Sample records for force microscope afm

  1. Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probe AFM Compound Microscope Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope The atomic force microscope (AFM) compound microscope is designed primarily for fluorescence imaging in the...

  2. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  3. Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im-portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) nanomanipu-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im- portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force on the order of 10 nm, however, automation has re- mained an elusive goal, primarily because of the spatial multi-tip arrays) or by automating the manipulation process, thus bypassing the time-consuming and labor

  4. Spatial dependence of polycrystalline FTO’s conductance analyzed by conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peixoto, Alexandre Pessoa; Costa, J. C. da [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Brasília, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, PO Box 4386, Brasília - DF, 70919-970 (Brazil)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorine-doped Tin oxide (FTO) is a highly transparent, electrically conductive polycrystalline material frequently used as an electrode in organic solar cells and optical-electronic devices [1–2]. In this work a spatial analysis of the conductive behavior of FTO was carried out by Conductive-mode Atomic Force Microscopy (C-AFM). Rare highly oriented grains sample give us an opportunity to analyze the top portion of polycrystalline FTO and compare with the border one. It is shown that the current flow essentially takes place through the polycrystalline edge at grain boundaries.

  5. Modeling and control of undesirable dynamics in atomic force microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Rifai, Osamah M

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenal resolution and versatility of the atomic force microscope (AFM), has made it a widely-used instrument in nanotechnology. In this thesis, a detailed model of AFM dynamics has been developed. It includes a new ...

  6. Dynamic Force AFM (Asylum) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    specifically for biological applications and can be used to: Study individual protein or DNA molecules in situ Image the surface of living cells Measure the adhesive forces of...

  7. Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

  8. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  9. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  10. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  11. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ?10?100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  12. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  13. afm force measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

  14. Free vibrations of U-shaped atomic force microscope probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A., E-mail: jaturner@unl.edu [Mechanical and Materials Engineering, W342 Nebraska Hall, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact resonance atomic force microscope (AFM) methods have been used to quantify the elastic and viscoelastic properties of a variety of materials such as polymers, ceramics, biological materials, and metals with spatial resolution on the order of tens of nanometers. This approach involves measurement of the resonant frequencies of the AFM probe both for the free case and the case for which the tip is in contact with a sample. Vibration models of the probe and tip-sample contact models are then used to determine the sample properties from the frequency behavior and to create images of the sample properties. This work has been primarily focused on rectangular, single-beam probes for which the vibration models are relatively simple. Recently, U-shaped AFM probes have been developed to allow local heating of samples and the resonances of these probes are much more complex. In this article, a simplified analytical model of these U-shaped probes is described. This three beam model includes two beams clamped at one end and connected with a perpendicular cross beam at the other end. The beams are assumed only to bend in flexure and twist but their coupling allows a wide range of possible dynamic behavior. Results are presented for the first ten modes and the mode shapes are shown to have complex coupling between the flexure and twisting of the beams, particularly for the higher modes. All resonant frequency results are in good agreement with finite element results for the three probe designs and two values of thickness considered (all wavenumbers are within 3.0%). This work is anticipated to allow U-shaped probes to be used eventually for quantitative measurements of sample material properties during heating using a contact resonance approach.

  15. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

  16. On advancement of high speed atomic force microscope technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SooHoo, Kimberly E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High speed atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a developing process in which nanoscale objects, such as crystal structures or strands of DNA, can be imaged at rates fast enough to watch processes as they occur. Although current ...

  17. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com; Chapman, S., E-mail: radiant@ferrodevices.com [Radiant Technologies, Inc., 2835C Pan American Fwy NE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87107 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  18. The magnetic resonance force microscope: A new microscopic probe of magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Midzor, M.; Roukes, M.L. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Wigen, P.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Childress, J.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) marries the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), to produce a three-dimensional imaging instrument with high, potentially atomic-scale, resolution. The principle of the MRFM has been successfully demonstrated in numerous experiments. By virtue of its unique capabilities the MRFM shows promise to make important contributions in fields ranging from three-dimensional materials characterization to bio-molecular structure determination. Here the authors focus on its application to the characterization and study of layered magnetic materials; the ability to illuminate the properties of buried interfaces in such materials is a particularly important goal. While sensitivity and spatial resolution are currently still far from their theoretical limits, they are nonetheless comparable to or superior to that achievable in conventional MRI. Further improvement of the MRFM will involve operation at lower temperature, application of larger field gradients, introduction of advanced mechanical resonators and improved reduction of the spurious coupling when the magnet is on the resonator.

  19. Measurement of friction coefficients with the atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Measurement of friction coefficients with the atomic force microscope Phil Attard1, Johanna axial method for measuring the friction coefficient with the atomic force microscope is given measurement by measuring the difference between the constant compliance slopes of the extend and retract force

  20. New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity March 04, 2015 Shown is a contact resonance frequency image after nano-oxidation of a...

  1. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S., E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  2. Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubicic, Dean M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

  3. Dynamic study of tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega González, Myraida Angélica

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the dynamic characteristics of the in-plane tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe for an atomic force microscope (AFM). The analysis was carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) methods for ...

  4. Spanning the Scales of Granular Materials: Microscopic Force Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Brodu; Joshua A. Dijksman; Robert P. Behringer

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    If you walk on sand, it supports your weight. How do the disordered forces between particles in sand organize, to keep you from sinking? This simple question is surprisingly difficult to answer experimentally: measuring forces in three dimensions, between deeply buried grains, is challenging. We describe here experiments in which we have succeeded in measuring forces inside a granular packing subject to controlled deformations. We connect the measured micro-scale forces to the macro-scale packing force response with an averaging, mean field calculation. This calculation explains how the combination of packing structure and contact deformations produce the unexpected mechanical response of the packing, and reveals a surprising microscopic particle deformation enhancement mechanism.

  5. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  6. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  7. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  8. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  9. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  10. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Hongxia [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Chen, Yong [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Xun [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ma, Shuyuan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ye, Hongyan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai, Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  11. The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L. [126 Spencer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  12. High-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope using a linear quadratic Gaussian controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, H., E-mail: h.habib@student.adfa.edu.au; Pota, H. R., E-mail: h.pota@adfa.edu.au; Petersen, I. R., E-mail: i.petersen@adfa.edu.au [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2612 (Australia)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM’s piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method.

  13. Laser interferometry force-feedback sensor for an interfacial force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houston, Jack E.; Smith, William L.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning force microscope is provided with a force-feedback sensor to increase sensitivity and stability in determining interfacial forces between a probe and a sample. The sensor utilizes an interferometry technique that uses a collimated light beam directed onto a deflecting member, comprising a common plate suspended above capacitor electrodes situated on a substrate forming an interference cavity with a probe on the side of the common plate opposite the side suspended above capacitor electrodes. The probe interacts with the surface of the sample and the intensity of the reflected beam is measured and used to determine the change in displacement of the probe to the sample and to control the probe distance relative to the surface of the sample.

  14. Controlling a magnetic force microscope to track a magnetized nanosize particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersson, Sean B.

    1 Controlling a magnetic force microscope to track a magnetized nanosize particle Dimitar Baronov and Sean B. Andersson Abstract--In this paper, we introduce a scheme for tracking a magnetic nanoparticle moving in three-dimensions using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The stray magnetic field

  15. A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Paul, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

  16. A variable-temperature nanostencil compatible with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steurer, Wolfram, E-mail: wst@zurich.ibm.com; Gross, Leo; Schlittler, Reto R.; Meyer, Gerhard [IBM Research-Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)] [IBM Research-Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a nanostencil lithography tool capable of operating at variable temperatures down to 30 K. The setup is compatible with a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope/atomic force microscope located within the same ultra-high-vacuum apparatus. The lateral movement capability of the mask allows the patterning of complex structures. To demonstrate operational functionality of the tool and estimate temperature drift and blurring, we fabricated LiF and NaCl nanostructures on Cu(111) at 77 K.

  17. Accurate capacitive metrology for atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents accurate capacitive sensing metrology designed for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) originally developed in the MIT Precision Motion Control Lab. The capacitive measurements use a set of ...

  18. Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karc?, Özgür [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - ?vedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Dede, Münir [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - ?vedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Oral, Ahmet, E-mail: orahmet@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ?12 fm/?Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  19. Note: Mechanical etching of atomic force microscope tip and microsphere attachment for thermal radiation scattering enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brissinger, D.; Parent, G., E-mail: gilles.parent@univ-lorraine.fr; Lacroix, D. [Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, UMR 7563, BP70239, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France)] [Université de Lorraine, LEMTA, UMR 7563, BP70239, 54500 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Note describes a mechanical etching technique which can be used to prepare silicon tips used in atomic force microscopy apparatus. For such devices, dedicated tips with specific shapes are now commonly used to probe surfaces. Yet, the control of the tip morphology where characteristic scales are lower than 1 ?m remains a real challenge. Here, we detail a controlled etching process of AFM probes apex allowing micrometer-sized sphere attachment. The technique used and influent parameters are discussed and SEM images of the achieved tips are given. Deceptive problems and drawbacks that might occur during the process are also covered.

  20. Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Fondeur, Fernando F. (North Augusta, SC)

    2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

  1. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier Montes; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal, E-mail: michal.borkovec@unige.ch [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland)] [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Popescu, Mihail N. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)] [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 ?m in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup ?21} J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  2. On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Daniel James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

  3. A system dynamics approach to user independence in high speed atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Daniel James

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As progress in molecular biology and nanotechnology continues, demand for rapid and high quality image acquisition has increased to the point where the limitations of atomic force microscopes (AFM) become impediments to ...

  4. A MEMS device for In Situ TEM/AFM/SEM/STM Testing of Carbon Nanotubes and Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Espinosa, Horacio D.

    is measured by recording the lateral deflection of the buckling beam [9]. In (b), the displacement is measured the transmission electron microscope (TEM); Wong, et al. [5] bent nanotubes with an AFM operated in lateral force shown in Figure 1. In (a), after a long slender beam is buckled, the displacement of the specimen

  5. Viscoelastic Study Using an Atomic Force Microscope Modified to Operate as a Nanorheometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    pharmaceutical compounds, through to polymer composites,blends,novelorganicsemiconductornetworks, and even,11,12 Although category I nanorheology can be conducted without any subsequent modification to the existing AFM

  6. Calibration of an interfacial force microscope for MEMS metrology : FY08-09 activities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, Jack E.; Baker, Michael Sean; Crowson, Douglas A.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Moore, Nathan W.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress in MEMS fabrication has enabled a wide variety of force and displacement sensing devices to be constructed. One device under intense development at Sandia is a passive shock switch, described elsewhere (Mitchell 2008). A goal of all MEMS devices, including the shock switch, is to achieve a high degree of reliability. This, in turn, requires systematic methods for validating device performance during each iteration of design. Once a design is finalized, suitable tools are needed to provide quality assurance for manufactured devices. To ensure device performance, measurements on these devices must be traceable to NIST standards. In addition, accurate metrology of MEMS components is needed to validate mechanical models that are used to design devices to accelerate development and meet emerging needs. Progress towards a NIST-traceable calibration method is described for a next-generation, 2D Interfacial Force Microscope (IFM) for applications in MEMS metrology and qualification. Discussed are the results of screening several suitable calibration methods and the known sources of uncertainty in each method.

  7. Manipulation and sorting of magnetic particles by a magnetic force microscope on a microfluidic magnetic trap platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, Michael J.

    1 Manipulation and sorting of magnetic particles by a magnetic force microscope on a microfluidic magnetic trap platform Elizabeth Mirowski, John Moreland, Arthur Zhang and Stephen E. Russek Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 Michael

  8. SiGe quantum dot single-hole transistor fabricated by atomic force microscope nanolithography and silicon epitaxial-regrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    SiGe quantum dot single-hole transistor fabricated by atomic force microscope nanolithography; published online 10 November 2006 A SiGe quantum dot single-hole transistor passivated by silicon epitaxial are reproducible, in sharp contrast with the noisy and irreproducible I-V characteristics of unpassivated SiGe

  9. STM/AFM (PicoSPM) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STMAFM (PicoSPM) STMAFM (PicoSPM) EMSL's Molecular Imaging, Inc. PicoSPM(tm) scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)atomic force microscopy (AFM) supports a wide range of...

  10. Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a dye-sensitization system,... Tip-Enhanced Near-Field Raman Spectroscopy Probing Single Dye-Sensitized TiO2 Nanoparticles. The correlated metallic tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy...

  11. Nuclear pairing from microscopic forces: singlet channels and higher-partial waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Maurizio; J. W. Holt; P. Finelli

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: An accurate description of nuclear pairing gaps is extremely important for understanding static and dynamic properties of the inner crusts of neutron stars and to explain their cooling process. Purpose: We plan to study the behavior of the pairing gaps $\\Delta_F$ as a function of the Fermi momentum $k_F$ for neutron and nuclear matter in all relevant angular momentum channels where superfluidity is believed to naturally emerge. The calculations will employ realistic chiral nucleon-nucleon potentials with the inclusion of three-body forces and self-energy effects. Methods: The superfluid states of neutron and nuclear matter are studied by solving the BCS gap equation for chiral nuclear potentials using the method suggested by Khodel et al., where the original gap equation is replaced by a coupled set of equations for the dimensionless gap function $\\chi(p)$ defined by $\\Delta(p) = \\Delta_F \\chi(p)$ and a non-linear algebraic equation for the gap magnitude $\\Delta_F = \\Delta(p_F)$ at the Fermi surface. This method is numerically stable even for small pairing gaps, such as that encountered in the coupled $^3PF_2$ partial wave. Results: We have successfully applied Khodel's method to singlet ($S$) and coupled channel ($SD$ and $PF$) cases in neutron and nuclear matter. Our calculations agree with other ab-initio approaches, where available, and provide crucial inputs for future applications in superfluid systems.

  12. Radiological AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A full range of data acquisition and analysis algorithms is included in the upgraded control software. The entire microscope is housed in an acoustic isolation box mounted on...

  13. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Dhaliwal, A. S. [Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology Longowal, Punjab-148106 (India); Sonkawade, R. G. [School of Physical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow-226025 (India)

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV {sup 60}Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  14. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  15. VOLUME 76, NUMBER 8 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 19 FEBRUARY 1996 Compliance Measurements of Confined Polystyrene Solutions by Atomic Force Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Chemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6 4 Department of Chemistry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1096 (Received 16 August 1995) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) as a local probe for elastohydrodynamic lubrication is discussed. Compliances are measured with a modified

  16. The AFM was originally developed as an adaptation of another scanning probe microscopy technology, the scanning tunneling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    The AFM was originally developed as an adaptation of another scanning probe microscopy technology, the scanning tunneling microscope, to image nonconductive materials through direct physical contact between-scale displacement resolutions of the AFM enable the topographical scanning of mechanically compliant materials

  17. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  18. Mechanistic study of dielectric chemical mechanical polishing by spectral and scaling analysis of atomic force microscope images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verhoff, M.L.

    1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal oxide and PETEOS oxide surfaces, polished on an IPEC 472 with different combinations of polish pad, slurry, and polishing conditions, were studied with ex situ atomic force microscopy. The post polish surfaces were analyzed qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively by spectral and scaling analyses. Spectral and scaling analyses gave consistent interpretations of morphology evolution. Polishing with either a fixed abrasive pad or alumina-based slurry occurred via a mechanism for which asperities are removed and recesses are filled. A sputtering-type mechanism may contribute to material removal when polishing with silica- or ceria-based slurries.

  19. AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

  20. Genome scanning : an AFM-based DNA sequencing technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmouelhi, Ahmed (Ahmed M.), 1979-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Genome Scanning is a powerful new technique for DNA sequencing. The method presented in this thesis uses an atomic force microscope with a functionalized cantilever tip to sequence single stranded DNA immobilized to a mica ...

  1. Dielectric spectroscopy at the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy: A simple model linking materials properties and experimental response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A., E-mail: luisalejandro-miccio@ehu.es; Colmenero, Juan [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegría, Ángel [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an atomic force microscope for studying molecular dynamics through dielectric spectroscopy with spatial resolution in the nanometer scale is a recently developed approach. However, difficulties in the quantitative connection of the obtained data and the material dielectric properties, namely, frequency dependent dielectric permittivity, have limited its application. In this work, we develop a simple electrical model based on physically meaningful parameters to connect the atomic force microscopy (AFM) based dielectric spectroscopy experimental results with the material dielectric properties. We have tested the accuracy of the model and analyzed the relevance of the forces arising from the electrical interaction with the AFM probe cantilever. In this way, by using this model, it is now possible to obtain quantitative information of the local dielectric material properties in a broad frequency range. Furthermore, it is also possible to determine the experimental setup providing the best sensitivity in the detected signal.

