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1

Atomic-Resolution Image of GaAs(110) Surface with an Ultrahigh-Vacuum Atomic Force Microscope (UHV-AFM)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The first demonstration of atomic-resolution imaging of a GaAs(HO) surface with an ultrahigh vacuum atomic force microscope (UHV-AFM) was performed. We also observed ... GaAs(llO). This result suggests that the UHV

Y. Sugawara; M. Ohta; K. Hontani; S. Morita; F. Osaka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im-portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) nanomanipu-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im- portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force on the order of 10 nm, however, automation has re- mained an elusive goal, primarily because of the spatial multi-tip arrays) or by automating the manipulation process, thus bypassing the time-consuming and labor

Southern California, University of

3

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Optical system for high-speed Atomic Force Microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the design and development of an optical cantilever deflection sensor for a high speed Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). This optical sensing system is able to track a small cantilever while the X-Y scanner ...

Lim, Kwang Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Direct Visualization and Identification of Biofunctionalized Nanoparticles using a Magnetic Atomic Force Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of its outstanding ability to image and manipulate single molecules, atomic force microscopy (AFM) established itself as a fundamental technique in nanobiotechnology. ... force microscope (AFM) has emerged as a powerful tool for exploring the forces and the dynamics of the interaction between individual ligands and receptors, either on isolated mols. ... In CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90thed.; Lide, D. R., Eds.; CRC Press Inc.: Boca Raton, FL, 2010; pp 4-142 4-147. ...

Stephan Block; Gunnar Glo?ckl; Werner Weitschies; Christiane A. Helm

2011-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

7

A metrological large range atomic force microscope with improved performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A metrological large range atomic force microscope (Met. LR-AFM) has been set up and improved over the past years at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Being designed as a scanning sample type instrument the sample is moved in three dimensions by a mechanical ball bearing stage in combination with a compact z -piezostage. Its topography is detected by a position-stationary AFM head. The sample displacement is measured by three embedded miniature homodyneinterferometers in the x y and z directions. The AFM head is aligned in such a way that its cantilever tip is positioned on the sample surface at the intersection point of the three interferometer measurement beams for satisfying the Abbe measurement principle. In this paper further improvements of the Met. LR-AFM are reported. A new AFM head using the beam deflection principle has been developed to reduce the influence of parasitic optical interference phenomena. Furthermore an off-line Heydemann correction method has been applied to reduce the inherent interferometer nonlinearities to less than 0.3 nm ( p - v ) . Versatile scanning functions for example radial scanning or local AFM measurement functions have been implemented to optimize the measurement process. The measurement software is also improved and allows comfortable operations of the instrument via graphical user interface or script-based command sets. The improved Met. LR-AFM is capable of measuring for instance the step height lateral pitch line width nanoroughness and other geometrical parameters of nanostructures.Calibration results of a one-dimensional grating and a set of film thickness standards are demonstrated showing the excellent metrological performance of the instrument.

Gaoliang Dai; Helmut Wolff; Frank Pohlenz; Hans-Ulrich Danzebrink

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Selective nano-patterning of graphene using a heated atomic force microscope tip  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we introduce a selective thermochemical nano-patterning method of graphene on insulating substrates. A tiny heater formed at the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is optimized by a finite element method. The cantilever device is fabricated using conventional micromachining processes. After preliminary tests of the cantilever device, nano-patterning experiments are conducted with various conducting and insulating samples. The results indicate that faster scanning speed and higher contact force are desirable to reduce the sizes of nano-patterns. With the experimental condition of 1 ?m/s and 24 mW, the heated AFM tip generates a graphene oxide layer of 3.6 nm height and 363 nm width, on a 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer, with a tip contact force of 100 nN.

Choi, Young-Soo; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1 pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15 pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

Schwarz, Udo; Albers, Boris J.; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

10

Seminar Announcement Nanoscale High Field Chemistry with the Atomic Force Microscope and Patterning January 15, 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEMINAR SEMINAR ANNOUNCMENT Thursday, January 15, 2009 11:00am - 12:00 noon EMSL Boardroom Nanoscale High Field Chemistry With the Atomic Force Microscope and Patterning Marco Rolandi Assistant Professor Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 Facile and affordable processes for the fabrication of nanostructures are fundamental to future endeavors in nanoscale science and engineering. The atomic force microscope was designed primarily for imaging, and has evolved into a versatile tool for nanoscale surface modification. We have developed an AFM based scheme capable of direct writing of glassy carbon nanowires as fast as 1 cm/s. In brief, when a bias is applied across the tip-sample gap a molecular precursor undergoes high field reactions that result in the deposition of a cross- linked product on the surface. In order to gain a

11

Integration of an Atomic Force Microscope in a Beamline Sample Environment  

SciTech Connect

We developed and optimised an optics-free Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) that can be directly installed on most of the synchrotron radiation end-stations. The combination of Scanning Probe Microscopies with X-ray microbeams adds new possibilities to the variety of synchrotron radiation techniques. The instrument can be used for atomic force imaging of the investigated sample or to locally measure the X-ray absorption or diffraction, or it can also be used to mechanically interact with the sample while simultaneously taking spectroscopy or diffraction measurements. The local character of these measurements is intrinsically linked with the use of the Atomic Force Microscope tip. It is the sharpness of the tip that gives the opportunity to measure the photons flux impinging on it giving beam position monitor features, or allows to locally measure the absorption coefficient or the shape of the diffraction pattern. As an example of the possibilities opened by the instrument we will show diffraction measurements performed on a Ge/Si island while being indented with the AFM tip providing local measure of the Young coefficient. Three ESRF beamlines are going to be equipped with this new instrument.

Rodrigues, M. S.; Hrouzek, M.; Dhez, O.; Comin, F. [ESRF, 6 rue Horowitz 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Chevrier, J. [Institut Neel-CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, 38042 Grenoble (France)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

12

Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

Ljubicic, Dean M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

A high-pressure atomic force microscope (AFM) that enables in situ, atomic scale measurements of topography of solid surfaces in contact with supercritical CO{sub 2} (scCO{sub 2}) fluids has been developed. This apparatus overcomes the pressure limitations of the hydrothermal AFM and is designed to handle pressures up to 100 atm at temperatures up to ?350 K. A standard optically-based cantilever deflection detection system was chosen. When imaging in compressible supercritical fluids such as scCO{sub 2} , precise control of pressure and temperature in the fluid cell is the primary technical challenge. Noise levels and imaging resolution depend on minimization of fluid density fluctuations that change the fluid refractive index and hence the laser path. We demonstrate with our apparatus in situ atomic scale imaging of a calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) mineral surface in scCO{sub 2}; both single, monatomic steps and dynamic processes occurring on the (10{overbar 1}4) surface are presented. This new AFM provides unprecedented in situ access to interfacial phenomena at solidfluid interfaces under pressure.

Lea, A.S.; Higgins, S.R.; Knauss, K.G.; Rosso, K.M.

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm force measurements Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

K. D. Usadel Summary: , measures the irreversible domain state magnetization of the AFM interface layer which is responsible... the magnetization of the whole FMAFM bilayer is...

15

Dynamic study of tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study examines the dynamic characteristics of the in-plane tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe for an atomic force microscope (AFM). The analysis was carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) methods for ...

Vega Gonzlez, Myraida Anglica

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Direct measurement of proton-beam-written polymer optical waveguide sidewall morphorlogy using an atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

Proton-beam writing (PBW) is a direct-write micromachining technique capable of fabricating low-loss single-mode polymer waveguides with straight and smooth sidewalls. Recently, the sidewall morphologies of such proton beam written polymer waveguide structures were directly measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Statistical information such as the rms roughness and the correlation length of the sidewall profile obtained from the AFM scans allows us to quantify the quality of the sidewalls and optimize the fabrication parameters using PBW. For structures fabricated using a stage scanning speed of {approx}10 {mu}m/s, a rms roughness of 3.8{+-}0.3 nm with a correlation length of 46{+-}6 nm was measured.

Sum, T.C.; Bettiol, A.A.; Seng, H.L.; Kan, J.A. van; Watt, F. [Department of Physics Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA), National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

2004-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

17

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

18

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

19

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

20

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the surface topography of commercial fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) and pillared interlayered clay (PILC) catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An atomic force microscope operating in contact or Tapping ModeTM has been used to study the surface morphology, nanostructure, clay plates packing and conformation while providing nanometer-scale features of \\{FCCs\\} surfaces not readily accessible by other microscopic techniques. Contact mode micrometer-scale (15?m x 15?m) AFM images have revealed that the topography and molecular organization of the surface of several commercial \\{FCCs\\} are fairly heterogenous in nature, frequently containing discontinuities represented by deep trenches, valleys and crater-like openings with micrometer dimensions. Surfaces are in general, composed of short stacks of plates with voids or pores between these stacks resulting from materials occlusion between plates, from missing plates, missing stacks of plates and from misaligned stacks of plates. Gross structural differences between fresh and equilibrium FCCs, were not observed. However surfaces of equilibrium \\{FCCs\\} may contain debris possibly representing NiO and V2O5 deposits, in agreement with chemical analysis. Not all equilibrium microspheres contain surface debris. Thus AFM images allow the distinction of old and young FCC fractions in equilibrium FCC samples. Coke deposits during gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, are imaged as raised surface features representing molecules or cluster of molecules. Contact-mode AFM images of pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) cracking catalysts having alumina clusters as the structure supporting pillars, represent the catalyst surface as a collection of white spots in an hexagonal arrangements having nearest neighbor and lateral distances in agreement with the repeat distances of the clay siloxane layer; evidenced of surface alumina debris was not observed an all the extraframework alumina introduced by the pillaring reaction is located in the clay interlamellar space. After exposure for 5h to 100% steam at 760 C and 1 atm, the structural parameters of the surface disappear when the PILC was prepared using montmorillonite and were retained when the PILC was prepared from rectorite. Thus \\{PILCs\\} collapse is the result of the clay (single) silicate layer hydrothermal instability and it occurs irrespective of the hydrothermal stability of the pillars used. In contrast to FCCs, coke deposition from gas oil cracking at MAT conditions, form on the surface of pillared rectorites a layer geometrically similar to graphite that can be easily removed by heating in air at 600C without affecting the PILC's structure or cracking activity.

Mario L. Occelli; Scot A.C. Gould

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Shortening Carbon Nanotube-Tipped AFM Probes Daniel J. Burns1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and actuators available on a standard AFM. The shortening operation is fa- cilitated by electric arcing using and Quate [1], the atomic force microscope (AFM) became a vital tool in the study of micro and nanoscopic using a CNT that locally oxidizes an atomically flat sheet of titanium to write bits of data [12]. We

23

Nanomanipulation of biological samples using a compact atomic force microscope under scanning electron microscope observation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Leakage of the EB current to the micro-electric circuit of the piezo-resistive sensor...Science and Technology, Development of elementary techniques for electron microscope in...Superfine R, Washburn S. In situ resistance measurements of strained carbon nanotubes......

Futoshi Iwata; Yuya Mizuguchi; Hideyuki Ko; Tatsuo Ushiki

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

Fink, Samuel D. (Aiken, SC); Fondeur, Fernando F. (North Augusta, SC)

2011-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

25

Refined tip preparation by electrochemical etching and ultrahigh vacuum treatment to obtain atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

A modification of the common electrochemical etching setup is presented. The described method reproducibly yields sharp tungsten tips for usage in the scanning tunneling microscope and tuning fork atomic force microscope. In situ treatment under ultrahigh vacuum (p {<=}10{sup -10} mbar) conditions for cleaning and fine sharpening with minimal blunting is described. The structure of the microscopic apex of these tips is atomically resolved with field ion microscopy and cross checked with field emission.

Hagedorn, Till; Ouali, Mehdi El; Paul, William; Oliver, David; Miyahara, Yoichi; Gruetter, Peter [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A2T8 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda School 21 November 2006 The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating measurement with the atomic force microscope AFM requires the sensitivity of the photodiode, which re- lates

Attard, Phil

27

A system dynamics approach to user independence in high speed atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As progress in molecular biology and nanotechnology continues, demand for rapid and high quality image acquisition has increased to the point where the limitations of atomic force microscopes (AFM) become impediments to ...

Burns, Daniel James

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Measuring Boltzmanns constant with a low-cost atomic force microscope: An undergraduate experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss a low-cost atomic force microscope that we have designed and built for use in an undergraduate teaching laboratory. This microscope gives students hands-on access to nano-Newton force measurements and subangstrom position measurements. The apparatus relies mainly on off-the-shelf components and utilizes an interferometric position sensor known as the interdigitated (ID) cantilever to obtain high resolution. The mechanical properties of the ID readout enable a robust and open design that makes it possible for students to directly control it. Its pedagogical advantage is that students interact with a complete instrument system and learn measurement principles in context. One undergraduate experiment enabled by this apparatus is a measurement of Boltzmanns constant which is done by recording the thermal noise power spectrum of a microfabricated cantilever beam. In addition to gaining an appreciation of the lower limits of position and force measurements students learn to apply numerous concepts such as digital sampling Fourier-domain analysis noise sources and error propagation.

M. Shusteff; T. P. Burg; S. R. Manalis

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Comments on the paper A comprehensive modeling and vibration analysis of AFM microcantilevers subjected to nonlinear tip-sample interaction forcesŽ by Sohrab Eslami and Nader Jalili  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comments Comments on the paper "A comprehensive modeling and vibration analysis of AFM microcantilevers subjected to nonlinear tip-sample interaction forces" by Sohrab Eslami and Nader Jalili Ali Passian a,b,c,n , Laurene Tetard a , Thomas Thundat d a Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA b Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA c Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA d Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2V4 a r t i c l e i n f o Available online 4 April 2013 Keywords: Microscopy AFM MSAFM Imaging Nonlinear dynamics Nanomechanical forces a b s t r a c t This comment on the paper "A comprehensive modeling and vibration analysis of AFM microcantilevers subjected to nonlinear tip-sample interaction

31

Dynamic measurement and modeling of the Casimir force at the nanometer scale  

SciTech Connect

We present a dynamic method for measurement of the Casimir force with an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conventional AFM tip. With this method, originally based on the phase of vibration of the AFM tip, we are able to verify the Casimir force at distances of nearly 6 nm with an AFM tip that has a radius of curvature of nearly 100 nm. Until now dynamic methods have been done using large metal spheres at greater distances. Also presented is a theoretical model based on the harmonic oscillator, including nonidealities. This model accurately predicts the experimental data.

Kohoutek, John; Wan, Ivy Yoke Leng; Mohseni, Hooman [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), EECS, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

32

10-fold detection range increase in quadrant-photodiode position sensing for photonic force microscope  

SciTech Connect

We propose a technique that permits one to increase by one order of magnitude the detection range of position sensing for the photonic force microscope with quadrant photodetectors (QPDs). This technique takes advantage of the unavoidable cross-talk between output signals of the QPD and does not assume that the output signals are linear in the probe displacement. We demonstrate the increase in the detection range from 150 to 1400 nm for a trapped polystyrene sphere with radius of 300 nm as probe.

Perrone, Sandro; Volpe, Giovanni [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels (Barcelona) 08860 (Spain); Petrov, Dmitri [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels (Barcelona) 08860 (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Scanning Probe Microscope... (SPM). The AFM is one of the primary tools for imaging, measuring, and manipulating matter... ). We cannot use standard microscopes to look at the...

34

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm sintez sloev Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Scanning Probe Microscope... (SPM). The AFM is one of the primary tools for imaging, measuring, and manipulating matter... ). We cannot use standard microscopes to look at the...

35

Atomic force microscope cantilever spring constant evaluation for higher mode oscillations: A kinetostatic method  

SciTech Connect

Our previous study of the particle mass sensor has shown a large ratio (up to thousands) between the spring constants of a rectangular cantilever in higher mode vibration and at the static bending or natural mode vibration. This has been proven by us through the derived nodal point position equation. That solution is good for a cantilever with the free end in noncontact regime and the probe shifted from the end to an effective section and contacting a soft object. Our further research shows that the same nodal position equation with the proper frequency equations may be used for the same spring constant ratio estimation if the vibrating at higher mode cantilever's free end has a significant additional mass clamped to it or that end is in permanent contact with an elastic or hard measurand object (reference cantilever). However, in the latter case, the spring constant ratio is much smaller (in tens) than in other mentioned cases at equal higher (up to fourth) vibration modes. We also present the spring constant ratio for a vibrating at higher eigenmode V-shaped cantilever, which is now in wide use for atomic force microscopy. The received results on the spring constant ratio are in good (within a few percent) agreement with the theoretical and experimental data published by other researchers. The knowledge of a possible spring constant transformation is important for the proper calibration and use of an atomic force microscope with vibrating cantilever in the higher eigenmodes for measurement and imaging with enlarged resolution.

Tseytlin, Yakov M. [Instrument Society of America, 20 Randall Street, Apt. 5G, Providence, Rhode Island 02904 (United States)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Note: Design and development of an integrated three-dimensional scanner for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

A compact scanning head for the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) greatly enhances the portability of AFM and facilitates easy integration with other tools. This paper reports the design and development of a three-dimensional (3D) scanner integrated into an AFM micro-probe. The scanner is realized by means of a novel design for the AFM probe along with a magnetic actuation system. The integrated scanner, the actuation system, and their associated mechanical mounts are fabricated and evaluated. The experimentally calibrated actuation ranges are shown to be over 1 ?m along all the three axes.

Rashmi, T.; Dharsana, G.; Sriramshankar, R.; Sri Muthu Mrinalini, R.; Jayanth, G. R. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Fermi-level shifts in graphene transistors with dual-cut channels scraped by atomic force microscope tips  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the electronic properties of p-type graphene transistors on silicon dioxide with dual-cut channels that were scraped using atomic force microscope tips. In these devices, the current is forced to squeeze into the path between the two cuts rather than flow directly through the graphene sheet. We observe that the gate voltages with minimum current shift toward zero bias as the sizes of the dual-cut regions increase. These phenomena suggest that the Fermi levels in the dual-cut regions are shifted toward the Dirac points after the mechanical scraping process.

Lin, Meng-Yu [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Hao [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung [College of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Tainan 71150, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shu-Wei [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

39

Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL  

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reveal that significant charge-transfer occurs between atoms... Atomistic simulation of CdTe solid-liquid coexistence equilibria. Atomistic simulations of CdTe using a...

40

Nuclear Pairing from Two-body Microscopic Forces: Analysis of the Cooper Pair Wavefunctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent paper we studied the behavior of the pairing gaps $\\Delta_F$ as a function of the Fermi momentum $k_F$ for neutron and nuclear matter in all relevant angular momentum channels where superfluidity is believed to naturally emerge. The calculations employed realistic chiral nucleon-nucleon potentials with the inclusion of three-body forces and self-energy effects. In this contribution, after a detailed description of the numerical method we employed in the solution of the BCS equations, we will show a preliminary analysis of the Cooper pair wavefunctions.

Finelli, P; Holt, J W

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Bubble Colloidal AFM Probes Formed from Ultrasonically Generated Bubbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Letters Bubble Colloidal AFM Probes Formed from Ultrasonically Generated Bubbles Ivan U. Vakarelski forces between two small bubbles (80-140 µm) in aqueous solution during controlled collisions) was extended to measure interaction forces between a cantilever-attached bubble and surface-attached bubbles

Chan, Derek Y C

42

Switchable stiffness scanning microscope probe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has rapidly gained widespread utilization as an imaging device and micro/nano-manipulator during recent years. This thesis investigates the new concept of a dual stiffness scanning probe with ...

Mueller-Falcke, Clemens T. (Clemens Tobias)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Over the past summer, I participated in three separate research projects related to Nanotribology using atomic force microscopy technique (AFM) in Dr. Carpick's laboratory under the guidance of Dr. Robert  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past summer, I participated in three separate research projects related to Nanotribology. Robert W. Carpick and Dr. Nitya N. Gosvami. The first project was to study how the properties of an AFM data acquisition box controlled using LabView software. Matlab scripts were then written to analyze

Carpick, Robert W.

44

The relationship between local liquid density and force applied on a tip of atomic force microscope: A theoretical analysis for simple liquids  

SciTech Connect

The density of a liquid is not uniform when placed on a solid. The structured liquid pushes or pulls a probe employed in atomic force microscopy, as demonstrated in a number of experimental studies. In the present study, the relation between the force on a probe and the local density of a liquid is derived based on the statistical mechanics of simple liquids. When the probe is identical to a solvent molecule, the strength of the force is shown to be proportional to the vertical gradient of ln(?{sub DS}) with the local liquid's density on a solid surface being ?{sub DS}. The intrinsic liquid's density on a solid is numerically calculated and compared with the density reconstructed from the force on a probe that is identical or not identical to the solvent molecule.

Amano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: aman@tohoku-pharm.ac.jp; Takahashi, Ohgi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558 (Japan); Suzuki, Kazuhiro [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Fukuma, Takeshi [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Onishi, Hiroshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

45

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM by Kris Anne Battleson on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................17 Atomic Force Microscopy on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................21 Numerical Methods...........................................................................

46

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

47

Atomic Force Compound Microscope | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and spectroscopic characterization simultaneously for imaging biological... Intermittent Single-Molecule Interfacial Electron Transfer Dynamics. We report on single molecule...

48

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

High resolution UHV-AFM surface analysis on polymeric materials: Baltic Amber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we present, for the first time, the results from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) surface studies from freshly fractured Baltic Amber samples, carried out under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions from micrometer to nanometer resolution. The micrometric AFM images provide a structural clue to the birefringent behavior occasionally observed with amber samples. Two-dimensional pair-distance distributions of the nanometric AFM images prove the completely amorphous structure of the material. This, together with the detection of individual motifs such as aromatic rings, supports the notion of amber being an amorphous polymeric organic network, consistent with the accompanying X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data. No nanocrystalline inclusions could be found. The results also show that it is possible to obtain atomically resolved AFM images from amorphous dielectric surfaces.

E. Barletta; K. Wandelt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

51

A near-field scanning microwave microscope based on a superconducting resonator for low power measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the design and performance of a cryogenic (300 mK) near-field scanning microwave microscope. It uses a microwave resonator as the near-field sensor, operating at a frequency of 6 GHz and microwave probing amplitudes down to 100 uV, approaching low enough photon population (N~1000) of the resonator such that coherent quantum manipulation becomes feasible. The resonator is made out of a miniaturized distributed fractal superconducting circuit that is integrated with the probing tip, micromachined to be compact enough such that it can be mounted directly on a quartz tuning-fork, and used for parallel operation as an atomic force microscope (AFM). The resonator is magnetically coupled to a transmission line for readout, and to achieve enhanced sensitivity we employ a Pound-Drever-Hall measurement scheme to lock to the resonance frequency. We achieve a well localized near-field around the tip such that the microwave resolution is comparable to the AFM resolution, and a capacitive sensitivity down to 6.4x10^-20 F/rtHz, limited by mechanical noise. We believe that the results presented here are a significant step towards probing quantum systems at the nanoscale using near-field scanning microwave microscopy.

S. E. de Graaf; A. V. Danilov; A. Adamyan; S. E. Kubatkin

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

52

A near-field scanning microwave microscope based on a superconducting resonator for low power measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the design and performance of a cryogenic (300 mK) near-field scanning microwave microscope. It uses a microwave resonator as the near-field sensor, operating at a frequency of 6 GHz and microwave probing amplitudes down to 100 uV, approaching low enough photon population (N~1000) of the resonator such that coherent quantum manipulation becomes feasible. The resonator is made out of a miniaturized distributed fractal superconducting circuit that is integrated with the probing tip, micromachined to be compact enough such that it can be mounted directly on a quartz tuning-fork, and used for parallel operation as an atomic force microscope (AFM). The resonator is magnetically coupled to a transmission line for readout, and to achieve enhanced sensitivity we employ a Pound-Drever-Hall measurement scheme to lock to the resonance frequency. We achieve a well localized near-field around the tip such that the microwave resolution is comparable to the AFM resolution, and a capacitive sensitivity down to 6...

de Graaf, S E; Adamyan, A; Kubatkin, S E

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Neutron Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report successful operation of a neutron microscope using ultracold neutrons at the high-flux reactor at Grenoble. A sharp, achromatic image of an object slit was obtained at a magnification of 50. The measured resolution of 0.1 mm was limited mainly by the available beam intensity, not by aberrations.

P. Herrmann; K. -A. Steinhauser; R. Ghler; A. Steyerl; W. Mampe

1985-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

54

Correlation between resistance-change effect in transition-metal oxides and secondary-electron contrast of scanning electron microscope images  

SciTech Connect

Conductive atomic-force microscopy (C-AFM) writing is attracting attention as a technique for clarifying the switching mechanism of resistive random-access memory by providing a wide area filled with filaments, which can be regarded as one filament with large radius. The writing area on a nickel-oxide (NiO) film formed by conductive atomic-force microscopy was observed by scanning electron microscope, and a correlation between the contrast in a secondary-electron image (SEI) and the resistance written by C-AFM was revealed. In addition, the dependence of the SEI contrast on the beam accelerating voltage (V{sub accel}) suggests that the resistance-change effect occurs near the surface of the NiO film. As for the effects of electron irradiation and vacuum annealing on the C-AFM writing area, it was shown that the resistance-change effect is caused by exchange of oxygen with the atmosphere at the surface of the NiO film. This result suggests that the low-resistance and high-resistance areas are, respectively, p-type Ni{sub 1+{delta}}O ({delta} < 0) and insulating (stoichiometric) or n-type Ni{sub 1+{delta}}O ({delta}{>=} 0).

Kinoshita, K.; Kishida, S. [Department of Information and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan); Tottori University Electronic Display Research Center, 522-2 Koyama-Kita, Tottori 680-0941 (Japan); Yoda, T. [Department of Information and Electronics, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic force spectroscopy Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Langmuir trough Atomic force microscope Optical microscope... W ultrasonic horn Atomic absorption spectrophotometer UVVIS spectrophotometer Centrifuge p......

56

Transmission Electron Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopes -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities > Transmission Electron Facilities > Transmission Electron Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopes FACILITIES Transmission Electron Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopes Overview Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Transmission Electron Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopes The research activities of the Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Section are supported by complete metallography/sample preparation rooms equipped with several optical and electron microscopes: a Transmission Electron Microscope and two Scanning Electron Microscopes. Bookmark and Share Transmission electron microscope (TEM) Detail of JEOL 100CXII TEM Figure 1: Detail of JEOL 100CXII TEM. Click on image to view larger image.

57

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self-assembled monolayer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self force microscopy; Friction; Self-assembly; Surface thermodynamics (including phase transitions); Growth are of utmost current interest. In many practical appli- cations films of incompatible mixtures are pre- pared

Zbigniew, Postawa

58

Long range constant force profiling for measurement of engineering surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new instrument bridging the gap between atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and stylus profiling instruments is described. The constant force profiler is capable of subnanometer resolution over a 15??m vertical range with a horizontal traverse length of 50 mm. This long traverse length coupled with the possibilities of utilizing standard radius diamondmeasurement styli make the force profiler more compatible with existing profiling instrument standards. The forces between the specimen and a diamond stylus tipped cantilever spring are sensed as displacements using a capacitance bridge. This displacement signal is then fed through a proportional plus integral controller to a high stability piezoelectric actuator to maintain a constant tip?to?sample force of approximately 100 nN. Much of the sensor head and traverse mechanism is made of Zerodur glass?ceramic to provide the thermal stability needed for long travel measurements. Profiles of a 30?nm silica step height standard and an 8.5??m step etched on Zerodur are presented.

