRAM devices will require layered magnetic elements with thicknesses

  18. Probing Nanostructures for Photovoltaics: Using atomic force microscopy and other tools to characterize nanoscale materials for harvesting solar energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaniewski, Anna Monro

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    output” means the power output of the solar cell with theof a solar cell is de?ned by [46]: max power output sunlightsolar cell for various values of an applied voltage. This is equivalent to measuring the power output

  19. Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy -- a local and direct probe of the superconducting order parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, Hikari

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy – a local andthe sample using a novel scanning tunneling microscope (STM)discussed. I. INTRODUCTION Scanning tunneling microscopy (

  20. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental Science Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular...

  1. Swept source optical coherence microscopy for pathological assessment of cancerous tissues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahsen, Osman Oguz

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with confocal microscopy and enables depth resolved visualization of biological specimens with cellular resolution. OCM offers a suitable ...

  2. On Dynamic Models of Robot Force Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppinger, Steven D.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For precise robot control, endpoint compliance strategies utilize feedback from a force sensor located near the tool/workpiece interface. Such endpoint force control systems have been observed in the laboratory to be ...

  3. Handheld force-controlled ultrasound probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An hand-held force controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact force between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand ...

  4. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of acicular ferrite precipitation in {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, X.C., E-mail: xiaochuan.xiong@sjtu.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Laser Processing and Modification, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Nancy-Universite, UPV-Metz, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt CS 14234, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Redjaimia, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Nancy-Universite, UPV-Metz, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt CS 14234, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Goune, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS, Nancy-Universite, UPV-Metz, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt CS 14234, F-54042 Nancy Cedex (France); ArcelorMittal SA, Voie Romaine, BP 30320, F-57283 Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Acicular-shaped crystals precipitate from {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N nitride in an iron-nitrogen alloy and were identified by electron microdiffraction as {alpha}-ferrite. Acicular ferrite develops both the Nishiyama-Wassermann and the Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationships with {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N nitride. These orientation relationships were discussed in terms of the symmetry theory. The driving force for acicular ferrite formation was related to the increasing nitrogen content of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N, in equilibrium with {alpha}-ferrite, with decreasing temperature. The passage from lamellar to acicular structure in Fe-N system was proposed. - Research Highlights: {yields} Acicular crystals precipitate from pearlitic{gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N nitride in an iron-nitrogen alloy and were identified by electron microdiffraction as acicular ferrite. {yields} The crystal structure, orientation relationships with the matrix and morphologies of acicular ferrite, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. {yields} The driving force for the formation of acicular ferrite is related to the temperature dependence of nitrogen content of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N, in equilibrium with ferrite. {yields} The passage from the pearlitic structure to the acicular structure in the present iron-nitrogen alloy was proposed.

  5. Local characterization of hindered Brownian motion by using digital video microscopy and 3D particle tracking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon L Dettmer; Ulrich F Keyser; Stefano Pagliara

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we present methods for measuring hindered Brownian motion in the confinement of complex 3D geometries using digital video microscopy. Here we discuss essential features of automated 3D particle tracking as well as diffusion data analysis. By introducing local mean squared displacement-vs-time curves, we are able to simultaneously measure the spatial dependence of diffusion coefficients, tracking accuracies and drift velocities. Such local measurements allow a more detailed and appropriate description of strongly heterogeneous systems as opposed to global measurements. Finite size effects of the tracking region on measuring mean squared displacements are also discussed. The use of these methods was crucial for the measurement of the diffusive behavior of spherical polystyrene particles (505 nm diameter) in a microfluidic chip. The particles explored an array of parallel channels with different cross sections as well as the bulk reservoirs. For this experiment we present the measurement of local tracking accuracies in all three axial directions as well as the diffusivity parallel to the channel axis while we observed no significant flow but purely Brownian motion. Finally, the presented algorithm is suitable also for tracking of fluorescently labeled particles and particles driven by an external force, e.g. electrokinetic or dielectrophoretic forces.

  6. Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  7. Molecular force spectroscopy of homophilic nectin-1 interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Lim, T.S. [Bioinformatics Institute (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Hui Shi [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kausalya, P. Jaya [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore); Lane, E. Birgitte [Institute of Medical Biology (Singapore); Rajagopal, Gunaretnam [Bioinformatics Institute (Singapore); Hunziker, Walter [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore); Lim, C.T. [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)], E-mail: ctlim@nus.edu.sg

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nectins are Ca{sup 2+} independent cell adhesion molecules localizing at the cadherin based adherens junctions. In this study, we have used atomic force microscopy to study interaction of a chimera of extra cellular fragment of nectin-1 and Fc of human IgG (nef-1) with wild type L-fibroblasts that express endogenous nectin-1 to elucidate the biophysical characteristics of homophilic nectin-1 trans-interactions at the level of single molecule. Bond strength distribution revealed three distinct bound states (or configurations) of trans-interactions between paired nectins, where each bound state has a unique unstressed off-rate and reactive compliance. Kinetic analysis of force-dependent off-rate of the bound state involving trans-interacting V-V domains between paired nectin-1 (unstressed off-rate {approx}1.465 {+-} 0.779 s{sup -1}, reactive compliance {approx}0.143 {+-} 0.072 nm) was found to be closest to E-cadherin, indicating that V-V domain trans-interactions are probably necessary to initiate and promote adhesions of E-cadherin at adherens junctions (AJs)

  8. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); MacDonald, G.J. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)] [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1997-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  9. Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

  10. Modeling forces in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L. R.; Foster, M. W.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a simple model that uses computed shielding currents to determine the forces acting on a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The model has been applied to measurements of the force between HTS and permanent magnets (PM). Results show the expected hysteretic variation of force as the HTS moves first toward and then away from a permanent magnet, including the reversal of the sign of the force. Optimization of the shielding currents is carried out through a simulated annealing algorithm in a C++ program that repeatedly calls a commercial electromagnetic software code. Agreement with measured forces is encouraging.

  11. Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical. Description: We are looking for a qualified candidate to join our team at the Air Force Research Laboratory

  12. Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;Wood Fuel Task Force Response | 3 Wood Fuel Task Force Response Scottish Government response by Minister for Environment, Michael Russell I am pleased to present on behalf of the Scottish Government our response to the Wood Fuel

  13. Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

  14. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure constant alpha.

  15. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility...

  16. Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    security force-on-force performance tests and exercises. Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 More Documents & Publications...

  17. Imaging hydrated microbial extracellular polymers: Comparative analysis by electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dohnalkova, A.C.; Marshall, M. J.; Arey, B. W.; Williams, K. H.; Buck, E. C.; Fredrickson, J. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryogenic electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of the hydrated bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in their collapse into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  18. Imaging Hydrated Microbial Extracellular Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dohnalkova, Alice; Marshall, Matthew J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Buck, Edgar C.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microbe-mineral and -metal interactions represent a major intersection between the biosphere and geosphere but require high-resolution imaging and analytical tools for investigating microscale associations. Electron microscopy has been used extensively for geomicrobial investigations and although used bona fide, the traditional methods of sample preparation do not preserve the native morphology of microbiological components, especially extracellular polymers. Herein, we present a direct comparative analysis of microbial interactions using conventional electron microscopy approaches of imaging at room temperature and a suite of cryo-electron microscopy methods providing imaging in the close-to-natural hydrated state. In situ, we observed an irreversible transformation of bacterial extracellular polymers during the traditional dehydration-based sample preparation that resulted in the collapse of hydrated gel-like EPS into filamentous structures. Dehydration-induced polymer collapse can lead to inaccurate spatial relationships and hence could subsequently affect conclusions regarding nature of interactions between microbial extracellular polymers and their environment.