  2. Characterization of microscale wear in a ploysilicon-based MEMS device using AFM and PEEM-NEXAFS spectromicroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grierson, D. S.; Konicek, A. R.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Sumant, A. V.; de Boer, M. P.; Corwin, A. D.; Carpick, R. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison); (Univ. of Pennsylvania); (SNL)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanisms of microscale wear in silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are elucidated by studying a polysilicon nanotractor, a device specifically designed to conduct friction and wear tests under controlled conditions. Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) was combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantitatively probe chemical changes and structural modification, respectively, in the wear track of the nanotractor. The ability of PEEM-NEXAFS to spatially map chemical variations in the near-surface region of samples at high lateral spatial resolution is unparalleled and therefore ideally suited for this study. The results show that it is possible to detect microscopic chemical changes using PEEM-NEXAFS, specifically, oxidation at the sliding interface of a MEMS device. We observe that wear induces oxidation of the polysilicon at the immediate contact interface, and the spectra are consistent with those from amorphous SiO{sub 2}. The oxidation is correlated with gouging and debris build-up in the wear track, as measured by AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  3. afm: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (see fig. 1) c 12 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

  4. Microscope collision protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

    2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

  5. Study of anion adsorption at the gold--aqueous solution interface by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, S.; Mulvaney, P.; Grieser, F. (Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)); Zukoski, C.F. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

    1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The forces between a gold coated colloidal silica sphere and a pure gold plate have been measured in aqueous solution as a function of electrolyte concentration using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Forces in the presence of gold(III) chloride (HAuCl[sub 4]), sodium chloride, and trisodium citrate were recorded as a function of concentration. Each of these anion species is present during the formation of colloidal gold by the reduction of gold(III) chloride with trisodium citrate. In pure water the force between the gold surfaces was exclusively attractive. In sodium chloride or trisodium citrate solution a repulsive interaction was observed which is attributed to the adsorption of these anions at the gold/water interface. The observed interaction force in gold(III) chloride solution was always attractive, the surface potential never exceeding 20 mV. Data taken in aqueous solutions of citrate and chloride ions together suggested that the citrate ions were preferentially adsorbed to the surface of the gold. Addition of gold(III) chloride to the AFM liquid cell after the pre-adsorption of citrate anions caused the force of interaction to change from a repulsvie force to an attractive one initially as the gold(III) chloride was reduced to gold by the citrate anions. 33 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boularas, A., E-mail: boularas@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Clain, S. [Universidade do Minho, Centro de Matemática, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Université Paul Sabatier, Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600?nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20?V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  7. Nanopatterning of Si/SiGe Two-dimensional Hole Gases by PFOTS-aided AFM Lithography of Carrier Supply Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanopatterning of Si/SiGe Two-dimensional Hole Gases by PFOTS-aided AFM Lithography of Carrier The nanopatterning of Si/SiGe layers by PFOTS (perfluorooctyl trichlorosilane) -aided AFM (atomic force microscopy and then transfer patterns in to underlying SiGe layers by a two-step selective wet etching. Minimum linewidths

  8. Comparative quantification and statistical analysis of ?? and ? precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 by TEM and AFM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Garcia, Adrian Luis, E-mail: agarciag@ipn.mx; Dominguez-Lopez, Ivan, E-mail: idominguezl@ipn.mx; Lopez-Jimenez, Luis, E-mail: llopez1002@ipn.mx; Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D. Oscar, E-mail: obarceinas@ipn.mx

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of nanometric precipitates in metallic alloys has been traditionally performed using transmission electron microscopy, which is nominally a low throughput technique. This work presents a comparative study of quantification of ?? and ? precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM quantification was compared with 2-D stereological results reported elsewhere. Also, a method was developed, using specialized software, to characterize nanometric size precipitates observed in dark-field TEM micrographs. Statistical analysis of the quantification results from both measurement techniques supports the use of AFM for precipitate characterization. Once the precipitate stoichiometry has been determined by appropriate analytical techniques like TEM, as it is the case for ?? and ? in AA7075-T651, the relative ease with which specimens are prepared for AFM analysis could be advantageous in product and process development, and quality control, where a large number of samples are expected for analysis on a regular basis. - Highlights: • Nanometric MgZn{sub 2} precipitates in AA7075-T651 were characterized using AFM and TEM. • Phase-contrast AFM was used to differentiate metal matrix from MgZn{sub 2} precipitates. • TEM and AFM micrographs were analyzed using commercially available software. • AFM image analysis and TEM 2-D stereology render statistically equivalent results.

  9. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  10. Single molecule force spectroscopy by AFM indicates helical structure of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croquette, Vincent

    for a broad range of problems, particularly in materials and life sciences. The ability to apply and measure to detergents and cosmetics [17]. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes [3

  11. Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium Ion Microscope Helium Ion Microscope The Helium Ion Microscope promises to advance biological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and surfaceinterface studies using its combined...

  12. Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Helium Ion Microscope Helium Ion Microscope Bruce Arey discusses the capabilities of EMSL's new helium ion microscope housed in EMSL's Quiet Wing....

  13. In situ atomic force microscope study of high-temperature untwinning surface relief in Mn-Fe-Cu antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, L.; Cui, Y. G.; Wan, J. F.; Rong, Y. H.; Zhang, J. H.; Jin, X.; Cai, M. M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The N-type untwinning surface relief associated with the fcc {r_reversible} fct martensitic transformation (MT) was observed in the Mn{sub 81.5}Fe{sub 14.0}Cu{sub 4.5} antiferromagnetic high-temperature shape memory alloy (SMA) by in situ atomic force microscopy. The measured untwinning relief angles ({theta}{sub {alpha}} Double-Vertical-Line {theta}{sub {beta}}) at the ridge and at the valley were different, and both angles were less than the conventional values. The surface relief exhibited good reversibility during heating and cooling because of the crystallographic reversibility of thermal-elastic SMAs. Untwinning shear was proposed as the main mechanism of the N-type surface relief. The order of the reverse MT was discussed based on the experimental measurements.

  14. Leading Edge High-Speed AFM Reveals the Dynamics of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    into the working of biological processes. Conventional AFM is only used to image static snapshots of biomolecules example of molecular motor action (Figure 1B) in their AFM movies of the isolated stator subcomplex was attached. The AFM, however, could visualize the conformational change that the b subunits of the stator

  15. Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Departamento de Física de Materiales UPV/EHU, Fac. de Química, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

  16. Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

  17. Variable Temperature UHV STM/AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature UHV STMAFM The Omicron variable temperature ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (VTSTM) is designed to study the structure of both clean and...

  18. Low Temperature UHV STM/AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UHV STMAFM Low Temperature UHV STMAFM EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, low-temperature scanning probe microscope instrument, or UHV LT SPM, is the preeminent system dedicated to surface...

  19. Variable Temperature STM/AFM | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STMAFM Variable Temperature STMAFM EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, variable-temperature scanning probe microscope system, or UHV VT SPM, is a state-of-the-art surface science tool...

  20. afm sintez sloev: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (see fig. 1) c 15 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

  1. afm probe tip: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

  2. afm indentation study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

  3. AFM imaging reveals the tetrameric structure of the TRPM8 channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Andrew P.; Egressy, Kinga; Lim, Annabel [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)] [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Edwardson, J. Michael, E-mail: jme1000@cam.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Several members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily have been shown to assemble as tetramers. Here we have determined the subunit stoichiometry of the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). TRPM8 channels were isolated from transfected cells, and complexes were formed between the channels and antibodies against a V5 epitope tag present on each subunit. The complexes were then subjected to AFM imaging. A frequency distribution of the molecular volumes of antibody decorated channels had a peak at 1305 nm{sup 3}, close to the expected size of a TRPM8 tetramer. The frequency distribution of angles between pairs of bound antibodies had two peaks, at 93{sup o} and 172{sup o}, confirming that the channel assembles as a tetramer. We suggest that this assembly pattern is common to all members of the TRP channel superfamily.

  4. Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive ...

  5. AFM imaging reveals the tetrameric structure of the TRPC1 channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrera, Nelson P. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Shaifta, Yasin [Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); McFadzean, Ian [Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical Science Research Division, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Ward, Jeremy P.T. [Division of Asthma, Allergy and Lung Biology, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London SE1 1UL (United Kingdom); Henderson, Robert M. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom); Edwardson, J. Michael [Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1PD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jme1000@cam.ac.uk

    2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We have determined the subunit stoichiometry of the transient receptor potential C1 (TRPC1) channel by imaging isolated channels using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A frequency distribution of the molecular volumes of individual channel particles had two peaks, at 170 and 720 nm{sup 3}, corresponding with the expected sizes of TRPC1 monomers and tetramers, respectively. Complexes were formed between TRPC1 channels and antibodies against a V5 epitope tag present on each subunit. The frequency distribution of angles between pairs of bound antibodies had two peaks, at 88{sup o} and 178{sup o}. This result again indicates that the channel assembles as a tetramer.

  6. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  7. Contribution to crystallographic slip assessment by means of topographic measurements achieved with atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahloun, C. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Badji, R. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Welding and NDT Research Centre, B. P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Bacroix, B., E-mail: bacroix@lpmtm.univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouabdallah, M. [E.N.P, 10 av. Hassan Badi, 16200 El Harrah Alger (Algeria)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively characterize the plastic glide occurring during tensile deformation of a duplex 2205 stainless steel sample. We demonstrate that an appropriate treatment of the topographic image issued from AFM measurements allows precise and quantitative information about the characteristics of plastic deformation and especially the amount of crystallographic slip.

  8. Electron Microscope Facility

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven Lab is home to one of only a few Scanning Transmision Electron Microscope (STEM) machines in the world and one of the few that can image single heavy atoms.

  9. The Microscopic Linear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear Dynamics Exponentials Matrix Exponential Eigendecomposition Dynamical Modes Nodes State Space Saddles Oscillations Spirals Centres Offsets Retinal Circuit Nullclines Stability Spiking Neurons Fitzhugh-Nagumo Nonlinear Dynamics Linearization Nonlinear Oscillation Excitable

  10. Infrared microscope inspection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

    1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

  11. afm detects wga-binding: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chip and a used ceramic plate, so that it is compatible with the Autoprobe CP AFM. Main Materials and tools: a. Used ceramic plates b. AFM tip on a holder chip (see fig. 1) c 17...

  12. Electron microscope studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  13. Detection of Percolating Paths in PMMA/CB Segregated Network Composites Using Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ou, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gupta, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Parker, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gerhardt, Dr. Rosario [Georgia Institute of Technology; Seal, Katyayani [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite specimens possessing polyhedral segregated network microstructures require a very small amount of nanosize filler, <1 vol %, to reach percolation because percolation occurs by accumulation of the fillers along the edges of the deformed polymer matrix particles. In this paper, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) were used to confirm the location of the nanosize fillers and the corresponding percolating paths in polymethyl methacrylate/carbon black composites. The EFM and C-AFM images revealed that the polyhedral polymer particles were coated with filler, primarily on the edges as predicted by the geometric models provided.

  14. Acoustic imaging microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

  15. Atomic modelling of crystal/complex fluid/crystal contacts--Part II. Simulating AFM tests via the GenMol code for investigating the impact of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    the GenMol code for investigating the impact of CO2 storage on kaolinite/brine/kaolinite adhesion G. Pepe Force Microscopy (AFM) tests at a kaolinite/brine/kaolinite contact, the confined fluid in sub). Two external solutions are tested. Solution S1 is a neutral brine (pH¼7.5) leading to a possible

  16. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  17. Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, James L.; Huey, Bryan D., E-mail: bhuey@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Grishin, Ilya; Kolosov, Oleg V. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Gyu Choi, Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanosecond scale threshold switching is investigated with conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM) for an amorphous GeSe film. Switched bits exhibit 2–3 orders of magnitude variations in conductivity, as demonstrated in phase change based memory devices. Through the nm-scale AFM probe, this crystallization was achieved with pulse durations of as low as 15?ns, the fastest reported with scanning probe based methods. Conductance AFM imaging of the switched bits further reveals correlations between the switched volume, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration. The influence of film heterogeneities on switching is also directly detected, which is of tremendous importance for optimal device performance.

  18. Climate forcing Climate forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKinnon, Jennifer

    parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

  19. afm cr2o3 nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 41 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

  20. Size effects in bimetallic nickelgold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sansoz, Frederic

    Size effects in bimetallic nickel­gold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy the local plastic behavior and hardness properties of electrodeposited bimetallic Ni­Au NWs ranging from 60 rights reserved. Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Nanowire; Nickel; Gold; Nanoindentation 1

  1. Femtosecond photoelectron point projection microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinonez, Erik; Handali, Jonathan; Barwick, Brett [Department of Physics, Trinity College, 300 Summit St., Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Trinity College, 300 Summit St., Hartford, Connecticut 06106 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By utilizing a nanometer ultrafast electron source in a point projection microscope we demonstrate that images of nanoparticles with spatial resolutions of the order of 100 nanometers can be obtained. The duration of the emission process of the photoemitted electrons used to make images is shown to be of the order of 100 fs using an autocorrelation technique. The compact geometry of this photoelectron point projection microscope does not preclude its use as a simple ultrafast electron microscope, and we use simple analytic models to estimate temporal resolutions that can be expected when using it as a pump-probe ultrafast electron microscope. These models show a significant increase in temporal resolution when comparing to ultrafast electron microscopes based on conventional designs. We also model the microscopes spectroscopic abilities to capture ultrafast phenomena such as the photon induced near field effect.

  2. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  3. Nonlocal microscopic theory of Casimir forces at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despoja, V. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, ES-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Depto. de Fysica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pays Vasco, Apdo. 1072, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Sunjic, M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, ES-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Marusic, L. [Maritime Department, University of Zadar, M. Pavlinovica b.b., HR-23000 Zadar (Croatia)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction energy between two metallic slabs in the retarded limit at finite temperature is expressed in terms of surface polariton propagators for separate slabs, avoiding the usual matching procedure, with both diamagnetic and paramagnetic excitations included correctly. This enables appropriate treatment of arbitrary electron density profiles and fully nonlocal electronic response, including both collective and single-particle excitations. The results are verified by performing the nonretarded and long-wavelength (local) limits and showing that they reduce to the previously obtained expressions. Possibilities for practical use of the theory are explored by applying it to calculation of various contributions to the Casimir energy between two silver slabs.

  4. atomic force microscope: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shift technique. This experiment was performed at a pressure of 3x10-8 Torr with hollow glass sphere of 41.3 mcm radius. Special attention is paid to electrostatic...

  5. atomic force microscopic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shift technique. This experiment was performed at a pressure of 3x10-8 Torr with hollow glass sphere of 41.3 mcm radius. Special attention is paid to electrostatic...

  6. Design and construction of a magnetic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer Sudhakar

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanotec Electronica, Spain. Fig. 6 shows the MFM images of two different hard disks. The difference in the size of the magnetic domains is evident in this case with the new hard disk having smaller domain size and the old hard disk having the larger...

  7. Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

  8. Low temperature MFM imaging of Fe??xV??xAl intermetallics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nooner, Scott Lee

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) system was set up by adapting a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) from Park Scientific Instruments (PSI) for low temperature MFM use. Magnetic cantilevers were fabricated for the low...

  9. Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

  10. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Hongxuan, E-mail: Guo.hongxuan@nims.go.jp [Global Research Center for Environment and Energy based on Nanomaterials Science, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei [Active State Technology Research Group, Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1 Umezono 1-Chome, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke [Nano Characterization Unit, Advanced Key Technologies Division, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  11. Contributions of Bacterial Surface Polymers, Electrostatics, and Cell Elasticity to the Shape of AFM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    silicon nitride AFM tip and three different Escherichia coli K12 strains, each having a different length development, and marine biofouling. Although macroscopic properties of bacteria such as hydrophobicity

  12. Long working distance interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

  13. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  14. Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Phil Attard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope Phil. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 16, 753­791 (2002).) Running title: Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation Abstract for the friction force microscope, quantitative measurements of friction and the ef- fect of adhesion, measurement

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yun-Zhong (West Lafayette, IN); Reifenberger, Ronald G. (West Lafayette, IN); Andres, Ronald P. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  16. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

  17. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

  18. Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Reynaud; A. Lambrecht

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present notes are organized as the lectures given at the Les Houches Summer School "Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics" in August 2013. The first section contains an introduction and a description of the current state-of-the-art for Casimir force measurements and their comparison with theory. The second and third sections are a pedagogical presentation of the main features of the theory of Casimir forces for 1-dimensional model systems and for mirrors in 3-dimensional space.

  19. Effect of substrate compliance on the global unilateral post-buckling of coatings: AFM observations and finite element calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parry, G. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex, (France)]. E-mail: guillaume.parry@etu.univ-poitiers.fr; Colin, J. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Coupeau, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Foucher, F. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Cimetiere, A. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Grilhe, J. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630, du CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France)

    2005-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The post-critical regime of straight-sided wrinkles on compliant substrates of polycarbonate has been observed by atomic force microscope and investigated by means of finite element simulations. The effect of coupling between the film and its substrate has revealed a global buckling phenomenon, characterized by critical loads lower than those found in the case of a rigid substrate. Characteristic shapes of the buckled structure have been also found to spread over a region wider than the delaminated zone itself. A law relating the film deflexion to the stress has finally been established for any film/substrate system.

  20. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 12 nm Resolution Fresnel Zone Plate Lens based Soft X-rayOptical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes Patrick P.the development of Fresnel zoneplate based microscopes.

  1. Nuclear forces from chiral EFT: The unfinished business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

    2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the great progress we have seen in recent years in the derivation of nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory (EFT), some important issues are still unresolved. In this contribution, we discuss the open problems which have particular relevance for microscopic nuclear structure, namely, the proper renormalization of chiral nuclear potentials and sub-leading many-body forces.

  2. Investigation of leakage current paths in n-GaN by conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Bumho; Park, Yongjo, E-mail: yp0520@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Daeyoung; Nanishi, Yasushi [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kisu [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of) [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sewoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kuk [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: yp0520@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of) [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated electrical characteristics of leakage current paths in n-GaN layer grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The C-AFM mapping shows two kinds of leakage current paths existing in the n-GaN layer: open-core dislocation and pure screw dislocation. From the localized I-V curves measured by C-AFM, we confirmed that the open-core screw dislocation shows more significant leakage current. We explained these results in terms of a modified Schottky band model based on donor states formed by oxygen segregation at the (10?10) sidewall of the open-core screw dislocation.

  3. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  4. ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

  5. Device Research Conference, June 2003 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM Oxidation and Epitaxial Regrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    61st Device Research Conference, June 2003 129 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM-energy patterning process based on AFM lithography (to avoid defects from e-beam and RIE) and Si/SiGe). Single-hole transistor, which is the first reported SiGe quantum device with heterojunction passivation

  6. Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclearHomeland andEffectsScanning/Transmission Electron Microscopes

  7. Grafting a homogeneous transition metal catalyst onto a silicon AFM probe: a promising strategy for chemically

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AFM tips with adsorbed acid and palladium nanoparticles were used for silyl ether hydrolysis,16 Suzuki giving access to diverse nanoscale transformations of the surface-bound functional groups. This new functional groups of the self- assembled monolayers (SAMs) are still quite rare and remain highly challenging

  8. Feedforward Control of a Piezoelectric Flexure Stage for AFM Yang Li and John Bechhoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bechhoefer, John

    to physics [1], [2]; by the publication, by control engineers, of the first textbook on modern control theory of an interesting "cross-over" work that analyzes physical systems from a control perspective [4]. While influencesFeedforward Control of a Piezoelectric Flexure Stage for AFM Yang Li and John Bechhoefer Abstract

  9. Tracking a nanosize magnetic particle using a magnetic force Dimitar Baronov, Sean B. Andersson and John Baillieul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersson, Sean B.

    Tracking a nanosize magnetic particle using a magnetic force microscope Dimitar Baronov, Sean B. Andersson and John Baillieul Abstract-- A scheme for tracking nano-sized magnetic par- ticles using a magnetic force microscope (MFM) is introduced. The stray magnetic field of the particle induces a shift

  10. STORM/PALM - Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscope | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STORMPALM - Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscope STORMPALM - Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscope EMSL has developed and offers Fluorescence, Super Resolution STORM...

  11. Measurements of dynamic forces between drops with the AFM: novel considerations in comparisons between experiment and theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    in aqueous electrolyte with added sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant have been studied. Measurements were made-defined solid surfaces as a function of surface separation down to nanometre separations.1­5 Such experiments, in food processing and personal care product formulations, and for many biological functions such as cell­cell

  12. Measurements of Dynamic Forces between Drops with the AFM: Novel Considerations in Comparisons between Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    ) on the substrate in aqueous electrolyte with added sodium dodecylsulfate surfactant have been studied. Measurements-defined solid surfaces as a function of surface separation down to nanometre separations.1-5 Such experiments, in food processing and personal care product formulations, and for many biological functions such as cell-cell

  13. Method for measurement of friction forces on single cells in microfluidic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Hongshen

    both dry and wet conditions, are well estab- lished.16,17 The measurement of friction at micrometer the friction between dry microscopic surfaces, including atomic force microscopy, fric- tion-force microscopyMethod for measurement of friction forces on single cells in microfluidic devices Lazar

  14. Lift Forces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count theLienertLift Forces in Bubbly

  15. Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanomaterials Analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope Technology available for licensing: Steradian X-ray detection system increases the detection capability of SEMs during...