L. P. Howard; S. T. Smith

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Electrochemically controlled pitting corrosion in Ni film: A study of AFM and neutron reflectometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrochemical behavior of pitting corrosion of a Ni film, grown on Si substrate by sputtering, prepassivated in a chloride-free sulfuric acid solution and subsequently exposed to chloride above the pitting potential is reported. Specular and off-specular unpolarized neutron reflectometry and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques have been used to determine the depth profile of scattering length density and morphology of as-deposited as well as corroded sample. Specular neutron reflectometry measurement of the film after corrosion shows density degradation along the thickness of film. The density profile as a function of depth, maps the growth of pitting and void networks due to corrosion. The AFM and off-specular neutron reflectivity measurements has suggested that the morphology of the film remains same after exposure of the film in chloride solution.

Surendra Singh; Saibal Basu; A.K. Poswal; R.B. Tokas; S.K. Ghosh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

FTIR Microscope | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FTIR Microscope FTIR Microscope Two Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers (IFS66 and IFS66V) with visible, near-, mid- and far-infrared (IR) capabilities are...

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm indentation study Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

critical step of comparing sphere indentation measurements to AFM... indentation depth profile is fit to an indentational model to extract the Young's modulus. However, AFM......

63

Reading Comprehension - Microscopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microscopes Microscopes It happened over 300 years _________ since ago before after in Holland. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (AN-tun van LAY-vun-hook) had a new microscope that he had _________ made lost previewed delivered . One day he _________ fell broke looked went through it at a drop of lake water. What he saw surprised him. The water was alive with what Leeuwenhoek called "wee beasties." The microscope made tiny organisms look 200 times _________ farther smaller darker larger than life size. Leeuwenhoek was one of the first scientists to see living things that were that _________ life small darker larger . His work was a giant _________ turtle gorilla step tower for science. Today, microscopes are much stronger. An electron microscope can make tiny organisms look 200,000 times _________ small over under life size. A few

64

Spatial spectrograms of vibrating atomic force microscopy cantilevers coupled to sample surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Many advanced dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques such as contact resonance, force modulation, piezoresponse force microscopy, electrochemical strain microscopy, and AFM infrared spectroscopy exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in contact with a sample to extract local material properties. Achieving quantitative results in these techniques usually requires the assumption of a certain shape of cantilever vibration. We present a technique that allows in-situ measurements of the vibrational shape of AFM cantilevers coupled to surfaces. This technique opens up unique approaches to nanoscale material property mapping, which are not possible with single point measurements alone.

Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [Birck Nanotechnology Center, 1205 W. State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Birck Nanotechnology Center, 1205 W. State Street, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Proksch, Roger, E-mail: Roger.Proksch@oxinst.com [Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave., Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)] [Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave., Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

65

Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

other characterization capabilities. User Portal Name: Helium Ion Microscope Instrument ID: 34104 Availability: 10 hours a day, 5 days a week Facility: Quiet Wing Quick Specs...

66

A verification of quantum field theory measurement of Casimir force  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we review our work on measurement of the Casimir force between a large aluminum coated a sphere and flat plate using an atomic force microscope. The average statistical precision is 1% of the force measur...

Anushree Roy; U Mohideen

67

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom probe characterization Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the sample. Similar to an atomic force microscope (AFM), the contact force... , Brand O, Baltes H, Tonin A and Hidber H R 2000 Integrated atomic force microscopy array...

68

Comparison of the Identation and Elasticity of E.coli and its Spheroplasts by AFM  

SciTech Connect

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a unique opportunity to study live individual bacteria at the nanometer scale. In addition to providing accurate morphological information, AFM can be exploited to investigate membrane protein localization and molecular interactions on the surface of living cells. A prerequisite for these studies is the development of robust procedures for sample preparation. While such procedures are established for intact bacteria, they are only beginning to emerge for bacterial spheroplasts. Spheroplasts are useful research models for studying mechanosensitive ion channels, membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide translocation, solute uptake, and the effects of antimicrobial agents on membranes. Furthermore, given the similarities between spheroplasts and cell wall-deficient (CWD) forms of pathogenic bacteria, spheroplast research could be relevant in biomedical research. In this paper, a new technique for immobilizing spheroplasts on mica pretreated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde is described. Using this mounting technique, the indentation and cell elasticity of glutaraldehyde-fixed and untreated spheroplasts of E. coli in liquid were measured. These values are compared to those of intact E. coli. Untreated spheroplasts were found to be much softer than the intact cells and the silicon nitride cantilevers used in this study.

Sullivan, Claretta J [ORNL; Venkataraman, Sankar [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Astronomy by microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......August 2009 research-article Features Astronomy by microscope Monica M Grady reviews the astronomy revealed in samples of solar system material...of the Natural History Museum, London. Astronomy is the study of stars (and galaxies......

Monica M Grady

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Electron Microscope Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Brookhaven Lab is home to one of only a few Scanning Transmision Electron Microscope (STEM) machines in the world and one of the few that can image single heavy atoms.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

71

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

73

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano Images  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano of micro/nano technology. As a critical part of AFM system, the piezoelectric scanner exists many defects in this paper possess a good performance for AFM nano imaging. Index Terms-- Hysteresis modeling, feedforward

Li, Yangmin

74

The Reflecting Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...INVESTIGATION OF CATADIOPTRIC SCHWARZSCHILD SYSTEMS, JOURNAL OF THE OPTICAL...PHYSIOLOGY 32 : 489 ( 1949 ). SCHWARZSCHILD, K, GESELLSCHAFT WISS MP...USE OF REFLECTING SYSTEMS of mirror-pairs in microscope objectives...0.65 with an aspheric mirror-pair of Schwarzsehild...

Robert C. Mellors

1950-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

75

Solvent-mediated repair and patterning of surfaces by AFM  

SciTech Connect

A tip-based approach to shaping surfaces of soluble materials with nanometer-scale control is reported. The proposed method can be used, for example, to eliminate defects and inhomogeneities in surface shape, repair mechanical or laser-induced damage to surfaces, or perform 3D lithography on the length scale of an AFM tip. The phenomenon that enables smoothing and repair of surfaces is based on the transport of material from regions of high- to low-curvature within the solution meniscus formed in a solvent-containing atmosphere between the surface in question and an AFM tip scanned over the surface. Using in situ AFM measurements of the kinetics of surface remodeling on KDP (KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystals in humid air, we show that redistribution of solute material during relaxation of grooves and mounds is driven by a reduction in surface free energy as described by the Gibbs-Thomson law. We find that the perturbation from a flat interface evolves according to the diffusion equation where the effective diffusivity is determined by the product of the surface stiffness and the step kinetic coefficient. We also show that, surprisingly, if the tip is instead scanned over or kept stationary above an atomically flat area of the surface, a convex structure is formed with a diameter that is controlled by the dimensions of the meniscus, indicating that the presence of the tip and meniscus reduces the substrate chemical potential beneath that of the free surface. This allows one to create nanometer-scale 3D structures of arbitrary shape without the removal of substrate material or the use of extrinsic masks or chemical compounds. Potential applications of these tip-based phenomena are discussed.

Elhadj, S; Chernov, A; De Yoreo, J

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm-based force spectroscopy Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 61 Investigation of nanolocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer for scanning probe microscopy Summary: confirmed in another series of...

77

Optimization of graphene dry etching conditions via combined microscopic and spectroscopic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Single-layer graphene structures and devices are commonly defined using reactive ion etching and plasma etching with O{sub 2} or Ar as the gaseous etchants. Although optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are widely used to determine the appropriate duration of dry etching, additional characterization with atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that residual graphene and/or etching byproducts persist beyond the point where the aforementioned methods suggest complete graphene etching. Recognizing that incomplete etching may have deleterious effects on devices and/or downstream processing, AFM characterization is used here to determine optimal etching conditions that eliminate graphene dry etching residues.

Prado, Mariana C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Jariwala, Deep [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

78

Climate forcing Climate forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

MacKinnon, Jennifer

79

Ion photon emission microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

80

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm based indentation Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

based on indentation of the substrate with a ferromagnetic sphere... indentation depth profile is fit to an indentational model to extract the Young's modulus. However, AFM... a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fluorescence, Single-Molecule Microscope | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Molecule Microscope Fluorescence, Single-Molecule Microscope The single-molecule optical microscope is designed to study complex reaction dynamics such as enzymatic...

82

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

On the transferability of three water models developed by adaptive force matching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is perhaps the most simulated liquid. Recently three water models have been developed following the adaptive force matching (AFM) method that provides excellent predictions of water properties with only electronic structure information as a reference. Compared to many other electronic structure based force fields that rely on fairly sophisticated energy expressions, the AFM water models use point-charge based energy expressions that are supported by most popular molecular dynamics packages. An outstanding question regarding simple force fields is whether such force fields provide reasonable transferability outside of their conditions of parameterization. A survey of three AFM water models, B3LYPD-4F, BLYPSP-4F, and WAIL are provided for simulations under conditions ranging from the melting point up to the critical point. By including ice-Ih configurations in the training set, the WAIL potential predicts the melting temperate, TM, of ice-Ih correctly. Without training for ice, BLYPSP-4F underestimates TM...

Hu, Hongyi; Wang, Feng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atomic Force Microscopy and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy Evidence of Local Structural Inhomogeneity and Nonuniform Dopant Distribution in Conducting Polybithiophene ... The fundamental difference between polymer grains and grain peripheral areas demonstrated by KFM was also supported by in situ contact-mode AFM data taken with the as-grown polymer film. ... (1)?Pekker, S.; Janossy, A. In Handbook of Conducting Polymers; Skotheim, T. A., Ed.; Marcel Dekker:? New York, 1986; Vol. ...

Oleg A. Semenikhin; Lei Jiang; Tomokazu Iyoda; Kazuhito Hashimoto; Akira Fujishima

1996-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

A low temperature scanning force microscope for biological samples  

SciTech Connect

An SFM has been constructed capable of operating at 143 K. Two contributions to SFM technology are described: a new method of fabricating tips, and new designs of SFM springs that significantly lower the noise level. The SFM has been used to image several biological samples (including collagen, ferritin, RNA, purple membrane) at 143 K and room temperature. No improvement in resolution resulted from 143 K operation; several possible reasons for this are discussed. Possibly sharper tips may help. The 143 K SFM will allow the study of new categories of samples, such as those prepared by freeze-frame, single molecules (temperature dependence of mechanical properties), etc. The SFM was used to cut single collagen molecules into segments with a precision of {le} 10 nm.

Gustafsson, M.G.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Interaction of Nano-Sized Materials With Polymer Chains in Polymer-Nanocomposite Thin Films-An AFM Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite thin films were prepared with polyurethane as a matrix and organically modified clay as a filler. The interfacial interaction between the exfoliated clay nanoplatelets and the polymeric chains has been investigated by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The nanoclay platelets show a preferential association with the hard domains of polyurethane matrix on the surface of the thin films. The pendant hydroxyl group on the nanoplatelets attract the isocyanate of the polyisocyanate and a urethane group is formed. This leads to the 'clouding' and 'entwining' of the nanoplatelets by the hard segmental chains. This is the first visual evidence of nanomaterial filler and polymer matrix interaction and it could open up a spectrum of novel property achievements in nanocomposite thin films. Also the understanding of this interaction can lead to more controlled architecture of nanocomposites.

Verma, Gaurav; Kaushik, Anupama [University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Sector 14, Panjab University Chandigarh-160014, India and (Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology) (India); Ghosh, Anup K. [Centre for Polymer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India)

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

88

Nuclear forces  

SciTech Connect

These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

89

Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor  

SciTech Connect

We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et Robotique (ISIR), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6/CNRS, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Boukallel, Mehdi [Laboratoire de Robotique et Mesorobotique (LRM), CEA, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function  

SciTech Connect

We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

91

Facile fabrication of spherical nanoparticle-tipped AFM probes for plasmonic applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for reliably producing metallic spherical nanoparticle tips using only a simple electrochemical cell. Fabrication of Au spherical nanoparticle (AuNP) tips onto commercial AFM probes is achieved using single-pulse high- fi eld electrochemical growth... is employed for growth since both the cell geometry and electrodeposition solution are kept the same between fabrications. AFM probes are attached to fl u- orine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass, used as a working DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400104 Facile...

Sanders, Alan; Zhang, Liwu; Bowman, Richard W.; Herrmann, Lars O.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

92

Epi-Fluorescence Inverted Microscope (Zeiss,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Epi-Fluorescence Inverted Microscope (Zeiss, Observer Z1) April 2013 #12;Start Up cont. · Turn) #12;Using the Microscope cont. · On an inverted microscope samples on a glass slide are usually viewed

Subramanian, Venkat

93

Coherence-controlled holographic microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transmitted-light coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) based on an off-axis achromatic interferometer allows us to use light sources of arbitrary degree of temporal and...

Kolman, Pavel; Chmelk, Radim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Atomic Force Microscopy in Nanomedicine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combination of AFM with conventional techniques, as well as AFM itself, allows answering biomedical questions of high interest. We could show this clearly for CFTR with single molecule imaging and observat...

Dessy Nikova; Tobias Lange; Hans Oberleithner

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Reading Comprehension - Dissecting and Compound Microscopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dissecting and Compound Microscopes Two types of microscopes. _________ Dissecting and Compound Microscopes Two types of microscopes. _________ Dissecting Microscope Compound Microscope _________ eyepiece focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepiece focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepiece focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepiece focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepiece focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepiece focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ Dissecting Microscope Compound Microscope _________ eyepieces focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepieces focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepieces focus knob light light switch objective stage _________ eyepieces focus knob light

96

Science, Optics and You: Microscopes and Crystals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

glass), and the field microscope. (The hand lens and field microscope are in your Science, Optics and You package.) Activity 14 provides instructions for making different...

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic scale defect Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

assembled DNA nanostructures. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images are used... of defect identification. 4.1 Defect ... Source: Chakrabarty, Krishnendu - Department of Electrical...

98

Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass L. Tetard a,b , A. Passian a,b,n , R.H. Farahi a , U.C. Kalluri c , B.H. Davison c , T. Thundat a,b a Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA b Department of Physics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA c Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: Atomic force microscopy Spectroscopy Plant cells Biomass Nanomechanics a b s t r a c t Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass

99

Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steering the self-assembly of octadecylamine monolayers onon the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films ofoctadecylamine monolayers, self-assembly, AFM, packing

Benitez, J.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Phil Attard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope Phil. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 16, 753­791 (2002).) Running title: Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation Abstract for the friction force microscope, quantitative measurements of friction and the ef- fect of adhesion, measurement

Attard, Phil

104

The History of the Microscope  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Microscope the Microscope Nature Bulletin No. 506 November 9, 1957 Forest Preserve District of Cook County Daniel Ryan, President Roberts Mann, Conservation Editor David H. Thompson, Senior Naturalist THE HISTORY OF THE MICROSCOPE During that historic period known as the Renaissance, after the "dark" Middle Ages, there occurred the inventions of printing, gunpowder and the mariner's compass, followed by the discovery of America. Equally remarkable was the invention of the microscope: an instrument that enables the human eye, by means of a lens or combinations of lenses, to observe enlarged images of tiny objects. It made visible the fascinating details of worlds within worlds. Long before, in the hazy unrecorded past, someone picked up a piece of transparent crystal thicker in the middle than at the edges, looked through it, and discovered that it made things look larger. Someone also found that such a crystal would focus the sun's rays and set fire to a piece of parchment or cloth. Magnifiers and "burning glasses" are mentioned in the writings of Seneca and Pliny the Elder, Roman philosophers during the first century A. D., but apparently they were not used much until the invention of spectacles, toward the end of the 13th century. They were named lenses because they are shaped like the seeds of a lentil.

105

Improved Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force Using Gold Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an improved precision measurement of the Casimir force using metallic gold surfaces. The force is measured between a large gold coated sphere and flat plate using an Atomic Force Microscope. The use of gold surfaces removes some theoretical uncertainties in the interpretation of the measurement. The forces are also measured at smaller surface separations. The complete dielectric spectrum of the metal is used in the comparison of theory to the experiment. The average statistical precision remains at the same 1% of the forces measured at the closest separation. These results should lead to the development of stronger constraints on hypothetical forces.

B. W. Harris; F. Chen; U. Mohideen

2000-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

106

Fabrication of sharp tungsten-coated tip for atomic force microscopy by ion-beam sputter deposition  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten (W) is significantly suitable as a tip material for atomic force microscopy (AFM) because its high mechanical stiffness enables the stable detection of tip-sample interaction forces. We have developed W sputter-coating equipment to compensate the drawbacks of conventional Si cantilever tips used in AFM measurements. By employing an ion gun commonly used for sputter cleaning of a cantilever tip, the equipment is capable of depositing conductive W films in the preparation chamber of a general ultrahigh vacuum (UHV)-AFM system without the need for an additional chamber or transfer system. This enables W coating of a cantilever tip immediately after sputter cleaning of the tip apex and just before the use in AFM observations. The W film consists of grain structures, which prevent tip dulling and provide sharpness (<3 nm in radius of curvature at the apex) comparable to that of the original Si tip apex. We demonstrate that in non-contact (NC)-AFM measurement, a W-coated Si tip can clearly resolve the atomic structures of a Ge(001) surface without any artifacts, indicating that, as a force sensor, the fabricated W-coated Si tip is superior to a bare Si tip.

Kinoshita, Yukinori; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Nuclear forces from chiral EFT: The unfinished business  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In spite of the great progress we have seen in recent years in the derivation of nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory (EFT), some important issues are still unresolved. In this contribution, we discuss the open problems which have particular relevance for microscopic nuclear structure, namely, the proper renormalization of chiral nuclear potentials and sub-leading many-body forces.

R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

108

Surface Geometric Structure of Chemically Modified Silica Studied by Direct Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Imaging and Adsorption Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The equation to estimate the surface area (m2g-1) according to the latter method is where NA is Avogadro's constant (mol-1), ? is the adsorbed amount (mL STPg-1), and P represents the relative pressure at which the monolayer is formed on the unmodified sample. ...

Masayoshi Fuji; Kotoe Machida; Takashi Takei; Tohru Watanabe; Masatoshi Chikazawa

2000-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

109

Nuclear Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One-meson-exchange Feynman diagrams are nonrelativistically reduced and unitarized via Schrdinger's equation. Properties of nucleon-nucleon scattering are calculated at incident laboratory energies of 25-310 MeV. Bound-state properties of the deuteron and of nuclear matter are also calculated. Mesons included are the ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?. Very good over-all agreement with the experimental data is obtained. Important features of this "potential" include its momentum dependence, properly treated, and the contribution of the ? "meson," which qualitatively changes the central/tensor force ratio from that of previous phenomenological potentials.

Lester Ingber

1968-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solid-state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, I.T.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

111

AFM | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the...

112

Geek-Up[6.3.2011]: Inked PV, Diagnostic Tools and Tough Microscopes |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3.2011]: Inked PV, Diagnostic Tools and Tough Microscopes 3.2011]: Inked PV, Diagnostic Tools and Tough Microscopes Geek-Up[6.3.2011]: Inked PV, Diagnostic Tools and Tough Microscopes June 3, 2011 - 2:04pm Addthis Novartis Diagnostics scientist Cleo Salisbury and Biological Nanostructures Facility director Ron Zuckermann discuss their collaboration to discover new therapies for Alzheimer's. Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Researchers have developed new inorganic nanocrystal arrays created by spraying a new type of colloidal "ink." Scientists have engineered a technique to help doctors identify Alzheimer's in its early stages and discover new therapies for this disease. Scientists have developed a new type of atomic force microscope that

113

Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Alameda, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Characterization of gold nanoparticle films: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with image analysis, and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Gold nanoparticle films are of interest in several branches of science and technology, and accurate sample characterization is needed but technically demanding. We prepared such films by DC magnetron sputtering and recorded their mass thickness by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The geometric thickness d{sub g}from the substrate to the tops of the nanoparticleswas obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The various techniques yielded an internally consistent characterization of the films. In particular, very similar results for d{sub g} were obtained by SEM with image analysis and by AFM.

Lansker, Pia C., E-mail: pia.lansaker@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The ngstrm Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Halln, Anders [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Elektrum 229, Kista, SE-164 40 Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

116

Demonstration of Angle Dependent Casimir Force Between Corrugations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The normal Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and a sphere was measured at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. A strong dependence on the orientation angle of the corrugation is found. The measured forces were found to deviate from the proximity force approximation and are in agreement with the theory based on the gradient expansion including correlation effects of geometry and material properties. We analyze the role of temperature. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems.

A. A. Banishev; J. Wagner; T. Emig; R. Zandi; U. Mohideen

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

117

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments, an American-European team, led by researchers from the University of Washington, Seattle, first developed and then applied coherent x-ray speckle metrology to microscopic magnetic domains in a series of thin multilayer perpendicular magnetic materials of varying disorder. Their results, at odds with all previous theories, have set a new reference point for future theories.

118

From Self-Assembly to Controlled-Assembly, From Optical Manipulation to AFM Manipulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moving nanoparticles/atoms to study the nearfield interaction between them is one of the many approaches to explore the optical and electrical properties of these assemblies. Traditional approach included the self assembly by spinning or drying nanoparticles in aqua on the substrate is well practiced. Lithography technique is another popular approach to deposit limited nano/micro patterns on substrates. Later optical and mechanical manipulations were used to have more control over moving individual elements of nano and microstructures and even atoms. Optical tweezers, optical trapping and AFM manipulation are examples of these precise approaches.

Shafiei, Farbod

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Piezoresistive cantilever force-clamp system  

SciTech Connect

We present a microelectromechanical device-based tool, namely, a force-clamp system that sets or ''clamps'' the scaled force and can apply designed loading profiles (e.g., constant, sinusoidal) of a desired magnitude. The system implements a piezoresistive cantilever as a force sensor and the built-in capacitive sensor of a piezoelectric actuator as a displacement sensor, such that sample indentation depth can be directly calculated from the force and displacement signals. A programmable real-time controller operating at 100 kHz feedback calculates the driving voltage of the actuator. The system has two distinct modes: a force-clamp mode that controls the force applied to a sample and a displacement-clamp mode that controls the moving distance of the actuator. We demonstrate that the system has a large dynamic range (sub-nN up to tens of {mu}N force and nm up to tens of {mu}m displacement) in both air and water, and excellent dynamic response (fast response time, <2 ms and large bandwidth, 1 Hz up to 1 kHz). In addition, the system has been specifically designed to be integrated with other instruments such as a microscope with patch-clamp electronics. We demonstrate the capabilities of the system by using it to calibrate the stiffness and sensitivity of an electrostatic actuator and to measure the mechanics of a living, freely moving Caenorhabditis elegans nematode.

Park, Sung-Jin; Petzold, Bryan C.; Pruitt, Beth L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Goodman, Miriam B. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Spin Dynamics and Quantum Tunneling in Fe8 Nanomagnet and in AFM Rings by NMR  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, our main interest has been to investigate the spin dynamics and quantum tunneling in single molecule magnets (SMMs), For this we have selected two different classes of SMMs: a ferrimagnetic total high spin S = 10 cluster Fe8 and antiferromagnetic (AFM) ring-type clusters. For Fe8, our efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the quantum tunneling of magnetization in the very low temperature region. The most remarkable experimental finding in Fe8 is that the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T{sub l}) at low temperatures takes place via strong collision mechanism, and thus it allows to measure directly the tunneling rate vs T and H for the first time. For AFM rings, we have shown that 1/T{sub l} probes the thermal fluctuations of the magnetization in the intermediate temperature range. We find that the fluctuations are dominated by a single characteristic frequency which has a power law T-dependence indicative of fluctuations due to electron-acoustic phonon interactions.

Seung-Ho-Baek

2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The 2/3 Power Law Dependence of Capillary Force on Normal Load in Nanoscopic Friction E. Riedo,*,, I. Palaci, C. Boragno, and H. Brune  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the normal load following a 2/3 power law. We trace back this behavior to the load induced change of the tip between a spherical AFM tip and a rough flat surface increases with the normal load, FN, following a 2The 2/3 Power Law Dependence of Capillary Force on Normal Load in Nanoscopic Friction E. Riedo

Brune, Harald

122

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments, an American-European team, led by researchers from the University of Washington, Seattle, first developed and then applied coherent x-ray speckle metrology to microscopic magnetic domains in a series of thin multilayer perpendicular magnetic materials of varying disorder. Their results, at odds with all previous theories, have set a new reference point for future theories.

123

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory Print The magnetic-recording industry deliberately introduces carefully controlled disorder into its materials to obtain the desired magnetic properties. But as the density of magnetic disks climbs, the size of the magnetic domains responsible for storage must decrease, posing new challenges. Beautiful theories based on random microscopic disorder have been developed over the past ten years. To directly compare these theories with precise experiments, an American-European team, led by researchers from the University of Washington, Seattle, first developed and then applied coherent x-ray speckle metrology to microscopic magnetic domains in a series of thin multilayer perpendicular magnetic materials of varying disorder. Their results, at odds with all previous theories, have set a new reference point for future theories.

124

Variable Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EMSL's ultra-high vacuum, variable-temperature scanning probe microscope system, or UHV VT SPM, is a state-of-the-art surface science tool comprising multiple complementary...

125

Soft x-ray laser microscope  

SciTech Connect

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL's 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

X-ray laser microscope apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Variable Temperature Ultra-High Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscope The Omicron variable temperature ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunneling microscope (VTSTM) is designed to study the structure of both clean...

128

Single-Molecule Flourescence/Patch Clamp Microscope | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Single-Molecule FlourescencePatch Clamp Microscope Single-Molecule FlourescencePatch Clamp Microscope At EMSL, researchers use the single-molecule fluorescencepatch clamp...

129

Microscopic modulation of mechanical properties in transparent insect wings  

SciTech Connect

We report on the measurement of local friction and adhesion of transparent insect wings using an atomic force microscope cantilever down to nanometre length scales. We observe that the wing-surface is decorated with 10??m long and 2??m wide islands that have higher topographic height. The friction on the islands is two orders of magnitude higher than the back-ground while the adhesion on the islands is smaller. Furthermore, the high islands are decorated with ordered nano-wire-like structures while the background is full of randomly distributed granular nano-particles. Coherent optical diffraction through the wings produce a stable diffraction pattern revealing a quasi-periodic organization of the high islands over the entire wing. This suggests a long-range order in the modulation of friction and adhesion which is directly correlated with the topography. The measurements unravel novel functional design of complex wing surface and could find application in miniature biomimetic devices.

Arora, Ashima; Kumar, Pramod; Bhagavathi, Jithin; Singh, Kamal P., E-mail: kpsingh@iisermohali.ac.in; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Punjab 140306 (India)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Dynamics of a nanodroplet under a transmission electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the cyclical stick-slip motion of water nanodroplets on a hydrophilic substrate viewed with and stimulated by a transmission electron microscope. Using a continuum long wave theory, we show how the electrostatic stress imposed by non-uniform charge distribution causes a pinned convex drop to deform into a toroidal shape, with the shape characterized by the competition between the electrostatic stress and the surface tension of the drop, as well as the charge density distribution which follows a Poisson equation. A horizontal gradient in the charge density creates a lateral driving force, which when sufficiently large, overcomes the pinning induced by surface heterogeneities in the substrate disjoining pressure, causing the drop to slide on the substrate via a cyclical stick-slip motion. Our model predicts step-like dynamics in drop displacement and surface area jumps, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations.