  19. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, K.F.; Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains citations of books, conference proceedings, journals, and patents published in 1992 on the following types of microscopy: atom probe field ion microscopy (108 items); field emission microscopy (101 items); and field ion microscopy (48 items). An addendum of 34 items missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  20. Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy of Sm-doped ceria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Yang, Nan [ORNL; Doria, Sandra [ORNL; Tebano, Antonello [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variable temperature electrochemical strain microscopy has been used to study the electrochemical activity of Sm-doped ceria as a function of temperature and bias. The electrochemical strain microscopy hysteresis loops have been collected across the surface at different temperatures and the relative activity at different temperatures has been compared. The relaxation behavior of the signal at different temperatures has been also evaluated to relate kinetic process during bias induced electrochemical reactions with temperature and two different kinetic regimes have been identified. The strongly non-monotonic dependence of relaxation behavior on temperature is interpreted as evidence for water-mediated mechanisms.

  1. 3D rotational diffusion microrheology using 2D video microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rémy Colin; Minhao Yan; Loudjy Chevry; Jean-François Berret; Bérengère Abou

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple way to perform three-dimensional (3D) rotational microrheology using two-dimensional (2D) video microscopy. The 3D rotational brownian motion of micrometric wires in a viscous fluid is deduced from their projection on the focal plane of an optical microscope objective. The rotational diffusion coefficient of the wires of length between 1-100 \\mu m is extracted, as well as their diameter distribution in good agreement with electron microscopy measurements. This is a promising way to characterize soft visco-elastic materials, and probe the dimensions of anisotropic objects.

  2. Bioelectrical SPMs (G. Gomila, UB-IBEC) Bioelectric Scanning Probe Microscopies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    -Surface Topography 900nm E.Coli Bacterium E.Coli Bacterium AFM Topography (2D colour image) 3D image measure with an SPM? 2-In addition to topography some other physical property depending on the type of SPM are softer. Topography Bioelectrical SPMs (G. Gomila, UB-IBEC) 1. Introduction Bioelectric scanning probe

  3. Dark Forces At The Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement microstructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Scanning electron microscopy imaging of hydraulic cement microstructure by Paul Stutzman Building Reprinted from Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 8, 957-966 pp., November 2004. NOTE: This paper;Available online at www.sciencedirect.com SCIENCE@OIRECT@ Cement & Concrete CompositesELSEVIER Cement

  5. A national facility for biological cryo-electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saibil, Helen R., E-mail: h.saibil@mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk [Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Grünewald, Kay [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David I. [University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review provides a brief update on the use of cryo-electron microscopy for integrated structural biology, along with an overview of the plans for the UK national facility for electron microscopy being built at the Diamond synchrotron. Three-dimensional electron microscopy is an enormously powerful tool for structural biologists. It is now able to provide an understanding of the molecular machinery of cells, disease processes and the actions of pathogenic organisms from atomic detail through to the cellular context. However, cutting-edge research in this field requires very substantial resources for equipment, infrastructure and expertise. Here, a brief overview is provided of the plans for a UK national three-dimensional electron-microscopy facility for integrated structural biology to enable internationally leading research on the machinery of life. State-of-the-art equipment operated with expert support will be provided, optimized for both atomic-level single-particle analysis of purified macromolecules and complexes and for tomography of cell sections. The access to and organization of the facility will be modelled on the highly successful macromolecular crystallography (MX) synchrotron beamlines, and will be embedded at the Diamond Light Source, facilitating the development of user-friendly workflows providing near-real-time experimental feedback.

  6. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800742 Scanning Photoemission Microscopy of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200800742 Scanning Photoemission Microscopy of Graphene Sheets on SiO2** By Ki in extracting individual sheets of carbon atoms (graphene) from graphite crystals, graphene has been attracted metals or molecules.[4­6] In addition, the modification of graphene surfaces using a direct chemical

  7. Surface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    ; Surface structure, morphology, roughness, and topography; Low index single crystal surfaces The structureSurface Science Letters Scanning tunneling microscopy study of the anatase (1 0 0) surface NancyO2 anatase (1 0 0) surface. Natural single crystals of anatase were employed; and after several

  8. Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the material undergoes a phase transition. Herein, we show that thermotropic phase transitions in 4-Cyano-41 Nanoscale Thermotropic Phase Transitions Enhance Photothermal Microscopy Signals A. Nicholas G-objects in various environments. It uses a photo-induced change in the refractive index of the environment. Taking

  9. Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS Radio-frequency scanning tunnelling microscopy U. Kemiktarak1 , T. Ndukum3 , K. C. Schwab3 measurementsinmesoscopicelectronicsandmechanics. Broadband noise measurements across the tunnel junction using this radio-frequency STM available from nanoscale optical and electrical displacement detection tech- niques, and the radio

  10. Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instrument Series: Microscopy Ultra-High Vacuum, Low- Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM range of surface analytical techniques at low temperature ­ enables ultra-violet/X-ray photoelectron

  11. Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

    Preparation of Samples for Light Microscopy Simple Wax Seal Materials - Slide - Cover Slip - Paraffin Wax Candle - Pasteur Pipette (suggested size 5 3/4 inch) - Matches Preparation of the Slide - You may want to protect the work surface from melted wax. We use a sheet of aluminum foil taped

  12. POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Achim

    1 POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH1 , V. SEMET1 and N. GARCIA2 1 exploited in a compact low-energy electron microscope: the Fresnel Projection Microscope. Images size of the sources. The result is a high-resolution, low-energy electron microscope, the "Fresnel

  13. Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Joseph

    Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy Gary, Israel 4 rosen@ee.bgu.ac.il *gbrooker@jhu.edu Abstract: Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH. Rosen and G. Brooker, "Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography," Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912­914 (2007

  14. absorption spectroscopic microscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption spectroscopic microscopy First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Confocal light...

  15. Confocal microscopy study of colloidal sedimentation and crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckham, Richard Edward

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    the ability of the intensity-based approach to measure interparticle forces in colloidal sediments, as well as the inability to use perturbation theory to predict two-dimensional colloidal fluid/solid transitions. While significant progress has been achieved...

  16. Fast Computation of Optimal Contact Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    and force optimization for the legs of a quadruped robot [21]. Some experimental ... Applications that involve the solution of many FOPs, such as finding the ...

  17. Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

  18. Nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this lecture series, I present the recent progress in our understanding of nuclear forces in terms of chiral effective field theory.

  19. Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  20. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  1. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Esquivel-Sirvent

    2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  2. Few-nucleon forces from chiral Lagrangians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Kolck, U. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few-nucleon forces are considered from the point of view of effective chiral Lagrangians. It is argued that such forces naturally arise at the same order in chiral perturbation theory as some important features of the two-nucleon force. In particular, the leading few-nucleon forces cancel against the leading recoil correction in the iteration of the two-body potential. The remaining three-body potential is presented in momentum and coordinate spaces. It is dominated by contributions of the delta isobar of (i) two-pion range, which are not new, and (ii) shorter range, which involve an undetermined parameter.

  3. Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ATTACHMENT Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force Judith F. English, Mae Y. Cundiff of civilian populations not recommended. 3. Infection Control Practices for Patient Management Symptomatic

  4. Enhanced electrostatic discrimination of proteins on nanoparticle-coated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubin, Paul D.