  16. Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Wei, Tao (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  17. Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Alameda, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  18. Physical mechanisms of megahertz vibrations and nonlinear detection in ultrasonic force and related microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, J. L.; Huey, B. D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Tovee, P. D.; Kolosov, O. V., E-mail: o.kolosov@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of high frequency (HF) vibrations at MHz frequencies in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) advanced nanoscale property mapping to video rates, allowed use of cantilever dynamics for mapping nanomechanical properties of stiff materials, sensing ?s time scale phenomena in nanostructures, and enabled detection of subsurface features with nanoscale resolution. All of these methods critically depend on the generally poor characterized HF behaviour of AFM cantilevers in contact with a studied sample, spatial and frequency response of piezotransducers, and transfer of ultrasonic vibrations between the probe and a specimen. Focusing particularly on Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM), this work is also applicable to waveguide UFM, heterodyne force microscopy, and near-field holographic microscopy, all methods that exploit nonlinear tip-surface force interactions at high frequencies. Leveraging automated multidimensional measurements, spectroscopic UFM (sUFM) is introduced to investigate a range of common experimental parameters, including piezotransducer excitation frequency, probed position, ultrasonic amplitude, cantilever geometry, spring constant, and normal force. Consistent with studies of influence of each of these factors, the data-rich sUFM signatures allow efficient optimization of ultrasonic-AFM based measurements, leading to best practices recommendations of using longer cantilevers with lower fundamental resonance, while at the same time increasing the central frequency of HF piezo-actuators, and only comparing results within areas on the order of few ?m{sup 2} unless calibrated directly or compared with in-the-imaged area standards. Diverse materials such as Si, Cr, and photoresist are specifically investigated. This work thereby provides essential insight into the reliable use of MHz vibrations with AFM and provides direct evidence substantiating phenomena such as sensitivity to adhesion, diminished friction for certain ultrasonic conditions, and the particular benefit of UFM and related methods for nanoscale mapping of stiff materials.

  19. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  20. Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: zhangwj3072@163.com [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)

    2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Nanoscale cellular ultra-structures of macrophages were observed. •The binding affinities of Fc?Rs were measured directly on macrophages. •The nanoscale distributions of Fc?Rs were mapped on macrophages. -- Abstract: Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of Fc?Rs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of Fc?Rs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of Fc?Rs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the Fc?Rs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of Fc?Rs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of Fc?Rs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy.

  1. Microscopic origin of granular ratcheting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. McNamara; R. García-Rojo; H. J. Herrmann

    2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of assemblies of grains under cyclic loading exhibit ``granular ratcheting'': a small net deformation occurs with each cycle, leading to a linear accumulation of deformation with cycle number. We show that this is due to a curious property of the most frequently used models of the particle-particle interaction: namely, that the potential energy stored in contacts is path-dependent. There exist closed paths that change the stored energy, even if the particles remain in contact and do not slide. An alternative method for calculating the tangential force removes granular ratcheting.

  2. Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benitez, J.J.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Salmeron, M.

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of mechanical energy transfer from the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope on the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films of octadecylamine on mica. The formation of the self-assembled film proceeds in two successive stages, the first being a fast adsorption from solution that follows a Langmuir isotherm. The second is a slower process of island growth by aggregation of the molecules dispersed on the surface. We found that the dynamics of aggregation can be altered substantially by the addition of mechanical energy into the system through controlled tip-surface interactions. This leads to either the creation of pinholes in existing islands as a consequence of vacancy concentration, and to the assembly of residual molecules into more compact islands.

  3. Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Frank

    Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells., University of Pittsburgh The most efficient organic solar cell today is made from blending conjugated donors and acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Most microscopic characterization

  4. Switching surface polarization of atomic force microscopy probe utilizing photoisomerization of photochromic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aburaya, Yoshihiro; Nomura, Hikaru; Kageshima, Masami; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt to develop an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with optically switchable polarization is described. Modification with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules was attempted onto a Si substrate that is a prototype for a probe surface. Polarization switching caused by alternate irradiation of UV and visible lights were detected using the electrostatic force?>spectroscopy (EFS) technique. Si substrates modified with spiropyran and azobenzene exhibited reversible polarization switching that caused changes in CPD of about 100 and 50 mV, respectively. Modification with spiropyran was also attempted onto a Si probe and resulted in a CPD change of about 100 mV. It was confirmed that modification of an AFM probe or substrate with a single molecular layer of photochromic molecules can generate surface polarization switching of a mechanically detectable level.

  5. A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Graphite. A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Graphite. Abstract: In this work,...

  6. CFN | Hitachi HD2700C Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hitachi HD2700C Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Contacts: Dong Su | Lihua Zhang | Huolin Xin The Hitachi 2700C is a dedicated Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope...

  7. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  8. From Self-Assembly to Controlled-Assembly, From Optical Manipulation to AFM Manipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shafiei, Farbod

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moving nanoparticles/atoms to study the nearfield interaction between them is one of the many approaches to explore the optical and electrical properties of these assemblies. Traditional approach included the self assembly by spinning or drying nanoparticles in aqua on the substrate is well practiced. Lithography technique is another popular approach to deposit limited nano/micro patterns on substrates. Later optical and mechanical manipulations were used to have more control over moving individual elements of nano and microstructures and even atoms. Optical tweezers, optical trapping and AFM manipulation are examples of these precise approaches.

  9. Microscopic calculation of the spin-dependent neutron scattering lengths on 3He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Hofmann; G. M. Hale

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the spin.dependent neutron scattering length on 3He from a microscopic calculation of p-3H, n-3He, and d-2H scattering employing the Argonne v18 nucleon-nucleon potential with and without additional three-nucleon force. The results and that of a comprehensive R-matrix analysis are compared to a recent measurement. The overall agreement for the scattering lengths is quite good. The imaginary parts of the scattering lengths are very sensitive to the inclusion of three-nucleon forces, whereas the real parts are almost insensitive.

  10. Miniature self-contained vacuum compatible electronic imaging microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Batson, Phillip J. (Alameda, CA); Denham, Paul E. (Crockett, CA); Jones, Michael S. (San Francisco, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum compatible CCD-based microscopic camera with an integrated illuminator. The camera can provide video or still feed from the microscope contained within a vacuum chamber. Activation of an optional integral illuminator can provide light to illuminate the microscope subject. The microscope camera comprises a housing with a objective port, modified objective, beam-splitter, CCD camera, and LED illuminator.

  11. Apparatus for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jun (Berkeley, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Salmeron, Miguel (El Cerrito, CA); Xiao, Xudong (Kowloon, CN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged.

  12. Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jun (Berkeley, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Salmeron, Miguel (El Cerrito, CA); Xiao, Xudong (Kowloon, CN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged.

  13. Microscopic model of a phononic refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Arrachea; Eduardo Mucciolo; Claudio Chamon; Rodrigo Capaz

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a simple microscopic model to pump heat from a cold to a hot reservoir in a nanomechanical system. The model consists of a one-dimensional chain of masses and springs coupled to a back gate through which a time-dependent perturbation is applied. The action of the gate is to modulate the coupling of the masses to a substrate via additional springs that introduce a moving phononic barrier. We solve the problem numerically using non-equilibrium Green function techniques. For low driving frequencies and for sharp traveling barriers, we show that this microscopic model realizes a phonon refrigerator.

  14. Submitted to Device Research Conference, June 2003 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM Oxidation and Epitaxial Regrowth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rokhinson, Leonid

    Submitted to Device Research Conference, June 2003 SiGe Single-Hole Transistor Fabricated by AFM-energy patterning process based on AFM lithography (to avoid defects from e-beam and RIE) and Si/SiGe). A single-hole transistor, which is the first reported SiGe quantum device with heterojunction passivation

  15. Silicon Epitaxial Regrowth Passivation of SiGe Nanostructures Pattered by AFM Xiang-Zheng Bo, Leonid P. Rokhinson, and J. C. Sturm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silicon Epitaxial Regrowth Passivation of SiGe Nanostructures Pattered by AFM Oxidation Xiang@princeton.edu ABSTRACT SiGe quantum devices were demonstrated by AFM oxidation and selective wet etching with features temperature regrowth of epitaxial silicon over strained SiGe has been tested. The silicon regrowth on Si0.8Ge0

  16. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  17. Vertically aligned nanostructure scanning probe microscope tips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillorn, Michael A.; Ilic, Bojan; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are described for cantilever structures that include a vertically aligned nanostructure, especially vertically aligned carbon nanofiber scanning probe microscope tips. An apparatus includes a cantilever structure including a substrate including a cantilever body, that optionally includes a doped layer, and a vertically aligned nanostructure coupled to the cantilever body.

  18. www.afm-journal.de 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4320

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    -scale, including wind turbine blades or aircraft wings, which preclude bulk thermal annealing. Accelerated Selfwww.afm-journal.de FULLPAPER © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4320 www.Materials. Biomimicry of these diverse functions in synthetic materials is achieved by embedding a network

  19. Molecular-scale investigations of structures and surface charge distribution of surfactant aggregates by three-dimensional force mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.

  20. Three-Nucleon Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter U. Sauer

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries towards calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian; they represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the decription of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces.

  1. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

  2. Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

  3. Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitran, Sorin, E-mail: mitran@unc.edu

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

  4. Microscopic linear liquid streams in vacuum: Injection of solvated biological samples into X-ray free electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doak, R. B.; DePonte, D. P.; Nelson, G.; Camacho-Alanis, F.; Ros, A.; Spence, J. C. H.; Weierstall, U. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Centre for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic linear liquid free-streams offer a means of gently delivering biological samples into a probe beam in vacuum while maintaining the sample species in a fully solvated state. By employing gas dynamic forces to form the microscopic liquid stream (as opposed to a conventional solid-walled convergent nozzle), liquid free-streams down to 300 nm diameter have been generated. Such 'Gas Dynamic Virtual Nozzles' (GDVN) are ideally suited to injecting complex biological species into an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) to determine the structure of the biological species via Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SFX). GDVN injector technology developed for this purpose is described.

  5. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariel Megevand

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  6. Ultra high frequency imaging acoustic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

    2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  8. An in-vivo study of electrical charge distribution on the bacterial cell wall by Atomic Force Microscopy in vibrating force mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Marliere; Samia Dhahri

    2015-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an in-vivo electromechanical Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study of charge distribution on the cell wall of Gram plus Rhodococcus wratislaviensis bacteria, naturally adherent to a glass substrate, in physiological conditions. The method presented in this paper relies on a detailed study of AFM approach-retract curves giving the variation of the interaction force versus distance between tip and sample. In addition to classical height and mechanical (as stiffness) data, mapping of local electrical properties, as bacterial surface charge, was proved to be feasible at a spatial resolution better than few tens of nanometers. This innovative method relies on the measurement of the cantilever's surface stress through its deflection far from (higher than 10nm) the repulsive contact zone. The variations of surface stress come from modification of electrical surface charge of the cantilever (as in classical electrocapillary measurements) likely stemming from its charging during contact of both tip and sample electrical double layers. This method offers an important improvement in local electrical and electrochemical measurements at the solid-liquid interface particularly in high-molarity electrolytes when compared to technics focused on the direct use of electrostatic force. It thus opens a new way to directly investigate in-situ biological electrical surface processes involved in numerous practical and fundamental problems as bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cell, etc.

  9. Characterization of grain boundary conductivity of spin-sprayed ferrites using scanning microwave microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, J.; Nicodemus, T.; Zhuang, Y., E-mail: yan.zhuang@wright.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Watanabe, T.; Matsushita, N. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain boundary electrical conductivity of ferrite materials has been characterized using scanning microwave microscope. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spin-sprayed thin films onto glass substrates for different length of growth times were investigated using a scanning microwave microscope, an atomic force microscope, a four-point probe measurement, and a made in house transmission line based magnetic permeameter. The real part of the magnetic permeability shows almost constant between 10 and 300?MHz. As the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film thickness increases, the grain size becomes larger, leading to a higher DC conductivity. However, the loss in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at high frequency does not increase correspondingly. By measuring the reflection coefficient s{sub 11} from the scanning microwave microscope, it turns out that the grain boundaries of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit higher electric conductivity than the grains, which contributes loss at radio frequencies. This result will provide guidance for further improvement of low loss ferrite materials for high frequency applications.

  10. A microscopic mechanism for increasing thermoelectric efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiji Saito; Giuliano Benenti; Giulio Casati

    2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the coupled particle and energy transport in a prototype model of interacting one-dimensional system: the disordered hard-point gas, for which numerical data suggest that the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT diverges with the system size. This result is explained in terms of a microscopic mechanism, namely the local equilibrium is characterized by the emergence of a broad stationary "modified Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution", of width much larger than the mean velocity of the particle flow.

  11. Defocus step size of the LBNL One Angstrom Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Michael A.; Nelson, E. Chris

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    64 (1996) 211-230. p2/6 LBNL/PUB-3170 One Angstromcurrent. Measurements on the LBNL One- Angstrom MicroscopeLBNL/PUB-3170 One-Ångstrom Microscope Report: One Angstrom

  12. Design and Construction of a Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chi

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (LTSTM) was built that we could use in an ultra high vacuum (UHV) system. The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was tested on an existing 3He cryostat and calibrated at room, liquid nitrogen...

  13. 3D Printed Microscope for Mobile Devices that Cost Pennies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erikson, Rebecca; Baird, Cheryl; Hutchinson, Janine

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists at PNNL have designed a 3D-printable microscope for mobile devices using pennies worth of plastic and glass materials. The microscope has a wide range of uses, from education to in-the-field science.

  14. Fermionic Luttinger liquids from a microscopic perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel Valiente; Lawrence G. Phillips; Nikolaj T. Zinner; Patrik Ohberg

    2015-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider interacting one-dimensional, spinless Fermi gases, whose low-energy properties are described by Luttinger liquid theory. We perform a systematic, in-depth analysis of the relation between the macroscopic, phenomenological parameters of Luttinger liquid effective field theory, and the microscopic interactions of the Fermi gas. In particular, we begin by explaining how to model effective interactions in one dimension, which we then apply to the main forward scattering channel -- the interbranch collisions -- common to these systems. We renormalise the corresponding interbranch phenomenological constants in favour of scattering phase shifts. Interestingly, our renormalisation procedure shows (i) how Luttinger's model arises in a completely natural way -- and not as a convenient approximation -- from Tomonaga's model, and (ii) the reasons behind the interbranch coupling constant remaining unrenormalised in Luttinger's model. We then consider the so-called intrabranch processes, whose phenomenological coupling constant is known to be fixed by charge conservation, but whose microscopic origin is not well understood. We show that, contrary to general belief and common sense, the intrabranch interactions appearing in Luttinger liquid theory do not correspond to an intrabranch scattering channel, nor an energy shift due to intrabranch interactions, in the microscopic theory. Instead, they are due to interbranch processes. We finally apply our results to a particular example of an exactly solvable model, namely the fermionic dual to the Lieb-Liniger model in the Tonks-Girardeau and super-Tonks-Girardeau regimes.

  15. Microscopic nature of the photon strength function: stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Goriely, Stephane; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Krewald, Siegfried; Voitenkov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pygmy-dipole resonances and photon strength functions in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite fermi systems which includes the QRPA and phonon coupling effects and uses the known Skyrme forces SLy4. The pygmy dipole resonance in $^{72}Ni$ is predicted with the mean energy of 12.4 MeV and the energy-weighted sum rule exhausting 25.6\\% of the total strength. The microscopically obtained photon E1 strength functions are used to calculate nuclear reaction properties, i.e the radiative neutron capture cross section, gamma-ray spectra, and average radiative widths. Our main conclusion is that in all these quantities it is necessary to take the phonon coupling effects into account.

  16. Ultra low-K shrinkage behavior when under electron beam in a scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorut, F.; Imbert, G. [ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France)] [ST Microelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles Cedex (France); Roggero, A. [Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)] [Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the tendency of porous low-K dielectrics (also named Ultra Low-K, ULK) behavior to shrink when exposed to the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope. Various experimental electron beam conditions have been used for irradiating ULK thin films, and the resulting shrinkage has been measured through use of an atomic force microscope tool. We report the shrinkage to be a fast, cumulative, and dose dependent effect. Correlation of the shrinkage with incident electron beam energy loss has also been evidenced. The chemical modification of the ULK films within the interaction volume has been demonstrated, with a densification of the layer and a loss of carbon and hydrogen elements being observed.

  17. Polymers with hydro-responsive topography identified using high throughput AFM of an acrylate microarray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hook, Andrew L.

    Atomic force microscopy has been applied to an acrylate polymer microarray to achieve a full topographic characterisation. This process discovered a small number of hydro-responsive materials created from monomers with ...

  18. Braking system for use with an arbor of a microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norgren, Duane U. (Orinda, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling device causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  19. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by Atomic Force Microscopy with colloidal probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luca Puricelli; Massimiliano Galluzzi; Carsten Schulte; Alessandro Podestà; Paolo Milani

    2015-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells' fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cell elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured elastic modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in cell elasticity induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  20. Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Emig, Thorsten [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Bat. 100, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Krueger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this nonequilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to ''dilution''. This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to submicron distances at realistic porosities.

  1. Calibration of the torsional spring constant and the lateral photodiode response of frictional force microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Calibration of the torsional spring constant and the lateral photodiode response of frictional simultaneously calibrates the photodiode response to the angular deflection of the cantilever. It does not rely and with an independent measurement of the angle calibration. This nondestructive calibration may be performed with any

  2. A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in-situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite...

  3. A Preisach Model for Quantifying Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . increases to the point where feedback mechanisms are amplifying noise rather than attenuating unmodeled and constitutive nonlin- earities even at low drive levels. Feedback mechanisms can mitigate the deleterious effects of these nonlinearities for low frequency operation but such techniques fail at higher frequencies

  4. A Preisach Model for Quantifying Hysteresis in an Atomic Force Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #ects of these nonlinearities for low frequency operation but such techniques fail at higher frequencies due to increased noise lateral sweep. increases to the point where feedback mechanisms are amplifying noise rather than and constitutive nonlin­ earities even at low drive levels. Feedback mechanisms can mitigate the deleterious e

  5. Microscopic Calculation of 240Pu Scission with a Finite-Range Effective Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, W; Gogny, D

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations of hot fission in {sup 240}Pu have been performed with a newly-implemented code that uses the D1S finite-range effective interaction. The hot-scission line is identified in the quadrupole-octupole-moment coordinate space. Fission-fragment shapes are extracted from the calculations. A benchmark calculation for {sup 226}Th is obtained and compared to results in the literature. In addition, technical aspects of the use of HFB calculations for fission studies are examined in detail. In particular, the identification of scission configurations, the sensitivity of near-scission calculations to the choice of collective coordinates in the HFB iterations, and the formalism for the adjustment of collective-variable constraints are discussed. The power of the constraint-adjustment algorithm is illustrated with calculations near the critical scission configurations with up to seven simultaneous constraints.