Leong, Fong Yew, E-mail: leongfy@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Mirsaidov, Utkur M. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Center for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Matsudaira, Paul [Center for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); MechanoBiology Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology Center, Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Mahadevan, L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA and Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

131

Magnetic Force Between Magnetic Nano Probes at Optical Frequency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic force microscopy based on the interaction of static magnetic materials was demonstrated in the past with resolutions in the order of nanometers. Measurement techniques based on forces between electric dipoles oscillating at optical frequencies have been also demonstrated leading to the standard operation of the scanning force microscope (SFM). However the investigations of a SFM based on the magnetic force generated by magnetic dipole moments oscillating at optical frequencies has not been tackled yet. With this goal in mind we establish a theoretical model towards observable magnetic force interaction between two magnetically polarizable nanoparticles at optical frequency and show such a force to be in the order of piconewtons which could be in principle detected by conventional microscopy techniques. Two possible principles for conceiving magnetically polarizable nano probes able to generate strong magnetic dipoles at optical frequency are investigated based on silicon nanoparticles and on clusters...

Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Calibrated nanoscale dopant profiling using a scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect

The scanning microwave microscope is used for calibrated capacitance spectroscopy and spatially resolved dopant profiling measurements. It consists of an atomic force microscope combined with a vector network analyzer operating between 1-20 GHz. On silicon semiconductor calibration samples with doping concentrations ranging from 10{sup 15} to 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3}, calibrated capacitance-voltage curves as well as derivative dC/dV curves were acquired. The change of the capacitance and the dC/dV signal is directly related to the dopant concentration allowing for quantitative dopant profiling. The method was tested on various samples with known dopant concentration and the resolution of dopant profiling determined to 20% while the absolute accuracy is within an order of magnitude. Using a modeling approach the dopant profiling calibration curves were analyzed with respect to varying tip diameter and oxide thickness allowing for improvements of the calibration accuracy. Bipolar samples were investigated and nano-scale defect structures and p-n junction interfaces imaged showing potential applications for the study of semiconductor device performance and failure analysis.

Huber, H. P.; Hochleitner, M.; Hinterdorfer, P. [University of Linz, Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanoscopic Methods in Biophysics, Altenbergerstrasse 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Humer, I.; Smoliner, J. [Technical University of Vienna, Institute for Solid State Electronics, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Fenner, M.; Moertelmaier, M.; Rankl, C.; Tanbakuchi, H.; Kienberger, F. [Agilent Technologies, Inc., 5301 Stevens Creek Blvd., Santa Clara, California 95051 (United States); Imtiaz, A.; Wallis, T. M.; Kabos, P. [National Institute for Standards and Technology, Electromagnetic Division, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3337 (United States); Kopanski, J. J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Semiconductor Measurements Division, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8120 (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm detects wga-binding Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Ecology 17 Gold Nanoparticles on Modified Glass Surface as Height Calibration Standard for Atomic Force Microscopy Operating in Contact and Tapping Mode Summary: with...

134

Structural Characterization of Micromechanical Properties in Asphalt Using Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1.1 Experimental flowchart?..?????????????????... 6 2.1 Van der Waals forces vs. distance.??????????????... 11 2.2 Beam-detection deflection scheme.??????????????... 11 3.1 (i) AFM controller and (ii... der Waals forces as the tip is moved further away from the sample. mo fro can bea . The AF st common m the back o tilever bend m on the PS Figure (Ad M detects th technique, a f the cantile s, due to int PD shifts. Figure (Ad...

Allen, Robert Grover

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

135

Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.

Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

136

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1 William and development of a friction force microscope for high-resolution studies in electrochemical environments in liquids. The noise of the system is analyzed based on a methodology for the quantification of all

Grütter, Peter

137

Miniature self-contained vacuum compatible electronic imaging microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vacuum compatible CCD-based microscopic camera with an integrated illuminator. The camera can provide video or still feed from the microscope contained within a vacuum chamber. Activation of an optional integral illuminator can provide light to illuminate the microscope subject. The microscope camera comprises a housing with a objective port, modified objective, beam-splitter, CCD camera, and LED illuminator.

Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA); Batson, Phillip J. (Alameda, CA); Denham, Paul E. (Crockett, CA); Jones, Michael S. (San Francisco, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Instrument Series: Microscopy Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Transmission Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope EMSL's environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM) provides in situ capabilities that enable atomic-resolution imaging and spectroscopic studies of materials under dynamic operating conditions. In contrast to traditional operation of TEM under high vacuum, EMSL's ETEM uniquely allows imaging within high- temperature and gas environments-with a gas pressure up to 20 Torr. With a spherical aberration corrector for the objective lens, the ETEM captures atomic-level processes as they occur, enabling vital research across a range of scientific fields. Research Applications Chemical science and engineering - providing in situ observation of catalytic processes with atomic-level resolution Materials science and engineering - allowing

139

Hickam Air Force Base  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

140

Protective Force Program Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Fluid force transducer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical fluid force transducer for measuring the magnitude and direction of fluid forces caused by lateral fluid flow, includes a movable sleeve which is deflectable in response to the movement of fluid, and a rod fixed to the sleeve to translate forces applied to the sleeve to strain gauges attached to the rod, the strain gauges being connected in a bridge circuit arrangement enabling generation of a signal output indicative of the magnitude and direction of the force applied to the sleeve.

Jendrzejczyk, Joseph A. (Warrenville, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

On simulating 3D fluorescent microscope images  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years many various biomedical image segmentation methods have appeared. Though typically presented to be successful the majority of them was not properly tested against ground truth images. The obvious way of testing the quality of new segmentation ... Keywords: convolution, fluorescent optical microscope, procedural texture, simulator, synthetic image

David Svoboda; Marek Kak; Martin Maka; Jan Hubeny; Stanislav Stejskal; Michal Zimmermann

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Le microscope des mathmaticiens Tribune du Net  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cette "tribune" Interactif ! Deux parties : 1 les TIC du chercheur TIC = Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication #12;Contenu de cette "tribune" Interactif ! Deux parties : 1 les TIC du chercheur TIC = Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication 2 ordinateur : le microscope des

Theyssier, Guillaume

144

SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

145

On the Microscopic Origin of Cholesteric Pitch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a microscopic analysis of the instability of the nematic phase to chirality when molecular chirality is introduced perturbatively. We show that previously neglected short-range biaxial correlations play a crucial role in determining the cholesteric pitch. We propose an order parameter which quantifies the chirality of a molecule.

A. B. Harris; Randall D. Kamien; T. C. Lubensky

1996-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

146

Adsorption of Glucose Oxidase onto Plasma-Polymerized Film Characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, and Electrochemical Measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOD) onto plasma-polymerized thin films (PPF) with nanoscale thickness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and electrochemical measurements. ... The electrophoretic mobility (u) of polystyrene particles at the PPF surfaces was measured, and the mobility obtained was converted into a zeta potential using the Smoluchowski equation, ? = 4??u/?, where ? is the viscosity of the solution and ? is the dielectric constant of the solvent. ...

Hitoshi Muguruma; Yoshihiro Kase; Naoya Murata; Kazunari Matsumura

2006-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

147

Polymers with hydro-responsive topography identified using high throughput AFM of an acrylate microarray  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atomic force microscopy has been applied to an acrylate polymer microarray to achieve a full topographic characterisation. This process discovered a small number of hydro-responsive materials created from monomers with ...

Hook, Andrew L.

148

Friction forces on phase transition fronts  

SciTech Connect

In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

Mgevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICETUNMdP), Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Den Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Developing luminescent nanoprobes for labeling focal adhesion complex proteins and performing combined AFM-TIRF imaging of these conjugates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Committee, Kenith E. Meissner Committee Members, Anshu B. Mathur Alvin T. Yeh David C. Zawieja Head of Department, Gerald L. Cote May 2008 Major Subject: Biomedical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Developing Luminescent Nanoprobes... for Labeling Focal Adhesion Complex Proteins and Performing Combined AFM-TIRF Imaging of These Conjugates. (May 2008) Bhavik Nathwani, B.E, Saurashtra University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Kenith E. Meissner Recent progress in the field...

Nathwani, Bhavik Bharat

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

150

A review of the NRL CARS microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes a technique that permits molecular specificity in microscopy while retaining good spatial resolution. Specificity is achieved using Raman scattering from characteristic molecular vibrations and high resolution is obtained by imaging the distribution of visible anti?Stokes radiation. Images have been obtained from a variety of pure organic liquids from deuterated water in onion?skin cells deuterated liposomes and other samples. Thermal and dielectric breakdown damage to even fragile biological materials is made negligible by choice of duty cycle and average power. Sample fluorescence is avoided by the choice of anti?Stokes imaging. Imaging through (usually astigmatic) spectrometers is not needed. Deuterium substitution can be used as a general purpose and artifact?free stain. The combination of high spatial resolution excellent molecular discrimination and digital image processing (background subtraction) provide the CARS microscope with capabilities not found in any other current microscopic imaging technique.

M. D. Duncan; J. Reintjes; T. J. Manuccia

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

A transmission electron microscope for lecture demonstrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple transmission electron microscope (TEM) suitable for lecture demonstrations is described. In this TEM electrons are created in a glow discharge between two parallel electrodes in air at a reduced pressure. The electrons are collimated by a small hole in the anode focused by a solenoid that acts as an electromagnetic lens and imaged on a thin layer of phosphor deposited inside an Erlenmeyer flask. An image of a biological sample placed between the source and the lens can be magnified about 20 times. The microscope uses inexpensive components that can be quickly assembled during a demonstration. The TEM provides a visual and memorable display that highlights phenomena such as mean-free-path charged particle optics electrical discharges and cathodoluminescence.

J. A. Panitz; Gertrude Rempfer

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Coulomb force as an entropic force  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by Verlinde's theory of entropic gravity, we give a tentative explanation to the Coulomb's law with an entropic force. When trying to do this, we find the equipartition rule should be extended to charges and the concept of temperature should be reinterpreted. If one accepts the holographic principle as well as our generalizations and reinterpretations, then Coulomb's law, the Poisson equation, and the Maxwell equations can be derived smoothly. Our attempt can be regarded as a new way to unify the electromagnetic force with gravity, from the entropic origin. Possibly some of our postulates are related to the D-brane picture of black hole thermodynamics.

Wang Tower [Center for High-Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment  

SciTech Connect

The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

Mitran, Sorin, E-mail: mitran@unc.edu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Unbalanced electromagnetic forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) . I :, jazdz g (Member) (Member) August 1974 -" ~ 5:. -. 62 ABSTRACT Unbalanced Electromagnetic Forces (August 1974) Craig Martin Hansen, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Attilio J. Giaroia Electromagnetic forces from moving... be deduced from the history of the development of an under- standing of electromagnetic forces. This is a relatively short history (starting in the late 1800's) filled with misunderstandings and pre]udices. This history can be divided into two eras: non...

Hansen, Craig Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

155

Geochemistry Atomic Force Microscopy | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

imaging modes: contact, intermittent contact, phase imaging, magnetic force microscopy, electric force microscopy, surface potential microscopy, scanning capacitance microscopy,...

156

A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Microscopic Double-Slit A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment Print Wednesday, 29 February 2012 00:00 Two centuries ago, Thomas Young performed the classic demonstration of the wave nature of light. He placed a screen with two tiny slits in front of a single light source, effectively converting it into a two-centered source. On a second screen far away, he saw a pattern of light and dark diffraction fringes, a well-known hallmark of wave interference. Along with later studies using particles instead of light, the experiment played a crucial role in establishing the validity of wave-particle duality, a puzzling concept that has ultimately become central to the interpretation of complementarity in quantum mechnanics. In a new twist on this classic experiment, the double slit (with light waves) has been replaced by a diatomic molecule (with electron waves). At ALS Beamline 10.0.1, researchers have shown that diatomic molecules can serve as two-center emitters of electron waves and that traces of electron-wave interference can be directly observed in precise measurements of vibrationally resolved photoionization spectra.

157

NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

Randrup, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Characterization of grain boundary conductivity of spin-sprayed ferrites using scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect

Grain boundary electrical conductivity of ferrite materials has been characterized using scanning microwave microscope. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spin-sprayed thin films onto glass substrates for different length of growth times were investigated using a scanning microwave microscope, an atomic force microscope, a four-point probe measurement, and a made in house transmission line based magnetic permeameter. The real part of the magnetic permeability shows almost constant between 10 and 300?MHz. As the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film thickness increases, the grain size becomes larger, leading to a higher DC conductivity. However, the loss in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at high frequency does not increase correspondingly. By measuring the reflection coefficient s{sub 11} from the scanning microwave microscope, it turns out that the grain boundaries of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit higher electric conductivity than the grains, which contributes loss at radio frequencies. This result will provide guidance for further improvement of low loss ferrite materials for high frequency applications.

Myers, J.; Nicodemus, T.; Zhuang, Y., E-mail: yan.zhuang@wright.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Watanabe, T.; Matsushita, N. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

159

Pick-and-place nanoassembly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new all-additive method for direct fabrication of nanometer-scale planar and multilayer structures using the probe tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a material reservoir is proposed. The process, which is called ...

Hubert, Brian N., 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Values of Mineral Modulus of Clay Manika Prasad, Ronny Hofmann, Mike Batzle, Colorado School of Mines; M. Kopycinska-Mller, U. Rabe, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the atomic force microscope (AFM) technique and its principles are described in details elsewhere (Rabe et associated with elastic properties measurements of clay minerals with standard pulse transmission techniques

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Atomic Force Microscope Based Near-field Imaging for Probing Cell Surface Interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bovine Serum FDTD Finite Difference Time Domain FEM Finite Element Method FRET F?rster Resonance Energy Transfer FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum L-M Lorenz-Mie MEM Minimum Essential Medium QD Quantum Dot RFP Red Fluorescent Protein TE Transverse... .................... 63 4.4 Modeling of WGMs in microspheres with inhomogeneous surrounding ......... 66 4.4.1 ADDA ................................................................................................... 66 4.4.2 L-M model...

Amini, Sina

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

162

A Tutorial on the Mechanisms, Dynamics, and Control of Atomic Force Microscopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are described from a controls perspective and recent advances geared at increasing the performance, danny@agilent.com S. B. Andersson is an assistant professor of Aerospace and Me- chanical Engineering Technologies, Inc. and the US National Science Foundation (NSF Grant CMS-0201459). Georg Schitter's work

163

Calibration of the torsional spring constant and the lateral photodiode response of frictional force microscopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Calibration of the torsional spring constant and the lateral photodiode response of frictional simultaneously calibrates the photodiode response to the angular deflection of the cantilever. It does not rely steps: the calibration of the lateral photodiode response to convert the measured volts to the angle

Attard, Phil

164

Protective Force Program Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

165

Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect

We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ?}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ?}? effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ?} images.

Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

166

ILC Citizens' Task Force  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force June 2008 Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force 3 Contents 1 Executive Summary 3 Chapter 1 Purpose 7 Chapter 2 Origins and Purpose of the Fermilab Citizens' Task Force 15 Chapter 3 Setting the Stage 19 Chapter 4 Current Status of High Energy Physics Research 25 Chapter 5 Bringing the Next-Generation Accelerator to Fermilab 31 Chapter 6 Learning from Past Projects 37 Chapter 7 Location, Construction and Operation of Facilities Beyond Fermilab's Borders 45 Chapter 8 Health and Safety 49 Chapter 9 Environment 53 Chapter 10 Economics 59 Chapter 11 Political Considerations 65 Chapter 12 Community Engagement 77 Chapter 13 Summary 81 Appendices Appendix A. Task Force Members Appendix B. Task Force Meetings and Topics

167

Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C{sub KOH}) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ?10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C{sub KOH} from ?0.05?M to ?0.60?M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO{sub 2} substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C{sub KOH} was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H{sub 2} bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H{sub 2} supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t{sub d} on C{sub KOH} was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

Fisichella, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 95121 Catania (Italy); Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria, 6 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F., E-mail: filippo.giannazzo@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 95121 Catania (Italy); Ravesi, S. [STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50 95121 Catania (Italy)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

168

Impact of particle size on interaction forces between ettringite and dispersing comb-polymers in various electrolyte solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The inter-particle forces play a fundamental role for the flow properties of a particle suspension in response to shear stresses. In concrete applications, cement admixtures based on comb-polymers like polycarboxylate-ether-based superplasticizer (PCE) are used to control the rheological behavior of the fresh mixtures, as it is negatively impacted by certain early hydration products, like the mineral ettringite. In this work, dispersion forces due to PCE were measured directly at the surface of ettringite crystals in different electrolyte solutions by the means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) applying spherical and sharp silicon dioxide tips. Results show an effective repulsion between ettringite surface and AFM tips for solutions above the IEP of ettringite (pH?12) and significant attraction in solution at lower pH. The addition of polyelectrolytes in solution provides dispersion forces exclusively between the sharp tips (radius?10nm) and the ettringite surface, whereas the polymer layer at the ettringite surface results to be unable to disperse large colloidal probes (radius?10?m). A simple modeling of the inter-particle forces explains that, for large particles, the steric hindrance of the studied PCE molecules is not high enough to compensate for the Van der Waals and the attractive electrostatic contributions. Therefore, in cement suspensions the impact of ettringite on rheology is probably not only related to the particle charge, but also related to the involved particle sizes.

Lucia Ferrari; Josef Kaufmann; Frank Winnefeld; Johann Plank

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

170

Scanning tip microwave near field microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Wei, Tao (Albany, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment Print A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment Print Two centuries ago, Thomas Young performed the classic demonstration of the wave nature of light. He placed a screen with two tiny slits in front of a single light source, effectively converting it into a two-centered source. On a second screen far away, he saw a pattern of light and dark diffraction fringes, a well-known hallmark of wave interference. Along with later studies using particles instead of light, the experiment played a crucial role in establishing the validity of wave-particle duality, a puzzling concept that has ultimately become central to the interpretation of complementarity in quantum mechnanics. In a new twist on this classic experiment, the double slit (with light waves) has been replaced by a diatomic molecule (with electron waves). At ALS Beamline 10.0.1, researchers have shown that diatomic molecules can serve as two-center emitters of electron waves and that traces of electron-wave interference can be directly observed in precise measurements of vibrationally resolved photoionization spectra.

172

A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment Print A Microscopic Double-Slit Experiment Print Two centuries ago, Thomas Young performed the classic demonstration of the wave nature of light. He placed a screen with two tiny slits in front of a single light source, effectively converting it into a two-centered source. On a second screen far away, he saw a pattern of light and dark diffraction fringes, a well-known hallmark of wave interference. Along with later studies using particles instead of light, the experiment played a crucial role in establishing the validity of wave-particle duality, a puzzling concept that has ultimately become central to the interpretation of complementarity in quantum mechnanics. In a new twist on this classic experiment, the double slit (with light waves) has been replaced by a diatomic molecule (with electron waves). At ALS Beamline 10.0.1, researchers have shown that diatomic molecules can serve as two-center emitters of electron waves and that traces of electron-wave interference can be directly observed in precise measurements of vibrationally resolved photoionization spectra.

173

Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}?{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.310.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Protective Force Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

175

ATLAS Metadata Task Force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATLAS Metadata Task Force D. Costanzo, J. Cranshaw, S.provided and approved by the ATLAS TDAQ and DCS Connectinformation, go to http://atlas-connect-forum.web.cern.ch/

Costanzo, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Federal Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

177

Constraint and Restoring Force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-lived sensor network applications must be able to self-repair and adapt to changing demands. We introduce a new approach for doing so: Constraint and Restoring Force. CRF is a physics-inspired framework for computing ...

Beal, Jacob

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

179

Steam engines on a microscopic scale  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the operation of a miniature steam engine that can develop 100 times more power than existing microsystems actuated by electrostatic forces. The topics of the article include current uses for electrostatic actuators and possible applications of the miniature steam engine, the design and operation of the engine, and problems associated with increasing the operating frequency of the engine.

O'Connor, L.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Development of a combined interference microscope objective and scanning probe microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A compact sensor head combining optical interference and scanning probe microscopy in a single instrument has been developed. This instrument is able to perform complementary quantitative measurements combining fast nondestructive three-dimensional surface analysis with high lateral resolution imaging. A custom interference microscopesensor head has been designed as the optical microscope objective and integrated within the architecture of a commercial interference microscope. The combined instrument makes available both the acquisition software and the hardware interface of the commercial microscope. The latter is able to function as a phase-shift interferometer or white light interferometer. Furthermore the use of an optical fiber to transmit light from an external laser: (i) removes a major heat source from the measurement environment and (ii) makes aperture correction unnecessary. The lateral resolution of the instrument has been extended by the addition of a previously developed compact scanning probe microscope(SPM) module to the custom interference microscope objective. This SPM unit is based upon piezoresistive cantilever technology. The piezolevers are self-sensing and therefore require no additional systems such as optical beam deflection or fiber interferometry to monitor their displacement. The mechanical simplicity of the piezolever SPM unit allows for a small physical size and can thus be added to the custom optical sensor head without violating constraints on the working distance defined by the optics. A major benefit of the system in terms of a quantitative nanometrology is the possibility to perform a traceable and direct calibration of the SPM module. This calibration is achieved practically by measuring an appropriate sample at a common location using both techniques. Results are presented here for the measurement of two calibration standards and a test sample to demonstrate the increased lateral resolution of the instrument.

James W. G. Tyrrell; Claudio Dal Savio; Rolf Krger-Sehm; Hans-Ulrich Danzebrink

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Deformation induced changes in surface properties of polymers investigated by scanning force microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study the possibility of combining commercial Scanning Force Microscopes (SFM) with stretching devices for the investigation of microscopic surface changes during stepwise elongation is investigated. Different types of stretching devices have been developed either for Scanning Platform-SFM or for Stand Alone-SFM. Their suitability for the investigation of deformation induced surface changes is demonstrated. A uniaxially oriented polypropylene film is stretched vertically to its extrusion direction. The reorientation of its microfibrillar structure is investigated and correlated to macroscopic structural changes determined by taking a force-elongation curve. Microtome cuts of natural rubber filled with 15 PHR carbon black are stretched. Changes in topography, local stiffness and adhesive force are simultaneously reported by using a new imaging method called Pulsed Force Mode (PFM).

Sabine Hild; Armin Rosa; Othmar Marti

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

Single-molecule force spectroscopy: Practical limitations beyond Bell's model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments, as well as a number of other physical systems, are governed by thermally activated transitions out of a metastable state under the action of a steadily increasing external force. The main observable in such experiments is the distribution of the forces, at which the escape events occur. The challenge in interpreting the experimental data is to relate them to the microscopic system properties. We work out a maximum likelihood approach and show that it is the optimal method to tackle this problem. When fitting actual experimental data it is unavoidable to assume some functional form for the force-dependent escape rate. We consider a quite general and common such functional form and demonstrate by means of data from a realistic computer experiment that the maximum number of fit parameters that can be determined reliably is three. They are related to the force-free escape rate and the position and height of the activation barrier. Furthermore, the results for the first two of these fit parameters show little dependence on the assumption about the manner in which the barrier decreases with the applied force, while the last one, the barrier height in the absence of force, depends strongly on this assumption.

Sebastian Getfert; Mykhaylo Evstigneev; Peter Reimann

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

183

Long working distance incoherent interference microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); De Boer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

184

Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Microscopic study of Ca$+$Ca fusion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the fusion barriers for reactions involving Ca isotopes $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}$, $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$, and $\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ using the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. We also study the excitation of the pre-equilibrium GDR for the $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ system and the associated $\\gamma$-ray emission spectrum. Fusion cross-sections are calculated using the incoming-wave boundary condition approach. We examine the dependence of fusion barriers on collision energy as well as on the different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction.

R. Keser; A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

186

Simulations of friction force microscopy on the KBr(001) surface based on ab initio calculated tip-sample forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on ab initio-based simulations of friction-force microscopy on the KBr(001) surface at zero and nonzero temperature. To simulate sliding friction, we employ an extended three-dimensional (3D) Prandtl-Tomlinson model. The microscopic part of the tip is modeled by K+- or Br--terminated tips. We use a tip-surface interaction potential, which is calculated within local-density approximation of density-functional theory and supplemented by a long-range van der Waals interaction resulting from the macroscopic part of the tip. Thermal fluctuations are included via random white noise. The loading force acting on the tip enters the Langevin equation of motion separately from all other forces so that it can be changed at will. We analyze friction as a function of loading force, temperature, and mass of the tip and identify regions of these parameters where distinct stick-slip behavior or ultra-low friction occurs. A comparison of our 3D ab initioresults with those obtained using sinusoidal tip-surface forces (1D model) is very revealing. By and large, both approaches yield results in good agreement at T=0K. At higher temperatures, however, distinct differences occur. For example, at T=295K, the 1D model calculations overestimate the friction hysteresis and energy dissipation, and for positive loading forces they even can yield a different periodicity in the friction-force profile.

Christine Wieferink; Peter Krger; Johannes Pollmann

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

187

A compact scanning soft X-ray microscope  

SciTech Connect

Soft x-ray microscopes operating at wavelengths between 2.3 nm and 4.4 nm are capable of imaging wet biological cells with a resolution many times that of a visible light microscope. Several such soft x-ray microscopes have been constructed. However, with the exception of contact microscopes, all use synchrotrons as the source of soft x-ray radiation and Fresnel zone plates as the focusing optics. These synchrotron based microscopes are very successful but have the disadvantage of limited access. This dissertation reviews the construction and performance of a compact scanning soft x-ray microscope whose size and accessibility is comparable to that of an electron microscope. The microscope uses a high-brightness laser-produced plasma as the soft x-ray source and normal incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild configuration as the focusing optics. The microscope operates at a wavelength of 14 nm, has a spatial resolution of 0.5 {mu}m, and has a soft x-ray photon flux through the focus of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} s{sup {minus}1} when operated with only 170 mW of average laser power. The complete system, including the laser, fits on a single 4{prime} x 8{prime} optical table. The significant components of the compact microscope are the laser-produced plasma (LPP) source, the multilayer coatings, and the Schwarzschild objective. These components are reviewed, both with regard to their particular use in the current microscope and with regard to extending the microscope performance to higher resolution, higher speed, and operation at shorter wavelengths. Measurements of soft x-ray emission and debris emission from our present LPP source are presented and considerations given for an optimal LPP source. The LPP source was also used as a broadband soft x-ray source for measurement of normal incidence multilayer mirror reflectance in the 10-25 nm spectral region.

Trail, J.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

On the microscopic origin of light scattering in tissue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding the nature of light scattering within tissue is a crucial issue for development of medical imaging techniques. Microscopic measurements of static light-scattering...

Kaplan, Peter; Weissman, Jesse; Hancewicz, Tom; Popp, Alois; Weitz, David

189

A Low-Cost Reflectance FT-IR Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) microscope combines microscopy with infrared (IR) spectroscopic molecular characterization. IR microspectroscopy presents a...

Jansen, J A J; Van Der Maas, J H; Posthuma De Boer, A

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

States. Abstract: Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis of uranium-contaminated sediment cores beneath the BX waste tank farm at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated microscopic characterization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

characterization problems with the help... in the electron optics, alignment and optimization of electron microscopes. Students will have plenty... of opportunities for hands-on...

192

High resolution electron microscopic studies on ferrosilite III  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) studies on ferrosilite (Fs) III confirmed the periodicity nine (p=9) of the tetrahedral chains in this silicate. Various chain periodicit...

M. Czank; B. Simons

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Graphite. A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Graphite. Abstract: In this work, highly-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy images of graphite...

194

Work Force Restructuring Activities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Force Restructuring Activities Force Restructuring Activities December 10, 2008 Note: Current updates are in bold # Planned Site/Contractor HQ Approved Separations Status General * LM has finalized the compilation of contractor management team separation data for the end of FY07 actuals and end of FY08 and FY09 projections. LM has submitted to Congress the FY 2007 Annual Report on contractor work force restructuring activities. The report has been posted to the LM website. *LM conducted a DOE complex-wide data call to the Field and Operations offices for DOE Contractor Management teams to provide, by program, actual contractor separation data for the end of FY 2008 and projections for the end of FY 2009 and FY 2010. The data will be used to keep senior management informed of upcoming large WFR actions.