    Enhanced electrostatic discrimination of proteins on nanoparticle-coated surfaces Yisheng Xu gold nanoparticle (GNP) modified surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface-membrane ultraltration,6 and polyelectrolyte-induced phase separation.7 In recent years, nanoparticles (NP) modied

  5. THIS IS A PRE-PRINT, NON PEER-REVIED VERSION OF THE ARTICLE THIS IS A PRE-PRINT, NON PEER-REVIED VERSION OF THE ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    abundant of these are the trimeric-porins, such as OmpF of Escherichia (E.) coli, which are the major-dimensional / AFM: atomic force microscopy / E: Escherichia / LPS: lipopolysacharide /OM: outer membrane / SD present the first structural data for the outer membrane porin from a marine Gram-negative bacteria

  6. Controlled Manipulation of Nanoparticles : Scanning Probe Measurements and Modelling of Trajectories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Valentin

    Controlled Manipulation of Nanoparticles : Scanning Probe Measurements and Modelling on the manipulation of Au nanoparticles. A new technique for controlled manipulation of nanospheres and asymmetric, is a common experience in atomic force microscopy (AFM). Understanding how to control and turn this effect

  7. DOI: 10.1007/s00339-004-2549-6 Appl. Phys. A (2004)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    surface and structural prop- erties were measured by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X., and rare earth elements; B represents Ti, Ta, Nb, W, Mo, Fe, etc., and m = 2, 3, 4, . . . , represents transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) multimodes and measured the refractive indices of BTN

  8. The characteristics of organicinorganic hybrid low-k thin films by PECVD S.-J. Cho a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    conductivity is also important, because of the ever-increasing power density inside chips. Thermal properties of various RF (radio frequency using 13.56 MHz) powers in the range of 20­60 W, and then thin films were Transform­Infrared Spectroscopy), and AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy). The result of FT-IR showed some

  9. Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

  10. Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

  11. Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

  12. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  13. On Dual Configurational Forces SHAOFAN LIj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    they provide the dual energy­momentum tensor. Some previously unknown and yet interesting results in elasticity the configuration force (energy­momentum tensor) P and the dual configuration force (dual energy­momentum tensor) L energy­ momentum tensor (referred to as the dual energy­momentum tensor in this j Corresponding author

  14. Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard General of the Air Force/Army

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard O-10 General of the Air Force/Army (Reserved Corps Navy & Coast Guard WarrantOfficers No Warrant Officer Rank Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer 5 Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard E-9 Chief Master Sergeant of the Air

  15. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  16. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  17. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  18. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Thibault, P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Elser, V. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Howells, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Neiman, A. M. [State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  19. Microfabricated high-bandpass foucault aperture for electron microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Robert; Cambie, Rossana; Jin, Jian

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A variant of the Foucault (knife-edge) aperture is disclosed that is designed to provide single-sideband (SSB) contrast at low spatial frequencies but retain conventional double-sideband (DSB) contrast at high spatial frequencies in transmission electron microscopy. The aperture includes a plate with an inner open area, a support extending from the plate at an edge of the open area, a half-circle feature mounted on the support and located at the center of the aperture open area. The radius of the half-circle portion of reciprocal space that is blocked by the aperture can be varied to suit the needs of electron microscopy investigation. The aperture is fabricated from conductive material which is preferably non-oxidizing, such as gold, for example.

  20. Biological Imaging by Soft X-ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro,D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; et al.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffraction microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.

  1. Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5forces (using a multi-segmented force transducer) and the underlying kinematics (using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) at different elevations throughout the crest to trough region were measured during the tests. The measured wave forces at different elevations have been interpreted using the Morison equation to determine experimental values of force coefficients C{sub D} and C{sub M}. The results in hand suggest that both C{sub D} and C{sub M} values in the splash zone are higher and exhibit a mild frequency dependence in comparison with their corresponding counterparts for the fully submerged segments. For weakly nonlinear waves (H/{lambda}<0.1) only wave fluctuation is found to be important and any mild nonlinearities do not significantly affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1force response, producing ringing effects in conducive conditions.

  2. Scanning acoustic microscopy for mapping the microstructure of soft materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. G. Parker; M. J. W. Povey

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustics provides a powerful modality with which to 'see' the mechanical properties of a wide range of elastic materials. It is particularly adept at probing soft materials where excellent contrast and propagation distance can be achieved. We have constructed a scanning acoustic microscope capable of mapping the microstructure of such materials. We review the general principles of scanning acoustic microscopy and present new examples of its application in imaging biological matter, industrial materials and particulate systems.

  3. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage

  4. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy

  5. Single beam Fourier transform digital holographic quantitative phase microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, A., E-mail: arun-nair-in@yahoo.com; Chhaniwal, V. K.; Mahajan, S.; Trivedi, V. [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India)] [Optics Laboratory, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001 (India); Faridian, A.; Pedrini, G.; Osten, W. [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Technische Optik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 9, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dubey, S. K. [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India)] [Siemens Technology and Services Pvt. Ltd, Corporate Technology—Research and Technology Centre, Bangalore 560100 (India); Javidi, B. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, U-4157, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-2157 (United States)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative phase contrast microscopy reveals thickness or height information of a biological or technical micro-object under investigation. The information obtained from this process provides a means to study their dynamics. Digital holographic (DH) microscopy is one of the most used, state of the art single-shot quantitative techniques for three dimensional imaging of living cells. Conventional off axis DH microscopy directly provides phase contrast images of the objects. However, this process requires two separate beams and their ratio adjustment for high contrast interference fringes. Also the use of two separate beams may make the system more vulnerable to vibrations. Single beam techniques can overcome these hurdles while remaining compact as well. Here, we describe the development of a single beam DH microscope providing whole field imaging of micro-objects. A hologram of the magnified object projected on to a diffuser co-located with a pinhole is recorded with the use of a commercially available diode laser and an arrayed sensor. A Fourier transform of the recorded hologram directly yields the complex amplitude at the image plane. The method proposed was investigated using various phase objects. It was also used to image the dynamics of human red blood cells in which sub-micrometer level thickness variation were measurable.

  6. Wavelength swept spectrally encoded confocal microscopy for biological and clinical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boudoux, Caroline

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a technique that facilitates the incorporation of confocal microscopy into small, portable clinical instruments. This would allow in vivo evaluation of cellular and sub-cellular ...

  7. High throughput 3D optical microscopy : from image cytometry to endomicroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Heejin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical microscopy is an imaging technique that allows morphological mapping of intracellular structures with submicron resolution. More importantly, optical microscopy is a technique that can readily provide images with ...

  8. Cellular resolution ex vivo imaging of gastrointestinal tissues with coherence microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, James G.

    Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) combines confocal microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to improve imaging depth and contrast, enabling cellular imaging in human tissues. We aim to investigate OCM for ex ...

  9. Nuclear emission microscopies B.L. Doyle a,*, D.S. Walsh a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear emission microscopies B.L. Doyle a,*, D.S. Walsh a , S.N. Renfrow a,b , G. Vizkelethy a,1 Abstract Alternatives to traditional nuclear microprobe analysis (NMA) emerged two years ago with the invention of ion electron emission microscopy (IEEM). With nuclear emission microscopy (NEM) the ion beam

  10. Scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate Ethan Schonbrun,* Winnie N. Ye demonstrate a form of scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate and a low-NA relay. In this scheme, parallel scanning microscopy using a Fresnel zone-plate array would require only a single spatial

  11. A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan Self-Defense Forces (SDF). Along with the new NDPG,set a direction for the SDF in the post-9/11 inter- nationalsituation also requires the SDF take on these “dynamic”

  12. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was used for the dredging test...

  13. Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Laurence

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

  14. Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad Mohammad Mahdian Ebad S. Mahmoodian Amin Saberi§ Bardia, USA. (saberi@cc.gatech.edu) ¶ Department of Computer Science, UIUC, Urbana, USA. (sadri@cs.uiuc.edu) 1

  15. Interfacial forces in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Dedy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for planarization. The process takes place at the interface of a substrate, a polishing pad, and an abrasive containing slurry. This synergetic process involves several forces in multi-length scales and multi-mechanisms. This research contributes fundamental...