  6. The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope P. Chris Hammel and Denis V. Pelekhov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammel, P. Chris

    , Zhang, Moore and Roukes, 1995; Bruland et al., 1998) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments

  7. Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

  8. Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

    1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

  9. NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randrup, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

  10. Forces from Connes' geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We try to give a pedagogical introduction to Connes' derivation of the standard model of electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces from gravity.

  11. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

  12. Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

  13. Microscopic Description of Nuclear Fission Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker; J. A. Maruhn; P. -G. Reinhard

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss possible avenues to study fission dynamics starting from a time-dependent mean-field approach. Previous attempts to study fission dynamics using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory are analyzed. We argue that different initial conditions may be needed to describe fission dynamics depending on the specifics of the fission phenomenon and propose various approaches towards this goal. In particular, we provide preliminary calculations for studying fission following a heavy-ion reaction using TDHF with a density contraint. Regarding prompt muon-induced fission, we also suggest a new approach for combining the time-evolution of the muonic wave function with a microscopic treatment of fission dynamics via TDHF.

  14. Long working distance incoherent interference microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); De Boer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

  15. Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

  16. A microscopic perspective on stochastic thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Altaner; Jürgen Vollmer

    2015-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider stochastic thermodynamics as a theory of statistical inference for experimentally observed fluctuating time-series. To that end, we introduce a general framework for quantifying the knowledge about the dynamical state of the system on two scales: a fine-grained or microscopic, deterministic and a coarse-grained or mesoscopic, stochastic level of description. For a generic model dynamics, we show how the mathematical expressions for fluctuating entropy changes used in Markovian stochastic thermodynamics emerge naturally. Our ideas are conceptional approaches towards (i) connecting entropy production and its fluctuation relations in deterministic and stochastic systems and (ii) providing a complementary information-theoretic picture to notions of entropy and entropy production in stochastic thermodynamics.

  17. Microscopic study of Ca$+$Ca fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Keser; A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

    2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the fusion barriers for reactions involving Ca isotopes $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}$, $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$, and $\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ using the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. We also study the excitation of the pre-equilibrium GDR for the $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ system and the associated $\\gamma$-ray emission spectrum. Fusion cross-sections are calculated using the incoming-wave boundary condition approach. We examine the dependence of fusion barriers on collision energy as well as on the different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction.

  18. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian [The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  19. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  20. Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United States. Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated Sediments at Hanford, United...

  1. au microscope electronique: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Microscope Geosciences Websites Summary: applications ranging from thermoelectric waste heat recovery to radio astronomy. BIOGRAPHY Austin MinnichDepartment of Mechanical...

  2. Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

  3. Federal Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  4. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

  5. Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}?{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

  6. Strategic forces briefing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  7. Atomic force microscopy of biochemically tagged DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogletree, D.F.; Kolbe, W.; Spengler, S.; Salmeron, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)); Hansma, H.G.; Bezanilla, M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)); Sano, T.; Smith, C.S.; Cantor, C.R. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small fragments of DNA of known length were made with the polymerase chain reaction. These fragments had biotin molecules covalently attached at their ends. They were subsequently labeled with a chimeric protein fusion between streptavidin and two immunoglobulin G-binding domains of staphyloccocal protein A. This tetrameric species was expected to bind up to four DNA molecules via their attached biotin moieties. The DNA-protein complex was deposited on mica and imaged with an atomic force microscope. The images revealed the protein chimera at the expected location at the ends of the strands of DNA as well as the expected dimers, trimers, and tetramers of DNA bound to a single protein. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  8. 3D Force and Displacement Sensor for SFA and AFM Measurements Kai Kristiansen,, Patricia McGuiggan,| Greg Carver, Carl Meinhart, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meinhart, Carl

    , respectively. (2) A less common method is the resistive method using resistance, semiconductor, or piezoresistive strain gauges in a quarter-bridge, half-bridge, or full-bridge configuration4-7 to also give

  9. Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otani, Yoshichika

    Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes O. Rousseau,1 M on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes wave propagation. VC 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4864480] In recent years

  10. How to benchmark a wide field fluorescent microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    available for your microscope camera. -http://www.micro-manager.org/wiki/Device%20Support (tested with Roper;Limitations · This is a beta-test ­ Only tested with ~10 different widefield microscope systems with CCD in polystyrene sample holders was cut with a Dremel tool. Rough edges were removed by scraping with a razor blade

  11. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  12. Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon Carpentier; Mario S. Rodrigues; Luca Costa; Miguel V. Vitorino; Elisabeth Charlaix; Joel Chevrier

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which explains this behavior.

  13. Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpentier, Simon; Costa, Luca; Vitorino, Miguel V; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which expla...

  14. Unbalanced electromagnetic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig Martin

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coils V ? 4 Vertical spring suspension experiment V ? 5 Horizontal suspension experiment 74 V ? 6 Linear plot of data for egg-shaped coil; horizontal suspension experiment V ? 7 Log-log plot of data for egg-shaped coil; horizontal suspension... segment L on straight line current segment L 53 V-1 Geometrical configuration of experimental coils. . . 62 V ? 2 Retational system for measuring force in various size points 65 xi ~Fi ure V ? 3 Rotational system for measuring force in egg-shaped...

  15. Casimir Friction Force for Moving Harmonic Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Casimir friction is analyzed for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion. We first adopt a microscopic model for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature T moving non-relativistically with constant velocity. We use a statistical-mechanical description where time-dependent correlations are involved. This description is physical and direct, and, in spite of its simplicity, is able to elucidate the essentials of the problem. This treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory of ours back in 1992. The energy change Delta E turns out to be finite in general, corresponding to a finite friction force. In the limit of zero temperature the formalism yields, however, Delta E ->0, this being due to our assumption about constant velocity, meaning slowly varying coupling. For couplings varying more rapidly, there will also be a finite friction force at T=0. As second part of our work, we consider the friction problem using time-dependent perturbation theory. The dissipation, basically a second order effect, is obtainable with the use of first order theory, the reason being the absence of cross terms due to uncorrelated phases of eigenstates. The third part of the present paper is to demonstrate explicitly the equivalence of our results with those recently obtained by Barton (2010); this being not a trivial task since the formal results are seemingly quite different from each other.

  16. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  17. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

  18. Contractor Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  19. Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

  20. Resolving three-dimensional shape of sub-50?nm wide lines with nanometer-scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attota, Ravikiran, E-mail: Ravikiran.attota@nist.gov; Dixson, Ronald G. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations of nanometer-scale objects can be resolved and measured with sub-nanometer scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes by analyzing 4-D optical data using the through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) method. These initial results show that TSOM-determined cross-sectional (3-D) shape differences of 30?nm–40?nm wide lines agree well with critical-dimension atomic force microscope measurements. The TSOM method showed a linewidth uncertainty of 1.22?nm (k?=?2). Complex optical simulations are not needed for analysis using the TSOM method, making the process simple, economical, fast, and ideally suited for high volume nanomanufacturing process monitoring.

  1. Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches Andre M adsorption are involved. In the higher pH region (pH >7), nickel sorption becomes slow and does not seem

  2. analytical electron microscope: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ICCD Dual-Beam device IX 71 microscope filter focusing lens beam directing mirror beam expander LASER beam directing mirror 12;Here is an example of how we calculating Leuba,...

  3. Wolter mirror microscope : novel neutron focussing and imaging optic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagdasarova, Yelena S. (Yelena Sergeyevna)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I investigated the effectiveness of a Wolter Type I neutron microscope as a focusing and imaging device for thermal and cold neutrons sources by simulating the performance of the optics in a standard neutron ...

  4. abnormal electron microscopic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OXIDE AS OBSERVED IN AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE L Investigating (001) and (011) oriented monocrystalline thin foils of Cu2O in a conven- tional electron Abstracts 61. 80F 1....

  5. Development of a Scanning Probe Microscope and Studies of Graphene Grown on Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasool, Haider Imad

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1: INTRODUCTION 1.1. BRIEF DISCUSSION OF SCANNING PROBEhighly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope forincorporated it into a scanning probe microscope, performed

  6. Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suckewer, P.I.

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

  7. Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

  8. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  9. Self-consistent Green's functions with three-body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arianna Carbone

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present thesis aims at studying the properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter from a Green's functions point of view, including two-body and three-body chiral forces. An extended self-consistent Green's function formalism is defined to consistently incorporate three-body forces in the many-body calculations. The effect of three-nucleon interactions is included via the construction of a dressed two-body density dependent force. This is obtained performing an average of the leading order three-body terms in the chiral effective field theory expansion. The dressed force corresponds to the use of an in-medium propagator in the average which takes into account the correlations characterizing the system at each stage of the many-body calculation. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sumrule to correctly account for the effect of three-body forces. Microscopic as well as macroscopic properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are analyzed in detailed.

  10. Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

  11. On the use of peak-force tapping atomic force microscopy for quantification of the local elastic modulus in hardened cement paste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trtik, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.trtik@empa.ch [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Josef [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Volz, Udo [Bruker Nano GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A surface of epoxy-impregnated hardened cement paste was investigated using a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging mode that allows for the quantitative mapping of the local elastic modulus. The analyzed surface was previously prepared using focussed ion beam milling. The same surface was also characterized by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We demonstrate the capability of this quantitative nanomechanical mapping to provide information on the local distribution of the elastic modulus (from about 1 to about 100 GPa) with a spatial resolution in the range of decananometers, that corresponds to that of low-keV back-scattered electron imaging. Despite some surface roughness which affects the measured nanomechanical properties it is shown that topography, adhesion and Young's modulus can be clearly distinguished. The quantitative mapping of the local elastic modulus is able to discriminate between phases in the cement paste microstructure that cannot be distinguished from the corresponding back-scattered electron images.

  12. Relativistic forces in Lagangian mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Muñoz Díaz

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a general definition of \\emph{relativistic force} in the context of Lagrangian mechanics. Once this is done we prove that the only relativistic forces which are linear on the velocities are those coming from differential 2-forms defined on the configuration space. In this sense, electromagnetic fields provide a mechanical system with the simplest type of relativistic forces.

  13. Casimir force driven ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Emig

    2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the non-linear dynamics of two parallel periodically patterned metal surfaces that are coupled by the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between them. The resulting Casimir force generates for asymmetric patterns with a time-periodically driven surface-to-surface distance a ratchet effect, allowing for directed lateral motion of the surfaces in sizeable parameter ranges. It is crucial to take into account inertia effects and hence chaotic dynamics which are described by Langevin dynamics. Multiple velocity reversals occur as a function of driving, mean surface distance, and effective damping. These transport properties are shown to be stable against weak ambient noise.

  14. Work Force Restructuring Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of EnergyThePatricia Hoffman is theDr.Ulrike1, 2014Force

  15. Pairing forces in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution, the author mentions some features of pairing forces that are unique to nuclei and cover some areas of major interest in nuclear structure research, that involve pairing. At the level of most nuclear structure studies, nuclei are treated as consisting of two kinds of fermions (protons and neutrons) in a valence space with rather few levels. These features give rise to unique aspects of pairing forces in nuclei: (1) n-p pairing in T = 0 as well as the usual T = 1 pairing that is characteristic of like fermions; (2) a need to correct pairing calculations for the (1/N) effects that can typically be neglected in superconducting solids. An issue of current concern is the nature of the pairing interaction: several recent studies suggest a need for a density dependent form of the pairing interaction. There is a good deal of feedback between the questions of accurate calculations of pairing interactions and the form and magnitude of the pairing interaction. Finally, the authors discuss some many-body wave functions that are a generalization of the BCS wave function form, and apply them to a calculation of energy level spacings in superdeformed rotational bands.

  16. Epoxy replication for Wolter x-ray microscope fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Priedhorsky, W.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An epoxy replica of a test piece designed to simulate a Wolter x-ray microscope geometry showed no loss of x-ray reflectivity or resolution, compared to the original. The test piece was a diamond-turned cone with 1.5/sup 0/ half angle. A flat was fly-cut on one side, then super- and conventionally polished. The replica was separated at the 1.5/sup 0/-draft angle, simulating a shallow angle Wolter microscope geometry. A test with 8.34 A x rays at 0.9/sup 0/ grazing angle showed a reflectivity of 67% for the replica flat surface, and 70% for the original. No spread of the reflected beam was observed with a 20-arc second wide test beam. This test verifies the epoxy replication technique for production of Wolter x-ray microscopes.

  17. Dilution and resonance enhanced repulsion in non-equilibrium fluctuation forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Kruger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are always attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this non-equilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region, and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to "dilution". This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to sub-micron distances at realistic porosities.

  18. Dilution and resonance enhanced repulsion in non-equilibrium fluctuation forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Matthias Kruger; Mehran Kardar

    2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are always attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this non-equilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region, and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to "dilution". This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to sub-micron distances at realistic porosities.

  19. Master equation for the probability distribution functions of forces in soft particle packings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyasu Saitoh; Vanessa Magnanimo; Stefan Luding

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing molecular dynamics simulations of jammed soft particles, we study microscopic responses of force-chain networks to quasi-static isotropic (de)compressions. We show that not only contacts but also interparticle gaps between the nearest neighbors must be considered for the stochastic evolution of the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of forces, where the mutual exchange of contacts and interparticle gaps, i.e. opening and closing contacts, are also crucial to the incremental system behaviors. By numerically determining the transition rates for all changes of contacts and gaps, we formulate a Master equation for the PDFs of forces, where the insight one gets from the transition rates is striking: The mean change of forces reflects non-affine system response, while their fluctuations obey uncorrelated Gaussian statistics. In contrast, interparticle gaps are reacting mostly affine in average, but imply multi-scale correlations according to a wider stable distribution function.

  20. Construction of force measuring optical tweezers instrumentation and investigations of biophysical properties of bacterial adhesion organelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersson, Magnus

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical tweezers are a technique in which microscopic-sized particles, including living cells and bacteria, can be non-intrusively trapped with high accuracy solely using focused light. The technique has therefore become a powerful tool in the field of biophysics. Optical tweezers thereby provide outstanding manipulation possibilities of cells as well as semi-transparent materials, both non-invasively and non-destructively, in biological systems. In addition, optical tweezers can measure minute forces (< 10-12 N), probe molecular interactions and their energy landscapes, and apply both static and dynamic forces in biological systems in a controlled manner. The assessment of intermolecular forces with force measuring optical tweezers, and thereby the biomechanical structure of biological objects, has therefore considerably facilitated our understanding of interactions and structures of biological systems. Adhesive bacterial organelles, so called pili, mediate adhesion to host cells and are therefore crucial...

  1. Dynamic microscopic theory of fusion using DC-TDHF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Keser, R.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); RTE University, Science and Arts Faculty, Department of Physics, 53100, Rize (Turkey); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Universitat Erlangen, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) theory is a fully microscopic approach for calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross sections below and above the fusion barrier. We discuss recent applications of DC-TDHF method to fusion of light and heavy systems.

  2. Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions G. Royer, M. Guilbaud, A. Onillon manuscript, published in "Nuclear Physics A 847 (2010) 24-41" DOI : 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2010.06.014 #12 including the pairing ef- fects have been firstly developed to reproduce the experimental nuclear masses [2

  3. SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR NANOSCOPE II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS FOR NANOSCOPE II 1) Set monitor #1 on top side of the able. 3) Set the keyboard on top and front of the computer. 4) Set the scanning head on gel into the scanning head. 12) Suspend bungee cords, as necessary, from a secure point in the ceiling. 13) Fasten onto

  4. Department of Mechanical Engineering "Heat Under the Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    applications ranging from thermoelectric waste heat recovery to radio astronomy. BIOGRAPHY Austin MinnichDepartment of Mechanical Engineering presents "Heat Under the Microscope: Uncovering electronics. In many solids, heat is carried by phonons, or quanta of lattice vibrations. Compared to other

  5. Neutrinoless double beta decay in the microscopic interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory Yale University New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States)

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a calculation of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay in the closure approximation in several nuclei within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) are presented and compared with those calculated in the shell model (SM) and quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA)

  6. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  7. Variational Scheme to Compute Protein Reaction Pathways using Atomistic Force Fields with Explicit Solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. a Beccara; L. Fant; P. Faccioli

    2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a variational approximation to the microscopic dynamics of rare conformational transitions of macromolecules. Within this framework it is possible to simulate on a small computer cluster reactions as complex as protein folding, using state of the art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. We test this method against molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the folding of an alpha- and a beta-protein performed with the same all-atom force field on the Anton supercomputer. We find that our approach yields results consistent with those of MD simulations, at a computational cost orders of magnitude smaller.

  8. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  9. H# Control Design for a Magnetostrictive Transducer James Nealis and Ralph C. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    milling and hybrid motor design due to their broadband, large force capabilities. To achieve the level) compounds range from nanopositioning stages in an atomic force microscope (AFM) to vibration suppression. Sensor noise is also present in all applications and can cause a degra­ dation in the transducer

  10. H Control Design for a Magnetostrictive Transducer James Nealis and Ralph C. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    milling and hybrid motor design due to their broadband, large force capabilities. To achieve the level) compounds range from nanopositioning stages in an atomic force microscope (AFM) to vibration suppression system which must be accommodated. Sensor noise is also present in all applications and can cause a degra

  11. Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi Zhu; Junchen Pei

    2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore the microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can impact several understandings such as survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. To describe the neutron emission rates microscopically, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the Finite-Temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by HFB-AX in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gas are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained based on the densities of external neutron gases. The thermal statistical properties of $^{238}$U and $^{258}$U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in $^{238, 258}$U and superheavy compound nuclei $_{112}^{278}$Cn and $_{114}^{292}$Fl are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting an excitation-energy-dependent level density parameter. The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

  12. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

  13. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

  14. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  15. Whole-Cell Sensing for a Harmful Bloom-Forming Microscopic Alga by Measuring Antibody-Antigen Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. I NTRODUCTION INGLE-CELLED microalgae play an essentialabundance of speci?c microalgae [10]–[13]. Early applicationand prokary- otic microalgae [3], [14]–[17]. These

  16. Simulation of High Density Pedestrian Flow: Microscopic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dridi, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years modelling crowd and evacuation dynamics has become very important, with increasing huge numbers of people gathering around the world for many reasons and events. The fact that our global population grows dramatically every year and the current public transport systems are able to transport large amounts of people, heightens the risk of crowd panic or crush. Pedestrian models are based on macroscopic or microscopic behaviour. In this paper, we are interested in developing models that can be used for evacuation control strategies. This model will be based on microscopic pedestrian simulation models, and its evolution and design requires a lot of information and data. The people stream will be simulated, based on mathematical models derived from empirical data about pedestrian flows. This model is developed from image data bases, so called empirical data, taken from a video camera or data obtained using human detectors. We consider the individuals as autonomous particles interacting through socia...