195

Functionalized aerogels new nanomaterials for energy-efficient building. Preliminary AFM, Nanoidentation and EIS studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aerogels are highly porous nanostructured materials with excellent thermal insulation properties. The possibility to add additional function to functionalize the aerogels, especially to produce photovoltaic electricity, will make them an excellent candidate for energy-efficient building. Going in the direction of this midterm goal we start with the investigation of the properties of the readily available silica aerogels. Atomic Force Microscopy reveals large areas with submicrometer roughness, which allows reliable nanoidentation measurements. The average hardness was measured to be 2,2 MPa and the Young's modulus was 11 MPa, values typical for low density elastic silica aerogels. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, measured in ambient air, shows typical capacitive behaviour and the aerogel is best modelled by serially connected resistance of 37 k? and capacitor of 170 pF. The conductivity is interpreted in terms of proton migration, strongly dependant on air humidity.

G R Ivanov; R Tomova; S T Djambova; M Nadoliiski; D Dimova-Malinovska

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

197

Protective Force Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

198

Work Force Discipline  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

199

Contractor Protective Force  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

200

Visual Positioning of Previously Defined ROIs on Microscopic Slides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Visual Positioning of Previously Defined ROIs on Microscopic Slides Grigory Begelman, Michael slide area. Various microscopy related medical applications, such as telepathology and computer aided of interest. In this paper we present a method for image-based auto positioning on a microscope slide

Rivlin, Ehud

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Casimir Friction Force for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Casimir friction is analyzed for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion. We first adopt a microscopic model for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature T moving non-relativistically with constant velocity. We use a statistical-mechanical description where time-dependent correlations are involved. This description is physical and direct, and, in spite of its simplicity, is able to elucidate the essentials of the problem. This treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory of ours back in 1992. The energy change Delta E turns out to be finite in general, corresponding to a finite friction force. In the limit of zero temperature the formalism yields, however, Delta E ->0, this being due to our assumption about constant velocity, meaning slowly varying coupling. For couplings varying more rapidly, there will also be a finite friction force at T=0. As second part of our work, we consider the friction problem using time-dependent perturbation theory. The dissipation, basically a second order effect, is obtainable with the use of first order theory, the reason being the absence of cross terms due to uncorrelated phases of eigenstates. The third part of the present paper is to demonstrate explicitly the equivalence of our results with those recently obtained by Barton (2010); this being not a trivial task since the formal results are seemingly quite different from each other.

Johan S. Hye; Iver Brevik

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

202

ARMY SERVICE FORCES  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ARMY SERVICE FORCES ARMY SERVICE FORCES ' -, 1 MANHATTAN ENGINEER DISTRICT --t 4 IN "LPLI RC,' LR io EIDM CIS INTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY DIVISION CHICAGO BRANCH OFFICE i ., -,* - P. 0. Box 6770-A I ' 1 .' CHICAGO 80. ILLINOIS /lvb 15 February 1945 Subject: shipment Security Survey at &Uinckrodt Chemical Works. MEMORANDUM to the Officer in Charge. 1. The Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Missouri, was contacted by the undersigned on 16 November 1944, for the purpose of -king an investigation to determine security provided shipments of interest to the Manhattan Engineer District. The investigation in- cluded shipments of vital materials originating with the Mallinckrodt Company and those received by them. Particular attention has been given to the future production and shipment schedules of these materials.

203

Modified entropic force  

SciTech Connect

The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

Gao Changjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, NAOC, CAS, Beijing, 100012 and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Norms of Presentational Force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 15 hope to illustrate the close connection between emotional appeal and premise adequacy. After arguing that the Declaration of Independence and Constitution secure...Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. "Norms of Presentational Force." Argumentation and Advocacy 41 (2005): 139-51. Official publishers version: http://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. 1 Citation: Innocenti Manolescu, Beth...

Innocenti, Beth

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Real-time atomic-resolution imaging of crystal growth process in water by phase modulation atomic force microscopy at one frame per second  

SciTech Connect

Recent advancement in dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) has enabled its operation in liquid with atomic-scale resolution. However, its imaging speed has often been too slow to visualize atomic-scale dynamic processes. Here, we propose a method for making a significant improvement in the operation speed of dynamic-mode AFM. In this method, we use a wideband and low-latency phase detector with an improved algorithm for the signal complexification. We demonstrate atomic-scale imaging of a calcite crystal growth process in water at one frame per second. The significant improvement in the imaging speed should enable various studies on unexplored atomic-scale interfacial processes.

Miyata, Kazuki [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Asakawa, Hitoshi [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)] [Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Fukuma, Takeshi, E-mail: fukuma@staff.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan) [Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Bio-AFM Frontier Research Center, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); ACT-C, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Honcho 4-1-9, Kawaguchi 332-0012 (Japan)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

207

Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon nanowires extracted from Si(111) surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon...silicon|tungsten| Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon...Semiconductor Special Issue Simultaneous STM and UHV electron microscope observation of silicon......

Y. Naitoh; K. Takayanagi; Y. Oshima; H. Hirayama

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0.5 0.5 The TEAM 0.5 microscope is a double-aberration-corrected (scanning) transmission electron microscope (STEM/TEM) capable of producing images with 50 pm resolution. The basic instrument is a modified FEI Titan 80-300 microscope equipped with a special high-brightness Schottky-field emission electron source, a gun monochromator, a high-resolution GIF Tridiem energy-filter, and two CEOS hexapole-type spherical aberration correctors. The illumination aberration corrector corrects coherent axial aberrations up to 4th order, as well as 5th order spherical aberration and six-fold astigmatism. The imaging aberration corrector fully corrects for coherent axial aberrations up to 3rd order and partially compensates for 4th and 5th order aberrations. The microscope has two 2048x2048 slow-scan CCD

209

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron microscopy and microanalysis Two transmission electron microscopes (TEM) and three scanning electron micro- scopes (SEM) are operated by the De- partment. Attachments for TEM include energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), scanning transmission attachment, serial electron energy loss

210

Department of Mechanical Engineering "Heat Under the Microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications ranging from thermoelectric waste heat recovery to radio astronomy. BIOGRAPHY Austin MinnichDepartment of Mechanical Engineering presents "Heat Under the Microscope: Uncovering an essential role in nearly every technological application, ranging from space power generation to consumer

Militzer, Burkhard

211

Lensless digital holographic microscope with light-emitting diode illumination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate the operation of a digital in-line microscope with LED illumination. We show with a practical example that, for typical setups, the limited temporal coherence and the...

Repetto, L; Piano, E; Pontiggia, C

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Development of a Schwarzschild-type x-ray microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Schwarzschild-type x-ray microscope has been designed, constructed, and tested. Ni/C multilayers were used as the x-ray mirrors, with a thickness (2d) of 7 nm and 30 layer pairs. The...

Kado, M; Yamashita, K; Ohtani, M; Tanaka, K A; Kodama, R; Kitamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Nakai, S

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Microscopic observations of samples affected by delayed ettringite formation (DEF)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article, which deals with the study of the microscopic modifications of DEF-affected materials, has two main objectives. The first one is to study the influence of sample preparation on the microcracks of sp...

Nordine Leklou; Jean-Emmanuel Aubert; Gilles Escadeillas

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Construction of an ultra-low temperature scanning tunneling microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe designs and specifications of an ultra-low temperature scanning tunneling microscope developed at ... works over a wide temperature range between 90 mK and 300 K with atomic resolution as...

Hiroshi Fukuyama; Hiroki Tan; Tetsuya Handa

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Four generations of high-voltage electron microscopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......microscopes 307 Table 3 Edge lengths of elementary cubes. a0, and separations...data were obtained by electrical resistance measurements [41,42], those...measure- ment of the residual electric resistance using 'conven- tional' accelerator......

Alfred Seeger

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The indentation of pressurized elastic shells: from polymeric capsules to yeast cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...common to use an atomic force microscope (AFM) in...shell theory. From a fundamental point of view, the indentation...action of a point-like force, F. Numerical simulations...A. Kwade 2010 Atomic force microscopy studies on...and I. A. Stegun 1964 Handbook of mathematical functions...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Installation of the MAXIMUM microscope at the ALS  

SciTech Connect

The MAXIMUM scanning x-ray microscope, developed at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison was implemented on the Advanced Light Source in August of 1995. The microscope`s initial operation at SRC successfully demonstrated the use of multilayer coated Schwarzschild objective for focusing 130 eV x-rays to a spot size of better than 0.1 micron with an electron energy resolution of 250meV. The performance of the microscope was severely limited, because of the relatively low brightness of SRC, which limits the available flux at the focus of the microscope. The high brightness of the ALS is expected to increase the usable flux at the sample by a factor of 1,000. The authors will report on the installation of the microscope on bending magnet beamline 6.3.2 at the ALS and the initial measurement of optical performance on the new source, and preliminary experiments with surface chemistry of HF etched Si will be described.

Ng, W.; Perera, R.C.C.; Underwood, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Singh, S.; Solak, H.; Cerrina, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stoughton, WI (United States). Center for X-ray Lithography

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN MICROSCOPY A Thesis Presented in Partial modifications a spectroscopic imaging instrument, a Raman microscope, can be constructed from a common inverted

220

TEXT Pro Force Training  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Protective Basic Protective Force Training Program DOE/IG-0641 March 2004 * None of the 10 sites included instruction in rappelling even though it was part of the special response team core curriculum and continued to be offered by the Nonprolif- eration and National Security Institute; * Only one site conducted basic training on use of a shotgun, despite the fact that a num- ber of sites used the weapon for breaching exercises and other purposes; and, * Seven of the sites modified prescribed training techniques by reducing the intensity or delivery method for skills that some security experts characterized as critical, such as handcuffing, hand-to- hand combat, and vehicle assaults. We found that the Department's facilities were not required to report departures from the core

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

Wu, You-Lin, E-mail: ylwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Liao, Chun-Wei [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China); Ling, Jing-Jenn [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PROTECTIVE FORCE PROTECTIVE FORCE FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Health, Safety and Security AVAILABLE ONLINE AT: INITIATED BY: http://www.hss.energy.gov Office of Health, Safety and Security Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses July 2011 i TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION A - APPROVED FIREARMS QUALIFICATION COURSES .......................... I-1 CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... I-1 1. Scope .................................................................................................................. I-1 2. Content ............................................................................................................... I-1

223

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

224

A new scanning photoemission microscope for ELETTRA: SuperMAXIMUM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High brightness third?generation synchrotrons allow diffraction?limited performance and large flux for scanning photoemission microscopes. A new microscope SuperMAXIMUM is being developed at the University of Wisconsin Center for X ray Lithography in collaboration with the Sincrotrone Trieste. The beamline being built in Trieste uses a variable angle spherical gratingmonochromator (VASGM). A combination of rotation of a plane mirror and rotation of the spherical grating keeps the slit positions and beam directions fixed. The microscope objectives are normal?incidence multilayer?coated Schwarzschild objectives. The project which is nearing completion utilizes novel designs for optics alignment sample rastering mechanics and software control. We will discuss the project status new designs and techniques.

John T. Welnak; H. Solak; J. Wallace; F. Cerrina; F. Barbo; M. Bertolo; A. Bianco; S. Di Fonzo; S. Fontana; W. Jark; F. Mazzolini; R. Rosei; A. Savoia; J.H. Underwood; G. Margaritondo

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

A new scanning photoemission microscope for ELETTRA: SuperMAXIMUM  

SciTech Connect

High brightness, third-generation synchrotrons allow diffraction-limited performance and large flux for scanning photoemission microscopes. A new microscope, SuperMAXIMUM, is being developed at the University of Wisconsin Center for X ray Lithography in collaboration with the Sincrotrone Trieste. The beamline, being built in Trieste, uses a variable angle spherical grating monochromator (VASGM). A combination of rotation of a plane mirror and rotation of the spherical grating keeps the slit positions and beam directions fixed. The microscope objectives are normal-incidence, multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objectives. The project, which is nearing completion, utilizes novel designs for optics alignment, sample rastering mechanics, and software control. We will discuss the project status, new designs, and techniques. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Welnak, J.T.; Solak, H.; Wallace, J.; Cerrina, F.; Barbo, F.; Bertolo, M.; Bianco, A.; Di Fonzo, S.; Fontana, S.; Jark, W.; Mazzolini, F.; Rosei, R.; Savoia, A.; Underwood, J.; Margaritondo, G. [University of WI--Center for X ray Lithography, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States)] [University of WI--Center for X ray Lithography, 3731 Schneider Drive, Stoughton, WI 53589 (United States); [Sincrotrone Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34012, Trieste (Italy); [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Center for X ray Optics, 1 Cyclotron Road, 80-101, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); [Institut de Physique Appliqee, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Mapping of Proteomic Composition on the Surfaces of Bacillus spores by Atomic Force Microscopy-based Immunolabeling  

SciTech Connect

Atomic force microscopy provides a unique capability to image high-resolution architecture and structural dynamics of pathogens (e.g. viruses, bacteria and bacterial spores) at near molecular resolution in native conditions. Further development of atomic force microscopy in order to enable the correlation of pathogen protein surface structures with specific gene products is essential to understand the mechanisms of the pathogen life cycle. We have applied an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures through the visualization of the binding of antibodies, conjugated with nanogold particles, to specific epitopes on Bacillus spore surfaces. This information is generated while simultaneously acquiring the surface morphology of the pathogen. The immunospecificity of this labeling method was established through the utilization of specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies that target spore coat and exosporium epitopes of Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus anthracis spores.

Plomp, M; Malkin, A J

2008-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Forces which lift Aeroplanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... cylinder. To avoid unnecessary complications we use Heaviside's rational electromagnetic units. Then the hydroelectric current i equals the line-integral of the hydro-magnetic force, i.e. of ... actions-at-a-distance. From the propeller blade the way is not far to the turbine blade. The type of driving force will remain the same whether the driving medium ...

V. K. F. BJERKNES

1924-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

228

Ecosystem Task Force Meeting Minutes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in violation of the clean water act 2. Long term tracking can identify problems and remediation techniques. 3. A focus on planning helps ground the Task Force because of the complexity of ecosystems. UNH targets for future reductions? 3.1. No. We could work on those with the Task Force. Water Quality

New Hampshire, University of

229

Comparative study of three-nucleon force models in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter using the microscopic many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach and employing the Argonne V18 (AV18) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential supplemented with two different three-nucleon force models recently constructed to reproduce the binding energy of $^3$H, $^3$He and $^4$He nuclei as well as the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. We find that none of these new three-nucleon force models is able to reproduce simultaneously the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and the properties of three- and four-nucleon systems.

Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Variational Scheme to Compute Protein Reaction Pathways using Atomistic Force Fields with Explicit Solvent  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a variational approximation to the microscopic dynamics of rare conformational transitions of macromolecules. Within this framework it is possible to simulate on a small computer cluster reactions as complex as protein folding, using state of the art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. We test this method against molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the folding of an alpha- and a beta-protein performed with the same all-atom force field on the Anton supercomputer. We find that our approach yields results consistent with those of MD simulations, at a computational cost orders of magnitude smaller.

S. a Beccara; L. Fant; P. Faccioli

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

231

Role of Three-Nucleon Forces in Neutron-Rich Nuclei Beyond 132Sn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of three-nucleon forces (3NF) in the description of nuclear structure properties is nowadays a main topic in the field of microscopic many-nucleon calculations. We investigate the relative weight between effective two- and three-nucleon forces in neutron-rich nuclei beyond the doubly-closed 132Sn core within the realistic shell-model framework, studying the evolution of the spectroscopic properties of N=82 isotopes and heavy tin isotopes. This problem is tackled indirectly without explicitly taking into account effective 3NF through the comparison of the results of shell-model calculations obtained from realistic on-shell-equivalent low-momentum potentials.

Coraggio, L; Itaco, N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Multimode AFM (Nanoscope) | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

grown... Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using...

233

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Ken Gray P.E. HQ AFCESA /CENR Air Force Renewable Energy Programs April, 2011 FUPWG "Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics  Air Force Energy Use  Air Force Facility Energy Center  Current RE Generation  Project Development System  Programmed RE Generation FY11-13  Goal Achievement 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Air Force 2010 Energy Use The Air Force spent approximately $8.2 billion for energy in 2010; an increase of 22% from 2009 Energy Cost and Consumption Trends Energy Cost Breakdown Aviation 79% Facilities 17% 3 Aviation 84% Facilities 12% Vehicles & Equipment

234

Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Rosser, Roy (Princeton, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanisms of Nickel Sorption on Pyrophyllite: Macroscopic and Microscopic Approaches Andre M of the sorption mechanisms of heavy metals on soil mineral surfaces is therefore of fundamental importance. This study examined Ni(Il) sorption mechanisms on pyrophyllite. The removal of Ni from solution was studied

Sparks, Donald L.

236

Vibration Proof Construction of 1000kV Electron Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......University Press 1970 other ORIGINAL Vibration Proof Construction of 1000kV Electron...with the center of gravity. That is, a vibration proof hanging console was made as a method...protecting a 1000kV Electron Microscope from vibration, and this allowed the whole instrument......

Yoshio SAKITANI; Susumu OZASA

1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Neutrinoless double beta decay in the microscopic interacting boson model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of a calculation of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay in the closure approximation in several nuclei within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM?2) are presented and compared with those calculated in the shell model (SM) and quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA).

F. Iachello

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Quantum microscopic approach to low-energy heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of nuclear reactions at low energy where quantum effects play a significant role is an important challenge of nuclear physics. The interplay between nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms is crucial at energiesQuantum microscopic approach to low-energy heavy ion collisions C´edric Simenel1,2, Aditya Wakhle2

239

Oscillating String as a Force Sensor in Scanning Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a sensor that uses an oscillating string to detect forces. A cantilever beam serves as a sample stage. The string is attached to the free end of ... the free end of the beam modifies the string tension...

A. Stalder; U. Drig

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore the microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can impact several understandings such as survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. To describe the neutron emission rates microscopically, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the Finite-Temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by HFB-AX in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gas are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained based on the densities of external neutron gases. The thermal statistical properties of $^{238}$U and $^{258}$U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in $^{238, 258}$U and superheavy compound nuclei $_{112}^{278}$Cn and $_{114}^{292}$Fl are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting an excitation-energy-dependent level density parameter. The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

Yi Zhu; Junchen Pei

2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Microtopography of the eye surface of the crab Carcinus maenas: an atomic force microscope study suggesting a possible antifouling potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...compared with one-way ANOVA or a Kruskal-Wallis test (the latter if conditions...one-way ANOVA, p A r = 0.628; Kruskal-Wallis test, p Skr = 0.362, p Skw...0.144, pA r = 0.103; Kruskal-Wallis test: p Skr = 0.468, p Skw...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Argonne CNM: Proximal Probes Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proximal Probes Proximal Probes Capabilities Omicron VT-AFM XA microscope scanning tunneling microscope VIew high-resolution image. Variable-temperature, ultra-high-vacuum, atomic force microscope/scanning tunneling microscope: Omicron VT-AFM XA (N. Guisinger, Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Group) Measurement modes include: Contact and non-contact AFM Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) Scanning tunneling spectroscopy Preparation tools include: Resistive sample heating Direct current heating E-beam heating Sputter ion etching Gas dosing E-beam evaporation An analysis chamber contains combined four-grid LEED/Auger optics Omicron nanoprobe View high-resolution image Scanning probe/scanning electron microscopy: Omicron UHV Nanoprobe (N. Guisinger, Electronic & Magnetic Materials & Devices Group)

243

Connecting local active forces to macroscopic stress in elastic media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In contrast with ordinary materials, living matter drives its own motion by generating active, out-of-equilibrium internal stresses. These stresses typically originate from localized active elements embedded in an elastic medium, such as molecular motors inside the cell or contractile cells in a tissue. While many large-scale phenomenological theories of such active media have been developed, a systematic understanding of the emergence of stress from the local force-generating elements is lacking. In this paper, we present a rigorous theoretical framework to study this relationship. We show that the medium's macroscopic active stress tensor is equal to the active elements' force dipole tensor per unit volume in both continuum and discrete linear homogeneous media of arbitrary geometries. This relationship is conserved on average in the presence of disorder, but can be violated in nonlinear elastic media. Such effects can lead to either a reinforcement or an attenuation of the active stresses, giving us a glimpse of the ways in which nature might harness microscopic forces to create active materials.

Pierre Ronceray; Martin Lenz

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

244

Prediction of vehicle impact forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

Kaderka, Darrell Laine

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

245

Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

38:1838 Mitotic force generators 79. McDonald HB, StewartREVIEW Mitotic force generators and chromosome segregationbelow) that the force generators (MTs or motors) have only *

Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Scholey, Jonathan M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LIBRA LIBRA The 200kV Zeiss monochromated LIBRA 200MC is designed to produce high contrast imaging for TEM and STEM and either convergent beam or parallel beam diffraction using Koehler illumination.In addition, the incorporation of a monochromator into the field emission gun enables energy resolution of ~0.15eV for electron energy loss spectroscopy. The dedicated in-column Omega Filter implemented in this microscope also can be used for both spectroscopic analysis and energy-filtered imaging with a 2048x2048 CCD camera. The high tilt capability of the stage and pole piece accepts various types of analytical holders.This microscope is optimized for soft materials applications that require either the high contrast imaging performance or analytical methods such as EF-TEM and STEM.( Instrument

247

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AEM AEM AEME The Analytical Electron Microscope is optimized for elemental microanalysis. The basic instrument is a JEOL 200CX microscope with a side-entry double-tilt goniometer stage and an assortment of specimen holders. This machine can be operated at between 80 and 200 kV in the TEM or STEM mode. Electron energy loss and x-ray signals for elemental microanalysis or spectral imaging can be collected either separately or simultaneously using probe diameters from 6nm to 100nm. Diffraction modes include convergent beam diffraction for three-dimensional structure information and micro-diffraction with a minimum probe size of 20nm. For updates or details, contact Zonghoon Lee or Velimir Radmilovic. The instrument is equipped with two Kevex EDXS detectors and a Gatan PEELS

248

Competitive egress behaviour: a fuzzy logic-inspired microscopic model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some recent tragic events in overcrowded situations, as well as the terrorist threat, have highlighted the importance of the availability of good models for pedestrian behaviour under emergency conditions. Existing approaches to crowd models are generally macroscopic or microscopic. In the first case, the crowd is considered to be like a fluid, so that its movement can be described through differential equations. In the second case, the collective behaviour of the crowd is the result of interactions among individual elements of the system. In this paper, we propose a microscopic model of crowd evacuation that incorporates the fuzzy perception and anxiety embedded in human reasoning. The outcomes of the model application, compared to those obtained by other existing models, seem to be quite satisfactory.

Mauro Dell'Orco

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

The early history of the scanning electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The article begins with an account of prewar German work particularly that of von Ardenne who established the theoretical basis of a scanning electron microscope and constructed an instrument which was primarily intended to overcome chromatic aberration when relatively thick specimens were examined by transmission. Neither this microscope nor a different one built a few years later in the U. S. A. attained sufficient resolution to gain acceptance and the reasons for this are examined. The remainder of the article deals with work carried out in the Cambridge University Engineering Department over the years from 1948 to about 1965 when the first successful commercial instrument was produced. The contributions made by successive research students are explained as are also the nonscientific factors which influenced the course of the development.

C. W. Oatley

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

An Estimate of Biofilm Properties using an Acoustic Microscope  

SciTech Connect

Noninvasive measurements over a biofilm, a three-dimensional community of microorganisms immobilized at a substratum, were made using an acoustic microscope operating at frequencies up to 70 MHz. Spatial variation of surface heterogeneity, thickness, interior structure, and biomass of a living biofilm was estimated over a 2.5-mm by 2.5-mm region. Ultrasound based estimates of thickness were corroborated using optical microscopy and the nominal biofilm thickness was 100 microns. Experimental data showed that the acoustic microscope combined with signal processing was capable of imaging and making quantitative estimates of the spatial distribution of biomass within the biofilm. The revealed surface topology and interior structure of the biofilm provide data for use in advanced biofilm mass transport models. The experimental acoustic and optical systems, methods to estimate of biofilm properties and potential applications for the resulting data are discussed.

Good, Morris S.; Wend, Christopher F.; Bond, Leonard J.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Crawford, Susan L.; Daly, Don S.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Measurement of Semiconductor Surface Potential using the Scanning Electron Microscope  

SciTech Connect

We calibrate the secondary electron signal from a standard scanning electron microscope to voltage, yielding an image of the surface or near-surface potential. Data on both atomically abrupt heterojunction GaInP/GaAs and diffused homojunction Si solar cell devices clearly show the expected variation in potential with position and applied bias, giving depletion widths and locating metallurgical junctions to an accuracy better than 10 nm. In some images, distortion near the p-n junction is observed, seemingly consistent with the effects of lateral electric fields (patch fields). Reducing the tube bias removes this distortion. This approach results in rapid and straightforward collection of near-surface potential data using a standard scanning electron microscope.

Heath, J. T.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

252

Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Theory of cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction  

SciTech Connect

An electric force microscope employs a charged atomic force microscope probe in vacuum to measure fluctuating electric forces above the sample surface generated by dynamics of molecules and charge carriers. We present a theoretical description of two observables in electric force microscopy of a semiconductor: the spectral density of cantilever frequency fluctuations (jitter), which are associated with low-frequency dynamics in the sample, and the coefficient of noncontact friction, induced by higher-frequency motions. The treatment is classical-mechanical, based on linear response theory and classical electrodynamics of diffusing charges in a dielectric continuum. Calculations of frequency jitter explain the absence of contributions from carrier dynamics to previous measurements of an organic field effect transistor. Calculations of noncontact friction predict decreasing friction with increasing carrier density through the suppression of carrier density fluctuations by intercarrier Coulomb interactions. The predicted carrier density dependence of the friction coefficient is consistent with measurements of the dopant density dependence of noncontact friction over Si. Our calculations predict that in contrast to the measurement of cantilever frequency jitter, a noncontact friction measurement over an organic semiconductor could show appreciable contributions from charge carriers.

Lekkala, Swapna; Marohn, John A.; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

253

Task Force Approach | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Task Force Approach Results of the ARI Task Force: The purpose of the ARI Task Force is to 1) identify, prioritize, and resolve issues to enable sites and programs to implement revitalization efforts more effectively and 2) to facilitate programmatic incorporation of revitalization concepts into DOE's programmatic business environments. The Task Force must do this through coordinating and facilitating communication and connections, sharing lessons learned, broadening the general knowledge base, facilitating, analyzing problems, developing implementable solutions, and considering and incorporating broader perspectives and knowledge. The success of the Task Force can be evaluated by impacts to the Department upon its completion. These impacts

254

Microscopic Optical Potentials for Helium-6 Scattering off Protons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The differential cross section and the analyzing power are calculated for elastic scattering of $^6$He from a proton target using a microscopic folding optical potential, in which the $^6$He nucleus is described in terms of a $^4$He-core with two additional neutrons in the valence p-shell. In contrast to previous work of that nature, all contributions from the interaction of the valence neutrons with the target protons are taken into account.

Ch. Elster; A. Orazbayev; S. P. Weppner

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

Development of a heating stage for an optical trapping microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Lang Laboratory specializes in the study of biological systems through research using optical tweezers. Currently, experiments involving force and position manipulations of cellular molecules take place at room ...