  16. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  17. Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal

    We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable ...

  18. Clinch River MRS Task Force Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clinch River HRS Task Force was appointed in July 1985 by the Roane County Executive and the Oak Ridge City Council to evaluate the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility proposed by the...

  19. Casimir forces in the time domain: Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steven G.

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012115 (2009)] introduced a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials that was based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. In ...

  20. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was ...

  1. Viscoelastic Study Using an Atomic Force Microscope Modified to Operate as a Nanorheometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    pharmaceutical compounds, through to polymer composites,blends,novelorganicsemiconductornetworks, and even,11,12 Although category I nanorheology can be conducted without any subsequent modification to the existing AFM

  2. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  3. Agencies Approve Bacteria TMDL Task Force Recommendations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 10 In June 2007 the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) and the TexasState Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSW- CB) approved the recommendations of the Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force and asked... their agencies to update their TMDL guidance documents to reflect these recommendations. They also authorized establishing a multi-agency bacteria TMDL work group to examine the research and development needs identified in the task force report. Both TCEQ...

  4. Calculation of rotordynamic forces on labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensel, Steve John

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis STEVE JOHN HENSEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by STEVE JOHN HENSEL Approved as to style snd content by: David Rhode (Chairman of Committee) Erian Baskharone Leel and Garison (Member) +, gg, W. D...

  5. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  6. Confocal Microscopy for Modeling Electron Microbeam Irradiation of Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John H.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For radiation exposures employing targeted sources such as particle microbeams, the deposition of energy and dose will depend on the spatial heterogeneity of the spample. Although cell structural variations are relatively minor for two-dimensional cell cultures, they can vary significantly for fully differential tissues. Employing high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have determined the spatial distribution, size, and shape of epidermal kerantinocyte nuclei for the full-thickness EpiDerm skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). Application of these data to claculate the microdosimetry and microdistribution of energy deposition by an electron microbeam is discussed.

  7. Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Changlin [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu; Wang, Yuechao; Yang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.

  8. DeepView: A collaborative framework for distributed microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parvin, B.; Taylor, J.; Cong, G.

    1998-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the motivation, requirements, and architecture of a collaborative framework for distributed virtual microscopy. In this context, the requirements are specified in terms of (1) functionality, (2) scalability, (3) interactivity, and (4) safety and security. Functionality refers to what and how an instrument does something. Scalability refers to the number of instruments, vendor-specific desktop workstations, analysis programs, and collaborators that can be accessed. Interactivity refers to how well the system can be steered either for static or dynamic experiments. Safety and security refers to safe operation of an instrument coupled with user authentication, privacy, and integrity of data communication. To meet these requirements, we introduce three types of services in the architecture: Instrument Services (IS), Exchange Services (ES), and Computational Services (CS). These services may reside on any host in the distributed system. The IS provide an abstraction for manipulating different types of microscopes; the ES provide common services that are required between different resources; and the CS provide analytical capabilities for data analysis and simulation. These services are brought together through CORBA and its enabling services, e.g., Event Services, Time Services, Naming Services, and Security Services. Two unique applications have been introduced into the CS for analyzing scientific images either for instrument control or recovery of a model for objects of interest. These include: in-situ electron microscopy and recovery of 3D shape from holographic microscopy. The first application provides a near real-time processing of the video-stream for on-line quantitative analysis and the use of that information for closed-loop servo control. The second application reconstructs a 3D representation of an inclusion (a crystal structure in a matrix) from multiple views through holographic electron microscopy. These application require steering external stimuli or computational parameters for a particular result. In a sense, ''computational instruments'' (symmetric multiprocessors) interact closely with data generated from ''experimental instruments'' (unique microscopes) to conduct new experiments and bring new functionalities to these instruments. Both of these features exploit high-performance computing and low-latency networks to bring novel functionalities to unique scientific imaging instruments.

  9. Entanglement-assisted electron microscopy based on a flux qubit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi, E-mail: okamoto@akita-pu.ac.jp [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, Akita Prefectural University, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Nagatani, Yukinori [National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444-8787 (Japan)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A notorious problem in high-resolution biological electron microscopy is radiation damage caused by probe electrons. Hence, acquisition of data with minimal number of electrons is of critical importance. Quantum approaches may represent the only way to improve the resolution in this context, but all proposed schemes to date demand delicate control of the electron beam in highly unconventional electron optics. Here we propose a scheme that involves a flux qubit based on a radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device, inserted in a transmission electron microscope. The scheme significantly improves the prospect of realizing a quantum-enhanced electron microscope for radiation-sensitive specimens.

  10. Record-Setting Microscopy Illuminates Energy Storage Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand Requirements Recently Approved Justification Memoranda byRecord-Setting Microscopy

  11. Zipping mechanism for force-generation by growing filament bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Kuehne; Reinhard Lipowsky; Jan Kierfeld

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the force generation by polymerizing bundles of filaments, which form because of short-range attractive filament interactions. We show that bundles can generate forces by a zipping mechanism, which is not limited by buckling and operates in the fully buckled state. The critical zipping force, i.e. the maximal force that a bundle can generate, is given by the adhesive energy gained during bundle formation. For opposing forces larger than the critical zipping force, bundles undergo a force-induced unbinding transition. For larger bundles, the critical zipping force depends on the initial configuration of the bundles. Our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

  13. Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive ...

  14. Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Testimony of James Ownedoff, Acting...

  15. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Fact sheet...

  16. 6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahn, Markus, 1946-

    Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

  17. Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology August 12,...

  18. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience This report sumarizes early...

  19. Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop Cyber Security Requirements for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to...

  20. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  1. Frontiers of in situ electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Haimei [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, Shirley Ying [Univ. of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has become an increasingly important tool for materials characterization. It provides key information on the structural dynamics of a material during transformations and the correlation between structure and properties of materials. With the recent advances in instrumentation, including aberration corrected optics, sample environment control, the sample stage, and fast and sensitive data acquisition, in situ TEM characterization has become more and more powerful. In this article, a brief review of the current status and future opportunities of in situ TEM is included. It also provides an introduction to the six articles covered by in this issue of MRS Bulletin explore the frontiers of in situ electron microscopy, including liquid and gas environmental TEM, dynamic four-dimensional TEM, nanomechanics, ferroelectric domain switching studied by in situ TEM, and state-of-the-art atomic imaging of light elements (i.e., carbon atoms) and individual defects.

  2. Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Chris; Burnley, Tom [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Patwardhan, Ardan [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD (United Kingdom); Scheres, Sjors [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Topf, Maya [University of London, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX (United Kingdom); Roseman, Alan [University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Winn, Martyn, E-mail: martyn.winn@stfc.ac.uk [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Science and Technology Facilities Council, Research Complex at Harwell, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) is a new initiative for the structural biology community, following the success of CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography. Progress in supporting the users and developers of cryoEM software is reported. The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has recently been established. The aims of the project are threefold: to build a coherent cryoEM community which will provide support for individual scientists and will act as a focal point for liaising with other communities, to support practising scientists in their use of cryoEM software and finally to support software developers in producing and disseminating robust and user-friendly programs. The project is closely modelled on CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography, and areas of common interest such as model fitting, underlying software libraries and tools for building program packages are being exploited. Nevertheless, cryoEM includes a number of techniques covering a large range of resolutions and a distinct project is required. In this article, progress so far is reported and future plans are discussed.