  17. Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washiyama, Kouhei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: Analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model and understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: We employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. We extract nucleus--nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, we analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: Extracted potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance...

  18. Prospective study on microscopic potential with Gogny interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchon, G; Arellano, H F

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present our current studies and our future plans on microscopic potential based on effective nucleon-nucleon interaction and many-body theory. This framework treats in an unified way nuclear structure and reaction. It offers the opportunity to link the underlying effective interaction to nucleon scattering observables. The more consistently connected to a variety of reaction and structure experimental data the framework will be, the more constrained effective interaction will be. As a proof of concept, we present some recent results for both neutron and proton scattered from spherical target nucleus, namely 40 Ca, using the Gogny D1S interaction. Possible fruitful crosstalks between microscopic potential, phenomenological potential and effective interaction are exposed. We then draw some prospective plans for the forthcoming years including scattering from spherical nuclei experiencing pairing correlations, scattering from axially deformed nuclei, and new effective interaction with reaction constraints.

  19. X-ray microscope assemblies. Final report and metrology report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehnpfennig, T.F.

    1981-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Report and Metrology Report prepared under Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Subcontract 9936205, X-ray Microscope Assemblies. The purpose of this program was to design, fabricate, and perform detailed metrology on an axisymmetric grazing-incidence x-ray microscope (XRMS) to be used as a diagnostic instrument in the Lawrence Livermore Laser Fusion Program. The optical configuration chosen for this device consists of two internally polished surfaces of revolution: an hyperboloid facing the object; and a confocal, co-axial elliposid facing the image. This arrangement is known as the Wolter Type-I configuration. The grazing angle of reflection for both surfaces is approximately 1/sup 0/. The general optical performance goals under this program were to achieve a spatial resolution in the object plane in the soft x-ray region of approximately 1 micron, and to achieve an effective solid collecting angle which is an appreciable fraction of the geometric solid collecting angle.

  20. An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Advanced Ultra-Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope P R O J E C T L E A D E R : Joseph); Steven Blankenship, Alan Band (NIST) G O A L To develop an ultra-high vacuum, ultra-low temperature, high of subpicometer stability and can operate in ultra-high vacuum at 10 mK, and in magnetic fields up to 15 T

  1. The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope in EMSL's Quiet Wing The Ultra-High Vacuum, Low-Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope in EMSL's Quiet Wing This is...

  2. Microscopic thermal diffusivity mapping using an infrared camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard flash thermal diffusivity measurements utilize a single-point infrared detector to measure the average temperature rise of the sample surface after a heat pulse. The averaging of infrared radiation over the sample surface could smear out the microscopic thermal diffusivity variations in some specimens, especially in fiber-reinforced composite materials. A high-speed, high-sensitivity infrared camera was employed in this study of composite materials. With a special microscope attachment, the spatial resolution of the camera can reach 5.4 {micro}m. The images can then be processed to generate microscopic thermal diffusivity maps of the material. SRM 1462 stainless steel was tested to evaluate the accuracy of the system. Thermal diffusivity micrographs of carbon-carbon composites and SCS-6/borosilicate glass were generated. Thermal diffusivity values of the carbon fiber bundles parallel to the heat flow were found to be higher than the matrix material. A thermal coupling effect between SCS-6 fiber and matrix was observed. The thermal coupling and measured thermal diffusivity value of the fiber were also dependent upon the thickness of the specimen.

  3. Investigation of Microscopic Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anlage, Steven [University of Maryland

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities is often limited by breakdown events below the intrinsic limiting surface fields of Nb, and there is abundant evidence that these breakdown events are localized in space inside the cavity. Also, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the causal links between surface treatments and ultimate RF performance at low temperatures. An understanding of these links would provide a clear roadmap for improvement of SRF cavity performance, and establish a cause-and-effect ‘RF materials science’ of Nb. We propose two specific microscopic approaches to addressing these issues. First is a spatially-resolved local microwave-microscope probe that operates at SRF frequencies and temperatures to discover the microscopic origins of breakdown, and produce quantitative measurements of RF critical fields of coatings and films. Second, RF Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has allowed visualization of RF current flow and sources of nonlinear RF response in superconducting devices with micro-meter spatial resolution. The LSM will be used in conjunction with surface preparation and characterization techniques to create definitive links between physical and chemical processing steps and ultimate cryogenic microwave performance. We propose to develop RF laser scanning microscopy of small-sample Nb pieces to establish surface-processing / RF performance relations through measurement of RF current distributions on micron-length scales and low temperatures.

  4. A next-generation EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A next-generation EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaginghigh-magnification all-EUV Fresnel zoneplate microscope, the

  5. Multimode AFM (Nanoscope) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and biomolecule structures at surfaces; and samples undergoing electrochemical and corrosion processes. Resolution ranges from the submicron-length scale (nanoscale) to the...

  6. Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging F Jamme1, 2 coupled to an infrared microscope allows imaging at the so-called diffraction limit. Thus, numerous infrared beamlines around the world have been developed for infrared chemical imaging. Infrared microscopes

  7. Hands-On and Minds-On Modeling Activities to Improve Students' Conceptions of Microscopic Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zollman, Dean

    Hands-On and Minds-On Modeling Activities to Improve Students' Conceptions of Microscopic Friction of microscopic friction. We will also present our investigation on the relative effectiveness of the use, it is possible to facilitate the refinement of students' ideas of microscopic friction. Keywords: friction

  8. Scanning Electron Microscope Image Signal-to-Noise Ratio Monitoring for Micro-Nanomanipulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Scanning Electron Microscope Image Signal-to-Noise Ratio Monitoring for Micro ROBOTEX (ANR-10-EQPX-44-01) projects. Key words: Scanning electron microscope, signal-to-noise ratio system, scanning electron microscope (SEM) performs an important role in autonomous micro

  9. An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm Kenneth lithography design rules. The proposed microscope features an array of user-selectable Fresnel zoneplate-EUV, Fresnel zoneplate microscope, the AIT has been in the vanguard of high-resolution EUV mask imaging

  10. Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Wal, Caspar H.

    Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport with 1 m spatial resolution. The microscope was designed to study spin transport, a critical issue-temperature optical microscope, elec- tromagnet and cryogenic cell with cold finger to measure continuous-wave cw

  11. Artificial Tribotactic Microscopic Walkers: Walking Based on Friction Gradients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steimel, Joshua P.

    Friction, the resistive force between two surfaces sliding past each other, is at the core of a wide diversity of locomotion schemes. While such schemes are well described for homogeneous environments, locomotion based on ...

  12. Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    points; Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses Section A Appendix 4 July 2011 4-3 d. a projectile print within or cutting the outer ring is 2 points; and e. a projectile...

  13. Prediction of vehicle impact forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  14. Prediction of vehicle impact forces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  15. Selection of higher eigenmode amplitude based on dissipated power and virial contrast in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Alfredo J.; Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Solares, Santiago D., E-mail: ssolares@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the effect of the amplitude ratio of the higher to the fundamental eigenmode in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the phase contrast and the dissipated power contrast of the higher eigenmode. We explore the optimization of the amplitude ratio in order to maximize the type of contrast that is most relevant to the particular study. Specifically, we show that the trends in the contrast range behave differently for different quantities, especially the dissipated power and the phase, with the former being more meaningful than the latter (a similar analysis can be carried out using the virial, for which we also provide a brief example). Our work is based on numerical simulations using two different conservative-dissipative tip-sample models, including the standard linear solid and the combination of a dissipation coefficient with a conservative model, as well as experimental images of thin film Nafion{sup ®} proton exchange polymers. We focus on the original bimodal AFM method, where the higher eigenmode is driven with constant amplitude and frequency (i.e., in “open loop”).

  16. The study of organic crystals by atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Ernest Ho Hin

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.10 AFM amplitude profile of ASA (001) under ambient conditions before and after contact with dicalcium phosphate. . . . . . . . 47 4.1 Picture of the Multimode AFM instrument with labelled parts. . 49 4.2 3-D height profile of a standard... List of Abbreviations AN Anthracene ANQ Anthraquinone API Active pharmaceutical ingredient ASA Aspirin ATR Attenuated total reflection BFDH Bravais-Friedel-Donnay-Harker model CSD Cambridge Structural Database DSC Differential scanning calorimetry DPI...

  17. Strong wind forcing of the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    latitudes, tropical storm force winds may be sufficient tolocation where hurricane force winds arrive at the region.shear data. The wind stress used to force these model was

  18. Observation of a single-beam gradient force acoustical trap for elastic particles: acoustical tweezers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baresch, Diego; Marchiano, Régis

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to manipulate matter precisely is critical for the study and development of a large variety of systems. Optical tweezers are excellent tools to handle particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers but become inefficient and damaging on larger objects. We demonstrate for the first reported time the trapping of elastic particles by the large gradient force of a single acoustical beam in three dimensions. We show that at equal power, acoustical forces overtake by 8 orders of magnitude that of optical ones on macroscopic objects. Acoustical tweezers can push, pull and accurately control both the position of the particle and the forces exerted under damage-free conditions. The large spectrum of frequencies covered by coherent ultrasonic sources will provide a wide variety of manipulation possibilities from macro- to microscopic length scales. We believe our observations improve the prospects for wider use of non-contact manipulation in biology, biophysics, microfluidics and...

  19. U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

  20. Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zihua Weng

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in the interplanetary space between the sun and the earth.

  1. Microscopic analysis of order parameters in nuclear quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Niksic, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes are studied using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. As a function of the physical control parameter, the number of nucleons, energy gaps between the ground state and the excited vibrational states with zero angular momentum, isomer shifts, and monopole transition strengths exhibit sharp discontinuities at neutron number N=90, which is characteristic of a first-order quantum phase transition.

  2. Relativistic Viscous Fluid Description of Microscopic Black Hole Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. I. Kapusta

    2001-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic black holes explode with their temperature varying inversely as their mass. Such explosions would lead to the highest temperatures in the present universe, all the way to the Planck energy. Whether or not a quasi-stationary shell of matter undergoing radial hydrodynamic expansion surrounds such black holes is been controversial. In this paper relativistic viscous fluid equations are applied to the problem. It is shown that a self-consistent picture emerges of a fluid just marginally kept in local thermal equilibrium; viscosity is a crucial element of the dynamics.

  3. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 ?m) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 ?m resolution over a 300 ?m field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 ?m field of view.

  4. A simple microscopic model for the dynamics of adhesive failure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominic Vella; L. Mahadevan

    2005-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a microscopic model for the failure of soft adhesives in tension based on ideas of bond rupture under dynamic loading. Focusing on adhesive failure under loading at constant velocity, we demonstrate that bi-modal curves of stress against strain may occur due to effects of finite polymer chain or bond length and characterise the loading conditions under which such bi-modal behaviour is observed. The results of this analysis are in qualitative agreement with experiments performed on unconfined adhesives in which failure does not occur by cavitation.

  5. Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despoja, Vito [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Echenique, Pedro M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Sunjic, Marijan [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

  6. Correlated density-dependent chiral forces for infinite matter calculations within the Green's function approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arianna Carbone; Arnau Rios; Artur Polls

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are investigated within an extended self-consistent Green's function method that includes the effects of three-body forces. We use the ladder approximation for the study of infinite nuclear matter and incorporate the three-body interaction by means of a density-dependent two-body force. This force is obtained via a correlated average over the third particle, with an in-medium propagator consistent with the many-body calculation we perform. We analyze different prescriptions in the construction of the average and conclude that correlations provide small modifications at the level of the density-dependent force. Microscopic as well as bulk properties are studied, focusing on the changes introduced by the density dependent two-body force. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sum rule. Our results validate previously used uncorrelated averages and extend the availability of chirally motivated forces to a larger density regime.

  7. Nuclear force in Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

  8. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  9. Forcing in Strategic Belief Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tohmè, Fernando; Gangle, Rocco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forcing is a methodology for building models of Set Theory satisfying certain properties. Since its inception by Paul Cohen, in the early 1960s, it has been applied to several areas in Mathematical Logic, becoming a powerful tool in the analysis of axiomatic systems. In this paper we extend the applicability of forcing to game-theoretic strategic belief models. In particular, we propose a very general notion of solutions for such games by enlarging Brandenburger's $RmAR$ condition via extension through generic types.

  10. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  11. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  12. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  13. October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

  14. Nanoscale Optical Devices: Force, Torque and Modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhancements produced by a bowtie (Butterworth Heinemann,stronger binding forces. For bowtie structures, the field

  15. WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

  16. Casimir Friction Force and Energy Dissipation for Moving Harmonic Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir friction problem for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion is analyzed, utilizing a microscopic model in which we start from statistical mechanics for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature moving nonrelativistically with constant velocity. The use of statistical mechanics in this context has in our opinion some definite advantages, in comparison with the more conventional quantum electrodynamic description of media that involves the use of a refractive index. The statistical-mechanical description is physical and direct, and the oscillator model, in spite of its simplicity, is nevertheless able to elucidate the essentials of the Casimir friction. As is known, there are diverging opinions about this kind of friction in the literature. Our treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory presented by us back in 1992. There we found a finite friction force at any finite temperature, whereas at zero temperature the model led to a zero force. As an additional development in the present paper we evaluate the energy dissipation making use of an exponential cutoff truncating the relative motion of the oscillators. For the dissipation we also establish a general expression that is not limited to the simple oscillator model.

  17. LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text

  18. Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cloutier, Sylvain G. (Newark, DE)

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

  19. Fully microscopic shell-model calculations with realistic effective hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Coraggio; A. Covello; A. Gargano; N. Itaco; T. T. S. Kuo

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory, as well as the so-called V-low-k approach to the renormalization of the strong short-range repulsion contained in the potentials, have brought renewed interest in realistic shell-model calculations. Here we focus on calculations where a fully microscopic approach is adopted. No phenomenological input is needed in these calculations, because single-particle energies, matrix elements of the two-body interaction, and matrix elements of the electromagnetic multipole operators are derived theoretically. This has been done within the framework of the time-dependent degenerate linked-diagram perturbation theory. We present results for some nuclei in different mass regions. These evidence the ability of realistic effective hamiltonians to provide an accurate description of nuclear structure properties.

  20. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

    2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  1. Pion-nucleus reactions in a microscopic transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Engel; W. Cassing; U. Mosel; M. Schäfer; Gy. Wolf

    1993-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse pion-nucleus reactions in a microscopic transport model of the BUU type, which propagates nucleons, pions, deltas and N(1440)-resonances explicitly in space and time. In particular we examine pion absorption and inelastic scattering cross sections for pion kinetic energies T(pi) =85-315MeV and various target masses. In general, the mass-dependence of the experimental data is well described for energies up to the delta-resonance (\\approx 160 MeV) while the absorption cross sections are somewhat overestimated for the higher energies. In addition we study the possible dynamical effects of delta- and pion-potentials in the medium on various observables as well as alternative models for the in-medium delta-width.

  2. Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Gao, Chen (Anhui, CN); Duewer, Fred (Albany, CA); Yang, Hai Tao (Albany, CA); Lu, Yalin (Chelmsford, MA)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

  3. Microscopic return point memory in Co/Pd multilayer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seu, K.A.; Su, R.; Roy, S.; Parks, D.; Shipton, E.; Fullerton, E.E.; Kevan, S.D.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report soft x-ray speckle metrology measurements of microscopic return point and complementary point memory in Co/Pd magnetic films having perpendicular anisotropy. We observe that the domains assemble into a common labyrinth phase with a period that varies by nearly a factor of two between initial reversal and fields near saturation. Unlike previous studies of similar systems, the ability of the film to reproduce its domain structure after magnetic cycling through saturation varies from loop to loop, from position to position on the sample, and with the part of the speckle pattern used in the metrology measurements. We report the distribution of memory as a function of field and discuss these results in terms of the reversal process.

  4. Level densities of nickel isotopes: microscopic theory versus experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bonett-Matiz; Abhishek Mukherjee; Y. Alhassid

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply a spin-projection method to calculate microscopically the level densities of a family of nickel isotopes $^{59-64}$Ni using the shell model Monte Carlo approach in the complete $pfg_{9/2}$ shell. Accurate ground-state energies of the odd-mass nickel isotopes, required for the determination of excitation energies, are determined using the Green's function method recently introduced to circumvent the odd particle-number sign problem. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent measurements based on proton evaporation spectra and with level counting data at low excitation energies. We also compare our results with neutron resonance data, assuming equilibration of parity and a spin-cutoff model for the spin distribution at the neutron binding energy, and find good agreement with the exception of $^{63}$Ni.

  5. Fully microscopic shell-model calculations with realistic effective hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coraggio, L; Gargano, A; Itaco, N; Kuo, T T S

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advent of nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory, as well as the so-called V-low-k approach to the renormalization of the strong short-range repulsion contained in the potentials, have brought renewed interest in realistic shell-model calculations. Here we focus on calculations where a fully microscopic approach is adopted. No phenomenological input is needed in these calculations, because single-particle energies, matrix elements of the two-body interaction, and matrix elements of the electromagnetic multipole operators are derived theoretically. This has been done within the framework of the time-dependent degenerate linked-diagram perturbation theory. We present results for some nuclei in different mass regions. These evidence the ability of realistic effective hamiltonians to provide an accurate description of nuclear structure properties.

  6. Microscopic structure of electrowetting-driven transitions on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staicu, A; Mugele, F

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate directly at the microscale the morphology of the electrowetting induced transition between the Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states for a water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface. Our experiments demonstrate that the transition originates in a very narrow annular region near the macroscopic contact line, which is first invaded by water and causes a thin film of air to be entrapped below. At high applied voltages, a growing fraction of microscopic air-pockets collapse, resulting in a partialWenzel state. Modulations in the intensity of the light reflected from individual micro-menisci clarify that the local contact angles near the filling transition are close to the usual advancing values for contact lines on smooth surfaces.

  7. Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commissioning an EUV mask microscope for lithographycurrent status of the tool commissioning and the performance1. INTRODUCTION We are now commissioning a new, synchrotron—

  8. Remote control of a scanning electron microscope aperture and gun alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cramer, Charles E.; Campchero, Robert J.