Wang, Lynn (Lynn H.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

A Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model for Transportation Planning in Georgios Papageorgiou, Pantelis Damianou, Andreas Pitsilides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model for Transportation Planning in Cyprus Georgios Papageorgiou. This paper presents the microscopic simulation model development of a major traffic network of Nicosia simulation model is developed and utilized for transportation planning. 1. Introduction The demand

Pitsillides, Andreas

257

The study of organic crystals by atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.16 2-D and 3-D height images of a chocolate sample obtained at various storage times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.17 AFM images of the {110} face of paracetamol crystals. . . . . . 26 2.18 AFM images of glycine crystals... ]. Among others, such interactions include hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding, as well as pi-pi interactions [4]. By understanding the behaviour of these interactions, crystal engineering was developed not only for the study of crystal structures, but also...

Chow, Ernest Ho Hin

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Contact angles and surface forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The modern state of the theory of wetting phenomena is considered with special attention to the approach based on the theory of surface forces. Contribution of the effects of molecular, electrostatic and short-range structural forces to wetting films stability and forming contact angles is discussed. The magnitudes of contact angles may be predicted on the basis of isotherms of disjoining pressure of wetting films that include Hamaker constants, electrical potentials of solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces, and experimental constants that characterize the structural forces of hydrophilic repulsion and hydrophobic attraction. The constants seem to be the same as in the case of interaction of colloidal particles. In the framework of the suggested approach, the influence of surfactants on wetting phenomena was considered.

N.V. Churaev

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Nuclear force in Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

260

Nuclear Forces and Nuclear Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Forces and Nuclear Systems Forces and Nuclear Systems Our goal is to achieve a description of nuclear systems ranging in size from the deuteron to nuclear matter and neutron stars using a single parameterization of the nuclear forces. Our work includes both the construction of two- and three-nucleon potentials and the development of many-body techniques for computing nuclear properties with these interactions. Detailed quantitative, computationally intense studies are essential parts of this work. In the last decade we have constructed several realistic two- and three-nucleon potential models. The NN potential, Argonne v18, has a dominant charge-independent piece plus additional charge-dependent and charge-symmetry-breaking terms, including a complete electromagnetic interaction. It fits 4301 pp and np elastic scattering data with a chi**2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport in microstructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for time-resolved studies of electron spin transport A compact cryogenic Kerr microscope for operation in the small volume of high-field magnets is described-temperature optical microscope, elec- tromagnet and cryogenic cell with cold finger to measure continuous-wave cw

van der Wal, Caspar H.

262

Hands-On and Minds-On Modeling Activities to Improve Students' Conceptions of Microscopic Friction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hands-On and Minds-On Modeling Activities to Improve Students' Conceptions of Microscopic Friction of microscopic friction. We will also present our investigation on the relative effectiveness of the use, it is possible to facilitate the refinement of students' ideas of microscopic friction. Keywords: friction

Zollman, Dean

263

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

264

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

265

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Casimir force on a piston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a massless scalar field obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions on the walls of a two-dimensional L x b rectangular box, divided by a movable partition (piston) into two compartments of dimensions a x b and (L-a) x b. We compute the Casimir force on the piston in the limit L -> infinity. Regardless of the value of a/b, the piston is attracted to the nearest end of the box. Asymptotic expressions for the Casimir force on the piston are derived for a > b.

R. M. Cavalcanti

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

267

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected Utilities Need to Do More to Prepare for Their Future Work Force Needs.............................................................................20 #12;ii Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities #12;1 Work Force Planning for Public Power

268

Solvent-induced forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect

The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cryogenic scanning force microscopy of quantum Hall samples: Adiabatic transport originating in anisotropic depletion at contact interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Anisotropic magnetoresistances and intrinsic adiabatic transport features are generated on quantum Hall samples based on an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs heterostructure with alloyed Au/Ge/Ni contacts. We succeed to probe the microscopic origin of these transport features with a cryogenic scanning force microscope by measuring the local potential distribution within the two-dimensional electron system (2DES). These local measurements reveal the presence of an incompressible strip in front of contacts with insulating properties depending on the orientation of the contact/2DES interface line relatively to the crystal axes of the heterostructure. Such an observation gives another microscopic meaning to the term nonideal contact used in context with the Landauer-Bttiker formalism applied to the quantum Hall effect.

F. Dahlem; E. Ahlswede; J. Weis; K. v. Klitzing

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

270

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Energy Task Force to Energy Task Force to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Energy Task Force on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Energy Task Force The Governor's Task Force on Energy Policy is developing a state energy plan to facilitate energy efficiency and the use of alternative and renewable fuels in Tennessee. The energy plan will include a summary of

271

Microscopic self-energy calculations and dispersive optical-model potentials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nucleon self-energies for 40Ca, 48Ca, 60Ca isotopes are generated with the microscopic Faddeev-random-phase approximation (FRPA). These self-energies are compared with potentials from the dispersive optical model (DOM) that were obtained from fitting elastic-scattering and bound-state data for 40Ca and 48Ca. The \\textit{ab initio} FRPA is capable of explaining many features of the empirical DOM potentials including their nucleon asymmetry dependence. The comparison furthermore provides several suggestions to improve the functional form of the DOM potentials, including among others the exploration of parity and angular momentum dependence. The non-locality of the FRPA imaginary self-energy, illustrated by a substantial orbital angular momentum dependence, suggests that future DOM fits should consider this feature explicitly. The roles of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force and charge-exchange component in generating the asymmetry dependence of the FPRA self-energies are explored. The global features of the FRPA self-energies are not strongly dependent on the choice of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction.

S. J. Waldecker; C. Barbieri; W. H. Dickhoff

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Correlated density-dependent chiral forces for infinite-matter calculations within the Green's function approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are investigated within an extended self-consistent Green's function method that includes the effects of three-body forces. We use the ladder approximation for the study of infinite nuclear matter and incorporate the three-body interaction by means of a density-dependent two-body force. This force is obtained via a correlated average over the third particle, with an in-medium propagator consistent with the many-body calculation we perform. We analyze different prescriptions in the construction of the average and conclude that correlations provide small modifications at the level of the density-dependent force. Microscopic as well as bulk properties are studied, focusing on the changes introduced by the density-dependent two-body force. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sum rule. Our results validate previously used uncorrelated averages and extend the availability of chirally motivated forces to a larger density regime.

Arianna Carbone; Arnau Rios; Artur Polls

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

273

Correlated density-dependent chiral forces for infinite matter calculations within the Green's function approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are investigated within an extended self-consistent Green's function method that includes the effects of three-body forces. We use the ladder approximation for the study of infinite nuclear matter and incorporate the three-body interaction by means of a density-dependent two-body force. This force is obtained via a correlated average over the third particle, with an in-medium propagator consistent with the many-body calculation we perform. We analyze different prescriptions in the construction of the average and conclude that correlations provide small modifications at the level of the density-dependent force. Microscopic as well as bulk properties are studied, focusing on the changes introduced by the density dependent two-body force. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sum rule. Our results validate previously used uncorrelated averages and extend the availability of chirally motivated forces to a larger density regime.

Arianna Carbone; Arnau Rios; Artur Polls

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

274

Linker Dependent Bond Rupture Force Measurements in Single-Molecule Junctions  

SciTech Connect

We use a modified conducting atomic force microscope to simultaneously probe the conductance of a single-molecule junction and the force required to rupture the junction formed by alkanes terminated with four different chemical link groups which vary in binding strength and mechanism to the gold electrodes. Molecular junctions with amine, methylsulfide, and diphenylphosphine terminated molecules show clear conductance signatures and rupture at a force that is significantly smaller than the measured 1.4 nN force required to rupture the single-atomic gold contact. In contrast, measurements with a thiol terminated alkane which can bind covalently to the gold electrode show conductance and force features unlike those of the other molecules studied. Specifically, the strong Au-S bond can cause structural rearrangements in the electrodes, which are accompanied by substantial conductance changes. Despite the strong Au-S bond and the evidence for disruption of the Au structure, the experiments show that on average these junctions also rupture at a smaller force than that measured for pristine single-atom gold contacts.

Frei M.; Hybertsen M.; Aradhya S.V.; Venkataraman L.

2012-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

global efforts have been put into biodiversity conservation, but biodiversity loss continues rapidly in biodiversity conservation to the global level and help protect biodiversity in other developing countries Wiley & Sons, Ltd. #12;208 ConservationBiology COMPLEXITY OF INTERACTING FORCES AFFECTING BIODIVERSITY

276

Kollisionsdetektion fr Force-Feedback-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(high impact velocities or large contact areas) 3. Force-feedback requires a constant update rate.e., in case of no overlap - Complicated to compute penetration depth [Mendoza et al, 2006], [Zhang et al, 2007], ... § Voxels & Points (VPS): + Easy to compute approx. penetration depth - Large memory footprint - Aliasing

Zachmann, Gabriel

277

Integrated windows-based control system for an electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

A Windows application has been developed for management and operation of beam instruments such as electron or ion microscopes. It provides a facility that allows an operator to manage a complicated instrument with minimal effort, primarily under mouse control. The hardware control components used on similar instruments (e.g., the scanning transmission electron microscopes in our lab), such as toggles, buttons, and potentiometers for adjustments on various scales, are all replaced by the controls of the Windows application and are addressable on a single screen. The new controls in this program (via adjustable software settings) offer speed of response and smooth operation providing tailored control of various instrument parameters. Along with the controls offering single parameter adjustment, a two-dimensional control was developed that allows two parameters to be coupled and addressed simultaneously. This capability provides convenience for such tasks as finding the beam'' and directing it to a location of interest on the specimen. Using an icon-based display, this Windows application provides better integrated and more robust information for monitoring instrument status than the indicators and meters of the traditional instrument controls. As a Windows application, this program is naturally able to share the resources of the Windows system and is thus able to link to many other applications such as our image acquisition and processing programs. Computer control provides automatic protection and instant diagnostics for the experimental instrument. This Windows application is fully functional and is in daily use to control a new type of electron microscope developed in our lab.

Ruan, S. (The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)); Kapp, O.H. (The Department of Radiology and The Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

HEADQUARTERS aII?y HEADQUARTERS aII?y 9 AIR FORCE SPECIAL WEAPONS CENTER 1 AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND . - KlRTlAND AIR FORCE BASE, NEW MEXICO - k FINAL REPORT O N AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION PROJECT RULISON .1 O c t o b e r 1969 P r e p a r e d by : CONT INENTAL TEST D I V I S ION DIRECTORATE OF NUCLEAR FIELD OPERATIONS This page intentionally left blank INDEX AIR FORCE PARTICIPATION I N PROJECT RULISON FINAL REPORT PARAGRAPH BASIC REPORT SUBJECT R e f e r e n c e s PAGE 2 G e n e r a l 1 3 P l a n n i n g 3 4 Command a n d C o n t r o l 5 O p e r a t i o n s , G r a n d ' J u n c t i o n M u n i c i p a l A i r p o r t . . ' A i r O p e r a t i o n s C e n t e r , He1 i c o p t e r P a d / ' 7.. - . M a t e r i e l : ' 8 M e d i c a l 1 9 R a d - S a f e C r a s h - R e s c u e S e c u r i t y 2 1 C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ~ d m i n i s t r a t ' i o n Summary ATTACHMENTS ATTACHMENT SUBJECI' 1 F r a g O r d e r 69-1 ( ~ r o j ' e c t RULISON) , AFSWC D

279

Nuclear Radius and Nuclear Forces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The difference between the radius of the nuclear matter distribution and the nuclear force radius, RN?1.4A1310-13 cm, for heavy nuclei (A>100) is interpreted as a consequence of the finite range of nuclear forces. Assuming that the nuclear matter distribution coincides with the charge distribution as determined at Stanford (RC=1.12A1310-13 cm is the distance at which the charge density falls to one half value) we sum up the nuclear interactions of an incident nucleon for various proposed internucleon potentials, V(r). We also evaluate contributions from the spin, charge, and matter polarizations induced in the nuclear distributions by the incident nucleon as a test of the convergence of these calculations. The aim here is to infer some features of nuclear forces which satisfy saturation requirements and at the same time give rise to an appreciable nuclear attraction for an incident nucleon at RN. Analyses of the scattering of neutrons and protons by heavy nuclei suggest a nuclear attraction ?14 Mev at a distance RN.These considerations are primarily sensitive to the long range behavior of the direct, central part of V(r). The key point which emerges from them is that the nuclear forces must contain long range (~ meson Compton wavelength) direct, central attractions which will be felt by an incident nucleon at RN before the shorter range repulsions (hard cores, many-body forces, or exchange interactions), which are responsible for saturation, become effective. Such interactions can be constructed phenomenologically, but are not found in recent meson-theoretically deduced potentials.

S. D. Drell

1955-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Microscopic aspects of the Staebler-Wronski effect  

SciTech Connect

The microscopic origin and the creation mechanisms of metastable, light-induced defects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon are reviewed. Based on excitonic electron-hole pair recombination, a consistent quantitative description of defect creation kinetics can be obtained, including the experimentally observed differences between continuous wave and pulsed illumination as well as the effect of competing recombination pathways in compensated material. High resolution spin resonance spectra obtained by low-field spin-dependent transport are used to examine the interaction of metastable defects with hydrogen.

Stutzmann, M.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Cation Transport in Polymer Electrolytes: A Microscopic Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microscopic theory for cation diffusion in polymer electrolytes is presented. Based on a thorough analysis of molecular dynamics simulations on PEO with LiBF$_4$ the mechanisms of cation dynamics are characterised. Cation jumps between polymer chains can be identified as renewal processes. This allows us to obtain an explicit expression for the lithium ion diffusion constant D_{Li} by invoking polymer specific properties such as the Rouse dynamics. This extends previous phenomenological and numerical approaches. In particular, the chain length dependence of D_{Li} can be predicted and compared with experimental data. This dependence can be fully understood without referring to entanglement effects.

A. Maitra; A. Heuer

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes  

SciTech Connect

We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.

Rousseau, O. [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Central Research Laboratory, 1-280 Higashi-koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan); Otani, Y., E-mail: yotani@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-858 (Japan)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes fourU.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders Reserve Officer Training Corps is the largest and oldest source of commissioned officers for the Air Force

Su, Xiao

284

Casimir Friction Force and Energy Dissipation for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Casimir friction problem for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion is analyzed, utilizing a microscopic model in which we start from statistical mechanics for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature moving nonrelativistically with constant velocity. The use of statistical mechanics in this context has in our opinion some definite advantages, in comparison with the more conventional quantum electrodynamic description of media that involves the use of a refractive index. The statistical-mechanical description is physical and direct, and the oscillator model, in spite of its simplicity, is nevertheless able to elucidate the essentials of the Casimir friction. As is known, there are diverging opinions about this kind of friction in the literature. Our treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory presented by us back in 1992. There we found a finite friction force at any finite temperature, whereas at zero temperature the model led to a zero force. As an additional development in the present paper we evaluate the energy dissipation making use of an exponential cutoff truncating the relative motion of the oscillators. For the dissipation we also establish a general expression that is not limited to the simple oscillator model.

Johan S. Hye; Iver Brevik

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Local elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film by atomic force acoustic microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is a useful nondestructive technique for measurement of local elastic modulus of materials at nano-scale spatial resolution by measuring the contact resonance spectra for higher order modes of the AFM cantilever. The elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film has been measured quantitatively, using reference approach in which measurements are performed on the test and reference samples. Using AFAM, the measured elastic modulus of the HfO{sub 2} thin film is 22327 GPa, which is in agreement with the literature value of 22040 GPa for atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} thin film using nanoindentation technique.

Jena, S., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Tokas, R. B., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Sarkar, P., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Misal, J. S.; Rao, K. D. [Optics and Thin Film Laboratory, Autonagar, BARC-Vizag, Visakhapatnam-530 012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

286

Forced dewetting on porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the dewetting of a porous plate withdrawn from a bath of fluid. The microscopic contact angle is fixed to zero and the flow is assumed to be parallel to the plate (lubrication approximation). The ordinary differential equation involving the position of the water surface is analysed in phase space by means of numerical integration. We show the existence of a critical value of the capillary number $\\eta U / \\gamma$, above which no stationary contact line can exist. An analytical model, based on asymptotic matching is developed, that reproduces the dependence of the critical capillary number on the angle of the plate with respect to the horizontal for large control parameters (3/2 power law).

Olivier Devauchelle; Christophe Josserand; Stephane Zaleski

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

287

Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article describes a method called Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography. The electrical conductivity of biological tissues can be measured through their sonication in a magnetic field: the vibration of the tissues inside the field induces an electrical current by Lorentz force. This current, detected by electrodes placed around the sample, is proportional to the ultrasonic pressure, to the strength of the magnetic field and to the electrical conductivity gradient along the acoustic axis. By focusing at different places inside the sample, a map of the electrical conductivity gradient can be established. In this study experiments were conducted on a gelatin phantom and on a beef sample, successively placed in a 300 mT magnetic field and sonicated with an ultrasonic transducer focused at 21 cm emitting 500 kHz bursts. Although all interfaces are not visible, in this exploratory study a good correlation is observed between the electrical conductivity image and the ultrasonic image. This method offers...

Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Laser irradiation effects on the CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot structure studied by Raman and AFM spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the impact of laser irradiation on semiconducting CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) structures. A reference sample (without dots) was also studied for comparison. Both samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique on the p-type GaAs substrate. The Raman spectra have been recorded for different time of a laser exposure and for various laser powers. The spectra for both samples exhibit peak related to the localized longitudinal (LO) ZnTe phonon of a wavenumber equal to 210 cm{sup -1}. For the QD sample, a broad band corresponding to the LO CdTe phonon related to the QD-layer appears at a wavenumber of 160 cm{sup -1}. With increasing time of a laser beam exposure and laser power, the spectra get dominated by tellurium-related peaks appearing at wavenumbers around 120 cm{sup -1} and 140 cm{sup -1}. Simultaneously, the ZnTe surface undergoes rising damage, with the formation of Te aggregates at the pinhole edge as reveal atomic force microscopy observations. Local temperature of irradiated region has been estimated from the anti-Stokes/Stokes ratio of the Te modes intensity and it was found to be close or exceeding ZnTe melting point. Thus, the laser damage can be explained by the ablation process.

Zielony, E.; Placzek-Popko, E.; Henrykowski, A.; Gumienny, Z.; Kamyczek, P.; Jacak, J. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Nowakowski, P.; Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesi...

Bini, Donato; Gregoris, Daniele; Succi, Sauro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

291

WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES  

SciTech Connect

The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 Registration, Force Protection Equipment Demonstration - May 2009 May 2009 Demonstrating commercially availale physical security/force protection soultions around the world The bombing of Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia on 25 June 1996 revealed the need for continal vigilance and protection againist terrorist forces intent on harming US personnel and interests. The Chairman if the Joint Chiefs of Staff directed the Services to investigate COTS equipments solutions for physical security/force protection needs. The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquistion, Technology, and Logistics (OUSD {at&l}) tasked the Office of the US Army Product Manager, force Protection Systems (PM-FPS), to coordiante and facilitate a Force Protection Equipment

293

Development of a light force accelerometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, the feasibility of a light force accelerometer was experimentally demonstrated. The light force accelerometer is an optical inertial sensor which uses focused laser light to levitate and trap glass microspheres ...

Butts, David LaGrange

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Reduction-in-Force | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reduction-in-Force Reduction in force (RIF) is a set of regulations and procedures that are used to determine whether an employee keeps his or her present position, or...

295

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan Sugio TAKAHASHI SUMMARY AGuidelines released by Japan in 2010, the most important isconcept, which will enable the Japan Self-Defense Forces to

TAKAHASHI, Sugio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Experimental and theoretical investigation of angular dependence of the Casimir force between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the current work we present the complete results for the measurement of normal Casimir force between shallow and smooth sinusoidally corrugated gold coated sphere and a plate at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. All measured data were compared with the theoretical approach using the proximity force approximation and theory based on derivative expansion. In both cases real material properties of the surfaces and non-zero temperature were taken into account. Special attention is paid to the description of electrostatic interactions between corrugated surfaces at different angels between corrugations and samples reparation and characterization. The measured forces are found to be in good agreement with the theory including correlation effects of geometry and material properties and deviate significantly from the predictions of the proximity force approximation approach. This provides the quantitative confirmation for the observation of diffraction-type effects that are disregarded within the PFA approach. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems.

A. A. Banishev; J. Wagner; T. Emig; R. Zandi; U. Mohideen

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

297

NCEM National Center for Electron Microscopy: Microscopes and Facilities:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Specimen Preparation Specimen Preparation Preparation of samples with large transparent areas and flat surfaces is a key element of electron microscopy. In particular, the interpretation of lattice or holographic images is often limited by the sample's geometry and surface roughness. These parameters are largely determined by a particular sample preparation procedure. The increasing demand for microscopes with a spatial resolution of better than 1Å increases the need for improved sample preparation techniques. A substantial effort at NCEM is devoted to the development of reliable and specialized thinning techniques. Current programs explore the application of chemicals to shape the surfaces of thin films, the use of nanospheres for observation of small particles, and the

298

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {micro}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Rack, Prof. Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Moore, Tom [OmniProbe, Inc.; Magel, Greg [OmniProbe, Inc.; Hartfield, Cheryl [OmniProbe, Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

In situ laser processing in a scanning electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

Laser delivery probes using multimode fiber optic delivery and bulk focusing optics have been constructed and used for performing materials processing experiments within scanning electron microscope/focused ion beam instruments. Controlling the current driving a 915-nm semiconductor diode laser module enables continuous or pulsed operation down to sub-microsecond durations, and with spot sizes on the order of 50 {mu}m diameter, achieving irradiances at a sample surface exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Localized laser heating has been used to demonstrate laser chemical vapor deposition of Pt, surface melting of silicon, enhanced purity, and resistivity via laser annealing of Au deposits formed by electron beam induced deposition, and in situ secondary electron imaging of laser induced dewetting of Au metal films on SiO{sub x}.

Roberts, Nicholas A.; Magel, Gregory A.; Hartfield, Cheryl D.; Moore, Thomas M.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Rack, Philip D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Omniprobe, Inc., an Oxford Instruments Company, 10410 Miller Rd., Dallas, Texas 75238 (United States); Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

300

Microscopic nonequilibrium theory of quantum well solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a microscopic theory of bipolar quantum well structures in the photovoltaic regime, based on the nonequilibrium Greens function formalism for a multiband tight-binding Hamiltonian. The quantum kinetic equations for the single particle Greens functions of electrons and holes are self-consistently coupled to Poissons equation, including intercarrier scattering on the Hartree level. Relaxation and broadening mechanisms are considered by the inclusion of acoustic and optical electron-phonon interaction in a self-consistent Born approximation of the scattering self-energies. Photogeneration of carriers is described on the same level in terms of a self-energy derived from the standard dipole approximation of the electron-photon interaction. Results from a simple two-band model are shown for the local density of states, spectral response, current spectrum, and current-voltage characteristics for generic single quantum well systems.

U. Aeberhard and R. H. Morf

2008-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Recent results from parton cascade and microscopic transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parton cascade is a microscopic transport approach for the study of the space-time evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions and its experimental manifestations. In the following, parton cascade calculations on elliptic flow and thermalization will be discussed. Dynamical evolution is shown to be important for the production of elliptic flow including the scaling and the breaking of the scaling of elliptic flow. The degree of thermalization is estimated using both an elastic parton cascade and a radiative transport model. A longitudinal to transverse pressure ratio, $P_L/P_T\\approx 0.8$, is shown to be expected in the central cell in central collisions. This provides information on viscous corrections to the ideal hydrodynamical approach.

Bin Zhang

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

302

Microscopic return point memory in Co/Pd multilayer films  

SciTech Connect

We report soft x-ray speckle metrology measurements of microscopic return point and complementary point memory in Co/Pd magnetic films having perpendicular anisotropy. We observe that the domains assemble into a common labyrinth phase with a period that varies by nearly a factor of two between initial reversal and fields near saturation. Unlike previous studies of similar systems, the ability of the film to reproduce its domain structure after magnetic cycling through saturation varies from loop to loop, from position to position on the sample, and with the part of the speckle pattern used in the metrology measurements. We report the distribution of memory as a function of field and discuss these results in terms of the reversal process.

Seu, K.A.; Su, R.; Roy, S.; Parks, D.; Shipton, E.; Fullerton, E.E.; Kevan, S.D.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Highly charged ion based time of flight emission microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope has been designed, which improves the surface sensitivity of static SIMS measurements because of the higher ionization probability of highly charged ions. Slow, highly charged ions are produced in an electron beam ion trap and are directed to the sample surface. The sputtered secondary ions and electrons pass through a specially designed objective lens to a microchannel plate detector. This new instrument permits high surface sensitivity (10.sup.10 atoms/cm.sup.2), high spatial resolution (100 nm), and chemical structural information due to the high molecular ion yields. The high secondary ion yield permits coincidence counting, which can be used to enhance determination of chemical and topological structure and to correlate specific molecular species.

Barnes, Alan V. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Thomas (San Francisco, CA); Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Schneider, Dieter H. (Livermore, CA); Doyle, Barney (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy...

305

Three-body forces and the trinucleons  

SciTech Connect

Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs.

Friar, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Theory of trapping forces in optical tweezers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...been used to measure forces in the piconewton range...investigations in some fundamental fields of cell biology...result for the transverse force as given by (3.9...Stegun, I. 1972 Handbook of mathematical functions...Dover. Ashkin, A. 1992 Forces of a single beam gradient...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Isoscalar giant monopole in a macroscopic-microscopic approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an approach to study the interplay between the surface and volume vibrations of nuclei with application to the isoscalar giant monopole resonance. The main ingredients are the well-known properties of the mean field and the curvatures of the liquid-drop energy surface. No specific form of a two-body force is assumed. The single-particle continuum is treated exactly. First results, obtained using a local Woods-Saxon potential, are discussed.

S. Shlomo and P. J. Siemens

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Quarkonium Binding and Entropic Force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Q-Qbar bound state represents a balance between repulsive kinetic and attractive potential energy. In a hot quark-gluon plasma, the interaction potential experiences medium effects. Color screening modifies the attractive binding force between the quarks, while the increase of entropy with Q-Qbar separation gives rise to a growing repulsion. We study the role of these phenomena for in-medium Q-Qbar binding and dissociation. It is found that the relevant potential for Q-Qbar binding is the free energy F; with increasing Q-Qbar separation, further binding through the internal energy U is compensated by repulsive entropic effects.

Satz, Helmut

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Reflectance and Fluorescence Confocal Microscope for Imaging of the Mouse Colon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fluorescence microscope. 20 3.3 Image Formation To form a 2D image using a point-scanning confocal microscope, the beam must be scanned in two dimensions using scanning mirrors. The PMT records a voltage signal from each point which is assigned... and fluorescence microscope. 20 3.3 Image Formation To form a 2D image using a point-scanning confocal microscope, the beam must be scanned in two dimensions using scanning mirrors. The PMT records a voltage signal from each point which is assigned...

Saldua, Meagan Alyssa

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

310

E-Print Network 3.0 - analytical electron microscope Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

two-contact electrical biasing specimen holder for electron holography and electron tomography of semiconductor devices Summary: in an electron microscope", which allows high...

311

Simple structured illumination microscope setup with high acquisition speed by using a spatial light modulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe a two-beam interference structured illumination fluorescence microscope. The novelty of the presented system lies in its simplicity. A programmable spatial light modulator...

Frster, Ronny; Lu-Walther, Hui-Wen; Jost, Aurlie; Kielhorn, Martin; Wicker, Kai; Heintzmann, Rainer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2 Agenda  Brian Brown  Enhanced Use Lease (EUL) Overview  Energy EULs  EUL Goals  David Swanson  Energy EUL Market Drivers  Current EUL Projects  Partnering with the Air Force  Contact Information I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 3 Overview  Authority 10 USC 2667  An EUL is a lease  By the government  Of "non-excess" property  Under the control of the government  To a public or private sector lessee  In exchange for fair market value rental payments in cash and/or in kind consideration I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e

313

Lorentz-Force Hydrophone Characterization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Lorentz-force hydrophone consists of a thin wire placed inside a magnetic field. When under the influence of an ultrasound pulse, the wire vibrates and an electrical signal is induced by the Lorentz force that is proportional to the pulse amplitude. In this study a compact prototype of such a hydrophone is introduced and characterized, and the hydrodynamic model previously developed is refined. It is shown that the wire tension has a negligible effect on the measurement of pressure. The frequency response of the hydrophone reaches 1 MHz for wires with a diameter ranging between 70 and 400 \\micro m. The hydrophone exhibits a directional response such that the signal amplitude differs by less than 3dB as the angle of the incident ultrasound pulse varies from -20$^o$ and +20$^o$. The linearity of the measured signal is confirmed across the 50 kPa to 10 MPa pressure range, and an excellent resistance to cavitation is observed. This hydrophone is of interest for high pressure ultrasound measurements including Hi...

Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Gilles, Bruno; Poizat, Adrien; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the grapheneliquid interface  

SciTech Connect

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solidliquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the grapheneliquid interface.

Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

315

Army Energy Initiatives Task Force  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Army Energy Initiatives Task Force Kathy Ahsing Director, Planning and Development UNCLASSIFIED 2 Perfect Storm UNCLASSIFIED 3 U.S. Army Energy Consumption, 2010 23% 77% 42% 58%  Facilities  Vehicles & Equipment (Tactical and Non-tactical) Sources: Energy Information Agency, 2010 Annual Energy Review; Agency Annual Energy Management Data Reports submitted to DOE's Federal Energy Management Program (Preliminary FY 2010) 32% 68% DoD 80% Army 21% Federal Gov 1% Federal Government United States Department of Defense U.S. = 98,079 Trillion Btu DoD = 889 Trillion Btu Fed Gov = 1,108 Trillion Btu U.S. Army = 189 Trillion Btu FY10 Highlights - $2.5+B Operational Energy Costs - $1.2 B Facility Energy Costs

316

Dark Forces At The Tevatron  

A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

317

Projection Photolithography Utilizing a Schwarzschild Microscope and Self-Assembled Alkanethiol Monolayers as Simple Photoresists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high reflectivity mirror (M3) coated for optimal reflection at 308 nm, 45 (?280?330 nm) was employed to guide the UV light into the microscope objective. ... The Schwarzschild microscope is composed of two all-reflective concentric, spherical mirrors (M1 and M2), one concave and one convex. ...

Jane M. Behm; Keith R. Lykke; Michael J. Pellin; John C. Hemminger

1996-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

318

Fast Image Drift Compensation in Scanning Electron Microscope Using Image Registration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast Image Drift Compensation in Scanning Electron Microscope Using Image Registration Naresh Marturi, Sounkalo Demb´el´e and Nadine Piat Abstract-- Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image ac analysis and characterization of materials to recover their structural, mechanical, electrical and optical

Boyer, Edmond

319

Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics John involved in barrier crossing for protein folding are investigated in terms of the chain dynamics of the polymer backbone, completing the microscopic description of protein folding presented in the preceding

Takada, Shoji

320

Preparation of Micro-grid for the Electron Microscopic Observation with High Magnification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......1958 letter LETTER Preparation of Micro-grid for the Electron Microscopic Observation...Japan L E T T E R Preparation of Micro-grid for the Electron Microscopic Observation...call this collodion net-work a micro-grid. Procedure of preparation (1......

S. Sakata

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Disorder vs. Order 1 Walter J Freeman Brains Create Macroscopic Order from Microscopic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interact with them at many levels of complexity. We are constantly bombarded with fields of energy, but only microscopic samples of them at the receptor cells. Each of our sensory ports contains an array of receptors, which are microscopic transducers that convert the kinds of incident energy for which

Freeman, Walter J.

322

Towards a Microscopic Reaction Description Based on Energy Density Functionals  

SciTech Connect

A microscopic calculation of reaction cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole excitations in the target and one-nucleon pickup channels. The particle-hole states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 144}Sm were described in a random-phase framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections obtained agree very well with experimental data and predictions of a state-of-the-art fitted optical potential. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the pickup channels contribute significantly. The effect of resonances from higher-order channels was assessed. Elastic angular distributions were also calculated within the same method, achieving good agreement with experimental data. For the first time observed absorptions are completely accounted for by explicit channel coupling, for incident energies between 10 and 70 MeV, with consistent angular distribution results.

Nobre, G A; DIetrich, F S; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in Strongly Coupled Yukawa Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report accurate molecular dynamics calculations of the shear stress relaxation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled Yukawa liquid over a wide range of the Coulomb coupling strength $\\Gamma$ and the Debye screening parameter $\\kappa$. Our data on the relaxation times of the ideal- , excess- and total shear stress auto-correlation ($\\tau^{id}_M, \\tau^{ex}_M, \\tau_M$ respectively) along with the lifetime of local atomic connectivity $\\tau_{LC}$ leads us to the following important observation. Below a certain crossover $\\Gamma_c(\\kappa)$, $\\tau_{LC} \\rightarrow \\tau^{ex}_M$, directly implying that here $\\tau_{LC}$ is the microscopic origin of the relaxation of excess shear stress unlike the case for ordinary liquids where it is the origin of the relaxation of the total shear stress. At $\\Gamma >> \\Gamma_c(\\kappa)$ i.e. in the potential energy dominated regime, $\\tau^{ex}_M\\rightarrow \\tau_M$ meaning that $\\tau^{ex}_M$ can fully account for the elastic or "solid like" behavior.

Ashwin J.; Abhijit Sen

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Performance of actinic EUVL mask imaging using a zoneplate microscope  

SciTech Connect

The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a dual-mode, scanning and imaging extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) microscope designed for pre-commercial EUV mask research. Dramatic improvements in image quality have been made by the replacement of several critical optical elements, and the introduction of scanning illumination to improve uniformity and contrast. We report high quality actinic EUV mask imaging with resolutions as low as 100-nm half-pitch, (20-nm, 5x wafer equivalent size), and an assessment of the imaging performance based on several metrics. Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements show high contrast imaging for features sizes close to the diffraction-limit. An investigation of the illumination coherence shows that AIT imaging is much more coherent than previously anticipated, with {sigma} below 0.2. Flare measurements with several line-widths show a flare contribution on the order of 2-3% relative intensity in dark regions above the 1.3% absorber reflectivity on the test mask used for these experiments. Astigmatism coupled with focal plane tilt are the dominant aberrations we have observed. The AIT routinely records 250-350 high-quality images in numerous through-focus series per 8-hour shift. Typical exposure times range from 0.5 seconds during alignment, to approximately 20 seconds for high-resolution images.

Goldberg, K; Naulleau, P; Barty, A; Rekawa, S; Kemp, C; Gunion, R; Salmassi, F; Gullikson, E; Anderson, E; Han, H

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

325

Low-energy electron microscope of novel design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe the design of an electron emission microscope capable of imaging a sample surface with low-energy electrons reflected from it or with UV photoelectrons. In the primary beam column provision is made to compensate the energy dispersion of the beam-separating magnet and to be able to choose different primary and secondary beam energies for Auger analysis. The secondary beam column comprises a spherical condenser sector field as energy filter. In order to avoid image aberrations caused by the two sector fields, linked imaging is provided so that intermediate surface images are formed in the deflection centers of the sector fields, while the energy selection is done at pupil positions. The emission lens is an electrostatic tetrode. The electrodes are shaped so as to accommodate an optical Schwarzschild-type mirror objective for visual in-situ observation or UV irradiation of the sample surface. A lateral resolution of about 10 nm is expected with UV photoemission microscopy and somewhat better with reflected electron microscopy.

H. Liebl; B. Senftinger

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Development of a circularly polarizing microscope with a polarizing undulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A circularly polarizing microscope by which we intend to obtain images with CD (circular dichroism) or CIDS (circular intensity differential scattering) in order to observe the structure and distribution of biomolecules has been constructed by using a polarizing undulator as the polarizing light source. The polarizing undulator with crossed and retarded magnetic field having fifteen periods was installed in the electron storage ring NIJI?II in the Electrotechnical Laboratory. A Schwarzschild?type mirror system combined with a convex mirror was developed in order to focus the undulator radiation to a microbeam keeping the quality of polarization of the radiation from the undulator. The beam size was from 0.66 ?m (at wavelength 200 nm) to 0.96 ?m (at 400 nm). Using a scanning sample stage and a photomultiplier which was positioned in the back of the sample some images with transmitted and scattered light from fibrous DNA have been obtained. Attempts have also been made at obtaining images with CD and CIDS from the alternation between right? and left?handed circularly polarized radiation from the undulator.

Toru Yamada; Masatada Yuri; Hideo Onuki; Shozo Ishizaka

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Nanoscale electrostatic actuators in liquid electrolytes: analysis and experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The experiment consisted of a fixed flat gold electrode and a movable gold electrode consisting of a gold sphere several micrometers in diameter mounted on the end of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilever, which serves as the spring. The electrodes were...

Kim, Doyoung

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

328

3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes Amrinder S) nano-scale manufacturing tools in this paper. Commercially available Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) systems are mainly limited to 1-D or 2-D manipulation tasks, and advanced 3-D nano

Sitti, Metin

329

Mechanical Properties of Bovine Rhodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin: Possible Roles in Folding and Function  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in rhodopsin but not in bacteriorhodopsin. This core may reflect differences in mechanisms of protein folding their adaptation to differing functions. Introduction Protein folding is one of the most challenging problems protein folding. For more than a decade, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has permitted the use of single

Palczewski, Krzysztof

330

Frictional forces in helical buckling of tubing  

SciTech Connect

Previous analyses of helical buckling of tubing have not considered frictional forces. This paper describes the modifications to helical buckling theory necessary to include friction. The first need is a relationship between the buckling force and the casing to tubing contact force. This contact force is determined through use of the principle of virtual work. The next need is the relationship between the friction forces, the buckling force, and the geometry of the tubing helix. Differential equations are derived and solved for two cases of interest: buckling during the landing of the tubing and thermal and differential pressure loading subsequent to landing. Several example problems are examined to evaluate the relative importance of friction.

Mitchell, R.F.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered as quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances, and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, are qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries.

Ezequiel Alvarez; Francisco Diego Mazzitelli; Alejandro G. Monastra; Diego A. Wisniacki

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

332

The force exerted by a fireball  

SciTech Connect

The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A. [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)] [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Towards a Social Psychology-based Microscopic Model of Driver Behavior and Decision-making: Modifying Lewin's Field Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Central to effective roadway design is the ability to understand how drivers behave as they traverse a segment of roadway. While simple and complex microscopic models have been used over the years to analyse driver behaviour, most models: 1.) incorporate separate car-following and lane-changing algorithms, and thus do not capture the interdependencies between lane-changing and car-following vehicle; 2.) do not capture differences in the drivers cognitive and physical characteristics; and 3.) are constructed from observed vehicle movements and make no attempt to model the discrete differences between how each roadway element alters each driver's behaviour. This paper employs field theory to construct a conceptual framework for a new microscopic model. In field theory, an agent (e.g. the driver) views a field (i.e. the area surrounding the vehicle) filled with stimuli and perceives forces associated with each stimuli once these stimuli are internalized. Based on this theory, the resulting model would be designed to directly incorporate drivers perceptions to roadway stimuli along with vehicle movements for drivers of different cognitive and physical abilities. It is postulated that such a model would more effectively reflect reality, and if this model were accurately calibrated, could potentially model the effects of external stimuli such as innovative geometric configurations, lane closures, and technology applications such as variable message boards. A modified field theory could potentially capture and model hot topics in traffic engineering, such as the distracted drivers, road rage, the incorporation of ITS elements, and driver behaviour through a work zone.

Andrew Leo Berthaume; Matthew R.E. Romoser; John Collura; Daiheng Ni

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Free energy landscape and characteristic forces for the initiation of DNA unzipping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DNA unzipping, the separation of its double helix into single strands, is crucial in modulating a host of genetic processes. Although the large-scale separation of double-stranded DNA has been studied with a variety of theoretical and experimental techniques, the minute details of the very first steps of unzipping are still unclear. Here, we use atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, coarse-grained simulations and a statistical-mechanical model to study the initiation of DNA unzipping by an external force. The calculation of the potential of mean force profiles for the initial separation of the first few terminal base pairs in a DNA oligomer reveal that forces ranging between 130 and 230 pN are needed to disrupt the first base pair, values of an order of magnitude larger than those needed to disrupt base pairs in partially unzipped DNA. The force peak has an "echo," of approximately 50 pN, at the distance that unzips the second base pair. We show that the high peak needed to initiate unzipping derives from a free energy basin that is distinct from the basins of subsequent base pairs because of entropic contributions and we highlight the microscopic origin of the peak. Our results suggest a new window of exploration for single molecule experiments.

Ahmet Mentes; Ana Maria Florescu; Elizabeth Brunk; Jeff Wereszczynski; Marc Joyeux; Ioan Andricioaei

2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

335

Magnus force effect in optical manipulation  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

Cipparrone, Gabriella; Pagliusi, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Hernandez, Raul Josue; Provenzano, Clementina [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the ClausiusMossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be used as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

R. Esquivel-Sirvent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

338

Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director, and its members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

339

MIAMI: Microscope and ion accelerator for materials investigations  

SciTech Connect

A transmission electron microscope (TEM) with in situ ion irradiation has been built at the University of Salford, U.K. The system consists of a Colutron G-2 ion source connected to a JEOL JEM-2000FX TEM via an in-house designed and constructed ion beam transport system. The ion source can deliver ion energies from 0.5 to 10 keV for singly charged ions and can be floated up to 100 kV to allow acceleration to higher energies. Ion species from H to Xe can be produced for the full range of energies allowing the investigation of implantation with light ions such as helium as well as the effects of displacing irradiation with heavy inert or self-ions. The ability to implant light ions at energies low enough such that they come to rest within the thickness of a TEM sample and to also irradiate with heavier species at energies sufficient to cause large numbers of atomic displacements makes this facility ideally suited to the study of materials for use in nuclear environments. TEM allows the internal microstructure of a sample to be imaged at the nanoscale. By irradiating in situ it is possible to observe the dynamic evolution of radiation damage which can occur during irradiation as a result of competing processes within the system being studied. Furthermore, experimental variables such as temperature can be controlled and maintained throughout both irradiation and observation. This combination of capabilities enables an understanding of the underlying atomistic processes to be gained and thus gives invaluable insights into the fundamental physics governing the response of materials to irradiation. Details of the design and specifications of the MIAMI facility are given along with examples of initial experimental results in silicon and silicon carbide.

Hinks, J. A.; Berg, J. A. van den; Donnelly, S. E. [Centre for Materials and Physics, University of Salford, The Crescent, Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Optical analysis of an ultra-high resolution two-mirror soft x-ray microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Promoted by the successful application of multilayer coated optics in soft x-ray imaging experiments in solar physics and projection lithography, several groups have designed, analyzed, fabricated, and are testing Schwarzschild multilayer soft x-ray microscopes. Simulations have indicated that diffraction limited performance of a spherical Schwarzschild microscope operating near 100 will be limited to systems with a small numerical aperture of approximately 0.15 and a corresponding resolution, based on the Rayleigh criterion, of 3.3 times the wavelength of the incident radiation. In principle, a two aspherical mirror Head microscope, which satisfies the constant optical path length condition and the Abb sine condition, should achieve diffraction limited performance for very large numerical apertures. For a practical soft x-ray microscope, surface contour errors, microroughness, reflectance of multilayer coatings, and variation of the angle of incidence over the multilayer substrates become significant factors in degrading system resolution and must be controlled before an ultra-high resolution, two-mirror microscope will be realized. For a 30x reflecting microscope with a numerical aperture ranging from 0.15 to 0.35, the effects on resolution of surface contour errors, tilts, and misalignments of the optics have been studied. Graded spacing of the multilayer coatings on the mirror substrates are required of a fast, two-mirror microscope.

David L. Shealy; Cheng Wang; Richard B. Hoover

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE - February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda February 26, 2009 Task Force Meeting Agenda - CONFERENCE CALL Agenda FEDERAL SMART GRID TASK FORCE CONFERENCE CALL February 26, 2009 10:00-11:00 AM 10:00 Opening and Introduction - Eric Lightner, DOE * Call the meeting to order, around-the-table introductions, review of the agenda, additions to agenda 10:05 Update from DOE - Eric Lightner * Stimulus update * E-Forum * Fact sheet - discussion 10:30 Update from FERC - Ray Palmer, David Andrejcak * NARUC-FERC Smart Grid Collaborative meeting update 10:40 Update from NIST - William Anderson, Jerry FitzPatrick * Interoperability Standards Framework report to Congress

343

Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces - forces | U.S. DOE Office of Science  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Do all the forces become one? Do all the forces become one? The International Linear Collider The U.S. is pushing superconducting technology forward for use in future accelerators like the proposed International Linear Collider. (Credit: Fermilab) At the most fundamental level, particles and forces may converge, either through hidden principles like grand unification, or through radical physics like superstring. We already know that remarkably similar mathematical laws and principles describe all the known forces except gravity. Perhaps all forces are different manifestations of a single grand unified force, a force that would relate quarks to leptons and predict new ways of converting one kind of particle into another. Such a force might eventually make protons decay, rendering ordinary matter unstable.

344

Tendon Arrangement and Muscle Force Requirements for Humanlike Force Capabilities in a Robotic Finger  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Finger Nancy S. Pollard and Richards C. Gilbert Brown University Abstract Human motion can provide a rich hand has strong asym- metry in these directions: flexion forces ­ the forces needed to form a power

Pollard, Nancy

345

1/27/2014 Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energyon the Go http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Microscopic-Wind-Turbines-Offer-Renewable-Energy-on-the-Go.html 1/3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/27/2014 Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energyon the Go http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Microscopic-Wind-Turbines-Offer-Renewable-Energy-on-the-Go.html 1/3 Log In Sign Up Advertising Contact Us About Contributors Write for Us Forum Home Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable

Chiao, Jung-Chih

346

Competing magnetic anisotropies in an AFM-FM-AFM trilayer  

SciTech Connect

An antiferromagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet trilayer was grown in magnetic field using CoMn, permalloy (Py), and FeMn, respectively. Magnetometry studies show that the direction of exchange coupling of CoMn with Py was perpendicular to that of Py with FeMn. These results are explained by a spin flop in the CoMn layer and show that the spin structure of an antiferromagnet may undergo severe modification due to a relatively small magnetic field applied during its growth. The perpendicular exchange coupling was exploited in the CoMn-Py-FeMn trilayer to manipulate the easy axis of the ferromagnet.

Bali, R.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Blamire, M.G.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Work Force Retention Work Group Charter  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Work force Retention Work Group is established to support the Departments critical focus on maintaining a high-performing work force at a time when a significant number of the workers needed to support DOEs national security mission are reaching retirement age.

348

U.S.Air Force Advanced Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency,improved power distribution,reduced fuel dependency,reduction of noise,heat,and visual signatureU.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology Office (APTO) U.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology/Wind Powered Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Applications · Waste-To-Energy APTO/Small Business Innovation

349

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

California at Santa Cruz, University of

350

Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

Sheridan, Jennifer

351

Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors  

SciTech Connect

An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

352

Status of MICROSCOPE, a mission to test the Equivalence Principle in space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MICROSCOPE is a French Space Agency mission that aims to test the Weak Equivalence Principle in space down to an accuracy of $10^{-15}$. This is two orders of magnitude better than the current constraints, which will allow us to test General Relativity as well as theories beyond General Relativity which predict a possible Weak Equivalence Principle violation below $10^{-13}$. In this communication, we describe the MICROSCOPE mission, its measurement principle and instrument, and we give an update on its status. After a successful instrument's commissioning, MICROSCOPE is on track for on-schedule launch, expected in 2016.

Berg, Joel; Rodrigues, Manuel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

354

Force localization in contracting cell layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Epithelial cell layers on soft elastic substrates or pillar arrays are commonly used as model systems for investigating the role of force in tissue growth, maintenance and repair. Here we show analytically that the experimentally observed localization of traction forces to the periphery of the cell layers does not necessarily imply increased local cell activity, but follows naturally from the elastic problem of a finite-sized contractile layer coupled to an elastic foundation. For homogeneous contractility, the force localization is determined by one dimensionless parameter interpolating between linear and exponential force profiles for the extreme cases of very soft and very stiff substrates, respectively. If contractility is sufficiently increased at the periphery, outward directed displacements can occur at intermediate positions, although the edge itself still retracts. We also show that anisotropic extracellular stiffness leads to force localization in the stiffer direction, as observed experimentally.

Carina M. Edwards; Ulrich S. Schwarz

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

355

Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect

A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES OF THE MECHANISM OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF Cu Au II FROM THE DISORDERED STATE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

846. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES OF THE MECHANISM OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF Cu Au II FROM the electron microscope. The alloy is disordered by annealing at 450 °C, and the nucleation and growth with the electron microscope by Ogawa and al. [1], and subsequently by Pashley and co-workers [2], [3], [4

Boyer, Edmond

357

The mechanical design of a proton microscope for radiography at 800 MeV  

SciTech Connect

A proton microscope has been developed for radiography applications using the 800-MeV linear accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The microscope provides a magnified image of a static device, or of a dynamic event such as a high-speed projectile impacting a target. The microscope assembly consists primarily of four Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQ's) that are supported on movable platforms. The platform supports, along with the rest of the support structure, are designed to withstand the residual dynamic loads that are expected from the dynamic tests. This paper covers the mechanical design of the microscope assembly, including the remote positioning system that allows for fine-tuning the focus of an object being imaged.

Valdiviez, R. (Robert); Sigler, F. E. (Floyd E.); Barlow, D. B. (David B.); Blind, B. (Barbara); Jason, A. J. (Andrew J.); Mottershead, C. T.; Gomez, J. J. (John J.); Espinoza, C. J. (Camilo J.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Microscopic description of isoscalar giant resonance excitations in ??Ca and ?SN nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a microscopic description of isoscalar giant resonance excitations in ??Ca and ? Sn nuclei within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Random-Phase-Approximation (HF-RPA) theory. Such characteristic features...

Karki, Bhishma

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, ...

Liu, Dazhi

360

Isospin-dependent relativistic microscopic optical potential in the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relativistic microscopic optical potential in the asymmetric nuclear matter is studied in the framework of the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method. A new decomposition of...E>0 in nuclear matter is calculated...

Jian Rong; Zhongyu Ma

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Background, status and future of the Transmission Electron Aberration-corrected Microscope project  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Microscope project Recent advances in aberration-correcting...DOEs) Office of Science to jointly design...great interest for aerospace and cryogenic applications...be possible to advance to a new level...heart of materials science. At this level...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

AUTOMATED DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN SUBCELLULAR LOCATIONS FROM 3D FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPE IMAGES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

features (termed SLF for Subcellular Location Features) computed from 2D fluorescence microscope images [4]. We have shown the SLF to accurately represent the complexity in such images by using them

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

363

Attainable Resolution of Energy-Selecting Image Using High-Voltage Electron Microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mapping using an imaging energy filter: Image formation...elemental mapping In an energy filtering transmission...Egerton RF: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy In the electron microscope. New York and London: Plenum Press......

Hiroki Kurata; Sakumi Moriguchi; Seiji Isoda; Takashi Kobayashi

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Optimal Design of Multilayer Mirrors for Water-Window Microscope Optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A small bandwidth of periodic multilayers at wavelengths 2.44.4 nm presents problems for the spectral matching of mirrors. This leads to low throughput of a Schwarzschild microscope and its sensitivity to techno...

Yurii Uspenskii; Denis Burenkov; Tadashi Hatano; Masaki Yamamoto

365

Simultaneous calibration of a microscopic traffic simulation model and OD matrix  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the recent widespread deployment of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in North America there is an abundance of data on traffic systems and thus an opportunity to use these data in the calibration of microscopic traffic simulation models...

Kim, Seung-Jun

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

366

Field-regulated force by grafted polyelectrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation of mechanical force regulated by external electric field is studied both theoretically and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The force arises in deformable bodies linked to the free end of a grafted polyelectrolyte chain which is exposed to electric field that favours its adsorption. We consider a few target bodies with different force-deformation relations including (i) linear and (ii) cubic dependences as well as (iii) Hertzian-like force. Such force-deformation relations mimic the behaviour of (i) coiled and (ii) stretched polymer chains, respectively, or (iii) that of a squeezed colloidal particle. The magnitude of the arising force varies over a wide interval although the electric field alters within a relatively narrow range only. The predictions of our theory agree quantitatively well with the results of numerical simulations. Both cases of zero and finite electrical current are investigated and we do not obtain substantial differences in the force generated. The phenomenon studied could possibly be utilised to design, e.g., vice-like devices to fix nano-sized objects.

Christian Seidel; Yury A. Budkov; Nikolay V. Brilliantov

2014-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

367

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of electrostatic interactions between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential (SP) of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to Amplitude Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (AM-KPFM). We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models.

Joseph L. Garrett; David Somers; Jeremy N. Munday

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

369

Low energy ($p,?$) reactions in Ni and Cu nuclei using microscopic optical model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative capture reactions for low energy protons have been theoretically studied for Ni and Cu isotopes using the microscopic optical model. The optical potential has been obtained in the folding model using different microscopic interactions with the nuclear densities from Relativistic Mean Field calculations. The calculated total cross sections as well as the cross sections for individually low lying levels have been compared with measurements involving stable nuclear targets. Rates for the rapid proton capture process have been evaluated for astrophysically important reactions.

G. Gangopadhyay

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

370

Application of Microscopic Simulation to Evaluate the Safety Performance of Freeway Weaving Sections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC SIMULATION TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF FREEWAY WEAVING SECTIONS A Thesis by THANH QUANG LE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Civil Engineering APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC SIMULATION TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF FREEWAY WEAVING SECTIONS A Thesis by THANH QUANG LE...

Le, Thanh Quang

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

371

Spectroscopy of 26F to Probe Proton-Neutron Forces Close to the Drip Line  

SciTech Connect

A long-lived J 4 1 isomer, T1=2 2:2 1 ms, has been discovered at 643.4(1) keV in the weakly bound 26 9 F nucleus. It was populated at Grand Acce le rateur National d Ions Lourds in the fragmentation of a 36S beam. It decays by an internal transition to the J 1 1 ground state [82(14)%], by decay to 26Ne, or -delayed neutron emission to 25Ne. From the -decay studies of the J 1 1 and J 4 1 states, new excited states have been discovered in 25;26Ne. Gathering the measured binding energies of the J 1 1 4 1 multiplet in 26 9 F, we find that the proton-neutron 0d5=20d3=2 effective force used in shell-model calculations should be reduced to properly account for the weak binding of 26 9 F. Microscopic coupled cluster theory calculations using interactions derived from chiral effective field theory are in very good agreement with the energy of the low-lying 1 1 , 2 1 , 4 1 states in 26F. Including three-body forces and coupling to the continuum effects improve the agreement between experiment and theory as compared to the use of two-body forces only.

Hagen, Gaute [ORNL; Sorlin, O. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Borcea, C. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Brown, B. A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grevy, S. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Grinyer, G. F. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten [ORNL; Jansen, G. R. [UTK/ORNL; Negoita, F. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Thomas, J.-C. [CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan/CNRS, France

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Nonequilibrium Distribution of the Microscopic Thermal Current in Steady Thermal Transport Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......particle feels a finite force parallel to the average...of the current. This force is interpreted as the...Stegun I.A., eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions...particle feels a finite force parallel to the average...summarizes the article. 2. Fundamental calculations We mainly......

Satoshi Yukawa; Fumiko Ogushi; Takashi Shimada; Nobuyasu Ito

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Definition: Forced Outage | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Forced Outage Forced Outage Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Forced Outage The removal from service availability of a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility for emergency reasons., The condition in which the equipment is unavailable due to unanticipated failure.[1] Related Terms transmission lines, transmission line References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Forced_Outage&oldid=480310" Categories: Definitions ISGAN Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties About us Disclaimers Energy blogs Linked Data

374

Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Hazardous devices teams test their maneuvering skills July 1, 2013 Students from Valarde Middle School won the video competition in the Best in Show and Middle School categories. They are shown here with sixth-grade teacher Jimmy Lara. During the Robot Rodeo, an unseen operator attempts to conduct reconnaissance and rescue injured personnel Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Kirland Air Force Base wins Robot Rodeo Police and public safety teams from as far away as New Jersey recently convened in Albuquerque to test their ability to remotely deploy robots

375

U.S. Air Force UESCs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentationgiven at the Spring 2009 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingcovers the U.S. Air Force's approval process, submittal requirements, and guidelines for utility energy service contracts (UESCs).

376

Qualifying Facility Wheeling Task Force-- Status Report  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Docket No. 8650 that the PUCT review the applicability of certain parts of the wheeling rules, and in April the Commission appointed a task force composed of representatives from affected industries, utilities, and regulatory staff to review the wheeling...

Panjavan, S.

377

Polarization dependent forces in optical vortex pipeline  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study both, theoretically and in experiments, the dependence of optical forces acting on a spherical particle guided in air with an optical vortex beam, on the light polarization...

Eckerskorn, Niko; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Shvedov, Vladlen; Rode, Andrei

378

MagLab - Lorentz Force Tutorial  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downloading the latest version of Java. A charged particle moving through a magnetic field experiences a force that is at right angles to both the direction in which the...

379

Macroscopic approach to the Casimir friction force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The general formula is derived for the vacuum friction force between two parallel perfectly flat planes bounding two material media separated by a vacuum gap and moving relative to each other with a constant velocity $\\mathbf{v}$. The material media are described in the framework of macroscopic electrodynamics whereas the nonzero temperature and dissipation are taken into account by making use of the Kubo formulae from non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics. The formula obtained provides a rigorous basis for calculation of the vacuum friction force within the quantum field theory methods in the condensed matter physics. The revealed $v$-dependence of the vacuum friction force proves to be the following: for zero temperature ($T=0$) it is proportional to $(v/c)^3$ and for $T>0$ this force is linear in $(v/c)$.

V. V. Nesterenko; A. V. Nesterenko

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

380

Modelling the climate response to orbital forcing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...next few years there will be a tremendous expansion in models that include several additional components. Such Earth system models will at last allow us to fully tackle the link between orbital forcing, climate variability, and the sediment...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate Directed Energy Directorate PROGRAM Space Scholars and Directed Energy Scholars The Space Vehicles and Directed Energy Directorates Scholars The Phillips Scholars internship offers an edu- cational and fulfilling summer job experience

Piao, Daqing

382

Static forces in a superconducting magnet bearing  

SciTech Connect

Static levitation forces and stiffnesses in a superconducting bearing consisting of concentric ring magnets and a superconducting YBaCuO ring are investigated. In the field-cooled mode a levitation force of 20 N has been achieved. The axial and radial stiffnesses have values of 15 N/mm and 10 N/mm, respectively. An arrangement with two bearings supporting a high speed shaft is now under development. A possible application of superconducting magnetic bearings is flywheels for energy storage.

Stoye, P.; Fuchs, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany); Gawalek, W.; Goernert, P. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany); Gladun, A. [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

SEAB Subcommittees and Task Forces | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

is chaired by Shirley Ann Jackson. Task Forces: The SEAB Next Generation High Performance Computing Task Force The SEAB Task Force to Support the Evaluation of the New Funding...

384

Report of the Task Force on Next Generation High Performance...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Report of the Task Force on Next Generation High Performance Computing Report of the Task Force on Next Generation High Performance Computing The SEAB Task Force on Next Generation...

385

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis Wolfram Stacklies1. , M, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract The role of mechanical force in cellular processes is increasingly revealed force propagates within proteins determines their mechanical behavior yet remains largely unknown. We

Gräter, Frauke

386

"EOD, Up!" how explosive ordnance disposal forces can best support special operations forces .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??U.S. special operations forces (SOF) are likely to undertake missions against terrorists, insurgents, and other enemies where they will encounter explosive hazards. Identification, detection, and (more)

Draper, Stephen R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12,...

388

6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

Zahn, Markus, 1946-

389

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series The four-part Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country webinar series provided tribal leaders an...

390

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Task Force Agenda Northeast High-Level Radioactive...

391

U.S. Air Force Energy Program Presentation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Omar Mendoza, U.S. Air Force, presentation on the U.S. Air Force Energy Program at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable.

392

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

393

Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Since Einstein, physicists have sought a unified theory to explain all the fundamental forces and particles in the universe. The result is a stunningly successful theory that reduces the complexity of microscopic physics to a set of concise laws. But these same quantum ideas fail when applied to cosmic physics. Some fundamental piece is missing; gravity, dark matter and dark energy must have quantum explanations. A new theoretical vision is required, one that embraces the Standard Model and general relativity, while resolving the mystery of dark energy. Particle accelerators provide the means to reach a unified theoretical perspective in experiments characterized by four well-defined intellectual thrusts Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new

394

Einstein's Dream of Unified Forces | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

How can we solve the mystery of dark energy? How can we solve the mystery of dark energy? Sloan Digital Sky Survey Just as the first cartographers created maps of the new world, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is systematically mapping one quarter of the universe. (Credit: SDSS) Recent measurements with telescopes and space probes have shown that a mysterious force-a dark energy-fills the vacuum of empty space, accelerating the universe's expansion. We don't know what dark energy is, or why it exists. On the other hand, particle theory tells us that, at the microscopic level, even a perfect vacuum bubbles with quantum particles that are a natural source of dark energy. But a naïve calculation of the dark energy generated from the vacuum yields a value 10120 times larger than the amount we observe. Some unknown physical process is required to

395

A functional approach to quantum friction: effective action and dissipative force  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Casimir friction due to the relative, uniform, lateral motion of two parallel semitransparent mirrors coupled to a vacuum real scalar field, $\\phi$. We follow a functional approach, whereby nonlocal terms in the action for $\\phi$, concentrated on the mirrors' locii, appear after functional integration of the microscopic degrees of freedom. This action for $\\phi$, which incorporates the relevant properties of the mirrors, is then used as the starting point for two complementary evaluations: Firstly, we calculate the { in-out} effective action for the system, which develops an imaginary part, hence a non-vanishing probability for the decay (because of friction) of the initial vacuum state. Secondly, we evaluate another observable: the vacuum expectation value of the frictional force, using the { in-in} or Closed Time Path formalism. Explicit results are presented for zero-width mirrors and half-spaces, in a model where the microscopic degrees of freedom at the mirrors are a set of identical quantum harmonic oscillators, linearly coupled to $\\phi$

M. Beln Faras; Csar D. Fosco; Fernando C. Lombardo; Francisco D. Mazzitelli; Adrin E. Rubio Lpez

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

arXiv:1304.3175v2[nucl-th]17Apr2013 Microscopic optical potential from chiral nuclear forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

numerous theoretical frameworks, in- cluding Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) theory [5­11], Dirac-Brueckner

Weise, Wolfram

397

73Nanowear of atomic force microscope tips: Modeling and experiments Corresponding author: Nicola M. Pugno, e-mail: nicola.pugno@polito.it  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and experimentally validated. The model is based on the assumption that the energy consumed to remove the unit volume with material transformation. Their energy- based model was then based on the assumption that the energy is plausible and, more importantly, that the specific energy is close to the material strength

Espinosa, Horacio D.

398

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopic Imaging of the Energy Barrier and Energetically Favorable Offset of Interfaces in Double-Junction Organic Solar Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) have potential as a low-cost renewable energy source. ... This work benefited from the U.S.Egypt Joint Program, NSF CAREER Program (ECCS-0950731), NSF/EPSCoR program (Grant 0903804), and SD BoR Competitive Research Grant Program (CRGP). ...

Mahbube K. Siddiki; Swaminathan Venkatesan; David Galipeau; Qiquan Qiao

2013-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

399

General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

Goddard III, William A.

400

A molecular mechanics force field for lignin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Molecular Mechanics Force Field for Lignin LOUKAS PETRIDIS, JEREMY C. SMITH Center for Molecular Biophysics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 Received 14 February 2008; Revised 8 May 2008; Accepted 12 June 2008 DOI 10.1002/jcc.21075 Published online 1 August 2008 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: A CHARMM molecular mechanics force field for lignin is derived. Parameterization is based on reproducing quantum mechanical data of model compounds. Partial atomic charges are derived using the RESP electrostatic potential fitting method supplemented by the examination of methoxybenzene:water interactions. Dihedral parameters are optimized by fitting to critical rotational potentials and bonded parameters are obtained by optimizing vibrational frequencies and normal modes. Finally, the force field is validated

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electromigration wind force at stepped Al surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When an electrical current flows parallel to a stepped metal surface, each step experiences a force due to momentum transfer from the carriers that are diffusely scattered by the step edge. In this paper, a ballistic model is used to compute the wind force per unit length acting on the steps of vicinal (100) surfaces of Al. The carrier scattering at the surface is described by a potential-barrier model fit to the results of a first-principles calculation of the surface-induced resistivity of the unstepped surface. The magnitude of the wind force is an increasing function of the step terrace width and reaches a constant value as the steps move apart. For an isolated step on a Al(100) surface, the effective wind valence per unit length of the step edge is zw?-15e -1. This value is equivalent to a wind valence of zw?-43e per atom at the leading edge of each step.

P. J. Rous

1999-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

403

Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

2013-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

David J. Gross and the Strong Force  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David J. Gross and the Strong Force David J. Gross and the Strong Force Resources with Additional Information The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to David Gross for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". 'Gross, who obtained his PhD in physics in 1966, currently is a professor of physics and director of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics at UC Santa Barbara. ... David Gross Courtesy of UC Santa Barbara [When on the faculty at Princeton University,] he and then-graduate student Frank Wilczek came up with a way to describe the "strong force" that governs interactions between protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. He and Wilczek published their proposal simultaneously with H. David Politzer, a graduate student [at Harvard University] who independently came up with the same idea. ...

405

Design and analysis of multilayer X ray/XUV microscope. Final Report, 1 May 1989 - 31 Jan. 1990  

SciTech Connect

The design and analysis of a large number of normal incidence multilayer x ray microscopes based on the spherical mirror Schwarzschild configuration is examined. Design equations for the spherical mirror Schwarzschild microscopes are summarized and used to evaluate mirror parameters for microscopes with magnifications ranging from 2 to 50x. Ray tracing and diffraction analyses are carried out for many microscope configurations to determine image resolution as a function of system parameters. The results are summarized in three publication included herein. A preliminary study of advanced reflecting microscope configurations, where aspherics are used in place of the spherical microscope mirror elements, has indicated that the aspherical elements will improve off-axis image resolution and increase the effective field of view.

Shealy, D.L.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

407

Detection and measurement of electroreflectance on quantum cascade laser device using Fourier transform infrared microscope  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the use of a Fourier Transform Infrared microscope system to detect and measure electroreflectance (ER) from mid-infrared quantum cascade laser (QCL) device. To characterize intersubband transition (ISBT) energies in a functioning QCL device, a microscope is used to focus the probe on the QCL cleaved mirror. The measured ER spectra exhibit resonance features associated to ISBTs under applied electric field in agreement with the numerical calculations and comparable to observed photocurrent, and emission peaks. The method demonstrates the potential as a characterization tool for QCL devices.

Enobio, Eli Christopher I.; Ohtani, Keita; Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo, E-mail: ohno@riec.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modulational instability in wind-forced waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion, in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared.

Brunetti, Maura

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Rings in central-force network dynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The central-force network dynamics model for glasses is extended to treat networks involving small regular rings of bonds. In particular, band-limit formulas are obtained for an A2X3 glass consisting of regular puckered six-membered A3X3 rings. The special case of planar rings is compared with observations on vitreous B2O3. This continuous random network of "boroxol" rings shows improved agreement with experiment over a model not containing rings. The remaining discrepancies illustrate the need to include noncentral forces in the network dynamics of v-B2O3.

F. L. Galeener and M. F. Thorpe

1983-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Robotic Assembly and Contact Force Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indis- pensable in many applications, such as spot welding and painting in the automotive industryRobotic Assembly and Contact Force Control Andreas Stolt Department of Automatic Control Lund in Sweden, Lund University, Lund 2012 #12;Abstract Modern industrial robots are traditionally programmed

411

Inertial Force, Equivalence Principle and Quantum Mechanics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the basis of a manifestly covariant formalism of non-relativistic quantum mechanics in general coordinate systems, proposed by us recently, we derive general expressions for inertial forces. The results enable us further to discuss, and to explain the validity of, the equivalence principle in non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

Minoru Omote; Susumu Kamefuchi

2000-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

412

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

413

Climate-Forced Variability of Ocean Hypoxia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mixture of local wind forcing and basin-scale circulation, but the PDO...exported to the wider Pacific basin (22, 23), yielding widespread...Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: Multidecadal trends and implications...Gentili B. , Climate-driven basin-scale decadal oscillations...

Curtis Deutsch; Holger Brix; Taka Ito; Hartmut Frenzel; LuAnne Thompson

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Power Capping Via Forced Idleness Anshul Gandhi Carnegie Mellon University anshulg@cs.cmu.edu Mor@us.ibm.com Abstract We introduce a novel power capping technique, IdleCap, that achieves higher effective server frequency for a given power constraint than existing techniques. IdleCap works by repeatedly alternating

Harchol-Balter, Mor

415

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Gary. Suntzeff, Texas A&M University Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among

Hu, Wayne

416

Seasonal Isochronic Forcing of Lotka Volterra Equations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......paid to this phenomenon in ecological models. A few recent models...certainly affect almost all ecological processes, but certainly...1I2. This is a temporary vehicle whereby it is possible to...forcing. Thus, no convenient ecological analog (e.g., a gradient......

John Vandermeer

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

water, and ice conspire with the prevailing environmental conditions 52 to produce macroscopic ice by Henry (2000). The first comprehensive and tractable model 57 for ice lens growth was produced by O1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses 3

Rempel, Alan W.

418

EST-CE QU'ON VOlT ATRAVERS UN MICROSCOPE? '  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

speculations philosophiques. *Ian Hacking, «Do we see through a microscope?», P~cifi: Ph~loso phical Quarterly. Texte de Ian Hacking extrait de : Philosophie des sciences - Tome 2 : Naturalismes et réalismes Dirigé par Sandra Laugier , Pierre Wagner Ed. Vrin, Paris #12;240 IAN HACKING LA GRANDE CHAiNE DES ETRES Le

Aubin, David

419

Towards 0.1 nm resolution with the first spherically corrected transmission electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......defocus-modulation image processing. Ultramiaysco/y'41: 323-333. means of an appropriate monochromator. 24 Thust A, Overwijk M H, Coene W M J, and Lentzen M (1996) M. Haider et al. Corrected electron microscope 405 Numerical correction of lenaberrations......

Maximilian Haider; Herald Rose; Stephan Uhlemann; Bernd Kabius; Knut Urban

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

NUCLEAR SEGMENTATION IN MICROSCOPE CELL IMAGES: A HAND-SEGMENTED DATASET AND COMPARISON OF ALGORITHMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NUCLEAR SEGMENTATION IN MICROSCOPE CELL IMAGES: A HAND-SEGMENTED DATASET AND COMPARISON. The hand-labeled dataset (and all software used to com- pare methods) is publicly available to enable, Image seg- mentation 1. INTRODUCTION Nuclear segmentation is an important step in the pipeline of many

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and electric polarization in a single-phase material. The control of the magnetic state of a material with an electric field is an enticing prospect for device engineering. MRSEC

Maroncelli, Mark

422

materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma-terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

28 Plaster materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma- terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE: The next chip-scale technology, Mater. Today, 9:20­27, 2006. Plaster A plastic mixture of solids and water plaster is also used in the industry to designate plaster of paris. Plaster is usually applied in one

Anderson, Peter M.

423

Microscopic optical potentials of the nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at medium energies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microscopic optical potentials of the nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at medium energies R interpreted in terms of the phenomenological optical model potential [1]. At medium and high energies of the optical model approach at medium energies has also some theoretical founda- tions. At a sufficiently large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Low resistivity of Pt silicide nanowires measured using double-scanning-probe tunneling microscope  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experimentally shown to be conductive.8­10 However, RE metal silicide NWs are easily oxidized, so that inert NWs similarly to RE metal silicide NWs.11 It is essential to study the electrical properties, especiallyLow resistivity of Pt silicide nanowires measured using double-scanning- probe tunneling microscope

Kim, Sehun

425

Quantifying transient states in materials with the dynamic transmission electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Engineering and Materials Science and Department...interest to the materials scientist. It has...Computer-controlled, active-feedback pointing...at the microscope cathode. The cathode is...specimen and the cathode laser fires at a...comparison to models of materials evolution. Image......

Geoffrey H. Campbell; Thomas LaGrange; Judy S. Kim; Bryan W. Reed; Nigel D. Browning

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Development of a new 3 MV ultra-high voltage electron microscope at Osaka University  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......shown in Fig. 3 and the main specifications are summarized in Table 1...CW-rircuits at 3MV Main specifications of 3MV electron microscope...stage XI38 stages (at 3MV) InsuLation gas : SFft (4 atoms) Illuminating...This helps to minimize thermal drift of the specimen during......

Akio Takaoka; Katsumi Ura; Hirotaro Mori; Teiji Katsuta; Isao Matsui; Soichiro Hayashi

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

IMAGE CONTENT-BASED RETRIEVAL AND AUTOMATED INTERPRETATION OF FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPE IMAGES VIA THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to microscope images. Our group has developed sets of Subcellular Location Features (SLF) and demonstrated. More significantly, we demonstrate that the use of the SLF can provide automated interpretation-vocabulary means for entering the annotations and also triggers calculation of the SLF features for each cell

Gordon, Geoffrey J.

428

Microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer for a transmission electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Microscopy (1986) New York: Plenum Press. 4...Garratt-Reed A J , Bell D C. Energy-Dispersive X-ray...Microscopy (1996) New York: Plenum Press. 19...Microcalorimeter-type energy dispersive X-ray...electron microscope. | A new energy dispersive......

Toru Hara; Keiichi Tanaka; Keisuke Maehata; Kazuhisa Mitsuda; Noriko Y. Yamasaki; Mitsuaki Ohsaki; Katsuaki Watanabe; Xiuzhen Yu; Takuji Ito; Yoshihiro Yamanaka

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Performance Evaluation of Adaptive Ramp-Metering Algorithms Using Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to implementation on the target freeway network. In this paper, a capability-enhanced PARAMICS simulation model has evaluation; Simulation models; Algorithms. Introduction Ramp metering has been recognized as an effectivePerformance Evaluation of Adaptive Ramp-Metering Algorithms Using Microscopic Traffic Simulation

Levinson, David M.

430

OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the basis of the oceanic food web the surface, corals and other deepwater OIL AND HUMAN USE Wellhead CORALS · Coral surveys · Tissue collections · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment sampling AQUATIC VEGETATION

431

Microscopic models of quasicrystals J. Jdrzejewski and J. Mikisz, Devil's staircase for nonconvex interactions,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microscopic models of quasicrystals J. Jdrzejewski and J. Mikisz, Devil's staircase for nonconvex-dimensional infinite-range lattice-gas interactions, molecules consisting of two particles form a molecular devil's staircase in the unique ground- state measure. The structure of the ground set is that of a Cantor set

Miekisz, Jacek

432

Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

2008-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

433

Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic descriptions and their relationship  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic The room temperature macroscopic and microscopic plastic behavior of four face-centered cubic metals (Al dislocations during plastic flow. It is shown that forest dislocations develop primarily due to interaction

Gubicza, Jenõ

434

Forced Air Systems in High Performance Homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FORCED AIR SYSTEMS IN FORCED AIR SYSTEMS IN HIGH PERFORMANCE HOMES Iain Walker (LBNL) Building America Meeting 2013 What are the issues? 1. Sizing  When is too small too small? 2. Distribution  Can we get good mixing at low flow? 3. Performance  Humidity Control  Part load efficiency  Blowers & thermal losses Sizing  Part-load - not an issue with modern equipment  Careful about predicted loads - a small error becomes a big problem for tightly sized systems  Too Low Capacity = not robust  Extreme vs. design days  Change in occupancy  Party mode  Recovery from setback Sizing  Conventional wisdom - a good envelope = easy to predict and not sensitive to indoor conditions  But..... Heating and cooling become discretionary - large variability depending on occupants

435

Cutoff effects on lattice nuclear forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a lattice QCD study for the cutoff effects on nuclear forces. Two-nucleon forces are determined from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions using the HAL QCD method. Lattice QCD simulations are performed employing N_f = 2 clover fermion configurations at three lattice spacings of a = 0.108, 0.156, 0.215 fm on a fixed physical volume of L^3 x T = (2.5 fm)^3 x 5 fm with a large quark mass corresponding to m_\\pi = 1.1 GeV. We observe that while the discretization artifact appears at the short range part of potentials, it is suppressed at the long distance region. The cutoff dependence of the phase shifts and scattering length is also presented.

Takumi Doi; for HAL QCD Collaboration

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

436

Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ellsworth Air Force Base Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project A Partnership between Ellsworth AFB and MDU Resources Group, Inc. to install advanced metering on all large buildings on EAFB  Based in Bismarck, North Dakota  Celebrated our 85 th year in 2009  NYSE - MDU for over 60 years  Over $4B market cap  Fortune 500 Company  Member of the S&P MidCap 400 Index  Over 8,000 employees in 44 states  Business Lines:  Energy  Utility Resources  Construction Materials  Construction Materials  Energy  Oil and Gas Production  Utility Resources  Natural Gas Pipelines  Construction Services  Electric / Natural Gas Utilities  Utility Resources  Montana - Dakota Utilities Co.  Cascade Natural Gas Co.  Intermountain Gas Corporation

437

Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force  

SciTech Connect

This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

F. Sammarruca

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

438

OnForce Solar | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OnForce Solar OnForce Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name OnForce Solar Address 728 East 136th St. Place Bronx, New York Zip 10454 Sector Renewable Energy Year founded 2007 Number of employees 11-50 Company Type For Profit Phone number 347 590 5450 Website http://www.onforcesolar.com Coordinates 40.8028059°, -73.912863° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":40.8028059,"lon":-73.912863,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

439

Forced response analysis of hydroelectric systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At off-design operating points, Francis turbines develop cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube which may interact with the hydraulic system. Risk resonance assessment by means of eigenmodes computation of the system is usually performed. However, the system response to the excitation source induced by the cavitation vortex rope is not predicted in terms of amplitudes and phase. Only eigenmodes shapes with related frequencies and dampings can be predicted. Besides this modal analysis, the risk resonance assessment can be completed by a forced response analysis. This method allows identifying the contribution of each eigenmode into the system response which depends on the system boundary conditions and the excitation source location. In this paper, a forced response analysis of a Francis turbine hydroelectric power plant including hydraulic system, rotating train, electrical system and control devices is performed. First, the general methodology of the forced response analysis is presented and validated with time domain simulations. Then, analysis of electrical, hydraulic and hydroelectric systems are performed and compared to analyse the influence of control structures on pressure fluctuations induced by cavitation vortex rope.

S Allign; P C O Silva; A Bguin; B Kawkabani; P Allenbach; C Nicolet; F Avellan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Spacetime approach to force-free magnetospheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Force-Free Electrodynamics (FFE) describes magnetically dominated relativistic plasma via non-linear equations for the electromagnetic field alone. Such plasma is thought to play a key role in the physics of pulsars and active black holes. Despite its simple covariant formulation, FFE has primarily been studied in 3+1 frameworks, where spacetime is split into space and time. In this article we systematically develop the theory of force-free magnetospheres taking a spacetime perspective. Using a suite of spacetime tools and techniques (notably exterior calculus) we cover 1) the basics of the theory, 2) exact solutions that demonstrate the extraction and transport of the rotational energy of a compact object (in the case of a black hole, the Blandford-Znajek mechanism), 3) the behavior of current sheets, 4) the general theory of stationary, axisymmetric magnetospheres and 5) general properties of pulsar and black hole magnetospheres. We thereby synthesize, clarify and generalize known aspects of the physics of force-free magnetospheres, while also introducing several new results.

Samuel E. Gralla; Ted Jacobson

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kind of Hubble terms ${\\dot H}$ and $H^{2}$ appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the ${\\dot H}$ dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term $H$ without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavors this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

Spyros Basilakos; Joan Sola

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

442

Reflecting Microscopes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... at the Physical Society's Exhibition in 1939. I used non-spherical mirror-pairs, Schwarzschild aplanats2,3, for a reason which may prove important if it is desired to ... above 0*2, and should preferably be lower.

C. R. BURCH

1943-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

443

Spectro-microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectro-microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Spectro-microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Atmospheric aerosols affect climate by scattering and absorbing sunlight and by modifying the properties of clouds. However, there are gaps in our understanding of chemical processes involving these airborne particulates, and these gaps contribute significantly to uncertainties in predicting future climate change. Developing more- accurate global climate models requires a more complete understanding of the aerosol lifecycle, from initial particle formation to loss through incorporation into precipitating clouds or dry deposition. In research published in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, a team of

444

Design of a scanning Josephson junction microscope for submicron-resolution magnetic imaging  

SciTech Connect

We describe a magnetic field scanning instrument designed to extend the spatial resolution of scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy into the submicron regime. This instrument, the scanning Josephson junction microscope, scans a single Josephson junction across the surface of a sample, detecting the local magnetic field by the modulation of the junction critical current. By using a submicron junction and a scanning tunneling microscope feedback system to maintain close proximity to the surface, magnetic field sensitivity of 10 {mu}G with a spatial resolution of 0.3 {mu}m should be attainable, opening up new opportunities for imaging vortex configurations and core structure in superconductors and magnetic domains in magnetic materials. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Plourde, B.L.; Van Harlingen, D.J. [Department of Physics, Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Macroscopic observables experimentally linked to microscopic processes in the explosive fracture and fragmentation of metals  

SciTech Connect

The response of a metal element to explosive loading depends on a broad spectrum of explosive and metal properties, macroscopic geometry plays a crucial role in defining the localized loading history and the resulting gradients of interest, while microscopic effects and defects are generally believed responsible for damage nucleation. Certain experiments reduce the complexity by producing conditions that are uniform in some sense, allowing dynamic measurement of variables that can be correlated with corresponding microscopic effects observed in recovery experiments. Spherical expansion of thin shells, that eventually fragment, and steady wave loading of flat plates are two such experiments. Proton radiography, x-radiography, laser velocimetry, imaging IR, and visible light photography all have produced dynamic measurements in 4340 steel, copper, uranium alloys, tantalum, and titanium. Correlation of the macroscopic measurements with microscopy on recovered samples has been done with a statistical approach.

Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

446

Development of x-ray laminography under an x-ray microscopic condition  

SciTech Connect

An x-ray laminography system under an x-ray microscopic condition was developed to obtain a three-dimensional structure of laterally-extended planar objects which were difficult to observe by x-ray tomography. An x-ray laminography technique was introduced to an x-ray transmission microscope with zone plate optics. Three prototype sample holders were evaluated for x-ray imaging laminography. Layered copper grid sheets were imaged as a laminated sample. Diatomite powder on a silicon nitride membrane was measured to confirm the applicability of this method to non-planar micro-specimens placed on the membrane. The three-dimensional information of diatom shells on the membrane was obtained at a spatial resolution of sub-micron. Images of biological cells on the membrane were also obtained by using a Zernike phase contrast technique.

Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yagi, Naoto [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Federal Smart Grid Task Force | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal Smart Federal Smart Grid Task Force Federal Smart Grid Task Force Task Force Background The Federal Smart Grid Task Force was established under Title XIII of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) and includes experts from eleven Federal agencies. The Department of Energy is represented by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability which is the Task Force lead, as well as the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. Task Force Mission The mission of the Task Force is to ensure awareness, coordination and integration of the diverse activities of the Federal Government related to smart grid technologies, practices, and services. The Task Force will collaborate with DOE's Electricity Advisory Committee and other relevant

448

Measuring Shear Stress in Microfluidics using Traction Force Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Traction force microscopy is a previously-developed method to measure shear forces exerted by biological cells on substrates to which they are adhered (Dembo, 1999). The technique determines the shear stress a...

Bryant Mueller

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Microstructure effects for Casimir forces in chiral metamaterials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine a recent prediction for the chirality dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. ...

Johnson, Steven G.

450

Aerodynamic Forces on Truck Models, Including Two Trucks in Tandem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rear-edge shaping on the aerodynamic drag of bluff vehiclesOF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY Aerodynamic Forces on Truck Models,TRANSIT AND HIGHWAYS Aerodynamic Forces on Truck Models,

Hammache, Mustapha; Michaelian, Mark; Browand, Fred

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Assessment of a body force representation for compressor stability estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a methodology for the integration of blade row body forces, derived from axisymmetric and three- dimensional flow fields, for use in the stability analysis of axial compressors. The body force database ...

Patel, Amish A. (Amish Ashok)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Development of a body force description for compressor stability assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a methodology for a body force description of a compressor with particular application to compressor stability calculations. The methodology is based on extracting blade forces from an axisymmetric ...

Kiwada, George (George Ford)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Signs and Polarized/Magnetic versions of the Casimir Forces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider versions of the Casimir effect where the force can be controlled by changing the angle between two Casimir ``plates'' or the temperature of two nearby rings. We also present simple arguments for the sign of Casimir forces.

S. Nussinov

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

454

Damping of glacial-interglacial cycles from anthropogenic forcing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate variability over the past million years shows a strong glacial-interglacial cycle of ~100,000 years as a combined result of Milankovitch orbital forcing and climatic resonance. It has been suggested that anthropogenic contributions to radiative forcing may extend the length of the present interglacial, but the effects of anthropogenic forcing on the periodicity of glacial-interglacial cycles has received little attention. Here I demonstrate that moderate anthropogenic forcing can act to damp this 100,000 year cycle and reduce climate variability from orbital forcing. Future changes in solar insolation alone will continue to drive a 100,000 year climate cycle over the next million years, but the presence of anthropogenic warming can force the climate into an ice-free state that only weakly responds to orbital forcing. Sufficiently strong anthropogenic forcing that eliminates the glacial-interglacial cycle may serve as an indication of an epoch transition from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene.

Haqq-Misra, Jacob

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

UNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

program in order to reduce Federal employee's contribution to traffic congestion and air pollutionUNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BENEFIT PROGRAM): ____________ City (Residence): __________________________State: _______________ Zip Code: ________________ Air Force

456

Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conducted so as to characterize atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic (pollution) and natural (sea saltAtomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles ZAHAVA BARKAY,1 * AMIT 69978, Israel KEY WORDS atmospheric aerosols; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron microscopy

Shapira, Yoram

457

Microscopic Scatterer Displacements Generate the 1f Resistance Noise of H in Pd  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The resistance changes generated by individual microscopic displacements due to dissolved hydrogen ions hopping between neighboring sites within palladium films create intense 1f noise at low temperature. Crossover to one-dimensional diffusion-mediated number-fluctuation noise occurs for T?150 K. The measured resistance change per proton displacement is comparable to the resistance per proton as predicted by applicable quantum-interference theories.

Neil M. Zimmerman and Watt W. Webb

1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Microscopic surface structure of C/SiC composite mirrors for space cryogenic telescopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the microscopic surface structure of carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirrors that have been improved for the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and other cooled telescopes. The C/SiC composite consists of carbon fiber, silicon carbide, and residual silicon. Specific microscopic structures are found on the surface of the bare C/SiC mirrors after polishing. These structures are considered to be caused by the different hardness of those materials. The roughness obtained for the bare mirrors is 20 nm rms for flat surfaces and 100 nm rms for curved surfaces. It was confirmed that a SiSiC slurry coating is effective in reducing the roughness to 2 nm rms. The scattering properties of the mirrors were measured at room temperature and also at 95 K. No significant change was found in the scattering properties through cooling, which suggests that the microscopic surface structure is stable with changes in temperature down to cryogenic values. The C/SiC mirror with the SiSiC slurry coating is a promising candidate for the SPICA telescope.

Keigo Enya; Takao Nakagawa; Hidehiro Kaneda; Takashi Onaka; Tuyoshi Ozaki; Masami Kume

2007-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

460

Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Ryan Jantzen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Maneuvers Ryan Jantzen and Kunihiko Taira Florida, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH We report on the development of an aerodynamic force model for a flat focus is placed on examining the influence of large-amplitude wing motion on the unsteady aerodynamics

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonal dependence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dependence. The long-term globally integrated annual mean net forcing calculated here is approximately zero, related to the annual cycle in photochemistry; the O3 radiative forcing calculations also have a seasonal, although earlier work suggests a small net positive forcing. The model design (e.g., upper tropospheric

462

Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Alexander Rozhko Thesis September 2007 #12;ii Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Abstract. The mechanical role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns was studied both

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Updated radiative forcing estimates of 65 halocarbons and nonmethane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Updated radiative forcing estimates of 65 halocarbons and nonmethane hydrocarbons 1234567 89A64BC7,493-20,505,SEPTEMBER 16,2001 Updated radiative forcing estimates of 65 halocarbons and nonmethane hydrocarbons Kamaljit representhemisphericdifferencesin water vapor, ozoneconcentrations,and cloud cover. Instantaneous,clear-skyradiative forcing

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

464

US Air Force Facility Energy Management Program - How Industry Can Help the Air Force Meet Its Objectives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the Air Force's facility energy management program including how industry can help the Air Force meet its facility energy objectives. Background information on energy use and energy conservation efforts are presented to give...

Holden, P. C.; Kroop, R. H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Photodetachment near an attractive force center  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article studies the photodetachment of a single electron anion near an attractive center. Both the differential and total photodetachment cross section are analysed. We obtain the electron flux crossing through a spherical detector centered at the force center using the semiclassical approximation. The closed-orbit theory gives the total cross section which contains a smooth background and an oscillatory part. Concrete calculations and discussions are carried out for two types of wave source: the $s$- and $p_z$-wave source. Photodetachment processes for three conditions are compared: an anion near an attractive center, near a repulsive center and in a homogeneous electric field.

You, X P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule. 6 figs.

Holzrichter, J.F.; Siekhaus, W.J.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

A diamond-based scanning probe spin sensor operating at low temperature in ultra-high vacuum  

SciTech Connect

We present the design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) low temperature scanning probe microscope employing the nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond as an ultrasensitive magnetic field sensor. Using this center as an atomic-size scanning probe has enabled imaging of nanoscale magnetic fields and single spins under ambient conditions. In this article we describe an experimental setup to operate this sensor in a cryogenic UHV environment. This will extend the applicability to a variety of molecular systems due to the enhanced target spin lifetimes at low temperature and the controlled sample preparation under UHV conditions. The instrument combines a tuning-fork based atomic force microscope (AFM) with a high numeric aperture confocal microscope and the facilities for application of radio-frequency (RF) fields for spin manipulation. We verify a sample temperature of <50 K even for strong laser and RF excitation and demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging with a magnetic AFM tip.

Schaefer-Nolte, E.; Wrachtrup, J. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); 3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Reinhard, F. [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ternes, M., E-mail: m.ternes@fkf.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matire Condense, Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

Note: Electrical resolution during conductive atomic force microscopy measurements under different environmental conditions and contact forces  

SciTech Connect

Conductive atomic force microscopy experiments on gate dielectrics in air, nitrogen, and UHV have been compared to evaluate the impact of the environment on topography and electrical measurements. In current images, an increase of the lateral resolution and a reduction of the conductivity were observed in N{sub 2} and, especially, in UHV (where current depends also on the contact force). Both effects were related to the reduction/elimination of the water layer between the tip and the sample in N{sub 2}/UHV. Therefore, since current measurements are very sensitive to environmental conditions, these factors must be taken into consideration when comparisons between several experiments are performed.

Lanza, M.; Porti, M.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X. [Dept. Enginyeria Electronica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Q, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Whittaker, E.; Hamilton, B. [University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M60 JQD (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Force generation by Myosin II Filaments in Compliant Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) networks to generate contractile forces in cells. How their properties control force production in environments with varying stiffness is poorly understood. Here, we incorporated literature values for properties of myosin II isoforms into a cross-bridge model. Similar actin gliding speeds and force-velocity curves expected from previous experiments were observed. Motor force output on an elastic load was regulated by two timescales--that of their attachment to F-actin, which varied sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load, and that of force build up, which scaled with ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and load stiffness. While such regulation did not require force-dependent kinetics, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from short attachments and small forces to high force-generating runs at threshold parameter values. Parameters representing skeletal muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin IIB, and non-muscle myosin IIA revealed distinct regimes of behavior respectively: (1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness, (2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force build-up times that exceed physiological timescales, and (3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds may respond sharply to changes in mechanical context--at low forces or stiffness, they serve as low affinity cross-links but they can transition to effective force production via the positive feedback mechanism described above. These results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment.

Samantha Stam; Jon Alberts; Margaret L. Gardel; Edwin Munro

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

470

Protective Force Firearms Qualifications Courses, July 2011 | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Protective Force Firearms Qualifications Courses, July 2011 Protective Force Firearms Qualifications Courses, July 2011 Protective Force Firearms Qualifications Courses, July 2011 July 2011 Firearms Qualifications Courses To describe the process by which U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) protective force (PF) firearms qualification courses are developed, reviewed, revised,validated, and approved. The process described herein applies to all PF firearms policy development participants; notably, the staff of the DOE Office of Security (HS-50), the DOE National Training Center (NTC) (HS-70), the DOE Firearms Policy Panel (FPP), the DOE Protective Forces Safety Committee (PFSC), the DOE Training Managers' Working Group (TMWG), the DOE Training Advisory Committee

471

Weak and Repulsive Casimir Force in Piston Geometries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Casimir force in piston-like geometries semiclassically. The force on the piston is finite and physical, but to leading semiclassical approximation depends strongly on the shape of the surrounding cavity. Whereas this force is attractive for pistons in a parallelepiped with flat cylinder head, for which the semiclassical approximation by periodic orbits is exact, this approximation to the force on the piston vanishes for a semi-cylindrical head and becomes repulsive for a cylinder of circular cross section with a hemispherical head. In leading semiclassical approximation the sign of the force is related to the generalized Maslov index of short periodic orbits between the piston and its casing.

Martin Schaden; Liviu Mateescu

2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

472

USLCSG Task Force Meeting June 2003  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

All Task Force Meeting at SLAC All Task Force Meeting at SLAC June 15, 16, 2003 Meeting Agenda What's New! June 2003 Meeting Accommodations: The new SLAC Guest House is now available, but the block of rooms for the meeting has now been released, and space is first-come first-serve. If you want to use it, please book directly at SLAC Guest House. or let Naomi know ASAP. You need to mention Dave or Naomi's name as a host name. Daily rate is $50 + tax for the one full sized bed room (Standard room). Lunch on Sunday and Coffee services: The cafeteria is closed on Sunday, so we will order box lunches for meeting delegates. We will collect $10 per person to cover the cost of lunch on Sunday. Please pay $10 in cash to Naomi Nagahashi on Monday, June 16. If you need a receipt, she will provide one. We need a count of the lunches to provide, so please let Naomi know, if you need a box lunch, by Friday, June 6. On Monday, the cafeteria will be open for breakfast and lunch.

473

Self-force on an accelerated particle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We calculate the singular field of an accelerated point particle (scalar charge, electric charge or small gravitating mass) moving on an accelerated (nongeodesic) trajectory in a generic background spacetime. Using a mode-sum regularization scheme, we obtain explicit expressions for the self-force regularization parameters. We use a Lorentz gauge for the electromangetic and gravitational cases. This work extends the work of Barack and Ori [1] who demonstrated that the regularization parameters for a point particle in geodesic motion in a Schwarzschild spacetime can be described solely by the leading and subleading terms in the mode-sum (commonly known as the A and B terms) and that all terms of higher order in ? vanish upon summation (later they showed the same behavior for geodesic motion in Kerr [2], [3]). We demonstrate that these properties are universal to point particles moving through any smooth spacetime along arbitrary (accelerated) trajectories. Our renormalization scheme is based on, but not identical to, the Quinn-Wald axioms. As we develop our approach, we review and extend work showing that that different definitions of the singular field used in the literature are equivalent to our approach. Because our approach does not assume geodesic motion of the perturbing particle, we are able use our mode-sum formalism to explicitly recover a well-known result: The self-force on static scalar charges near a Schwarzschild black hole vanishes.

Thomas M. Linz; John L. Friedman; Alan G. Wiseman

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

474

Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Force Members Force Members Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members October 8, 2013 - 1:31pm Addthis The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is composed of Federal energy managers, members of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and industry participants. The FEMP director serves as the executive director of the task force. Task Force Executive Director Dr. Timothy Unruh U.S. Department of Energy 202-586-5772 Task Force Members Mark Ewing General Services Administration 202-708-9296 Holger Fischer National Aeronautics and Space Administration 202-358-0416 Wayne Thalasinos National Aeronautics and Space Administration 202-358-3811 Mark Sprouse National Archives and Records Administration 301-837-3019 Leslie Ford Social Security Administration 410-594-0111 David Zimmerman

475

September 2012, Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview Work Force Retention Work Group Status Overview 2 Subgroups: Pro-Force and Non-Pro-Force Pro-Force Subgroup: Accomplishments: 1. Completion of 10 CFR 1046 [Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards] as a final rule that includes modification efforts to address barriers to workforce retention. 2. Pro-Force (PF) union representative, Randy Lawson, identified this accomplishment as the single most significant step toward PF workforce retention in over 20 years. 3. Draft re-charter of PF Career Options Committee (PFCOC) to establish a PF Working Group approved by GC-63 and GC NNSA. Near Term Goals and Activities: 1. Publish 1046 as a final rule - publication anticipated this month.

476

Feature - Air Force Fellows helping work toward smarter diesel engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Force Fellows helping work toward smarter diesel engines Air Force Fellows helping work toward smarter diesel engines Air Force Fellows Clint Abell (left) and Jeff Gillen work on Smarter Diesel Engine (SDE) 21. The project involves using ion sensors to help the engine run at maximum efficiency. Air Force Fellows Clint Abell (left) and Jeff Gillen work on Smarter Diesel Engine (SDE) 21. The project involves using ion sensors to help the engine run at maximum efficiency. (Photo by Wes Agresta) One of the three core values of the Air Force is "excellence in all we do." So it should be no surprise that there are currently two Air Force officers here at Argonne studying ways to improve the efficiency of military vehicles. Lieutenant Colonel Jeff Gillen and Major Clint Abell are the fourth set of Air Force Fellows to spend time at Argonne, but the first to be stationed

477

Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the Program About the Program Site Map Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members on AddThis.com...

478

CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force This charter establishes the responsibilities of the Price-Anderson Act Task Force (Task Force). The Secretary of Energy has approved formation of this Task Force to review the need for the continuation or modification of the Price-Anderson Act, section 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (AEA), and to prepare a detailed report for submission to Congress as required by section 170p. of the AEA by August 1, 1998. CHARTER, Price-Anderson Act Task Force More Documents & Publications MEMORANDUM FOR THE SECRETARY Report to Congress on the Price-Anderson Act Appendix A. Notice of Inquiry: Preparation of Report to Congress on Price-Anderson Act. 62 Federal Register 68,272 (December 31, 1997)

479

Collisional effects on nonlinear ion drag force for small grains  

SciTech Connect

The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution appropriate for ion drift driven by a force field gives wake potential and force greatly different from a shifted Maxwellian distribution, regardless of collisionality. The low-collisionality forces are shown to be consistent with estimates based upon cross-sections for scattering in a Yukawa (shielded) grain field, but only if non-linear shielding length is used. Finite collisionality initially enhances the drag force, but only by up to a factor of 2. Larger collisionality eventually reduces the drag force. In the collisional regime, the drift distribution gives larger drag than the shift distribution even at velocities where their collisionless drags are equal. Comprehensive practical analytic formulas for force that fit the calculations are provided.

Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Plasma Science and Fusion Center and Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope  

SciTech Connect

There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

A flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

low-noise measurements in ambient, in situ, and electrochemical environments. II. DESIGNA flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface, specifically in electrolyte environments. Quantification of system noise limits

Gimzewski, James

482

High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography to determine microscopic distributions of B-10 in neutron capture therapy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The success of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is heavily dependent on the microscopic distribution of B-10 in tissue. High Resolution Quantitative Auto-Radiography (HRQAR) is a potentially valuable analytical tool ...

Harris, Thomas C. (Thomas Cameron)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Compact scanning soft-x-ray microscope using a laser-produced plasma source and normal-incidence multilayer mirrors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have constructed a scanning soft-x-ray microscope that uses a laser-produced plasma as the soft-x-ray source and normal-incidence multilayer-coated mirrors in a Schwarzschild...

Trail, J A; Byer, R L

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Forced Convection Heat Transfer 1 Forced Convection Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Forced Convection Heat Transfer Convection is the mechanism of heat transfer through a fluid / The convective heat transfer coefficient h strongly depends on the fluid properties and roughness of the solid. As a result, the heat transfer from the solid surface to the fluid layer adjacent to the surface

Bahrami, Majid

485

The Effect of Temperature, Cations, and Number of Acyl Chains on the Lamellar to Non-Lamellar Transition in Lipid-A Membranes: A Microscopic View  

SciTech Connect

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the main constituent of the outer bacterial membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid-A is the structural region of LPS that interacts with the innate immune system and induces inflammatory responses. It is formed by a phosphorylated ?-d-glucosaminyl-(1?6)-?-N-glucosamine disaccharide backbone containing ester-linked and amide-linked long-chain fatty acids, which may vary in length and number depending on the bacterial strains and the environment. Phenotypical variation (i.e., number of acyl chains), cation type, and temperature influence the phase transition, aggregate structure, and endotoxic activity of Lipid-A. We have applied an extension of the GROMOS force field 45a4 carbohydrate parameter set to investigate the behavior of hexa- and pentaacylated Lipid-A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at two temperatures (300 and 328 K) and in the presence of mono- and divalent cations (represented by Ca2+ and Na+, respectively) through molecular dynamics simulations. The distinct phase of Lipid-A aggregates was characterized by structural properties, deuterium order parameters, the molecular shape of the lipid units (conical versus cylindrical), and molecular packing. Our results show that Na+ ions induce a transition from the lamellar to nonlamellar phase. In contrast, the bilayer integrity is maintained in the presence of Ca2+ ions. Through these findings, we present microscopic insights on the influence of different cations on the molecular behavior of Lipid-A associated with the lamellar to nonlamellar transition.

Pontes, Frederico J.; Rusu, Victor H.; Soares, Thereza A.; Lins, Roberto D.

2012-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

486

Experience proves forced fracture closure works  

SciTech Connect

Forced closure, or perhaps better-named ``reverse gravel packing,`` of fractures immediately following hydraulic fracturing with proppant and gelled fluids is a technique which, with rare exception, can be extremely beneficial to the success of almost every hydraulic fracture treatment. By proper planning of the rig-up to allow immediate flow-back, substantial quantities of polymer and load fluid can be removed while simultaneously negating undesirable proppant settling within fractures in the near wellbore area. Fracture smearing (dilution of proppant into an extending fracture) after shutdown can be negated. And in most cases, proppant production from the formation can be reduced. Discussions in the article explain why Ely and Associates has the confidence to make these claims after extensive hydraulic fracturing experience in many geographical areas.

Ely, J.W. [John Ely and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

Joseph Rabovitser

2003-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

488

Force 9 Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name Force 9 Energy Place Amersham, United Kingdom Zip HP7 0UT Sector Wind energy Product Joint owner of Abercairny windfarm development. Coordinates 36.530602°, -82.602203° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":36.530602,"lon":-82.602203,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

489

Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California  

SciTech Connect

Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

490

Stability of nuclear forces versus weapons of mass destruction  

SciTech Connect

The model derived for nuclear missile exchanges is used to describe the interaction between two forces, of which one has nuclear weapons and the other has weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The model equations are solved analytically for exchanges, costs, and stability indices by analytically minimizing the cost of first strikes. The analysis is restricted to theater operations, as WMD are inferior to nuclear weapons in strategic counter force operations, but quite adequate for theater operations against exposed forces. The analysis treats only in-theater forces as companion papers show that ex-theater forces, which enter as survivable forces, cancel out of the theater balances treated here. Optimal nuclear weapon and WMD allocations are proportional to the opponent`s carriers and inversely proportional to one`s own weapons. Thus, as WMD increase, WMD allocations to nuclear forces fall, reflecting a shift from damage limiting to inflicting damage with surviving forces. Nuclear weapon kill probabilities degrade rapidly against dispersed forces. As they fall, their allocation to WMD falls sharply as they become ineffective and are reallocated to value. Thus, damage limiting is primarily effective for undispersed forces, which produces an incentive for the nuclear side to use his weapons while they are still effective.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Data Reconstruction from a Hard Disk Drive using Magnetic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

flying over the magnetization pattern written on the disk,disks be free of even microscopic particles, since the flying

Kanekal, Vasu

492

Microscopic structure, discommensurations, and tiling of Si(111)/Cu-55  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We derive a detailed, microscopic description of the Si(111)/Cu-55 reconstruction. The key to understanding this structure is the x-ray standing-wave determination of the Cu registry with respect to the Si substrate. With Cu basically in H3 and substitutional sites the buckled Si(111) surface bilayer converts to an almost planar, hexagonal Cu2Si layer. The straightened bond angles and the associated increase in the lateral lattice constant give rise to a hexagonal network of discommensurations of period ?5.5aSi. Complete tiling of the surface requires three types of twisted (3) domains, two of which are rotationally equivalent.

J. Zegenhagen; E. Fontes; F. Grey; J. R. Patel

1992-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

493

Energy-Dependence of Elastic Alpha-Particle Scattering - Microscopic Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (Received 8 June 1972) The energy dependence of elastic n scattering from 4 Ca between 39.6 and 115.4 MeV is determined using a microscopic optical model. The agreement between theory and experi- ment improves as the energy... applied to the scattering of e particles from 40 to 166 MeV' ' ' ' ' and good agreement with experiment has been obtained. Once XV,?has been determined, E(l. (l) can be used to predict the scattering of a particles (in the diffraction region) given a...

Lerner, G. M.; Rutledge, L. L.; Hiebert, John C.; Bernstein, A. M.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Atomic delocalisation as a microscopic origin of two-level defects in Josephson junctions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identifying the microscopic origins of decoherence sources prevalent in Josephson junction based circuits is central to their use as functional quantum devices. Focussing on so called "strongly coupled" two-level defects, we construct a theoretical model using the atomic position of the oxygen which is spatially delocalised in the oxide forming the Josephson junction barrier. Using this model, we investigate which atomic configurations give rise to two-level behaviour of the type seen in experiments. We compute experimentally observable parameters for phase qubits and examine defect response under the effects of applied electric field and strain.

Timothy C. DuBois; Salvy P. Russo; Jared H. Cole

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

495

Direct photon emission in Heavy Ion Collisions from Microscopic Transport Theory and Fluid Dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach, the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are made.

Bjoern Baeuchle; Marcus Bleicher

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

496

The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(9, 10) However, we decided upon a different approach and worked with scanning probe principles to create a large-scale scanning device, the scanning theremin microscope (SThM). ... The simplest mode of scanning is to move the pantograph to scan the probe across the surface at a fixed height, listening for changes in pitch. ... We present a cascade-based computation scheme that has all of the devices and interconnects required for the one-time computation of an arbitrary logic function. ...

Rebecca C. Quardokus; Natalie A. Wasio; S. Alex Kandel

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

497

Scanning electrochemical microscope characterization of thin film combinatorial libraries for fuel cell electrode applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

PtRu combinatorial libraries of potential fuel cell anode catalysts are formed by sequential sputter deposition through masks onto Si wafers. Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is employed for characterization of electrocatalytic activity. Aspects of using a scanning electrochemical microscope for characterization of an array of thin film fuel cell electrode materials are discussed. It is shown that in applying SECM to library characterization, careful attention must be paid to thin film annealing, specimen topography and tip degradation in order to realize meaningful results. Results from a PtRu thin film library reveal the most active members near the 50 Pt/50 Ru composition.

M Black; J Cooper; P McGinn

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Microscopic identification of the compensation mechanisms in Si-doped GaAs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The compensation mechanisms of SiGa donors in GaAs are determined by scanning tunneling microscopy. With increasing Si concentration the SiGa donors are consecutively electrically deactivated by SiAs acceptors, Si clusters, and SiGa-Ga-vacancy complexes. A microscopic model based on the screened Coulomb interaction between charged dopants, the amphoteric nature of Si, and the Fermi-level effect is proposed. It explains the observed defects, the critical Si concentrations of each identified mechanism, and predicts the solubility limit of Si in GaAs. 1996 The American Physical Society.

C. Domke, Ph. Ebert, M. Heinrich, and K. Urban

1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

499

Microscopic study of chiral rotation in odd-odd A $\\sim$ 100 nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A systematic study of the doublet bands observed in odd-odd mass $\\sim$ 100 is performed using the microscopic triaxial projected shell model approach. This mass region has depicted some novel features which are not observed in other mass regions, for instance, it has been observed that two chiral bands cross diabatically in $^{106}$Ag. It is demonstrated that this unique feature is due to crossing of the two 2-quasiparticle configurations having different intrinsic structures. Further, we provide a complete set of transition probabilities for all the six-isotopes studied in this work and it is shown that the predicted transitions are in good agreement with the available experimental data.

W. A. Dar; J. A. Sheikh; G. H. Bhat; R. Palit; S. Frauendorf

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

500

A soft-X-ray imaging microscope with multilayer-coated Schwarzschild optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We constructed a soft-X-ray imaging microscope based on a multilayer-coated Schwarzschild objective. The Schwarzschild objective was designed to have a 50 x magnification and a numerical aperture of 0.25. The mirrors of the objective were coated with a Mo/Si multilayer to reflect the Si L emission. The overall throughput of the objective was 14% at a peak wavelength of 13.3 nm. The 5-?m wide stripe of SiO 2 lithographically patterned was observed under irradiation with an electron beam of 1 ?A.

M. Toyoda; Y. Shitani; M. Yanagihara; T. Ejima; M. Yamamoto; M. Watanabe

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z