  3. Coupling EELS/EFTEM Imaging with Environmental Fluid Cell Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Baggetto, Loic [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Insight into dynamically evolving electrochemical reactions and mechanisms encountered in electrical energy storage (EES) and conversion technologies (batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors), materials science (corrosion and oxidation), and materials synthesis (electrodeposition) remains limited due to the present lack of in situ high-resolution characterization methodologies. Electrochemical fluid cell microscopy is an emerging in-situ method that allows for the direct, real-time imaging of electrochemical processes within a fluid environment. This technique is facilitated by the use of MEMS-based biasing microchip platforms that serve the purpose of sealing the highly volatile electrolyte between two electron transparent SiNx membranes and interfacing electrodes to an external potentiostat for controlled nanoscale electrochemislly experiments [!]. In order to elucidate both stmctural and chemical changes during such in situ electrochemical experiments, it is impmtant to first improve upon the spatial resolution by utilizing energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) (to minimize chromatic aben ation), then to detennine the chemical changes via electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). This presents a formidable challenge since the overall thickness through which electrons are scattered through the multiple layers of the cell can be on the order of hundreds of nanometers to microns, scattering through which has the deleterious effect of degrading image resolution and decreasing signal-to noise for spectroscopy [2].

  4. Investigation of forced and isothermal chemical vapor infiltrated SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, J.; Kelkar, A.D.; Vaidyanathan, R. [North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State Univ., Greensboro, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanical properties of two different layups for each of the forced CVI (41 specimens) and isothermal CVI (36 specimens) materials were investigated in air at room temperature (RT), 1000C, and at room temperature after thermal shock (RT/TS) and exposure to oxidation (RT/OX). The FCVI specimens had a nominal interfacial coating thickness of 0.3 {mu}m of pyrolytic carbon, while CVI specimens had a coating thickness of 0.1 {mu}m. Effect of reinforcement and interfacial bond on mechanical properties of composite were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to analyze the fiber-matrix interface and the toughening mechanisms in this ceramic composite system.

  5. Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces. On the rugose rock surfaces of wave-swept shores, interactions between substratum topography and wave-induced flow may create such a spatially variable environment. Topography Numerous investigators have explored

  6. Structural Dynamics The spring force is given by and F(t) is the driving force.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veress, Alexander

    by dry or Coulomb friction between rigid bodies, by internal friction between molecules within/displacement curve. #12;All vibrations are damped to some degree by friction forces. These forces may be caused a deformable body, or by fluid friction when a body moves in a fluid. These result in natural circular

  7. Estimation of Contact Forces using a Virtual Force Sensor Emanuele Magrini Fabrizio Flacco Alessandro De Luca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    the exchanged Cartesian forces; 4) control the robot to react according to a desired behavior. Different model Alessandro De Luca Abstract-- Physical human-robot collaboration is character- ized by a suitable exchange of contact forces between human and robot, which can occur in general at any point along the robot structure

  8. A noise inequality for classical forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvir Kafri; J. M. Taylor

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lorentz invariance requires local interactions, with force laws such as the Coulomb interaction arising via virtual exchange of force carriers such as photons. Many have considered the possibility that, at long distances or large mass scales, this process changes in some way to lead to classical behavior. Here we hypothesize that classical behavior could be due to an inability of some force carriers to convey entanglement, a characteristic measure of nonlocal, quantum behavior. We then prove that there exists a local test that allows one to verify entanglement generation, falsifying our hypothesis. Crucially, we show that noise measurements can directly verify entanglement generation. This provides a step forward for a wide variety of experimental systems where traditional entanglement tests are challenging, including entanglement generation by gravity alone between macroscopic torsional oscillators.

  9. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  10. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

  11. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  12. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  13. Conference Discussion of the Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz Gross,Thomas D. Cohen,Evgeny Epelbaum,R. Machleidt

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussion of the nuclear force, lead by a round table consisting of T. Cohen, E. Epelbaum, R. Machleidt, and F. Gross (chair). After an invited talk by Machleidt, published elsewhere in these proceedings, brief remarks are made by Epelbaum, Cohen, and Gross, followed by discussion from the floor moderated by the chair. The chair asked the round table and the participants to focus on the following issues: (1)What does each approach (chiral effective field theory, large Nc, and relativistic phenomenology) contribute to our knowledge of the nuclear force? Do we need them all? Is any one transcendent? (2) How important for applications (few body, nuclear structure, EMC effect, for example) are precise fits to the NN data below 350 MeV? How precise do these fits have to be? (3) Can we learn anything about nonperturbative QCD from these studies of the nuclear force? The discussion presented here is based on a video recording made at the conference and transcribed afterward.

  14. Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

  15. Modulational instability in wind-forced waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunetti, Maura

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion, in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared.

  16. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahmen, Tim [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G [ORNL] [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kubel, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany] [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Leopoldshafen, Germany; Slusallek, Phillip [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany] [German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), Germany; De Jonge, Niels [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  17. Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youvan, Douglas C. (San Jose, CA); Silva, Christopher M. (Sunnyvale, CA); Bylina, Edward J. (San Jose, CA); Coleman, William J. (Moutain View, CA); Dilworth, Michael R. (Santa Cruz, CA); Yang, Mary M. (San Jose, CA)

    2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

  18. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  19. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.; Lima, E.; Huang, X.; Krupin, O.; Seu, K.; Parks, D.; Kevan, S.; Kisslinger, K.; McNulty, I.; Gambino, R.; Mangin, S.; Roy, S. and Fischer, P.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first proof-of-principle experiment of iterative phase retrieval from magnetic x-ray diffraction. By using the resonant x-ray excitation process and coherent x-ray scattering, we show that linearly polarized soft x rays can be used to image both the amplitude and the phase of magnetic domain structures. We recovered the magnetic structure of an amorphous terbium-cobalt thin film with a spatial resolution of about 75 nm at the Co L{sub 3} edge at 778 eV. In comparison with soft x-ray microscopy images recorded with Fresnel zone plate optics at better than 25 nm spatial resolution, we find qualitative agreement in the observed magnetic structure.

  20. Cryo diffraction microscopy: Ice conditions and finite supports

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miao, H; Downing, K; Huang, X; Kirz, J; Marchesini, S; Nelson, J; Shapiro, D; Steinbrener, J; Stewart, A; Jacobsen, C

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

  1. Photoionization microscopy in terms of local frame transformation theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Giannakeas; F. Robicheaux; Chris H. Greene

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-photon ionization of an alkali-metal atom in the presence of a uniform electric field is investigated using a standardized form of local frame transformation and generalized quantum defect theory. The relevant long-range quantum defect parameters in the combined Coulombic plus Stark potential is calculated with eigenchannel R-matrix theory applied in the downstream parabolic coordinate $\\eta$. The present formulation permits us to express the corresponding microscopy observables in terms of the local frame transformation, and it gives a critical test of the accuracy of the Harmin-Fano theory permitting a scholastic investigation of the claims presented in Zhao {\\it et al.} [Phys. Rev. A 86, 053413 (2012)].

  2. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron microscopy techniques in strongly correlated electron systems and nanostructured materials. As a first step, with the support of Materials Science Division, Office of Basic Energy Science, US Department of Energy, and the New York State Office of Science, Technology, and Academic Research, recently we acquired three aberration-corrected electron microscopes from the three major microscope manufacturers, i.e., JEOL, Hitachi, and FEI. The Hitachi HD2700C is equipped with a probe corrector, the FEI Titan 80-300 has an imaging corrector, while the JEOL2200MCO has both. All the correctors are of the dual-hexapole type, designed and manufactured by CEOS GmbH based on the design due to Rose and Haider [3, 18]. All these three are one-of-a-kind in the US, designed for specialized capabilities in characterizing nanoscale structure. In this chapter, we review the performance of these state-of-the art instruments and the new challenges associated with the improved spatial resolution, including the environment requirements of the laboratory that hosts these instruments. Although each instrument we describe here has its own strengths and drawbacks, it is not our intention to rank them in terms of their performance, especially their spatial resolution in imaging.

  3. Calibration of fluorescence resonance energy transfer in microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youvan, Dougalas C.; Silva, Christopher M.; Bylina, Edward J.; Coleman, William J.; Dilworth, Michael R.; Yang, Mary M.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Imaging hardware, software, calibrants, and methods are provided to visualize and quantitate the amount of Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) occurring between donor and acceptor molecules in epifluorescence microscopy. The MicroFRET system compensates for overlap among donor, acceptor, and FRET spectra using well characterized fluorescent beads as standards in conjunction with radiometrically calibrated image processing techniques. The MicroFRET system also provides precisely machined epifluorescence cubes to maintain proper image registration as the sample is illuminated at the donor and acceptor excitation wavelengths. Algorithms are described that pseudocolor the image to display pixels exhibiting radiometrically-corrected fluorescence emission from the donor (blue), the acceptor (green) and FRET (red). The method is demonstrated on samples exhibiting FRET between genetically engineered derivatives of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) bound to the surface of Ni chelating beads by histidine-tags.

  4. Integrated fiducial sample mount and software for correlated microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R McJunkin; Jill R. Scott; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Karen E. Wright

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel design sample mount with integrated fiducials and software for assisting operators in easily and efficiently locating points of interest established in previous analytical sessions is described. The sample holder and software were evaluated with experiments to demonstrate the utility and ease of finding the same points of interest in two different microscopy instruments. Also, numerical analysis of expected errors in determining the same position with errors unbiased by a human operator was performed. Based on the results, issues related to acquiring reproducibility and best practices for using the sample mount and software were identified. Overall, the sample mount methodology allows data to be efficiently and easily collected on different instruments for the same sample location.

  5. Handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiraki, Atsushi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study developed handheld and low-cost digital holographic microscopy (DHM) by adopting an in-line type hologram, a webcam, a high power RGB light emitting diode (LED), and a pinhole. It cost less than 20,000 yen (approximately 250 US dollars at 80 yen/dollar), and was approximately 120 mm x 80 mm x 55 mm in size. In addition, by adjusting the recording-distance of a hologram, the lateral resolution power at the most suitable distance was 17.5 um. Furthermore, this DHM was developed for use in open source libraries, and is therefore low-cost and can be easily developed by anyone. In this research, it is the feature to cut down cost and size and to improve the lateral resolution power further rather than existing reports. This DHM will be a useful application in fieldwork, education, and so forth.

  6. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing Hongjun Gao and Jinqiao Duan ¡ 1 external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model

  7. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing Hongjun Gao 1 and Jinqiao Duan 2 1 external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model

  8. NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian University-980) to include net forces in the mechanisms. Net forces are theoretically required to describe earthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even

  9. Mechanistic study of dielectric chemical mechanical polishing by spectral and scaling analysis of atomic force microscope images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verhoff, M.L.

    1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal oxide and PETEOS oxide surfaces, polished on an IPEC 472 with different combinations of polish pad, slurry, and polishing conditions, were studied with ex situ atomic force microscopy. The post polish surfaces were analyzed qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively by spectral and scaling analyses. Spectral and scaling analyses gave consistent interpretations of morphology evolution. Polishing with either a fixed abrasive pad or alumina-based slurry occurred via a mechanism for which asperities are removed and recesses are filled. A sputtering-type mechanism may contribute to material removal when polishing with silica- or ceria-based slurries.

  10. Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Single Crystal Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+delta with a Conventional Superconducting Tip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, H.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Title) Scanning Josephson Tunneling Microscopy of Singlea conventional superconducting scanning tunneling microscopeabstract} (Body) Remarkable scanning tunneling microscopy (

  11. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications.

  12. Dynamic scanning probe microscopy of adsorbed molecules on graphite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Berdunov; A. J. Pollard; P. H. Beton

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used a combined dynamic scanning tunneling and atomic force microscope to study the organisation of weakly bound adsorbed molecules on a graphite substrate. Specifically we have acquired images of islands of the perylene derivative molecules. These weakly bound molecules may be imaged in dynamic STM, in which the probe is oscillated above the surface. We show that molecular resolution may be readily attained and that a similar mode of imaging may be realised using conventional STM arrangement. We also show, using tunnelling spectroscopy, the presence of an energy gap for the adsorbed molecules confirming a weak molecule-substrate interaction.

  13. Characterization of acoustically forced swirl flame dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    of the flame to acoustic excitation is required. This study presents an analysis of phase-locked OH PLIF images of acoustically excited swirl flames, to identify the key controlling physical processes and qualitatively discuss, and whose relative significance depends upon forcing frequency, amplitude of excitation, and flame

  14. Self-force approach for radiation reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lior M. Burko

    1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We overview the recently proposed mode-sum regularization prescription (MSRP) for the calculation of the local radiation-reaction forces, which are crucial for the orbital evolution of binaries. We then describe some new results which were obtained using MSRP, and discuss their importance for gravitational-wave astronomy.

  15. Columbia University Network Integration Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    Columbia University Network Integration Task Force Final Report II 30 January 1992 #12;1 TOWARDS A COMMON ADMINISTRATIVE AND ACADEMIC NETWORK AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Columbia University's Administrative or terminal. 1.2. Executive Summary This report examines Columbia University's current academic

  16. U.S.Air Force Advanced Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tractor · Robins AFB H2 Fuel Cell Forklift/Toolcat · Fisher-Tropsch Synthetic FuelTest · Robins E-85 Effort · Solar - Electric Drive U.S.Air Force Advanced PowerTechnology Office Our Customers TheWarfighter Homeland Defense RefuelerFuel Cell MB-4Fuel Cell Microgrid Hydrogen Refueling Station Renewable Wind Power Renewable Solar

  17. Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    . For a more comprehensive report of the findings as well as faculty suggestions for maintaining integrity1 Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary 11/22/11 INTRODUCTION CHARGE: To determine whether there is an issue with academic integrity at UF and, if so, to determine how widespread

  18. Dean's Task Force on Engineering Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean's Task Force on Engineering Leadership Education Final Report May 5, 2010 Doug Reeve (Chair, Membership 1. There is an Urgent Need for Engineering Le 2. Leadership Education ...8 Engineering Leaders. Capability and Compe Engineering Leadership 5 Curriculum Concepts Co-curricular Concepts Extra

  19. Galileon forces in the Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

  20. Chiral effective field theory and nuclear forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field.

  1. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  2. Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom by George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Bulbs for Indoor Bloom George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardener, Fairfax County, VA Introduction Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter

  3. Open Access Task Force Open Access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Libraries Initiative launched by National Science Foundation; Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN Library System rgmiller@pitt.edu #12;Open Access Task Force Open Access is... · A family of copyright · The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain

  4. Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

  5. Chiral lagrangians and few-nucleon forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Kolck, U. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the implications of chiral symmetry to nuclear forces are considered. The few-nucleon potential is shown to be naturally weaker than the leading pieces of the two-nucleon potential, but comparable to other important features of the latter. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Transmission electron microscopy of whiskers and hillocks formed on Al films deposited onto a glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saka, H.; Fujino, S.; Kuroda, K. [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-01 (Japan); Tsujimoto, K.; Tsuji, S. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Shimotsuruma, Yamato, Kanagawa 242 (Japan); Takatsuji, H. [Display Technology, IBM Japan, Ltd., Ichimiyake, Yasu-gun, Shiga 520-23 (Japan)

    1998-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Whiskers and hillocks formed on an Al film deposited onto a glass substrate have been observed by means of a variety of transmission electron microscopy technique.

  7. Scanning X-ray Microscopy Investigations into the Electron Beam Exposure Mechanism of Hydrogen Silsesquioxane Resists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olynick, Deirdre L.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Salmassi, Farhad; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning X-ray Microscopy Investigations into the Electronchemistry is investigated by Scanning Transmission X-raythe area exposed. 15 Recently, scanning transmission x-ray

  8. Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoller, P C

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Collagen is a key structural protein in the body; several pathological conditions lead to changes in collagen. Among imaging modalities that can be used in vivo, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has a key advantage: it provides {approx}1 {micro}m resolution information about collagen structure as a function of depth. A new technique--polarization-modulated SHG--is presented: it permits simultaneous measurement of collagen orientation, of a lower bound on the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility tensor, and of the ratio of the two independent elements in this tensor. It is applied to characterizing SHG in collagen and to determining effects of biologically relevant changes in collagen structure. The magnitude of the second harmonic signal in two dimensional images varies with position even in structurally homogeneous tissue; this phenomenon is due to interference between second harmonic light generated by neighboring fibrils, which are randomly oriented parallel or anti-parallel to each other. Studies in which focal spot size was varied indicated that regions where fibrils are co-oriented are less than {approx}1.5 {micro}m in diameter. A quartz reference was used to determine the spot size as well as a lower limit (d{sub xxx} > 0.3 pm/V) for the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The ratio of the two independent tensor elements ranged between d{sub XYY}/d{sub XXX} = 0.60 and 0.75. SHG magnitude alone was not useful for identifying structural anomalies in collagenous tissue. Instead, changes in the polarization dependence of SHG were used to analyze biologically relevant perturbations in collagen structure. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in dehydrated samples, but not in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable SHG signal. Collagen orientation was measured in thin samples of several different tissues in transmission mode as well as at different depths (up to 200 {micro}m) in thick samples in reflection mode; birefringence had no effect on the measurement. These studies showed that SHG microscopy was capable of detecting pathophysiological changes in collagen structure, suggesting that this technique has potential clinical applications.

  9. Application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the usefulness of a fluorescence microscopy methodology to analyze coal-derived resids and interpret the data in the light of liquefaction processing conditions, process response, the inferred resid reactivity, and in relation to results of other analytical data. The fluorescence technique utilized has been widely applied to coal and kerogen characterization, albeit with some modifications, but is novel in its application to the characterization of coal liquids. Fluorescence is the emission of light energy which occurs when electrons, having been excited to a higher energy orbital, return to their lower energy ground state. The majority of organic molecules that fluoresce are those with conjugated double bonds (chromophores), such as aromatics, characterized by pi-electrons less strongly bound within the molecule than sigma electrons, that can be excited to anti-bonding pi-orbitals. Increasing the extent of pi-bond conjugation (i.e. larger molecular size) generally imparts a shift in absorption and emission spectra to longer wavelengths. Resid fluorescence largely depends on the concentration and degree of conjugation of aromatic chromophores in the high molecular weight liquids, possibly with ancillary effects from oxygen functionalities. In this context, fluorescence analysis of liquefaction resids can potentially evaluate process performance, since direct liquefaction processes endeavor to break down the macromolecular structure of coal, and reduce the molecular weight of polycondensed aromatics through hydrogenation, the opening of ring structures, and heteroatom removal.

  10. Application of fluorescence microscopy to coal-derived resid characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rathbone, R.F.; Hower, J.C.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the usefulness of a fluorescence microscopy methodology to analyze coal-derived resids and interpret the data in the light of liquefaction processing conditions, process response, the inferred resid reactivity, and in relation to results of other analytical data. The fluorescence technique utilized has been widely applied to coal and kerogen characterization, albeit with some modifications, but is novel in its application to the characterization of coal liquids. Fluorescence is the emission of light energy which occurs when electrons, having been excited to a higher energy orbital, return to their lower energy ground state. The majority of organic molecules that fluoresce are those with conjugated double bonds (chromophores), such as aromatics, characterized by pi-electrons less strongly bound within the molecule than sigma electrons, that can be excited to anti-bonding pi-orbitals. Increasing the extent of pi-bond conjugation (i.e. larger molecular size) generally imparts a shift in absorption and emission spectra to longer wavelengths. Resid fluorescence largely depends on the concentration and degree of conjugation of aromatic chromophores in the high molecular weight liquids, possibly with ancillary effects from oxygen functionalities. In this context, fluorescence analysis of liquefaction resids can potentially evaluate process performance, since direct liquefaction processes endeavor to break down the macromolecular structure of coal, and reduce the molecular weight of polycondensed aromatics through hydrogenation, the opening of ring structures, and heteroatom removal.

  11. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  12. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  13. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY STUDY OF HELIUM BEARING FUSION WELDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosten, M; Michael Morgan, M

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was conducted to characterize the helium bubble distributions in tritium-charged-and-aged 304L and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel fusion welds containing approximately 150 appm helium-3. TEM foils were prepared from C-shaped fracture toughness test specimens containing {delta} ferrite levels ranging from 4 to 33 volume percent. The weld microstructures in the low ferrite welds consisted mostly of austenite and discontinuous, skeletal {delta} ferrite. In welds with higher levels of {delta} ferrite, the ferrite was more continuous and, in some areas of the 33 volume percent sample, was the matrix/majority phase. The helium bubble microstructures observed were similar in all samples. Bubbles were found in the austenite but not in the {delta} ferrite. In the austenite, bubbles had nucleated homogeneously in the grain interiors and heterogeneously on dislocations. Bubbles were not found on any austenite/austenite grain boundaries or at the austenite/{delta} ferrite interphase interfaces. Bubbles were not observed in the {delta} ferrite because of the combined effects of the low solubility and rapid diffusion of tritium through the {delta} ferrite which limited the amount of helium present to form visible bubbles.

  14. Microrheological Studies of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Solution by Video Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghu A; Somashekar R; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have carried out studies on the rheological properties of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) solution using video microscopy. The degummed silk from the Bombyx mori silkworm was used to prepare RSF solution by dissolving it in calcium nitrate tetrahydrate-methanol solvent. Measurements were carried out by tracking the position of an embedded micron-sized polystyrene bead within the RSF solution through video imaging. The time dependent mean squared displacement (MSD) of the bead in solution and hence, the complex shear modulus of this solution was calculated from the bead's position information. An optical tweezer was used to transport and locate the bead at any desired site within the micro-volume of the sample, to facilitate the subsequent free-bead video analysis. We present here the results of rheological measurements of the silk polymer network in solution over a frequency range, whose upper limit is the frame capture rate of our camera, at full resolution. By examining the distribution of MSD of beads at different locations within the sample volume, we demonstrate that this probe technique enables us to detect local inhomogeneties at micrometer length scales, not detectable either by a rheometer or from diffusing wave spectroscopy.

  15. Quantitative high dynamic range beam profiling for fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, T. J., E-mail: t.j.mitchell@dur.ac.uk; Saunter, C. D.; O’Nions, W.; Girkin, J. M.; Love, G. D. [Centre for Advanced Instrumentation and Biophysical Sciences Institute, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern developmental biology relies on optically sectioning fluorescence microscope techniques to produce non-destructive in vivo images of developing specimens at high resolution in three dimensions. As optimal performance of these techniques is reliant on the three-dimensional (3D) intensity profile of the illumination employed, the ability to directly record and analyze these profiles is of great use to the fluorescence microscopist or instrument builder. Though excitation beam profiles can be measured indirectly using a sample of fluorescent beads and recording the emission along the microscope detection path, we demonstrate an alternative approach where a miniature camera sensor is used directly within the illumination beam. Measurements taken using our approach are solely concerned with the illumination optics as the detection optics are not involved. We present a miniature beam profiling device and high dynamic range flux reconstruction algorithm that together are capable of accurately reproducing quantitative 3D flux maps over a large focal volume. Performance of this beam profiling system is verified within an optical test bench and demonstrated for fluorescence microscopy by profiling the low NA illumination beam of a single plane illumination microscope. The generality and success of this approach showcases a widely flexible beam amplitude diagnostic tool for use within the life sciences.

  16. Repulsive and restoring Casimir forces with left-handed materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaping Yang; Ran Zeng; Shutian Liu; Hong Chen; Shiyao Zhu

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate repulsive Casimir force between slabs containing left-handed materials with controllable electromagnetic properties. The sign of Casimir force is determined by the electric and magnetic properties of the materials, and it is shown that the formation of the repulsive force is related to the wave impedances of two slabs. The sign change of the Casimir force as a function of the distance is studied. Special emphasis is put on the restoring Casimir force which may be found to exist between perfectly conducting material and metamaterial slabs. This restoring force is a natural power for the system oscillation in vacuum and also can be used for system stabilization.

  17. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariel Megevand

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  18. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Intravaia; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Stefan Buhmann; Stefan Scheel; Diego A. R. Dalvit; Carsten Henkel

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 113045]. We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v^4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v^3.

  19. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  20. Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Sammarruca

    2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

  1. Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Laser-Scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology Ji 11747-3157 USA ABSTRACT Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy with fast., 1990). Duncan et al. constructed the first CARS microscope by use of two dye laser beams

  2. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of isolated multiwall carbon A. Felten,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy of isolated multiwall carbon nanotubes A. Felten,a H. Hody September 2006 Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy STXM has been used to study isolated carbon nanotubes- cations including biological and chemical sensors, nanoelec- tronic devices, tips for scanning probe

  3. Scanning photovoltage microscopy of potential modulations in carbon Marcus Freitag,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Scanning photovoltage microscopy of potential modulations in carbon nanotubes Marcus Freitag to understand their role in ac- tive devices. Here we use scanning photovoltage microscopy to probe the built. Scanning the laser laterally produces a moving potential step that is capable of inducing a photovoltage

  4. Scanning near-field optical microscopy based on the heterodyne phase-controlled oscillator method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy based on the heterodyne phase-controlled oscillator method G and quality factor of the tip oscillations was used to control the scanning near-field optical microscope SNOM0021-8979 00 04017-2 I. INTRODUCTION Scanning near-field optical microscopy SNOM is in- creasingly

  5. NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC FIELD DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    WEIF-49 NEAR-FIELD SCANNING MICROWAVE MICROSCOPY: MEASURING LOCAL MICROWAVE PROPERTIES AND ELECTRIC>;ics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 2OY@-4lll, USA Abstract We describe the near-field scanning methods of scanning probe microscopy have been developed. Generally spea- king one can divide

  6. Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy of Temperature-and Thickness-Dependent Morphology and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buratto, Steve

    Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy of Temperature- and Thickness-Dependent Morphology 21, 2000 We use near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) to probe the local optical spectroscopy with bulk techniques such as differ- ential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractom- etry

  7. ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE-EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keyser, John

    ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis Science #12;ACQUISITION AND RECONSTRUCTION OF BRAIN TISSUE USING KNIFE- EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPY A Thesis) ______________________________ ______________________________ Ergun Akleman Valerie Taylor (Member) (Head of Department) December 2003 Major Subject: Computer Science

  8. High spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a total optical power proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth power. An object that hasHigh spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy S. B. Ippolito,a) S. A. Thorne, M. G increasing lens technique to subsurface thermal emission microscopy of Si integrated circuits. We achieve

  9. Asbestos, polarized light microscopy, PLM, The Clean Air Act mandates a specific analytical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    75 KEY WORDS Asbestos, polarized light microscopy, PLM, NESHAP ABSTRACT The Clean Air Act of the polarized light microscopy (PLM) test method that re moved the compositing of layers and effectively sought within the sample. In 1994 and again in 1995, the EPA recommended that the 1993 PLM method be used

  10. A Method for Measuring Cerebral Blood Volume of Mouse using Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vial, Jean-Claude

    A Method for Measuring Cerebral Blood Volume of Mouse using Multiphoton Laser Scanning Microscopy P Joseph Fourier,Grenoble, France ABSTRACT Knowledge of the volume of blood per unit volume of brain tissue-photon laser scanning microscopy to obtain the local blood volume in the cortex of the anesthetized mouse. We

  11. Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    Technical note: Characterizing individual milk fat globules with holographic video microscopy Fook representation of holographic video microscopy. The sample scatters light from a collimated laser beam. Both to a video camera, which records their interference as a hologram. A typical example of one fat droplet

  12. Synthesis and growth of HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals in a glass matrix: Heat treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condeles, J. F., E-mail: condeles@fisica.uftm.edu.br, E-mail: ricssilva@yahoo.com.br; Silva, R. S., E-mail: condeles@fisica.uftm.edu.br, E-mail: ricssilva@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e Educação, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, 38025-180, Uberaba, MG (Brazil); Silva, A. C. A.; Dantas, N. O. [Laboratório de Novos Materiais Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, 38400-902, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury iodide (HgI{sub 2}) nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully grown in a barium phosphate glass matrix synthesized by fusion. Growth control of HgI{sub 2} NCs was investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Optical Absorption (OA), Fluorescence (FL), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). AFM images reveal the formation of HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals in host glass matrix. HgI{sub 2} NCs growth was evidenced by an OA and FL band red-shift with increasing annealing time. XRD measurements revealed the ? crystalline phase of the HgI{sub 2} nanocrystals.

  13. UV nanoimprint lithography for the realization of large-area ordered SiGe/Si(001) island arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lausecker, E.; Brehm, M.; Grydlik, M.; Hackl, F.; Fromherz, T.; Schaeffler, F.; Bauer, G. [Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, 4040 Linz (Austria); Bergmair, I.; Muehlberger, M. [Functional Surfaces and Nanostructures, Profactor GmbH, 4407 Steyr-Gleink (Austria)

    2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We use UV nanoimprint lithography for the pit-patterning of silicon substrates. Ordered silicon-germanium islands are grown inside these pits by molecular-beam epitaxy on arrays of 3x3 mm{sup 2} and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. AFM-based statistics reveals an extremely uniform size distribution of the islands in the patterned areas. These results are confirmed by very narrow and uniform PL peaks recorded at various positions across the patterned arrays.

  14. Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spyros Basilakos; Joan Sola

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kind of Hubble terms ${\\dot H}$ and $H^{2}$ appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the ${\\dot H}$ dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term $H$ without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavors this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

  15. Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Cary, NC); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  16. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jay A.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

  17. UNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    program in order to reduce Federal employee's contribution to traffic congestion and air pollutionUNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BENEFIT PROGRAM): ____________ City (Residence): __________________________State: _______________ Zip Code: ________________ Air Force

  18. REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Secretary of Energy on December 20, 2013 established the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Nuclear Nonproliferation and charged the Task Force to advise the DOE on future areas of emphasis for its nuclear nonproliferation activities

  19. Transmission Services WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability Report - Phase I BPA is an active participant in the Wind Integration Study Team (WIST), especially the Task Force looking at DTC study...

  20. air force family: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10spintronics-discover-could-lead-to- magnetic-batteries.php Applica'ons Motors Transformers MRI current element Forces on a Charge EQFe Analogous to the electric force: We...