    2003-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a remote control system which through gear motors coupled to the scanning electron microscope (SEM) manual control knobs readily permits remote adjustments as necessary.

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF INTERGRANULAR FRACTURE IN AS-QUENCHED Fe-12Mn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, H.J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    contents in Fe-Mn alloys. Scanning electron fractographsTransactions HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPICof Califomia. HIGH RESOLUTION SCANNING AUGER MICROSCOPIC

  10. The Engineering of Optical Conservative Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Junjie; Ding, Kun; Du, Guiqiang; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T; Ng, Jack

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical forces have been fruitfully applied in a broad variety of areas that not only span the traditional scientific fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in more applied fields. It is customary and useful to split the optical force into the (conservative) gradient force and the (non-conservative) scattering and absorption force. These forces are different in attributes. The ability to tailor them will open great potential in fundamental optics and practical applications. Here, we present an analytical and a numerical approach to calculate these forces, and, with these tools, we create a fairly general class of 2D conservative optical force field. In general, particles immersed in an optical force do not obey equilibrium statistical mechanics, making the analysis complicated. With conservative forces, these issues are resolved.

  11. AFM and TEM study of cyclic slip localization in fatigued ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Man, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: man@ipm.cz; Petrenec, M. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Obrtlik, K. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic); Polak, J. [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, 616 62 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy were applied to the study of surface relief evolution at emerging persistent slip bands (PSBs) in individual grains of ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel cycled with constant plastic strain amplitude. Only the combination of both methods can reveal the true shape and fine details of extrusions and intrusions. Quantitative data on the changes of the surface topography of persistent slip markings and on the kinetics of extrusion growth during the fatigue life were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy of surface foils revealed PSBs with the typical, well-known ladder structure. Experimental data on cyclic slip localization in PSBs are compared with those in fcc metals and discussed in terms of vacancy models of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation.

  12. Experimental Free Energy Surface Reconstruction From Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy Using Jarzynski's Equality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan C. Harris; Yang Song; Ching-Hwa Kiang

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We used the atomic force microscope to manipulate and unfold individual molecules of the titin I27 domain and reconstructed its free energy surface using Jarzynski's equality. The free energy surface for both stretching and unfolding was reconstructed using an exact formula that relates the nonequilibrium work fluctuations to the molecular free energy. In addition, the unfolding free energy barrier, i.e. the activation energy, was directly obtained from experimental data for the first time. This work demonstrates that Jarzynski's equality can be used to analyze nonequilibrium single-molecule experiments, and to obtain the free energy surfaces for molecular systems, including interactions for which only nonequilibrium work can be measured.

  13. Centrifugal force in Kerr geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sai Iyer; A R Prasanna

    1992-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have obtained the correct expression for the centrifugal force acting on a particle at the equatorial circumference of a rotating body in the locally non-rotating frame of the Kerr geometry. Using this expression for the equilibrium of an element on the surface of a slowly rotating Maclaurin spheroid, we obtain the expression for the ellipticity (as discussed earlier by Abramowicz and Miller) and determine the radius at which the ellipticity is maximum.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Bovine Rhodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin: Possible Roles in Folding and Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    in rhodopsin but not in bacteriorhodopsin. This core may reflect differences in mechanisms of protein folding their adaptation to differing functions. Introduction Protein folding is one of the most challenging problems protein folding. For more than a decade, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has permitted the use of single

  15. PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 7, NO. 5, 2011 406 Electromagnetic Heat-induced in Meso-structures: Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , in the case of a bow-tie nanoantenna. The applications could be the development of nanodevices with thermal to this photo-thermal effect is modeled through a Finite Element Method (FEM). This contribu- tion consists]. The topics of in- terest were essentially the thermal radiations of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM

  16. Electronic desorption of alkyl monolayers from silicon by very highly charged ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -assembled alkyl monolayers SAM on Si 111 .13 AFM images of SAMs after exposure to Xe41 and Au63 show craters ions, like Xe41 and Th73 . Atomic force microscope images show craters from single ion impacts be used to modify surfaces at very low impact energies. Impact energies are limited by the image charge

  17. Hydrodynamic forces on piggyback pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, M.L.; Sayer, P. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing number of new offshore pipelines have been designed as bundles, mainly because of overall cost reductions. One popular way of combining two pipelines with different diameters is the piggyback configuration, with the smaller pipeline strapped on top of the main pipeline. The external hydrodynamic forces on this combination are at present very roughly estimated; pipeline engineers need more data to support their designs. This paper presents experimental results for the in-line hydrodynamic loading on three different piggyback set-ups. The models comprised a 0.4 m main pipeline, and three piggyback pipelines with diameters of 0.038 m, 0.059 m and 0.099 m. Each small pipeline was separately mounted to the main pipeline, with a gap equal to its own diameter. These model sizes lie approximately between half- and full-scale. Experiments were undertaken for K{sub C} between 5 and 42, and R{sub e} in the range 0.0 * 10{sup 4} to 8.5 * 10{sup 5}. The results based on Morison`s equation indicate that a simple addition of the separate forces acting on each cylinder underestimates the actual force by up to 35% at low K{sub C} (< {approximately} 10) and by as much as 100% in the drag-dominated regime (K{sub C} > {approximately} 20).

  18. Friction forces in cosmological models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

  19. On Dynamic Models of Robot Force Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppinger, Steven D.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For precise robot control, endpoint compliance strategies utilize feedback from a force sensor located near the tool/workpiece interface. Such endpoint force control systems have been observed in the laboratory to be ...

  20. Handheld force-controlled ultrasound probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An hand-held force controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact force between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand ...

  1. Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  2. Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Using a High Numerical Aperture Microscope Objective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Using a High Numerical Aperture Microscope Objective Bo Huang-5080 We designed, constructed, and tested a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) microscope using a high, combined with various methods to shorten the surface plasmon propaga- tion length, achieves diffraction

  3. Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Description and performance of a highly versatile, low-cost fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope C for publication 29 September 1995 A versatile fiber-optic confocal Raman microscope has been developed. Fiber and disadvantages.11,12 We report here the development of an automated highly versatile fiber-optic confocal Raman

  4. An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope for large scale imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pohl, Karsten

    An ultrahigh vacuum fast-scanning and variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope for large describe the design and performance of a fast-scanning, variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope of the scanner tube. The total scanning area is about 8 8 m2 . The sample temperature can be adjusted by a few

  5. Integrated micro-scanning tunneling microscope Y. Xu and N. C. MacDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    Integrated micro-scanning tunneling microscope Y. Xu and N. C. MacDonald School of Electrical of micro-scanning tunneling microscopes micro-STMs have been fabricated. The integrated micro metal conductor on a silicon chip. © 1995 American Institute of Physics. Scanned-probe instruments have

  6. Microfabricated rubber microscope using soft solid immersion lenses Yann Gambin, Olivier Legrand, and Stephen R. Quakea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Microfabricated rubber microscope using soft solid immersion lenses Yann Gambin, Olivier Legrand a technique of soft lithography to microfabricate efficient solid immersion lenses SIL out of rubber into a handheld rubber microscope for microfluidic flow cytometry and imaged single E. Coli cells by fluorescence

  7. Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics John involved in barrier crossing for protein folding are investigated in terms of the chain dynamics of the polymer backbone, completing the microscopic description of protein folding presented in the preceding

  8. Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection of biochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Oblique-incidence reflectivity difference microscope for label-free high-throughput detection (OI-RD) microscope, a form of polarization-modulated imaging ellipsometer, for label on the polarizer­ compensator­sample­analyzer scheme and under the off-null condition, a polarization-modulated OI

  9. Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface.

  10. Towards a Microscopic Reaction Description Based on Energy Density Functionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobre, G A; DIetrich, F S; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

    2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscopic calculation of reaction cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole excitations in the target and one-nucleon pickup channels. The particle-hole states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 144}Sm were described in a random-phase framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections obtained agree very well with experimental data and predictions of a state-of-the-art fitted optical potential. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the pickup channels contribute significantly. The effect of resonances from higher-order channels was assessed. Elastic angular distributions were also calculated within the same method, achieving good agreement with experimental data. For the first time observed absorptions are completely accounted for by explicit channel coupling, for incident energies between 10 and 70 MeV, with consistent angular distribution results.

  11. Photocathode Optimization for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, P; Flom, Z; Heinselman, K; Nguyen, T; Tung, S; Haskell, R; Reed, B W; LaGrange, T

    2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) team at Harvey Mudd College has been sponsored by LLNL to design and build a test setup for optimizing the performance of the DTEM's electron source. Unlike a traditional TEM, the DTEM achieves much faster exposure times by using photoemission from a photocathode to produce electrons for imaging. The DTEM team's work is motivated by the need to improve the coherence and current density of the electron cloud produced by the electron gun in order to increase the image resolution and contrast achievable by DTEM. The photoemission test setup is nearly complete and the team will soon complete baseline tests of electron gun performance. The photoemission laser and high voltage power supply have been repaired; the optics path for relaying the laser to the photocathode has been finalized, assembled, and aligned; the internal setup of the vacuum chamber has been finalized and mostly implemented; and system control, synchronization, and data acquisition has been implemented in LabVIEW. Immediate future work includes determining a consistent alignment procedure to place the laser waist on the photocathode, and taking baseline performance measurements of the tantalum photocathode. Future research will examine the performance of the electron gun as a function of the photoemission laser profile, the photocathode material, and the geometry and voltages of the accelerating and focusing components in the electron gun. This report presents the team's progress and outlines the work that remains.

  12. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); MacDonald, G.J. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)] [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1997-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  13. Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

  14. Modeling forces in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L. R.; Foster, M. W.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a simple model that uses computed shielding currents to determine the forces acting on a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The model has been applied to measurements of the force between HTS and permanent magnets (PM). Results show the expected hysteretic variation of force as the HTS moves first toward and then away from a permanent magnet, including the reversal of the sign of the force. Optimization of the shielding currents is carried out through a simulated annealing algorithm in a C++ program that repeatedly calls a commercial electromagnetic software code. Agreement with measured forces is encouraging.

  15. Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical. Description: We are looking for a qualified candidate to join our team at the Air Force Research Laboratory

  16. Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;Wood Fuel Task Force Response | 3 Wood Fuel Task Force Response Scottish Government response by Minister for Environment, Michael Russell I am pleased to present on behalf of the Scottish Government our response to the Wood Fuel

  17. Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

  18. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure constant alpha.

  19. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility...

  20. Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    security force-on-force performance tests and exercises. Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 More Documents & Publications...

  1. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  2. Dark Forces At The Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

  3. Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffas, Telly Stelianos

    2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

  4. The scanning electron microscope as an accelerator for the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Randolph S.

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator ...

  5. A New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High Pressure and High Temperature Catalysis Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Feng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bowl glued at the end of the scanning tube. The arrowbowl at the end of the scanning tube. FIG. 6. (a) STM imageA New Scanning Tunneling Microscope Reactor Used for High

  6. Developing a methodology to account for commercial motor vehicles using microscopic traffic simulation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Grant George

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    with an increased availability of CMV data. The primary sources of these data are automatic vehicle classification (AVC) and weigh-in-motion (WIM). Microscopic traffic simulation models have been used extensively to model the dynamic and stochastic nature...

  7. A microscopically motivated constitutive model for shape memory alloys: formulation, analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen (RWTH)

    A microscopically motivated constitutive model for shape memory alloys: formulation, analysisTi polycrystalline shape memory alloys exhibiting transformations between three solid phases (austenite, R presented. 1 Introduction Shape memory alloys (SMA) are metallic materials exhibiting remarkable properties

  8. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Dazhi

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, ...

  9. Interference-based Investigation of Microscopic Objects Near Surfaces: a View From Below

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras Naranjo, Jose Clemente

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenomena occurring when microscopic objects approach planar surfaces are challenging to probe directly because their dynamics cannot be resolved with a sufficiently high spatial/temporal resolution in a non-invasive way, and suitable techniques...

  10. MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN INTERFEROMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinsch, Klaus

    MONITORING OF SALT-INDUCED DEFORMATIONS IN POROUS SYSTEMS BY MICROSCOPIC SPECKLE PATTERN porosity distribution, and its negligible humidity expansion. The glass sam- ples, soaked with salt: electronic speckle pattern interferometry, deformation measurement, salt crys- tallization, phase transition

  11. Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and electric polarization in a single-phase material. The control of the magnetic of the two interactions. Moderate biaxial compression precipitates local magnetic competition

  12. Fast Computation of Optimal Contact Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    and force optimization for the legs of a quadruped robot [21]. Some experimental ... Applications that involve the solution of many FOPs, such as finding the ...

  13. Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

  14. Nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this lecture series, I present the recent progress in our understanding of nuclear forces in terms of chiral effective field theory.

  15. Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  16. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  17. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Esquivel-Sirvent

    2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  18. Few-nucleon forces from chiral Lagrangians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Kolck, U. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few-nucleon forces are considered from the point of view of effective chiral Lagrangians. It is argued that such forces naturally arise at the same order in chiral perturbation theory as some important features of the two-nucleon force. In particular, the leading few-nucleon forces cancel against the leading recoil correction in the iteration of the two-body potential. The remaining three-body potential is presented in momentum and coordinate spaces. It is dominated by contributions of the delta isobar of (i) two-pion range, which are not new, and (ii) shorter range, which involve an undetermined parameter.

  19. Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ATTACHMENT Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force Judith F. English, Mae Y. Cundiff of civilian populations not recommended. 3. Infection Control Practices for Patient Management Symptomatic

  20. Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

  1. Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

  2. Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

  3. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  4. On Dual Configurational Forces SHAOFAN LIj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    they provide the dual energy­momentum tensor. Some previously unknown and yet interesting results in elasticity the configuration force (energy­momentum tensor) P and the dual configuration force (dual energy­momentum tensor) L energy­ momentum tensor (referred to as the dual energy­momentum tensor in this j Corresponding author

  5. Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard General of the Air Force/Army

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard O-10 General of the Air Force/Army (Reserved Corps Navy & Coast Guard WarrantOfficers No Warrant Officer Rank Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer 5 Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard E-9 Chief Master Sergeant of the Air

  6. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  7. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  8. Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5forces (using a multi-segmented force transducer) and the underlying kinematics (using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) at different elevations throughout the crest to trough region were measured during the tests. The measured wave forces at different elevations have been interpreted using the Morison equation to determine experimental values of force coefficients C{sub D} and C{sub M}. The results in hand suggest that both C{sub D} and C{sub M} values in the splash zone are higher and exhibit a mild frequency dependence in comparison with their corresponding counterparts for the fully submerged segments. For weakly nonlinear waves (H/{lambda}<0.1) only wave fluctuation is found to be important and any mild nonlinearities do not significantly affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1force response, producing ringing effects in conducive conditions.

  9. Observation of a single-beam gradient force acoustical trap for elastic particles: acoustical tweezers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego Baresch; Jean-Louis Thomas; Régis Marchiano

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to manipulate matter precisely is critical for the study and development of a large variety of systems. Optical tweezers are excellent tools to handle particles ranging in size from a few micrometers to hundreds of nanometers but become inefficient and damaging on larger objects. We demonstrate for the first reported time the trapping of elastic particles by the large gradient force of a single acoustical beam in three dimensions. We show that at equal power, acoustical forces overtake by 8 orders of magnitude that of optical ones on macroscopic objects. Acoustical tweezers can push, pull and accurately control both the position of the particle and the forces exerted under damage-free conditions. The large spectrum of frequencies covered by coherent ultrasonic sources will provide a wide variety of manipulation possibilities from macro- to microscopic length scales. We believe our observations improve the prospects for wider use of non-contact manipulation in biology, biophysics, microfluidics and robotics and bridge the gap that had remained to the macroscopic scale.

  10. Strong, Tough Ceramics Containing Microscopic Reinforcements: Tailoring In-Situ Reinforced Silicon Nitride Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becher, P.F.

    1999-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramics with their hardness, chemical stability, and refractoriness could be used to design more efficient energy generation and conversion systems as well as numerous other applications. However, we have needed to develop a fundamental understanding of how to tailor ceramics to improve their performance, especially to overcome their brittle nature. One of the advances in this respect was the incorporation of very strong microscopic rod-like reinforcements in the form of whiskers that serve to hold the ceramic together making it tougher and resistant to fracture. This microscopic reinforcement approach has a number of features that are similar to continuous fiber-reinforced ceramics; however, some of the details are modified. For instance, the strengths of the microscopic reinforcements must be higher as they typically have much stronger interfaces. For instance, single crystal silicon carbide whiskers can have tensile strengths in excess of {ge}7 GPa or >2 times that of continuous fibers. Furthermore, reinforcement pullout is limited to lengths of a few microns in the case of microscopic reinforcement due as much to the higher interfacial shear resistance as to the limit of the reinforcement lengths. On the other hand, the microscopic reinforcement approach can be generated in-situ during the processing of ceramics. A remarkable example of this is found in silicon nitride ceramics where elongated rod-like shape grains can be formed when the ceramic is fired at elevated temperatures to form a dense component.

  11. A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan Self-Defense Forces (SDF). Along with the new NDPG,set a direction for the SDF in the post-9/11 inter- nationalsituation also requires the SDF take on these “dynamic”

  12. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was used for the dredging test...

  13. Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Laurence

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

  14. Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad Mohammad Mahdian Ebad S. Mahmoodian Amin Saberi§ Bardia, USA. (saberi@cc.gatech.edu) ¶ Department of Computer Science, UIUC, Urbana, USA. (sadri@cs.uiuc.edu) 1

  15. Interfacial forces in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Dedy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for planarization. The process takes place at the interface of a substrate, a polishing pad, and an abrasive containing slurry. This synergetic process involves several forces in multi-length scales and multi-mechanisms. This research contributes fundamental...

  16. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  17. Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal

    We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable ...

  18. Clinch River MRS Task Force Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clinch River HRS Task Force was appointed in July 1985 by the Roane County Executive and the Oak Ridge City Council to evaluate the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility proposed by the...

  19. Casimir forces in the time domain: Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steven G.

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012115 (2009)] introduced a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials that was based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. In ...

  20. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was ...

  1. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  2. Agencies Approve Bacteria TMDL Task Force Recommendations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 10 In June 2007 the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) and the TexasState Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSW- CB) approved the recommendations of the Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force and asked... their agencies to update their TMDL guidance documents to reflect these recommendations. They also authorized establishing a multi-agency bacteria TMDL work group to examine the research and development needs identified in the task force report. Both TCEQ...

  3. Calculation of rotordynamic forces on labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensel, Steve John

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis STEVE JOHN HENSEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by STEVE JOHN HENSEL Approved as to style snd content by: David Rhode (Chairman of Committee) Erian Baskharone Leel and Garison (Member) +, gg, W. D...

  4. Transmission-mode imaging in the environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staniewicz, Lech Thomas Leif

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    to convert mov- ing electrons into visible light or by photographic plates for image recording. This type of electron microscope has been retrospectively called a transmis- sion electron microscope, or TEM - this is in contrast to other methods of electron... -built devices, but they are not used in SEMs and as such will not be detailed here. 1.2.3 Electron Sources There are two main types of electron sources - thermionic and field-emission. They differ in the manner by which they produce free electrons - thermionic...

  5. Electron microscope studies. Progress report, 1 July 1964--1 June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a report covering the research performed in the Crewe laboratory between 1964 and 1992. Because of limitations of space we have provided relatively brief summaries of the major research directions of the facility during these years. A complete bibliography has been included and we have referenced groups of pertinent publications at the beginning of each section. This report summarizes our efforts to develop better electron microscopes and chronicles many of the experimental programs, in materials science and biology, that acted both as a stimulus to better microscope design and also as a testing ground for many instrumental innovations.

  6. Interference-based Investigation of Microscopic Objects Near Surfaces: a View From Below 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras Naranjo, Jose Clemente

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    in the following. 13 2.3.1 Measurement of RICM set-up parameters Light coming through the objective illuminates the focal area with a cone of light, ???? (as measured on the glass side), given by the size of the aperture stop in the microscope....17 aperture where the top inset shows the illumination cone as seen in air. 14 2.3.2 Scale factor between simulated and experimental intensities Prior to observing the specimens under the microscope, a scale factor between experimental and simulated...

  7. Note: Long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J., E-mail: aday.molina@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, José G.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Zant, Herre S. J. van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, Nicolás [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain) [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

  8. Noncontact atomic force microscopy simulator with phase-locked-loop controlled frequency detection and excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nony, L; Schaer, D; Pfeiffer, O; Wezel, A; Meyer, E; Nony, Laurent; Baratoff, Alexis Prof.; Schaer, Dominique; Pfeiffer, Oliver; Wezel, Adrian; Meyer, Ernst

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simulation of an atomic force microscope operating in the constant amplitude dynamic mode is described. The implementation mimics the electronics of a real setup including a digital phase-locked loop (PLL). The PLL is not only used as a very sensitive frequency detector, but also to generate the time-dependent phase shifted signal driving the cantilever. The optimum adjustments of individual functional blocks and their joint performance in typical experiments are determined in detail. Prior to testing the complete setup, the performances of the numerical PLL and of the amplitude controller were ascertained to be satisfactory compared to those of the real components. Attention is also focused on the issue of apparent dissipation, that is, of spurious variations in the driving amplitude caused by the nonlinear interaction occurring between the tip and the surface and by the finite response times of the various controllers. To do so, an estimate of the minimum dissipated energy that is detectable by the instru...

  9. Density-dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction from three-nucleon forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovato, Alessandro [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Benhar, Omar [INFN, Sezione di Roma, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita 'La Sapienza', I-00185 Roma (Italy); Fantoni, Stefano [SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); CNR-DEMOCRITOS National Supercomputing Center, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Illarionov, Alexey Yu. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Schmidt, Kevin E. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microscopic calculations based on realistic nuclear Hamiltonians, while yielding accurate results for the energies of the ground and low-lying excited states of nuclei with A{<=}12, fail to reproduce the empirical equilibrium properties of nuclear matter, that are known to be significantly affected by three-nucleon forces. We discuss a scheme suitable to construct a density-dependent two-nucleon potential, in which the effects of n-particle interactions can be included by integrating out the degrees of freedom of (n-2) nucleons. Our approach, based on the formalism of correlated basis function and state-of-the-art models of the two- and three-nucleon potentials, leads to an effective interaction that can be easily employed in nuclear matter calculations, yielding results in good agreement with those obtained from the underlying three-body potential.

  10. A functional approach to quantum friction: effective action and dissipative force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Belén Farías; César D. Fosco; Fernando C. Lombardo; Francisco D. Mazzitelli; Adrián E. Rubio López

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Casimir friction due to the relative, uniform, lateral motion of two parallel semitransparent mirrors coupled to a vacuum real scalar field, $\\phi$. We follow a functional approach, whereby nonlocal terms in the action for $\\phi$, concentrated on the mirrors' locii, appear after functional integration of the microscopic degrees of freedom. This action for $\\phi$, which incorporates the relevant properties of the mirrors, is then used as the starting point for two complementary evaluations: Firstly, we calculate the { in-out} effective action for the system, which develops an imaginary part, hence a non-vanishing probability for the decay (because of friction) of the initial vacuum state. Secondly, we evaluate another observable: the vacuum expectation value of the frictional force, using the { in-in} or Closed Time Path formalism. Explicit results are presented for zero-width mirrors and half-spaces, in a model where the microscopic degrees of freedom at the mirrors are a set of identical quantum harmonic oscillators, linearly coupled to $\\phi$

  11. Long-range forces and the collisions of free-molecular and transition regime aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlow, W.H.

    1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerosol here is understood to be a two-component system comprised of gaseous and condensed phases with the characteristic that the condensed phase is not an equilibrium subsystem. In contrast to the usual definitions based upon geometrical or mechanical variables, this quasi-thermodynamic formulation is framed to emphasize the dynamical behavior of aerosols by allowing for coagulation and other aerosol evolutionary processes as natural consequences of the interactions and state variables appropriate to the system. As will become clear later, it also provides a point of departure for distinguishing aerosol particles from unstable gas-phase cluster systems. The question of accommodation in particle collisions must be addressed as a prelude to the discussion of the role of long-range forces. Microscopic reversibility is frequently assumed for molecular collisions with either molecules or solid surfaces. In the case of aerosol collisions, the implication of this assumption is that collisions are elastic, which is contrary to the evidence from coagulation experiments and the conventional operational assumption of sticking upon collision. Gay and Berne have performed computer simulations of the collision of two clusters consisting of a total of 135 molecules interacting via Lennard-Jones potentials. That work showed that complete accommodation, accompanied by overall heating of the unified cluster, occurred. Since heating represents an irreversible degradation of the kinetic energy of the collision, the hamiltonian of the two-cluster system should be considered as dissipative and therefore microscopic reversibility does not apply.

  12. High-throughput scanning confocal microscope for single molecule Chandran R. Sabanayagam, John S. Eid, and Amit Mellera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meller, Amit

    High-throughput scanning confocal microscope for single molecule analysis Chandran R. Sabanayagam and probing of single molecules, and an automatic focusing feature that enables the unattended scanning

  13. Zipping mechanism for force-generation by growing filament bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Kuehne; Reinhard Lipowsky; Jan Kierfeld

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the force generation by polymerizing bundles of filaments, which form because of short-range attractive filament interactions. We show that bundles can generate forces by a zipping mechanism, which is not limited by buckling and operates in the fully buckled state. The critical zipping force, i.e. the maximal force that a bundle can generate, is given by the adhesive energy gained during bundle formation. For opposing forces larger than the critical zipping force, bundles undergo a force-induced unbinding transition. For larger bundles, the critical zipping force depends on the initial configuration of the bundles. Our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

  15. Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Testimony of James Ownedoff, Acting...

  16. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Fact sheet...

  17. 6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahn, Markus, 1946-

    Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

  18. Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology August 12,...

  19. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience This report sumarizes early...

  20. Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop Cyber Security Requirements for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to...

  1. Nanometer-scale electrochemical patterning of LiMn2O4 surfaces by an atomic force microscope operating in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostecki, Robert; Bonhomme, Frederic; Servant, Laurent; Argoul, Francoise; McLarnon, Frank

    2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical nanometer-scale patterning of the surface of a conducting lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) was studied. The ability to produce nanometer-size patterns of chemically modified oxide or nanometer-sized alterations of the oxide morphology is demonstrated and discussed with reference to possible mechanisms. It is demonstrated that unlike the SPM-based surface oxidation of metals and semiconductors, the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface is altered via electrochemically generated species. We show that a localized surface chemical change can be confined to a depth which depends on the oxide-tip voltage difference and ambient humidity. In situ Raman microscopy measurements of localized electrochemical reaction products suggest complex mechanisms of processes induced at the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface, such as delithiation through Li-proton exchange and disproportionation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} to MnO{sub 2} and soluble Mn{sup 2+} species.

  2. Reaction-Diffusion systems for the microscopic cellular model of the cardiac electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veneroni, Marco

    Reaction-Diffusion systems for the microscopic cellular model of the cardiac electric field Marco-diffusion systems arising from the math- ematical models of the electric activity of cardiac ventricular cells Veneroni Abstract. The paper deals with a mathematical model for the electric activity of the heart

  3. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes Patrick P. Naulleau,* Iacopo Mochi, and Kenneth A. Goldberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized methodology to analyze zoneplate micro- scopes based on commercially available optical modeling software-field soft-x-ray microscopes rou- tinely used in the synchrotron community. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. Semi-Automated Reconstruction of Vascular Networks in Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope Mouse Brain Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dileepkumar, Ananth

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The KnifeEdge Scanning Microscope (KESM) enables imaging of an entire mouse brain at sub-micrometer resolution. The data from KESM can be used in the reconstruction of neuronal and vascular structures in the mouse brain. Tracing the vascular network...

  5. Calibration of Scanning Electron Microscope using a multi-image non-linear minimization process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Calibration of Scanning Electron Microscope using a multi-image non-linear minimization process Le Cui1 and Eric Marchand2 Abstract-- In this paper, a novel approach of SEM calibration based on non-linear minimization process is presented. The SEM calibration for the intrinsic parameters are achieved

  6. Microscopic description of nuclear fission (*) J.-F. Berger, M. Girod and D. Gogny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-509 Microscopic description of nuclear fission (*) J.-F. Berger, M. Girod and D. Gogny Service de'une description complètement microscopique du noyau, nous tentons d'interpréter la fission du noyau 240Pu en of the nucleus, we try to extract the characteristic features of the collective dynamics of the fission

  7. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berggren, Karl K.

    The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern

  8. SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE Operating Instructions On How To Get Atomic Resolution Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE Operating Instructions On How To Get Atomic Resolution Images Do: STM Set-Up: Use either a scanning tip from the tip wire box (skip to the "While holding the tip wire a 45-degree cut on one end of the tip wire, which becomes the scanning tip. Hold the tip wire

  9. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the basis of the oceanic food web the surface, corals and other deepwater OIL AND HUMAN USE Wellhead CORALS · Coral surveys · Tissue collections · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment sampling AQUATIC VEGETATION

  10. Microscopic Conductivity of Lattice Fermions at Equilibrium Part II: Interacting Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and in presence of an electric field that is time­ and space­dependent. We verify the 1st law of thermodynamics with respect to the size of the (microscopic) region where the electric field is applied. An important outcome . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2 CAR C ­Algebra of the Infinite Lattice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Banach Space of Short

  11. Microscopic mechanism of the noncrystalline anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vyborny, Karel; Kucera, Jan; Sinova, Jairo; Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with a microscopic model based on the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian and kinetic p-d exchange combined with Boltzmann formula for conductivity we identify the scattering from magnetic Mn combined with the strong spin-orbit interaction of the Ga...

  12. Microscopic Description of the Exotic Nuclei Reactions by Using Folding model Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibraheem, Awad A. [Physics Department, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut 71524 (Egypt); Physics Department, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Hassanain, M. A. [Physics Department, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Sciences Department, New-Valley Faculty of Education, Assiut University, El-Kharga, New-Valley (Egypt); Mokhtar, S. R.; El-Azab Farid, M. [Physics Department, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Zaki, M. A. [Physics Department, South-Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M. [Sciences Department, New-Valley Faculty of Education, Assiut University, El-Kharga, New-Valley (Egypt)

    2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscopic folding approach based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear matter densities of the interacting nuclei has been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering reaction at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The corresponding reaction cross sections are also considered.

  13. Macromolecules 1996,28, 5819-5826 6819 Microscopic Theory of Chain Pullout in Amorphous Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Philip L.

    Macromolecules 1996,28, 5819-5826 6819 Microscopic Theory of Chain Pullout in Amorphous Polymers T: The statistical-mechanical problem of chain pullout from an amorphous polymer under the influence of a constant in both polymer glasses and elastomeric materials from a single point of view. A mean-field approximation

  14. Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a MachZehnder interferometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a Mach­Zehnder interferometer Andrew Ahn, Changhuei Yang S. Feld Harmonic phase-dispersion microscopy (PDM) is a new imaging technique in which contrast is provided by differences in refractive index at two harmonically related wavelengths. We report a new

  15. Microscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Ian

    the sys- tems in question. An example of a practical problem is the behavior of steam in turbines, whereMicroscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation? Hoi Yu water droplets produced through condensation in the transition from dry to wet steam can lead

  16. Serial and parallel Si, Ge, and SiGe direct-write with scanning probes and conducting stamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasko, Stephanie E.; Kapetanovic, Adnan; Talla, Vamsi; Brasino, Michael D.; Zhu, Zihua; Scholl, Andreas; Torrey, Jessica D.; Rolandi, Marco

    2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise materials integration in nanostructures is fundamental for future electronic and photonic devices. We demonstrate Si, Ge, and SiGe nanostructure direct-write with deterministic size, geometry, and placement control. The biased probe of an atomic force microscope (AFM) reacts diphenylsilane or diphenylgermane to direct-write carbon-free Si, Ge, and SiGe nano and heterostructures. Parallel directwrite is available on large areas by substituting the AFM probe with conducting microstructured stamps. This facile strategy can be easily expanded to a broad variety of semiconductor materials through precursor selection.

  17. Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces. On the rugose rock surfaces of wave-swept shores, interactions between substratum topography and wave-induced flow may create such a spatially variable environment. Topography Numerous investigators have explored

  18. Structural Dynamics The spring force is given by and F(t) is the driving force.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veress, Alexander

    by dry or Coulomb friction between rigid bodies, by internal friction between molecules within/displacement curve. #12;All vibrations are damped to some degree by friction forces. These forces may be caused a deformable body, or by fluid friction when a body moves in a fluid. These result in natural circular

  19. Estimation of Contact Forces using a Virtual Force Sensor Emanuele Magrini Fabrizio Flacco Alessandro De Luca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    the exchanged Cartesian forces; 4) control the robot to react according to a desired behavior. Different model Alessandro De Luca Abstract-- Physical human-robot collaboration is character- ized by a suitable exchange of contact forces between human and robot, which can occur in general at any point along the robot structure

  20. A noise inequality for classical forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvir Kafri; J. M. Taylor

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lorentz invariance requires local interactions, with force laws such as the Coulomb interaction arising via virtual exchange of force carriers such as photons. Many have considered the possibility that, at long distances or large mass scales, this process changes in some way to lead to classical behavior. Here we hypothesize that classical behavior could be due to an inability of some force carriers to convey entanglement, a characteristic measure of nonlocal, quantum behavior. We then prove that there exists a local test that allows one to verify entanglement generation, falsifying our hypothesis. Crucially, we show that noise measurements can directly verify entanglement generation. This provides a step forward for a wide variety of experimental systems where traditional entanglement tests are challenging, including entanglement generation by gravity alone between macroscopic torsional oscillators.

  1. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  2. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

  3. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  4. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  5. Conference Discussion of the Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz Gross,Thomas D. Cohen,Evgeny Epelbaum,R. Machleidt

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussion of the nuclear force, lead by a round table consisting of T. Cohen, E. Epelbaum, R. Machleidt, and F. Gross (chair). After an invited talk by Machleidt, published elsewhere in these proceedings, brief remarks are made by Epelbaum, Cohen, and Gross, followed by discussion from the floor moderated by the chair. The chair asked the round table and the participants to focus on the following issues: (1)What does each approach (chiral effective field theory, large Nc, and relativistic phenomenology) contribute to our knowledge of the nuclear force? Do we need them all? Is any one transcendent? (2) How important for applications (few body, nuclear structure, EMC effect, for example) are precise fits to the NN data below 350 MeV? How precise do these fits have to be? (3) Can we learn anything about nonperturbative QCD from these studies of the nuclear force? The discussion presented here is based on a video recording made at the conference and transcribed afterward.

  6. Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic descriptions and their relationship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubicza, Jenõ

    Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic The room temperature macroscopic and microscopic plastic behavior of four face-centered cubic metals (Al dislocations during plastic flow. It is shown that forest dislocations develop primarily due to interaction

  7. Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

  8. Modulational instability in wind-forced waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunetti, Maura

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion, in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared.

  9. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing Hongjun Gao and Jinqiao Duan ¡ 1 external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model

  10. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing Hongjun Gao 1 and Jinqiao Duan 2 1 external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model

  11. NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian University-980) to include net forces in the mechanisms. Net forces are theoretically required to describe earthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even

  12. FINAL REPORT FOR DE-FG02-03ER46071 ENTITLED, "UNDERSTANDING FOAM RHEOLOGY FROM THE MICROSCOPIC TO THE MACROSCOPIC SCALE"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Dennin

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This research effort is focused on understanding the mechanical response of foams, and other complex fluids, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. The research uses a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of gas bubbles with liquid walls that float on a water surface. The work involves studies of the macroscopic response of foam under various conditions of external forcing, mesoscopic studies of bubble motion, and systematic variations of the microscopic details of the system. In addition to characterizing the specific properties of the bubble raft, a second aim of the research is to provide experimental tests of various general theories that have recently been developed to characterize complex fluids. Primarily, the focus is on testing the proposed jamming phase diagram paradigm. This paradigm suggests that a general â??jammedâ? state of matter exists and is common to a wide range of systems, including foam, colloids, granular matter, glasses, and emulsions. Therefore,we have extended our research in two directions. First, we have included studies of plastic bead rafts. These are systems of plastic beads floating on the air-water interface. The advantage of plastic beads is that they do not pop, so they can be studied for the much longer periods of time required to measure the slow dynamics associated with the jammed state. Also, they allow us to explore a different density regime than the bubbles. Second, to better understand the role of defects in jamming behavior, we have done a few experiments on the impact of defects on domain growth.

  13. A diamond-based scanning probe spin sensor operating at low temperature in ultra-high vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer-Nolte, E.; Wrachtrup, J. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); 3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Reinhard, F. [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ternes, M., E-mail: m.ternes@fkf.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condenseé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) low temperature scanning probe microscope employing the nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond as an ultrasensitive magnetic field sensor. Using this center as an atomic-size scanning probe has enabled imaging of nanoscale magnetic fields and single spins under ambient conditions. In this article we describe an experimental setup to operate this sensor in a cryogenic UHV environment. This will extend the applicability to a variety of molecular systems due to the enhanced target spin lifetimes at low temperature and the controlled sample preparation under UHV conditions. The instrument combines a tuning-fork based atomic force microscope (AFM) with a high numeric aperture confocal microscope and the facilities for application of radio-frequency (RF) fields for spin manipulation. We verify a sample temperature of <50 K even for strong laser and RF excitation and demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging with a magnetic AFM tip.

  14. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule.

  15. Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule. 6 figs.

  16. Characterization of acoustically forced swirl flame dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    of the flame to acoustic excitation is required. This study presents an analysis of phase-locked OH PLIF images of acoustically excited swirl flames, to identify the key controlling physical processes and qualitatively discuss, and whose relative significance depends upon forcing frequency, amplitude of excitation, and flame

  17. Self-force approach for radiation reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lior M. Burko

    1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We overview the recently proposed mode-sum regularization prescription (MSRP) for the calculation of the local radiation-reaction forces, which are crucial for the orbital evolution of binaries. We then describe some new results which were obtained using MSRP, and discuss their importance for gravitational-wave astronomy.

  18. Columbia University Network Integration Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    Columbia University Network Integration Task Force Final Report II 30 January 1992 #12;1 TOWARDS A COMMON ADMINISTRATIVE AND ACADEMIC NETWORK AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Columbia University's Administrative or terminal. 1.2. Executive Summary This report examines Columbia University's current academic

  19. U.S.Air Force Advanced Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tractor · Robins AFB H2 Fuel Cell Forklift/Toolcat · Fisher-Tropsch Synthetic FuelTest · Robins E-85 Effort · Solar - Electric Drive U.S.Air Force Advanced PowerTechnology Office Our Customers TheWarfighter Homeland Defense RefuelerFuel Cell MB-4Fuel Cell Microgrid Hydrogen Refueling Station Renewable Wind Power Renewable Solar

  20. Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    . For a more comprehensive report of the findings as well as faculty suggestions for maintaining integrity1 Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary 11/22/11 INTRODUCTION CHARGE: To determine whether there is an issue with academic integrity at UF and, if so, to determine how widespread

  1. Dean's Task Force on Engineering Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean's Task Force on Engineering Leadership Education Final Report May 5, 2010 Doug Reeve (Chair, Membership 1. There is an Urgent Need for Engineering Le 2. Leadership Education ...8 Engineering Leaders. Capability and Compe Engineering Leadership 5 Curriculum Concepts Co-curricular Concepts Extra

  2. Galileon forces in the Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

  3. Chiral effective field theory and nuclear forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field.

  4. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  5. Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom by George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Bulbs for Indoor Bloom George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardener, Fairfax County, VA Introduction Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter

  6. Open Access Task Force Open Access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Libraries Initiative launched by National Science Foundation; Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN Library System rgmiller@pitt.edu #12;Open Access Task Force Open Access is... · A family of copyright · The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain

  7. Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

  8. Chiral lagrangians and few-nucleon forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Kolck, U. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the implications of chiral symmetry to nuclear forces are considered. The few-nucleon potential is shown to be naturally weaker than the leading pieces of the two-nucleon potential, but comparable to other important features of the latter. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  9. Comparison of direct current and 50?Hz alternating current microscopic corona characteristics on conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuai, E-mail: zhangshuai94@gmail.com; Zhang, Bo, E-mail: shizbcn@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; He, Jinliang, E-mail: hejl@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Power Systems, and Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Corona discharge is one of the major design factors for extra-high voltage and ultra-high voltage DC/AC transmission lines. Under different voltages, corona discharge reveals different characteristics. This paper aims at investigating DC and AC coronas on the microscopic scale. To obtain the specific characteristics of DC and AC coronas, a new measurement approach that utilizes a coaxial wire-cylinder corona cage is designed in this paper, and wires of different diameters are used in the experiment. Based on the measurements, the respective microscopic characteristics of DC and AC coronas are analyzed and compared. With differences in characteristics between DC and AC coronas proposed, this study provides useful insights into DC/AC corona discharges on transmission line applications.

  10. Visualization of microcrack anisotropy in granite affected by afault zone, using confocal laser scanning microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onishi, Celia T.; Shimizu, Ichiko

    2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Brittle deformation in granite can generate a fracture system with different patterns. Detailed fracture analyses at both macroscopic and microscopic scales, together with physical property data from a drill-core, are used to classify the effects of reverse fault deformation in four domains: (1) undeformed granite, (2) fractured granite with cataclastic seams, (3) fractured granite from the damage zone, and (4) foliated cataclasite from the core of the fault. Intact samples from two orthogonal directions, horizontal (H) and vertical (V), from the four domains indicate a developing fracture anisotropy toward the fault, which is highly developed in the damage zone. As a specific illustration of this phenomenon, resin impregnation, using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) technique is applied to visualize the fracture anisotropy developed in the Toki Granite, Japan. As a result, microcrack networks have been observed to develop in H sections and elongate open cracks in V sections, suggesting that flow pathways can be determined by deformation.

  11. Microscopic Description of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering off Spin-0 Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Liuti; S. K. Taneja

    2005-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate within a microscopic calculation the contributions of both coherent and incoherent deeply virtual Compton scattering from a spin-0 nucleus. The coherent contribution is obtained when the target nucleus recoils as a whole, whereas for incoherent scattering break-up configurations for the final nucleus into a an outgoing nucleon and an $A-1$ system are considered. The two processes encode different characteristics of generalized parton distributions.

  12. Compton scattering on the nucleon at intermediate energies and polarizabilities in a microscopic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Kondratyuk; O. Scholten

    2001-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A microscopic calculation of Compton scattering on the nucleon is presented which encompasses the lowest energies -- yielding nucleon polarizabilities -- and extends to energies of the order of 600 MeV. We have used the covariant "Dressed K-Matrix Model" obeying the symmetry properties which are appropriate in the different energy regimes. In particular, crossing symmetry, gauge invariance and unitarity are satisfied. The extent of violation of analyticity (causality) is used as an expansion parameter.

  13. Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope Mouse Brain Atlas In Vector Graphics For Enhanced Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jinho

    2013-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    KNIFE-EDGE SCANNING MICROSCOPE MOUSE BRAIN ATLAS IN VECTOR GRAPHICS FOR ENHANCED PERFORMANCE A Thesis by JINHO CHOI Submitted to the O ce of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial ful llment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Chair of Committee, Yoonsuck Choe Committee Members, John Keyser Louise Abbott Department Head, Duncan M. \\Hank" Walker August 2013 Major Subject: Computer Science Copyright 2013 Jinho Choi ABSTRACT The microstructure...

  14. Plasmons in molecules: Microscopic characterization based on orbital transitions and momentum conservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauter, Caroline M., E-mail: Caroline.Krauter@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Theoretical Chemistry, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schirmer, Jochen; Pernpointner, Markus [Theoretical Chemistry, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jacob, Christoph R. [Center for Functional Nanostructures and Institute of Physical Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1a, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Dreuw, Andreas [Interdisciplinary Center for Scientific Computing, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 368, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In solid state physics, electronic excitations are often classified as plasmons or single-particle excitations. The former class of states refers to collective oscillations of the electron density. The random-phase approximation allows for a quantum-theoretical treatment and a characterization on a microscopic level as a coherent superposition of a large number of particle-hole transitions with the same momentum transfer. However, small systems such as molecules or small nanoclusters lack the basic properties (momentum conservation and uniform exchange interaction) responsible for the formation of plasmons in the solid-state case. Despite an enhanced interest in plasmon-based technologies and an increasing number of studies regarding plasmons in molecules and small nanoclusters, their definition on a microscopic level of theory remains ambiguous. In this work, we analyze the microscopic properties of molecular plasmons in comparison with the homogeneous electron gas as a model system. Subsequently, the applicability of the derived characteristics is validated by analyzing the electronic excitation vectors with respect to orbital transitions for two linear polyenes within second order versions of the algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme for the polarization propagator.

  15. Repulsive and restoring Casimir forces with left-handed materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaping Yang; Ran Zeng; Shutian Liu; Hong Chen; Shiyao Zhu

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate repulsive Casimir force between slabs containing left-handed materials with controllable electromagnetic properties. The sign of Casimir force is determined by the electric and magnetic properties of the materials, and it is shown that the formation of the repulsive force is related to the wave impedances of two slabs. The sign change of the Casimir force as a function of the distance is studied. Special emphasis is put on the restoring Casimir force which may be found to exist between perfectly conducting material and metamaterial slabs. This restoring force is a natural power for the system oscillation in vacuum and also can be used for system stabilization.

  16. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Intravaia; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Stefan Buhmann; Stefan Scheel; Diego A. R. Dalvit; Carsten Henkel

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 113045]. We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v^4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v^3.

  17. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  18. Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Sammarruca

    2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

  19. Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spyros Basilakos; Joan Sola

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kind of Hubble terms ${\\dot H}$ and $H^{2}$ appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the ${\\dot H}$ dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term $H$ without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavors this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

  20. Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Cary, NC); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  1. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  2. Development of an adaptable coherent x-ray diffraction microscope with the emphasis on imaging hydrated specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Daewoong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaehyun; Shimada, Hiroki; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Sunam; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Song, Changyong [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)] [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Gallagher-Jones, Marcus [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan) [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of a versatile coherent x-ray diffraction microscope capable of imaging biological specimens in solution. The microscope is a flexible platform accommodating various conditions, from low vacuum (10{sup ?2} Pa) to helium gas filled ambient pressure. This flexibility greatly expands the application area, from in situ materials science to biology systems in their native state, by significantly relaxing restrictions to the sample environment. The coherent diffraction microscope has been used successfully to image a yeast cell immersed in buffer solution. We believe that the design of this coherent diffraction microscope can be directly adapted to various platforms such as table top soft x-ray laser, synchrotron x-ray sources, and x-ray free electron laser with minor relevant adjustments.

  3. A Full-Field KB-FZP Microscope for Hard X-Ray Imaging with Sub-100 nm Resolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    , Germany, 6 BESSY GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str.15, 12489 Berlin, Germany A full-field hard X-ray microscope was performed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a synchrotron radiation source of the third generation

  4. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jay A.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

  5. UNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    program in order to reduce Federal employee's contribution to traffic congestion and air pollutionUNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BENEFIT PROGRAM): ____________ City (Residence): __________________________State: _______________ Zip Code: ________________ Air Force

  6. REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Secretary of Energy on December 20, 2013 established the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Nuclear Nonproliferation and charged the Task Force to advise the DOE on future areas of emphasis for its nuclear nonproliferation activities

  7. Transmission Services WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability Report - Phase I BPA is an active participant in the Wind Integration Study Team (WIST), especially the Task Force looking at DTC study...

  8. air force family: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10spintronics-discover-could-lead-to- magnetic-batteries.php Applica'ons Motors Transformers MRI current element Forces on a Charge EQFe Analogous to the electric force: We...

  9. Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base, El Paso County, Colorado Colorado Natural-491-1309 July 2000 #12;Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base, El Paso County, Colorado Prepared

  10. Buoyant plumes with inertial and chemical reaction-driven forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Stephen W.

    . The forced plumes were compositionally buoy- ant and were injected with inertial forcing into a fluid filled power law relationship that explains their ascent velocity. However, the morphology of the plume heads

  11. Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House...

  12. Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects March 24, 2010 - 4:58pm Addthis The...

  13. air force systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a piece of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method used 10 U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer...

  14. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  15. Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Alexander Rozhko Thesis September 2007 #12;ii Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Abstract. The mechanical role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns was studied both

  16. The driving force of plate tectonics evaluated in spherical coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, John Michael

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &' + Ri according to the force balance equation of Garison et al (1983) . The age weighting for a ridge-push driving force model is only the age, t. 13 magnetic linea tio ns I subduction boundary force vector FIG. 4. Trench segmentation scheme. I...

  17. Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1 Philippe Tassin,2,* Costas M demonstrate how the optical gradient force between two waveguides can be enhanced using transformation optics perceived by light, resulting in a more than tenfold enhancement of the optical force. This process

  18. CONSERVED INTEGRALS AND ENERGETIC FORCES JAMES R. RICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the structure of inealstic constitutive relations; they also include some new results on the energetic forcesCONSERVED INTEGRALS AND ENERGETIC FORCES JAMES R. RICE Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA ABSTRACT Conserved integrals of the Eshelby type representing energetic forces on dislocations, inclusions

  19. Comparison of Ornithopter Wind Tunnel Force Measurements with Free Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    Comparison of Ornithopter Wind Tunnel Force Measurements with Free Flight Cameron Rose and Ronald S flight force model from wind tunnel data is a practical approach. In this work, we compare the flight, to measured wind tunnel force and moment values. We compare the two data sets at equilibrium as a metric

  20. Heat release response of acoustically forced turbulent premixed flamesrole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    Heat release response of acoustically forced turbulent premixed flames­role of kinematic surface to coherent forcing and turbulent fluctuations are coupled even at linear order in coherent forcing amplitude, ea, due to flame propagation (kinematic restoration). This coupling effectively causes

  1. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  2. US Air Force Facility Energy Management Program - How Industry Can Help the Air Force Meet Its Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, P. C.; Kroop, R. H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Air Force's facility energy management program including how industry can help the Air Force meet its facility energy objectives. Background information on energy use and energy conservation efforts are presented to give...

  3. Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

  4. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  5. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  6. Direct photon emission in Heavy Ion Collisions from Microscopic Transport Theory and Fluid Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjoern Baeuchle; Marcus Bleicher

    2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach, the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are made.

  7. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crewe, Albert V. (Palos Park, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  8. Optical microscope and tapered fiber coupling apparatus for a dilution refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. R. MacDonald; G. G. Popowich; B. D. Hauer; P. H. Kim; A. Fredrick; X. Rojas; P. Doolin; J. P. Davis

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a system for tapered fiber measurements of optomechanical resonators inside a dilution refrigerator, which is compatible with both on- and off-chip devices. Our apparatus features full three-dimensional control of the taper-resonator coupling conditions enabling critical coupling, with an overall fiber transmission efficiency of up to 70%. Notably, our design incorporates an optical microscope system consisting of a coherent bundle of 37,000 optical fibers for real-time imaging of the experiment at a resolution of $\\sim$1 $\\mu$m. We present cryogenic optical and optomechanical measurements of resonators coupled to tapered fibers at temperatures as low as 9 mK.

  9. Evidence of microscopic effects in fragment mass distribution in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. K. Ghosh; S. Pal; K. S. Gold; P. Bhattacharya

    2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Our measurements of variances ($\\sigma_{m}^2$) in mass distributions of fission fragments from fusion-fission reactions of light projectiles (C, O and F) on deformed thorium targets exhibit a sharp anomalous increase with energy near the Coulomb barrier, in contrast to the smooth variation of $\\sigma_{m}^2$ for the spherical bismuth target. This departure from expectation based on a statistical description is explained in terms of microscopic effects arising from the orientational dependence in the case of deformed thorium targets.

  10. Microscopic Calculation of Pre-Compound Excitation Energies for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker; J. A. Maruhn; P. -G. Reinhard

    2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a microscopic approach for calculating the excitation energies of systems formed during heavy-ion collisions. The method is based on time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory and allows the study of the excitation energy as a function of time or ion-ion separation distance. We discuss how this excitation energy is related to the estimate of the excitation energy using the reaction $Q$-value, as well as its implications for dinuclear pre-compound systems formed during heavy-ion collisions.

  11. Neutrinoless double-{beta} decay in the microscopic interacting boson model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barea, J.; Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a formalism for calculating nuclear matrix elements of double-{beta} decay within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model. We calculate Fermi, Gamow-Teller, and tensor matrix elements in the decay of Ge-Se-Mo-Te-Xe-Nd-Sm and compare our results with those of the shell-model (SM) and of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Our results are in agreement with QRPA. We discuss simple features of the matrix elements and give a formula that allows one to estimate matrix elements in terms of the number of valence proton and neutron pairs.

  12. The freeze-out properties of hyperons in a microscopic transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Zhenglian; Bass, Steffen A

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The excitation function of freeze-out time, average freeze-out temperature and freeze-out energy density of (multi-) strange baryons created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the framework of a microscopic transport model. We find that the Omega on average freezes out earlier than the nucleon, Xi and Lambda. The average freeze-out temperature and energy density as well as the spread between the different baryonicstates increase monotonously with increasing beam energy and should approach a universal value in the case of a hadronizing Quark-Gluon-Plasma.

  13. The freeze-out properties of hyperons in a microscopic transport model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhenglian Xie; Pingzhi Ning; Steffen A. Bass

    2009-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The excitation function of freeze-out time, average freeze-out temperature and freeze-out energy density of (multi-) strange baryons created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the framework of a microscopic transport model. We find that the Omega on average freezes out earlier than the nucleon, Xi and Lambda. The average freeze-out temperature and energy density as well as the spread between the different baryonicstates increase monotonously with increasing beam energy and should approach a universal value in the case of a hadronizing Quark-Gluon-Plasma.

  14. Technical report on the General Electric model #1 electrostatic electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druce, Albert J

    1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    screen Vacuum Chamber' Figi 5. Sectionalized View of the Lens System of the General Electric Electron microscope. which is held in place with the micalex insulatoz s is a source of many difficulties. Ii' the combination of the insulators and central..., or if desired to give the beam a diverging angle with the optical axis. The filament of the General Electric Electron Gun is heated with 60 cycle alternating current. This gives rise to an alternat1ng field about the f1lament which will deflect...

  15. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  16. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  17. 136Sn and three body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Saha Sarkar; S. Sarkar

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    New experimental data on 2+ energies of 136,138Sn confirms the trend of lower 2+ excitation energies of even-even tin isotopes with N > 82 compared to those with N 4+)) of these nuclei, simultaneously, apart from one whose matrix elements have been changed empirically to produce mixed seniority states by weakening pairing. We have shown that the experimental result also shows good agreement with the theory in which three body forces have been included in a realistic interaction. The new theoretical results on transition probabilities have been discussed to identify the experimental quantities which will clearly distinguish between different views.

  18. Force 9 Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park atFisiaFlorida: EnergyFlyingForbesForce

  19. Hickam Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnology Validation » Hickam Air Force

  20. Force generation by Myosin II Filaments in Compliant Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samantha Stam; Jon Alberts; Margaret L. Gardel; Edwin Munro

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) networks to generate contractile forces in cells. How their properties control force production in environments with varying stiffness is poorly understood. Here, we incorporated literature values for properties of myosin II isoforms into a cross-bridge model. Similar actin gliding speeds and force-velocity curves expected from previous experiments were observed. Motor force output on an elastic load was regulated by two timescales--that of their attachment to F-actin, which varied sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load, and that of force build up, which scaled with ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and load stiffness. While such regulation did not require force-dependent kinetics, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from short attachments and small forces to high force-generating runs at threshold parameter values. Parameters representing skeletal muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin IIB, and non-muscle myosin IIA revealed distinct regimes of behavior respectively: (1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness, (2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force build-up times that exceed physiological timescales, and (3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds may respond sharply to changes in mechanical context--at low forces or stiffness, they serve as low affinity cross-links but they can transition to effective force production via the positive feedback mechanism described above. These results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment.