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1

What is an Atomic Force Microscope? The Lego Scanning Force Microscope (LSPM) is a model of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), a very  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) concept is similar to radar; only instead of measuring sound reflections from the surface, we measure (SPM). The AFM is one of the primary tools for imaging, measuring, and manipulating matter at the nanoscale level. The term "microscope" implies looking, while in fact the information is gathered

2

Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im-portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) nanomanipu-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Automation has long been recognized as an im- portant goal in AFM (Atomic Force on the order of 10 nm, however, automation has re- mained an elusive goal, primarily because of the spatial multi-tip arrays) or by automating the manipulation process, thus bypassing the time-consuming and labor

Southern California, University of

3

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Modeling and control of undesirable dynamics in atomic force microscopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The phenomenal resolution and versatility of the atomic force microscope (AFM), has made it a widely-used instrument in nanotechnology. In this thesis, a detailed model of AFM dynamics has been developed. It includes a new ...

El Rifai, Osamah M

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmitted for USMaterialstheterahertzon Home WaterScanning Probe AFM

6

Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

Chan, Derek Y C

7

afm force measurements: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

8

Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

Qin, Lu-Chang

9

On advancement of high speed atomic force microscope technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High speed atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a developing process in which nanoscale objects, such as crystal structures or strands of DNA, can be imaged at rates fast enough to watch processes as they occur. Although current ...

SooHoo, Kimberly E

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Selective nano-patterning of graphene using a heated atomic force microscope tip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we introduce a selective thermochemical nano-patterning method of graphene on insulating substrates. A tiny heater formed at the end of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever is optimized by a finite element method. The cantilever device is fabricated using conventional micromachining processes. After preliminary tests of the cantilever device, nano-patterning experiments are conducted with various conducting and insulating samples. The results indicate that faster scanning speed and higher contact force are desirable to reduce the sizes of nano-patterns. With the experimental condition of 1 ?m/s and 24 mW, the heated AFM tip generates a graphene oxide layer of 3.6 nm height and 363 nm width, on a 300 nm thick SiO{sub 2} layer, with a tip contact force of 100 nN.

Choi, Young-Soo; Wu, Xuan; Lee, Dong-Weon, E-mail: mems@jnu.ac.kr [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] [MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

The magnetic resonance force microscope: A new microscopic probe of magnetic materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) marries the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), to produce a three-dimensional imaging instrument with high, potentially atomic-scale, resolution. The principle of the MRFM has been successfully demonstrated in numerous experiments. By virtue of its unique capabilities the MRFM shows promise to make important contributions in fields ranging from three-dimensional materials characterization to bio-molecular structure determination. Here the authors focus on its application to the characterization and study of layered magnetic materials; the ability to illuminate the properties of buried interfaces in such materials is a particularly important goal. While sensitivity and spatial resolution are currently still far from their theoretical limits, they are nonetheless comparable to or superior to that achievable in conventional MRI. Further improvement of the MRFM will involve operation at lower temperature, application of larger field gradients, introduction of advanced mechanical resonators and improved reduction of the spurious coupling when the magnet is on the resonator.

Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Midzor, M.; Roukes, M.L. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Wigen, P.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Childress, J.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

12

High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S., E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

Ljubicic, Dean M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Dynamic study of tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This study examines the dynamic characteristics of the in-plane tunable stiffness scanning microscope probe for an atomic force microscope (AFM). The analysis was carried out using finite element analysis (FEA) methods for ...

Vega González, Myraida Angélica

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zhao, Hongxia [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Chen, Yong [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China)] [Institute for Advanced Study, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Huang, Xun [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ma, Shuyuan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China) [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Ye, Hongyan [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai, Jiye, E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)] [Chemistry Department, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

2010-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

16

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

17

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

18

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

19

Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

20

The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS{sub 2} to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS{sub 2} had friction coefficients of {mu}= 0.20 {+-} 0.04 and {mu}= 0.006 {+-} 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS{sub 2} had a friction coefficient of {mu}= 0.005 {+-} 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L. [126 Spencer Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope using a linear quadratic Gaussian controller  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM’s piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method.

Habibullah, H., E-mail: h.habib@student.adfa.edu.au; Pota, H. R., E-mail: h.pota@adfa.edu.au; Petersen, I. R., E-mail: i.petersen@adfa.edu.au [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2612 (Australia)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Laser interferometry force-feedback sensor for an interfacial force microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning force microscope is provided with a force-feedback sensor to increase sensitivity and stability in determining interfacial forces between a probe and a sample. The sensor utilizes an interferometry technique that uses a collimated light beam directed onto a deflecting member, comprising a common plate suspended above capacitor electrodes situated on a substrate forming an interference cavity with a probe on the side of the common plate opposite the side suspended above capacitor electrodes. The probe interacts with the surface of the sample and the intensity of the reflected beam is measured and used to determine the change in displacement of the probe to the sample and to control the probe distance relative to the surface of the sample.

Houston, Jack E.; Smith, William L.

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

23

Controlling a magnetic force microscope to track a magnetized nanosize particle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Controlling a magnetic force microscope to track a magnetized nanosize particle Dimitar Baronov and Sean B. Andersson Abstract--In this paper, we introduce a scheme for tracking a magnetic nanoparticle moving in three-dimensions using a magnetic force microscope (MFM). The stray magnetic field

Andersson, Sean B.

24

A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Paul, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

25

Design of a self-aligned, wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with 10 nm magnetic force microscope resolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe the design of a wide temperature range (300 mK-300 K) atomic force microscope/magnetic force microscope with a self-aligned fibre-cantilever mechanism. An alignment chip with alignment groves and a special mechanical design are used to eliminate tedious and time consuming fibre-cantilever alignment procedure for the entire temperature range. A low noise, Michelson fibre interferometer was integrated into the system for measuring deflection of the cantilever. The spectral noise density of the system was measured to be ?12 fm/?Hz at 4.2 K at 3 mW incident optical power. Abrikosov vortices in BSCCO(2212) single crystal sample and a high density hard disk sample were imaged at 10 nm resolution to demonstrate the performance of the system.

Karc?, Özgür [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - ?vedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Dede, Münir [NanoMagnetics Instruments Ltd., Hacettepe - ?vedik OSB Teknokent, 1368. Cad., No: 61/33, 06370, Yenimahalle, Ankara (Turkey); Oral, Ahmet, E-mail: orahmet@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

Design and construction of a magnetic force microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ............................................. 11 II. USES OF MFM....................................................................................... 16 A. Overview...................................................................................... 16 B. MFM on superconductors... the sample and the tip is useful to ensure the dominance of magnetic force term. The other popular method to ensure that this is the case is called ?Plane Scan?. One of the first uses of this technique was to image vortices in YBCO superconductors.11...

Khandekar, Sameer Sudhakar

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

27

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy Phil Attarda School 21 November 2006 The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating measurement with the atomic force microscope AFM requires the sensitivity of the photodiode, which re- lates

Attard, Phil

28

On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

Burns, Daniel James

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

10-fold detection range increase in quadrant-photodiode position sensing for photonic force microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a technique that permits one to increase by one order of magnitude the detection range of position sensing for the photonic force microscope with quadrant photodetectors (QPDs). This technique takes advantage of the unavoidable cross-talk between output signals of the QPD and does not assume that the output signals are linear in the probe displacement. We demonstrate the increase in the detection range from 150 to 1400 nm for a trapped polystyrene sphere with radius of 300 nm as probe.

Perrone, Sandro; Volpe, Giovanni [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels (Barcelona) 08860 (Spain); Petrov, Dmitri [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Castelldefels (Barcelona) 08860 (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona 08010 (Spain)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

Calibration of an interfacial force microscope for MEMS metrology : FY08-09 activities.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress in MEMS fabrication has enabled a wide variety of force and displacement sensing devices to be constructed. One device under intense development at Sandia is a passive shock switch, described elsewhere (Mitchell 2008). A goal of all MEMS devices, including the shock switch, is to achieve a high degree of reliability. This, in turn, requires systematic methods for validating device performance during each iteration of design. Once a design is finalized, suitable tools are needed to provide quality assurance for manufactured devices. To ensure device performance, measurements on these devices must be traceable to NIST standards. In addition, accurate metrology of MEMS components is needed to validate mechanical models that are used to design devices to accelerate development and meet emerging needs. Progress towards a NIST-traceable calibration method is described for a next-generation, 2D Interfacial Force Microscope (IFM) for applications in MEMS metrology and qualification. Discussed are the results of screening several suitable calibration methods and the known sources of uncertainty in each method.

Houston, Jack E.; Baker, Michael Sean; Crowson, Douglas A.; Mitchell, John Anthony; Moore, Nathan W.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

Ovchinnikova, Olga S [ORNL; Nikiforov, Maxim [ORNL; Bradshaw, James A [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Dynamic Force AFM (Asylum) | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:Directives Templates8.Sifting Slush:NewDust takes

33

Manipulation and sorting of magnetic particles by a magnetic force microscope on a microfluidic magnetic trap platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Manipulation and sorting of magnetic particles by a magnetic force microscope on a microfluidic magnetic trap platform Elizabeth Mirowski, John Moreland, Arthur Zhang and Stephen E. Russek Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 Michael

Donahue, Michael J.

34

A Tutorial on the Mechanisms, Dynamics, and Control of Atomic Force Microscopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are described from a controls perspective and recent advances geared at increasing the performance is that imaging depends entirely on a feedback control loop. By and large, most AFMs use piezo-electric actuators the machines operating properly. The desire D. Y. Abramovitch is a senior research engineer

35

Fermi-level shifts in graphene transistors with dual-cut channels scraped by atomic force microscope tips  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the electronic properties of p-type graphene transistors on silicon dioxide with dual-cut channels that were scraped using atomic force microscope tips. In these devices, the current is forced to squeeze into the path between the two cuts rather than flow directly through the graphene sheet. We observe that the gate voltages with minimum current shift toward zero bias as the sizes of the dual-cut regions increase. These phenomena suggest that the Fermi levels in the dual-cut regions are shifted toward the Dirac points after the mechanical scraping process.

Lin, Meng-Yu [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Hao [Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Su, Chen-Fung [College of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Tainan 71150, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shu-Wei [Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Lee, Si-Chen [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shih-Yen, E-mail: shihyen@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Electronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Photonics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

36

Scanning Probe AFM Compound Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systems controller systemsis aSecurity8Nuclearof DataNarrows Dam -

37

Switchable stiffness scanning microscope probe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has rapidly gained widespread utilization as an imaging device and micro/nano-manipulator during recent years. This thesis investigates the new concept of a dual stiffness scanning probe with ...

Mueller-Falcke, Clemens T. (Clemens Tobias)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

VOLUME 76, NUMBER 8 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 19 FEBRUARY 1996 Compliance Measurements of Confined Polystyrene Solutions by Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Chemistry, McGill University, Montreal, Canada H3A 2K6 4 Department of Chemistry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1096 (Received 16 August 1995) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) as a local probe for elastohydrodynamic lubrication is discussed. Compliances are measured with a modified

39

Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF PAN-BASED CARBON FIBERS USING XPS, SIMS, AND AFM by Kris Anne Battleson on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................17 Atomic Force Microscopy on Carbon Fiber Surfaces.....................................21 Numerical Methods...........................................................................

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mechanistic study of dielectric chemical mechanical polishing by spectral and scaling analysis of atomic force microscope images  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal oxide and PETEOS oxide surfaces, polished on an IPEC 472 with different combinations of polish pad, slurry, and polishing conditions, were studied with ex situ atomic force microscopy. The post polish surfaces were analyzed qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively by spectral and scaling analyses. Spectral and scaling analyses gave consistent interpretations of morphology evolution. Polishing with either a fixed abrasive pad or alumina-based slurry occurred via a mechanism for which asperities are removed and recesses are filled. A sputtering-type mechanism may contribute to material removal when polishing with silica- or ceria-based slurries.

Verhoff, M.L.

1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

42

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTE CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semi-conducting CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals can be used in a variety of detector-type applications. CZT shows great promise for use as a gamma radiation spectrometer. However, its performance is adversely affected by point defects, structural and compositional heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), secondary phases and in some cases, damage caused by external forces. One example is damage that occurs during characterization of the surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy. Even minimal laser power can cause Te enriched areas on the surface to appear. The Raman spectra resulting from measurements at moderate intensity laser power show large increases in peak intensity that is attributed to Te. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to the Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam. The degree of surface damage to the crystal is dependent on the laser power, with the most observable damage occurring at high laser power. Moreover, intensity increases in the Te peaks of the Raman spectra are observed even at low laser power with little to no visible damage observed by AFM. AFM results also suggest that exposure to the same amount of laser power yields different amounts of surface damage depending on whether the exposed surface is the Te terminating face or the Cd terminating face of CZT.

Hawkins, S; Lucile Teague, L; Martine Duff, M; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

Characterization of microscale wear in a ploysilicon-based MEMS device using AFM and PEEM-NEXAFS spectromicroscopy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mechanisms of microscale wear in silicon-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are elucidated by studying a polysilicon nanotractor, a device specifically designed to conduct friction and wear tests under controlled conditions. Photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) was combined with near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantitatively probe chemical changes and structural modification, respectively, in the wear track of the nanotractor. The ability of PEEM-NEXAFS to spatially map chemical variations in the near-surface region of samples at high lateral spatial resolution is unparalleled and therefore ideally suited for this study. The results show that it is possible to detect microscopic chemical changes using PEEM-NEXAFS, specifically, oxidation at the sliding interface of a MEMS device. We observe that wear induces oxidation of the polysilicon at the immediate contact interface, and the spectra are consistent with those from amorphous SiO{sub 2}. The oxidation is correlated with gouging and debris build-up in the wear track, as measured by AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Grierson, D. S.; Konicek, A. R.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Sumant, A. V.; de Boer, M. P.; Corwin, A. D.; Carpick, R. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( PSC-USR); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison); (Univ. of Pennsylvania); (SNL)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

afm: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(see fig. 1) c 12 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

45

Dielectric spectroscopy at the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy: A simple model linking materials properties and experimental response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of an atomic force microscope for studying molecular dynamics through dielectric spectroscopy with spatial resolution in the nanometer scale is a recently developed approach. However, difficulties in the quantitative connection of the obtained data and the material dielectric properties, namely, frequency dependent dielectric permittivity, have limited its application. In this work, we develop a simple electrical model based on physically meaningful parameters to connect the atomic force microscopy (AFM) based dielectric spectroscopy experimental results with the material dielectric properties. We have tested the accuracy of the model and analyzed the relevance of the forces arising from the electrical interaction with the AFM probe cantilever. In this way, by using this model, it is now possible to obtain quantitative information of the local dielectric material properties in a broad frequency range. Furthermore, it is also possible to determine the experimental setup providing the best sensitivity in the detected signal.

Miccio, Luis A., E-mail: luisalejandro-miccio@ehu.es; Colmenero, Juan [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegría, Ángel [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastián (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastián (Spain)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

46

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Microscope collision protection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microscope collision protection apparatus for a remote control microscope which protects the optical and associated components from damage in the event of an uncontrolled collision with a specimen, regardless of the specimen size or shape. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus includes a counterbalanced slide for mounting the microscope's optical components. This slide replaces the rigid mounts on conventional upright microscopes with a precision ball bearing slide. As the specimen contacts an optical component, the contacting force will move the slide and the optical components mounted thereon. This movement will protect the optical and associated components from damage as the movement causes a limit switch to be actuated, thereby stopping all motors responsible for the collision.

DeNure, Charles R. (Pocatello, ID)

2001-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

48

Study of anion adsorption at the gold--aqueous solution interface by atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The forces between a gold coated colloidal silica sphere and a pure gold plate have been measured in aqueous solution as a function of electrolyte concentration using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Forces in the presence of gold(III) chloride (HAuCl[sub 4]), sodium chloride, and trisodium citrate were recorded as a function of concentration. Each of these anion species is present during the formation of colloidal gold by the reduction of gold(III) chloride with trisodium citrate. In pure water the force between the gold surfaces was exclusively attractive. In sodium chloride or trisodium citrate solution a repulsive interaction was observed which is attributed to the adsorption of these anions at the gold/water interface. The observed interaction force in gold(III) chloride solution was always attractive, the surface potential never exceeding 20 mV. Data taken in aqueous solutions of citrate and chloride ions together suggested that the citrate ions were preferentially adsorbed to the surface of the gold. Addition of gold(III) chloride to the AFM liquid cell after the pre-adsorption of citrate anions caused the force of interaction to change from a repulsvie force to an attractive one initially as the gold(III) chloride was reduced to gold by the citrate anions. 33 refs., 11 figs.

Biggs, S.; Mulvaney, P.; Grieser, F. (Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)); Zukoski, C.F. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States))

1994-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

49

Comparative quantification and statistical analysis of ?? and ? precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 by TEM and AFM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantification of nanometric precipitates in metallic alloys has been traditionally performed using transmission electron microscopy, which is nominally a low throughput technique. This work presents a comparative study of quantification of ?? and ? precipitates in aluminum alloy AA7075-T651 using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM quantification was compared with 2-D stereological results reported elsewhere. Also, a method was developed, using specialized software, to characterize nanometric size precipitates observed in dark-field TEM micrographs. Statistical analysis of the quantification results from both measurement techniques supports the use of AFM for precipitate characterization. Once the precipitate stoichiometry has been determined by appropriate analytical techniques like TEM, as it is the case for ?? and ? in AA7075-T651, the relative ease with which specimens are prepared for AFM analysis could be advantageous in product and process development, and quality control, where a large number of samples are expected for analysis on a regular basis. - Highlights: • Nanometric MgZn{sub 2} precipitates in AA7075-T651 were characterized using AFM and TEM. • Phase-contrast AFM was used to differentiate metal matrix from MgZn{sub 2} precipitates. • TEM and AFM micrographs were analyzed using commercially available software. • AFM image analysis and TEM 2-D stereology render statistically equivalent results.

Garcia-Garcia, Adrian Luis, E-mail: agarciag@ipn.mx; Dominguez-Lopez, Ivan, E-mail: idominguezl@ipn.mx; Lopez-Jimenez, Luis, E-mail: llopez1002@ipn.mx; Barceinas-Sanchez, J.D. Oscar, E-mail: obarceinas@ipn.mx

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Single molecule force spectroscopy by AFM indicates helical structure of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for a broad range of problems, particularly in materials and life sciences. The ability to apply and measure to detergents and cosmetics [17]. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes [3

Croquette, Vincent

51

Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600?nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20?V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

Boularas, A., E-mail: boularas@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Clain, S. [Universidade do Minho, Centro de Matemática, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Université Paul Sabatier, Institut de Mathématiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Université de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

52

Sensing Current and Forces with SPM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic force spectroscopy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Langmuir trough Atomic force microscope Optical microscope... W ultrasonic horn Atomic absorption spectrophotometer UVVIS spectrophotometer Centrifuge p......

54

Study of relaxation and transport processes by means of AFM based dielectric spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since its birth a few years ago, dielectric spectroscopy studies based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) have gained a growing interest. Not only the frequency and temperature ranges have become broader since then but also the kind of processes that can be studied by means of this approach. In this work we analyze the most adequate experimental setup for the study of several dielectric processes with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers by using force mode AFM based dielectric spectroscopy. Proof of concept experiments were performed on PS/PVAc blends and PMMA homopolymer films, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 400 K. Charge transport processes were also studied by this approach. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of cantilever stray contribution, film thickness and relaxation strength. We found that the method sensitivity is strongly coupled with the film thickness and the relaxation strength, and that it is possible to control it by using an adequate experimental setup.

Miccio, Luis A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Departamento de Física de Materiales UPV/EHU, Fac. de Química, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Física de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastian, Spain and Donostia International Physics Center, Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

55

AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF RAMAN LASER INDUCED DAMAGE ON CDZNTECRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High quality CdZnTe (or CZT) crystals have the potential for use in room temperature gamma-ray and X-ray spectrometers. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. The presence of structural heterogeneities within the crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SPs) can have an impact on the detector performance. There is considerable need for reliable and reproducible characterization methods for the measurement of crystal quality. With improvements in material characterization and synthesis, these crystals may become suitable for widespread use in gamma radiation detection. Characterization techniques currently utilized to test for quality and/or to predict performance of the crystal as a gamma-ray detector include infrared (IR) transmission imaging, synchrotron X-ray topography, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. In some cases, damage caused by characterization methods can have deleterious effects on the crystal performance. The availability of non-destructive analysis techniques is essential to validate a crystal's quality and its ability to be used for either qualitative or quantitative gamma-ray or X-ray detection. The work presented herein discusses the damage that occurs during characterization of the CZT surface by a laser during Raman spectroscopy, even at minimal laser powers. Previous Raman studies have shown that the localized annealing from tightly focused, low powered lasers results in areas of higher Te concentration on the CZT surface. This type of laser damage on the surface resulted in decreased detector performance which was most likely due to increased leakage current caused by areas of higher Te concentration. In this study, AFM was used to characterize the extent of damage to the CZT crystal surface following exposure to a Raman laser. AFM data reveal localized surface damage and increased conductivity in the areas exposed to the Raman laser beam.

Teague, L.; Duff, M.

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

56

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self-assembled monolayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AFM/LFM surface studies of a ternary polymer blend cast on substrates covered by a self force microscopy; Friction; Self-assembly; Surface thermodynamics (including phase transitions); Growth are of utmost current interest. In many practical appli- cations films of incompatible mixtures are pre- pared

Zbigniew, Postawa

57

afm sintez sloev: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(see fig. 1) c 15 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

58

afm probe tip: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

59

afm indentation study: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

detergents and cosmetics 17. PEG-modified surfaces resist protein adsorption, e.g. in stealth liposomes 3), while based on AFM technology, is optimized for resolution...

60

Imaging and quantitative data acquisition of biological cell walls with Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Acoustic Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter demonstrates the feasibility of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and High Frequency Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (HF-SAM) as tools to characterize biological tissues. Both the AFM and the SAM have shown to provide imaging (with different resolution) and quantitative elasticity measuring abilities. Plant cell walls with minimal disturbance and under conditions of their native state have been examined with these two kinds of microscopy. After descriptions of both the SAM and AFM, their special features and the typical sample preparation is discussed. The sample preparation is focused here on epidermal peels of onion scales and celery epidermis cells which were sectioned for the AFM to visualize the inner surface (closest to the plasma membrane) of the outer epidermal wall. The nm-wide cellulose microfibrils orientation and multilayer structure were clearly observed. The microfibril orientation and alignment tend to be more organized in older scales compared with younger scales. The onion epidermis cell wall was also used as a test analog to study cell wall elasticity by the AFM nanoindentation and the SAM V(z) feature. The novelty in this work was to demonstrate the capability of these two techniques to analyze isolated, single layered plant cell walls in their natural state. AFM nanoindentation was also used to probe the effects of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and calcium ion treatment to modify pectin networks in cell walls. The results suggest a significant modulus increase in the calcium ion treatment and a slight decrease in EDTA treatment. To complement the AFM measurements, the HF-SAM was used to obtain the V(z) signatures of the onion epidermis. These measurements were focused on documenting the effect of pectinase enzyme treatment. The results indicate a significant change in the V(z) signature curves with time into the enzyme treatment. Thus AFM and HF-SAM open the door to a systematic nondestructive structure and mechanical property study of complex biological cell walls. A unique feature of this approach is that both microscopes allow the biological samples to be examined in their natural fluid (water) environment.

Tittmann, B. R. [Penn State; Xi, X. [Penn State

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.

Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

62

Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive ...

Bimonte, Giuseppe

63

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

64

Contribution to crystallographic slip assessment by means of topographic measurements achieved with atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to quantitatively characterize the plastic glide occurring during tensile deformation of a duplex 2205 stainless steel sample. We demonstrate that an appropriate treatment of the topographic image issued from AFM measurements allows precise and quantitative information about the characteristics of plastic deformation and especially the amount of crystallographic slip.

Kahloun, C. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Badji, R. [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Welding and NDT Research Centre, B. P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Bacroix, B., E-mail: bacroix@lpmtm.univ-paris13.fr [LPMTM - CNRS, Universite Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Bouabdallah, M. [E.N.P, 10 av. Hassan Badi, 16200 El Harrah Alger (Algeria)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Comparison of the Identation and Elasticity of E.coli and its Spheroplasts by AFM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a unique opportunity to study live individual bacteria at the nanometer scale. In addition to providing accurate morphological information, AFM can be exploited to investigate membrane protein localization and molecular interactions on the surface of living cells. A prerequisite for these studies is the development of robust procedures for sample preparation. While such procedures are established for intact bacteria, they are only beginning to emerge for bacterial spheroplasts. Spheroplasts are useful research models for studying mechanosensitive ion channels, membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide translocation, solute uptake, and the effects of antimicrobial agents on membranes. Furthermore, given the similarities between spheroplasts and cell wall-deficient (CWD) forms of pathogenic bacteria, spheroplast research could be relevant in biomedical research. In this paper, a new technique for immobilizing spheroplasts on mica pretreated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde is described. Using this mounting technique, the indentation and cell elasticity of glutaraldehyde-fixed and untreated spheroplasts of E. coli in liquid were measured. These values are compared to those of intact E. coli. Untreated spheroplasts were found to be much softer than the intact cells and the silicon nitride cantilevers used in this study.

Sullivan, Claretta J [ORNL; Venkataraman, Sankar [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Allison, David P [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom probe characterization Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the sample. Similar to an atomic force microscope (AFM), the contact force... , Brand O, Baltes H, Tonin A and Hidber H R 2000 Integrated atomic force microscopy array...

67

afm detects wga-binding: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

chip and a used ceramic plate, so that it is compatible with the Autoprobe CP AFM. Main Materials and tools: a. Used ceramic plates b. AFM tip on a holder chip (see fig. 1) c 17...

68

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm induced mechanical Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

tip Summary: AFM Mechanical Design Post Fabrication SEM Images 12;SUMMiT V Process 12;TTU 2005 Module... SUMMiT V design of a Micro X-Y Scanner with pseudo-AFM tip...

69

Electron Microscope Facility  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Brookhaven Lab is home to one of only a few Scanning Transmision Electron Microscope (STEM) machines in the world and one of the few that can image single heavy atoms.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

70

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface. 4 figs.

Forman, S.E.; Caunt, J.W.

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Infrared microscope inspection apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and system for inspecting infrared transparents, such as an array of photovoltaic modules containing silicon solar cells, includes an infrared microscope, at least three sources of infrared light placed around and having their axes intersect the center of the object field and means for sending the reflected light through the microscope. The apparatus is adapted to be mounted on an X-Y translator positioned adjacent the object surface.

Forman, Steven E. (Framingham, MA); Caunt, James W. (Concord, MA)

1985-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano Images  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hysteresis Modeling and Inverse Feedforward Control of an AFM Piezoelectric Scanner Based on Nano of micro/nano technology. As a critical part of AFM system, the piezoelectric scanner exists many defects in this paper possess a good performance for AFM nano imaging. Index Terms-- Hysteresis modeling, feedforward

Li, Yangmin

73

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm-based force spectroscopy Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 4 5 > >> Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 61 Investigation of nanolocal fluorescence resonance energy transfer for scanning probe microscopy Summary: confirmed in another series of...

74

Optimization of graphene dry etching conditions via combined microscopic and spectroscopic analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-layer graphene structures and devices are commonly defined using reactive ion etching and plasma etching with O{sub 2} or Ar as the gaseous etchants. Although optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are widely used to determine the appropriate duration of dry etching, additional characterization with atomic force microscopy (AFM) reveals that residual graphene and/or etching byproducts persist beyond the point where the aforementioned methods suggest complete graphene etching. Recognizing that incomplete etching may have deleterious effects on devices and/or downstream processing, AFM characterization is used here to determine optimal etching conditions that eliminate graphene dry etching residues.

Prado, Mariana C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Jariwala, Deep [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

75

Acoustic imaging microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

76

Ion photon emission microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ion beam analysis system that creates microscopic multidimensional image maps of the effects of high energy ions from an unfocussed source upon a sample by correlating the exact entry point of an ion into a sample by projection imaging of the ion-induced photons emitted at that point with a signal from a detector that measures the interaction of that ion within the sample. The emitted photons are collected in the lens system of a conventional optical microscope, and projected on the image plane of a high resolution single photon position sensitive detector. Position signals from this photon detector are then correlated in time with electrical effects, including the malfunction of digital circuits, detected within the sample that were caused by the individual ion that created these photons initially.

Doyle, Barney L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

77

Microscopic chaos from Brownian motion?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A recent experiment on Brownian motion has been interpreted to exhibit direct evidence for microscopic chaos. In this note we demonstrate that virtually identical results can be obtained numerically using a manifestly microscopically nonchaotic system.

C. P. Dettmann; E. G. D. Cohen; H. van Beijeren

1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

78

afm cr2o3 nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page Topic Index 41 Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube AFM Probes by Materials Science Websites Summary: Rapid and Reproducible Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube...

79

E-Print Network 3.0 - afm-based nanotechnology elucidates Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nanotechnology elucidates Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: afm-based nanotechnology elucidates Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Peter...

80

Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Climate forcing Climate forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

MacKinnon, Jennifer

82

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Helium Ion Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILL SecretaryHazmat workFAQsHelium Ion Microscope

85

On the transferability of three water models developed by adaptive force matching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water is perhaps the most simulated liquid. Recently three water models have been developed following the adaptive force matching (AFM) method that provides excellent predictions of water properties with only electronic structure information as a reference. Compared to many other electronic structure based force fields that rely on fairly sophisticated energy expressions, the AFM water models use point-charge based energy expressions that are supported by most popular molecular dynamics packages. An outstanding question regarding simple force fields is whether such force fields provide reasonable transferability outside of their conditions of parameterization. A survey of three AFM water models, B3LYPD-4F, BLYPSP-4F, and WAIL are provided for simulations under conditions ranging from the melting point up to the critical point. By including ice-Ih configurations in the training set, the WAIL potential predicts the melting temperate, TM, of ice-Ih correctly. Without training for ice, BLYPSP-4F underestimates TM...

Hu, Hongyi; Wang, Feng

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Transmission electron microscope CCD camera  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Size effects in bimetallic nickelgold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy nanoindentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Size effects in bimetallic nickel­gold nanowires: Insight from atomic force microscopy the local plastic behavior and hardness properties of electrodeposited bimetallic Ni­Au NWs ranging from 60 rights reserved. Keywords: Atomic force microscopy (AFM); Nanowire; Nickel; Gold; Nanoindentation 1

Sansoz, Frederic

88

atomic force microscope: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

shift technique. This experiment was performed at a pressure of 3x10-8 Torr with hollow glass sphere of 41.3 mcm radius. Special attention is paid to electrostatic...

89

atomic force microscopic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

shift technique. This experiment was performed at a pressure of 3x10-8 Torr with hollow glass sphere of 41.3 mcm radius. Special attention is paid to electrostatic...

90

Nonlocal microscopic theory of Casimir forces at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction energy between two metallic slabs in the retarded limit at finite temperature is expressed in terms of surface polariton propagators for separate slabs, avoiding the usual matching procedure, with both diamagnetic and paramagnetic excitations included correctly. This enables appropriate treatment of arbitrary electron density profiles and fully nonlocal electronic response, including both collective and single-particle excitations. The results are verified by performing the nonretarded and long-wavelength (local) limits and showing that they reduce to the previously obtained expressions. Possibilities for practical use of the theory are explored by applying it to calculation of various contributions to the Casimir energy between two silver slabs.

Despoja, V. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, ES-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Depto. de Fysica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pays Vasco, Apdo. 1072, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Sunjic, M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, ES-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Marusic, L. [Maritime Department, University of Zadar, M. Pavlinovica b.b., HR-23000 Zadar (Croatia)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

Biological Atomic Force and Super Resolution Fluorescence Microscope | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone6 M. Babzien,

92

Nuclear forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

93

Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et Robotique (ISIR), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6/CNRS, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Boukallel, Mehdi [Laboratoire de Robotique et Mesorobotique (LRM), CEA, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

95

Facile fabrication of spherical nanoparticle-tipped AFM probes for plasmonic applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for reliably producing metallic spherical nanoparticle tips using only a simple electrochemical cell. Fabrication of Au spherical nanoparticle (AuNP) tips onto commercial AFM probes is achieved using single-pulse high- fi eld electrochemical growth... is employed for growth since both the cell geometry and electrodeposition solution are kept the same between fabrications. AFM probes are attached to fl u- orine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass, used as a working DOI: 10.1002/ppsc.201400104 Facile...

Sanders, Alan; Zhang, Liwu; Bowman, Richard W.; Herrmann, Lars O.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

96

Epi-Fluorescence Inverted Microscope (Zeiss,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epi-Fluorescence Inverted Microscope (Zeiss, Observer Z1) April 2013 #12;Start Up cont. · Turn) #12;Using the Microscope cont. · On an inverted microscope samples on a glass slide are usually viewed

Subramanian, Venkat

97

Science, Optics and You: Microscopes and Crystals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

glass), and the field microscope. (The hand lens and field microscope are in your Science, Optics and You package.) Activity 14 provides instructions for making different...

98

Low temperature MFM imaging of Fe??xV??xAl intermetallics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A low temperature magnetic force microscope (MFM) system was set up by adapting a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) from Park Scientific Instruments (PSI) for low temperature MFM use. Magnetic cantilevers were fabricated for the low...

Nooner, Scott Lee

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and ultra-small angle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Very large-scale structures in sintered silica aerogels as evidenced by atomic force microscopy of silica aerogels has been extensively studied mainly by scattering techniques (neutrons, X-rays, light) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments have been carried out on aerogels at dierent steps of densi

Demouchy, Sylvie

100

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic scale defect Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

assembled DNA nanostructures. Atomic force microscope (AFM) images are used... of defect identification. 4.1 Defect ... Source: Chakrabarty, Krishnendu - Department of Electrical...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Long working distance interference microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a long working distance interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. The long working distance of 10-30 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-D height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer. A well-matched pair of reference/sample objectives is not required, significantly reducing the cost of this microscope, as compared to a Linnik microinterferometer.

Sinclair, Michael B.; DeBoer, Maarten P.; Smith, Norman F.

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steering the self-assembly of octadecylamine monolayers onon the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films ofoctadecylamine monolayers, self-assembly, AFM, packing

Benitez, J.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

105

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Phil Attard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation: Dynamic Measurements with the Atomic Force Microscope Phil. Adhesion Sci. Technol. 16, 753­791 (2002).) Running title: Friction, Adhesion, and Deformation Abstract for the friction force microscope, quantitative measurements of friction and the ef- fect of adhesion, measurement

Attard, Phil

106

Improved Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force Using Gold Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report an improved precision measurement of the Casimir force using metallic gold surfaces. The force is measured between a large gold coated sphere and flat plate using an Atomic Force Microscope. The use of gold surfaces removes some theoretical uncertainties in the interpretation of the measurement. The forces are also measured at smaller surface separations. The complete dielectric spectrum of the metal is used in the comparison of theory to the experiment. The average statistical precision remains at the same 1% of the forces measured at the closest separation. These results should lead to the development of stronger constraints on hypothetical forces.

B. W. Harris; F. Chen; U. Mohideen

2000-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

107

Measurements of dynamic forces between drops with the AFM: novel considerations in comparisons between experiment and theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in aqueous electrolyte with added sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant have been studied. Measurements were made-defined solid surfaces as a function of surface separation down to nanometre separations.1­5 Such experiments, in food processing and personal care product formulations, and for many biological functions such as cell­cell

Chan, Derek Y C

108

Measurements of Dynamic Forces between Drops with the AFM: Novel Considerations in Comparisons between Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) on the substrate in aqueous electrolyte with added sodium dodecylsulfate surfactant have been studied. Measurements-defined solid surfaces as a function of surface separation down to nanometre separations.1-5 Such experiments, in food processing and personal care product formulations, and for many biological functions such as cell-cell

Chan, Derek Y C

109

Nuclear forces from chiral EFT: The unfinished business  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In spite of the great progress we have seen in recent years in the derivation of nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory (EFT), some important issues are still unresolved. In this contribution, we discuss the open problems which have particular relevance for microscopic nuclear structure, namely, the proper renormalization of chiral nuclear potentials and sub-leading many-body forces.

R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

110

Solid-state optical microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, I.T.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

111

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING IN AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Torres, R.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Lam, P.

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

112

ATOMIC FORCE LITHOGRAPHY OF NANO/MICROFLUIDIC CHANNELS FOR VERIFICATION AND MONITORING OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growing interest in the physics of fluidic flow in nanoscale channels, as well as the possibility for high sensitive detection of ions and single molecules is driving the development of nanofluidic channels. The enrichment of charged analytes due to electric field-controlled flow and surface charge/dipole interactions along the channel can lead to enhancement of sensitivity and limits-of-detection in sensor instruments. Nuclear material processing, waste remediation, and nuclear non-proliferation applications can greatly benefit from this capability. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a low-cost alternative for the machining of disposable nanochannels. The small AFM tip diameter (< 10 nm) can provide for features at scales restricted in conventional optical and electron-beam lithography. This work presents preliminary results on the fabrication of nano/microfluidic channels on polymer films deposited on quartz substrates by AFM lithography.

Mendez-Torres, A.; Torres, R.; Lam, P.

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

113

Investigation of leakage current paths in n-GaN by conductive atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated electrical characteristics of leakage current paths in n-GaN layer grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition with conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). The C-AFM mapping shows two kinds of leakage current paths existing in the n-GaN layer: open-core dislocation and pure screw dislocation. From the localized I-V curves measured by C-AFM, we confirmed that the open-core screw dislocation shows more significant leakage current. We explained these results in terms of a modified Schottky band model based on donor states formed by oxygen segregation at the (10?10) sidewall of the open-core screw dislocation.

Kim, Bumho; Park, Yongjo, E-mail: yp0520@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of)] [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Daeyoung; Nanishi, Yasushi [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Kisu [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of) [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sewoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kuk [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: yp0520@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.kr [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of) [Energy Semiconductor Research Center, Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); WCU Hybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 443-270 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

Tracking a nanosize magnetic particle using a magnetic force Dimitar Baronov, Sean B. Andersson and John Baillieul  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tracking a nanosize magnetic particle using a magnetic force microscope Dimitar Baronov, Sean B. Andersson and John Baillieul Abstract-- A scheme for tracking nano-sized magnetic par- ticles using a magnetic force microscope (MFM) is introduced. The stray magnetic field of the particle induces a shift

Andersson, Sean B.

115

AFM | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(3-dimercapto-1-propanol, BAL)significantly reduced extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) expression by Brevundimonas diminuta in suspended cultures at levels just below the...

116

Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have studied the effect of mechanical energy transfer from the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope on the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films of octadecylamine on mica. The formation of the self-assembled film proceeds in two successive stages, the first being a fast adsorption from solution that follows a Langmuir isotherm. The second is a slower process of island growth by aggregation of the molecules dispersed on the surface. We found that the dynamics of aggregation can be altered substantially by the addition of mechanical energy into the system through controlled tip-surface interactions. This leads to either the creation of pinholes in existing islands as a consequence of vacancy concentration, and to the assembly of residual molecules into more compact islands.

Benitez, J.J.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Salmeron, M.

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

117

Scanning evanescent electro-magnetic microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel scanning microscope is described that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties. The novel microscope is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The inventive scanning evanescent wave electromagnetic microscope (SEMM) can map dielectric constant, tangent loss, conductivity, complex electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. The quantitative map corresponds to the imaged detail. The novel microscope can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Gao, Chen (Alameda, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

119

Microscopic origin of granular ratcheting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical simulations of assemblies of grains under cyclic loading exhibit ``granular ratcheting'': a small net deformation occurs with each cycle, leading to a linear accumulation of deformation with cycle number. We show that this is due to a curious property of the most frequently used models of the particle-particle interaction: namely, that the potential energy stored in contacts is path-dependent. There exist closed paths that change the stored energy, even if the particles remain in contact and do not slide. An alternative method for calculating the tangential force removes granular ratcheting.

S. McNamara; R. García-Rojo; H. J. Herrmann

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

120

From Self-Assembly to Controlled-Assembly, From Optical Manipulation to AFM Manipulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Moving nanoparticles/atoms to study the nearfield interaction between them is one of the many approaches to explore the optical and electrical properties of these assemblies. Traditional approach included the self assembly by spinning or drying nanoparticles in aqua on the substrate is well practiced. Lithography technique is another popular approach to deposit limited nano/micro patterns on substrates. Later optical and mechanical manipulations were used to have more control over moving individual elements of nano and microstructures and even atoms. Optical tweezers, optical trapping and AFM manipulation are examples of these precise approaches.

Shafiei, Farbod

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Characterization of gold nanoparticle films: Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy with image analysis, and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold nanoparticle films are of interest in several branches of science and technology, and accurate sample characterization is needed but technically demanding. We prepared such films by DC magnetron sputtering and recorded their mass thickness by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. The geometric thickness d{sub g}—from the substrate to the tops of the nanoparticles—was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with image analysis as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The various techniques yielded an internally consistent characterization of the films. In particular, very similar results for d{sub g} were obtained by SEM with image analysis and by AFM.

Lansåker, Pia C., E-mail: pia.lansaker@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P. O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Hallén, Anders [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Elektrum 229, Kista, SE-164 40 Stockholm (Sweden)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

Imaging and measuring the biophysical properties of Fc gamma receptors on single macrophages using atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Nanoscale cellular ultra-structures of macrophages were observed. •The binding affinities of Fc?Rs were measured directly on macrophages. •The nanoscale distributions of Fc?Rs were mapped on macrophages. -- Abstract: Fc gamma receptors (Fc?R), widely expressed on effector cells (e.g., NK cells, macrophages), play an important role in clinical cancer immunotherapy. The binding of Fc?Rs to the Fc portions of antibodies that are attached to the target cells can activate the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) killing mechanism which leads to the lysis of target cells. In this work, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe the cellular ultra-structures and measure the biophysical properties (affinity and distribution) of Fc?Rs on single macrophages in aqueous environments. AFM imaging was used to obtain the topographies of macrophages, revealing the nanoscale cellular fine structures. For molecular interaction recognition, antibody molecules were attached onto AFM tips via a heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) crosslinker. With AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy, the binding affinities of Fc?Rs were quantitatively measured on single macrophages. Adhesion force mapping method was used to localize the Fc?Rs, revealing the nanoscale distribution of Fc?Rs on local areas of macrophages. The experimental results can improve our understanding of Fc?Rs on macrophages; the established approach will facilitate further research on physiological activities involved in antibody-based immunotherapy.

Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)] [Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Yuechao [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: zhangwj3072@163.com [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)] [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

123

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for in situ Electrical Characterization of Organic Solar Cells., University of Pittsburgh The most efficient organic solar cell today is made from blending conjugated donors and acceptors in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. Most microscopic characterization

Fisher, Frank

124

Demonstration of Angle Dependent Casimir Force Between Corrugations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The normal Casimir force between a sinusoidally corrugated gold coated plate and a sphere was measured at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. A strong dependence on the orientation angle of the corrugation is found. The measured forces were found to deviate from the proximity force approximation and are in agreement with the theory based on the gradient expansion including correlation effects of geometry and material properties. We analyze the role of temperature. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems.

A. A. Banishev; J. Wagner; T. Emig; R. Zandi; U. Mohideen

2012-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Microscopic Examination of the Josephson Junction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Microscopic Examination of the Josephson Junction J. K. Freericks, P. Miller, and M. Jarrell Review, 1999 #12;Introduction · The Josephson-Junction Computer · Maximize · Resistively Shunted Junction

Freericks, Jim

126

X-ray laser microscope apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The 2/3 Power Law Dependence of Capillary Force on Normal Load in Nanoscopic Friction E. Riedo,*,, I. Palaci, C. Boragno, and H. Brune  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with the normal load following a 2/3 power law. We trace back this behavior to the load induced change of the tip between a spherical AFM tip and a rough flat surface increases with the normal load, FN, following a 2The 2/3 Power Law Dependence of Capillary Force on Normal Load in Nanoscopic Friction E. Riedo

Brune, Harald

128

Microscopic modulation of mechanical properties in transparent insect wings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the measurement of local friction and adhesion of transparent insect wings using an atomic force microscope cantilever down to nanometre length scales. We observe that the wing-surface is decorated with 10??m long and 2??m wide islands that have higher topographic height. The friction on the islands is two orders of magnitude higher than the back-ground while the adhesion on the islands is smaller. Furthermore, the high islands are decorated with ordered nano-wire-like structures while the background is full of randomly distributed granular nano-particles. Coherent optical diffraction through the wings produce a stable diffraction pattern revealing a quasi-periodic organization of the high islands over the entire wing. This suggests a long-range order in the modulation of friction and adhesion which is directly correlated with the topography. The measurements unravel novel functional design of complex wing surface and could find application in miniature biomimetic devices.

Arora, Ashima; Kumar, Pramod; Bhagavathi, Jithin; Singh, Kamal P., E-mail: kpsingh@iisermohali.ac.in; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Punjab 140306 (India)

2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

129

Dynamics of a nanodroplet under a transmission electron microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the cyclical stick-slip motion of water nanodroplets on a hydrophilic substrate viewed with and stimulated by a transmission electron microscope. Using a continuum long wave theory, we show how the electrostatic stress imposed by non-uniform charge distribution causes a pinned convex drop to deform into a toroidal shape, with the shape characterized by the competition between the electrostatic stress and the surface tension of the drop, as well as the charge density distribution which follows a Poisson equation. A horizontal gradient in the charge density creates a lateral driving force, which when sufficiently large, overcomes the pinning induced by surface heterogeneities in the substrate disjoining pressure, causing the drop to slide on the substrate via a cyclical stick-slip motion. Our model predicts step-like dynamics in drop displacement and surface area jumps, qualitatively consistent with experimental observations.

Leong, Fong Yew, E-mail: leongfy@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [A-STAR Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Mirsaidov, Utkur M. [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore); Center for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Matsudaira, Paul [Center for BioImaging Sciences, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); MechanoBiology Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117411 (Singapore); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology Center, Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Mahadevan, L. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA and Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Descriptions of membrane mechanics from microscopic and effective two-dimensional perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanics of fluid membranes may be described in terms of the concepts of mechanical deformations and stresses, or in terms of mechanical free-energy functions. In this paper, each of the two descriptions is developed by viewing a membrane from two perspectives: a microscopic perspective, in which the membrane appears as a thin layer of finite thickness and with highly inhomogeneous material and force distributions in its transverse direction, and an effective, two-dimensional perspective, in which the membrane is treated as an infinitely thin surface, with effective material and mechanical properties. A connection between these two perspectives is then established. Moreover, the functional dependence of the variation in the mechanical free energy of the membrane on its mechanical deformations is first studied in the microscopic perspective. The result is then used to examine to what extent different, effective mechanical stresses and forces can be derived from a given, effective functional of the mechanical free energy.

Michael A. Lomholt; Ling Miao

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

131

www.afm-journal.de 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4320  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-scale, including wind turbine blades or aircraft wings, which preclude bulk thermal annealing. Accelerated Selfwww.afm-journal.de FULLPAPER © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim4320 www.Materials. Biomimicry of these diverse functions in synthetic materials is achieved by embedding a network

Sottos, Nancy R.

132

Structural Characterization of Micromechanical Properties in Asphalt Using Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1.1 Experimental flowchart?..?????????????????... 6 2.1 Van der Waals forces vs. distance.??????????????... 11 2.2 Beam-detection deflection scheme.??????????????... 11 3.1 (i) AFM controller and (ii... der Waals forces as the tip is moved further away from the sample. mo fro can bea . The AF st common m the back o tilever bend m on the PS Figure (Ad M detects th technique, a f the cantile s, due to int PD shifts. Figure (Ad...

Allen, Robert Grover

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

133

Method for imaging liquid and dielectric materials with scanning polarization force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention images dielectric polarization forces on surfaces induced by a charged scanning force microscope (SFM) probe tip. On insulators, the major contribution to the surface polarizability at low frequencies is from surface ions. The mobility of these ions depends strongly on the humidity. Using the inventive SFM, liquid films, droplets, and other weakly adsorbed materials have been imaged. 9 figs.

Hu, J.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Xiao, X.

1999-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

134

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution friction force microscopy under electrochemical control Aleksander Labuda,1 William and development of a friction force microscope for high-resolution studies in electrochemical environments in liquids. The noise of the system is analyzed based on a methodology for the quantification of all

Grütter, Peter

135

SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

136

Polymers with hydro-responsive topography identified using high throughput AFM of an acrylate microarray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic force microscopy has been applied to an acrylate polymer microarray to achieve a full topographic characterisation. This process discovered a small number of hydro-responsive materials created from monomers with ...

Hook, Andrew L.

137

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Friction forces on phase transition fronts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET–UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UNMdP, Deán Funes 3350, (7600) Mar del Plata (Argentina)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

140

Ultra high frequency imaging acoustic microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An imaging system includes: an object wavefront source and an optical microscope objective all positioned to direct an object wavefront onto an area of a vibrating subject surface encompassed by a field of view of the microscope objective, and to direct a modulated object wavefront reflected from the encompassed surface area through a photorefractive material; and a reference wavefront source and at least one phase modulator all positioned to direct a reference wavefront through the phase modulator and to direct a modulated reference wavefront from the phase modulator through the photorefractive material to interfere with the modulated object wavefront. The photorefractive material has a composition and a position such that interference of the modulated object wavefront and modulated reference wavefront occurs within the photorefractive material, providing a full-field, real-time image signal of the encompassed surface area.

Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Kenneth L.

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Bi-harmonic cantilever design for improved measurement sensitivity in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method and cantilever design for improving the mechanical measurement sensitivity in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tapping mode. The method uses two harmonics in the drive signal to generate a bi-harmonic tapping trajectory. Mathematical analysis demonstrates that the wide-valley bi-harmonic tapping trajectory is as much as 70% more sensitive to changes in the sample topography than the standard single-harmonic trajectory typically used. Although standard AFM cantilevers can be driven in the bi-harmonic tapping trajectory, they require large forcing at the second harmonic. A design is presented for a bi-harmonic cantilever that has a second resonant mode at twice its first resonant mode, thereby capable of generating bi-harmonic trajectories with small forcing signals. Bi-harmonic cantilevers are fabricated by milling a small cantilever on the interior of a standard cantilever probe using a focused ion beam. Bi-harmonic drive signals are derived for standard cantilevers and bi-harmonic cantilevers. Experimental results demonstrate better than 30% improvement in measurement sensitivity using the bi-harmonic cantilever. Images obtained through bi-harmonic tapping exhibit improved sharpness and surface tracking, especially at high scan speeds and low force fields.

Loganathan, Muthukumaran; Bristow, Douglas A., E-mail: dbristow@mst.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65401 (United States)

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Continuum-kinetic-microscopic model of lung clearance due to core-annular fluid entrainment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The human lung is protected against aspirated infectious and toxic agents by a thin liquid layer lining the interior of the airways. This airway surface liquid is a bilayer composed of a viscoelastic mucus layer supported by a fluid film known as the periciliary liquid. The viscoelastic behavior of the mucus layer is principally due to long-chain polymers known as mucins. The airway surface liquid is cleared from the lung by ciliary transport, surface tension gradients, and airflow shear forces. This work presents a multiscale model of the effect of airflow shear forces, as exerted by tidal breathing and cough, upon clearance. The composition of the mucus layer is complex and variable in time. To avoid the restrictions imposed by adopting a viscoelastic flow model of limited validity, a multiscale computational model is introduced in which the continuum-level properties of the airway surface liquid are determined by microscopic simulation of long-chain polymers. A bridge between microscopic and continuum levels is constructed through a kinetic-level probability density function describing polymer chain configurations. The overall multiscale framework is especially suited to biological problems due to the flexibility afforded in specifying microscopic constituents, and examining the effects of various constituents upon overall mucus transport at the continuum scale.

Mitran, Sorin, E-mail: mitran@unc.edu

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Defocus step size of the LBNL One Angstrom Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

64 (1996) 211-230. p2/6 LBNL/PUB-3170 One Angstromcurrent. Measurements on the LBNL One- Angstrom MicroscopeLBNL/PUB-3170 One-Ångstrom Microscope Report: One Angstrom

O'Keefe, Michael A.; Nelson, E. Chris

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Construction of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis reports the construction of a novel apparatus for experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices: the Fermi gas microscope. Improving upon similar designs for bosonic atoms, our Fermi gas microscope has ...

Ramasesh, Vinay (Vinay V.)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Characterization of grain boundary conductivity of spin-sprayed ferrites using scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Grain boundary electrical conductivity of ferrite materials has been characterized using scanning microwave microscope. Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spin-sprayed thin films onto glass substrates for different length of growth times were investigated using a scanning microwave microscope, an atomic force microscope, a four-point probe measurement, and a made in house transmission line based magnetic permeameter. The real part of the magnetic permeability shows almost constant between 10 and 300?MHz. As the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film thickness increases, the grain size becomes larger, leading to a higher DC conductivity. However, the loss in the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films at high frequency does not increase correspondingly. By measuring the reflection coefficient s{sub 11} from the scanning microwave microscope, it turns out that the grain boundaries of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films exhibit higher electric conductivity than the grains, which contributes loss at radio frequencies. This result will provide guidance for further improvement of low loss ferrite materials for high frequency applications.

Myers, J.; Nicodemus, T.; Zhuang, Y., E-mail: yan.zhuang@wright.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Watanabe, T.; Matsushita, N. [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Yamaguchi, M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Values of Mineral Modulus of Clay Manika Prasad, Ronny Hofmann, Mike Batzle, Colorado School of Mines; M. Kopycinska-Mller, U. Rabe, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the atomic force microscope (AFM) technique and its principles are described in details elsewhere (Rabe et associated with elastic properties measurements of clay minerals with standard pulse transmission techniques

147

RESEARCH NEWS July/August 200510  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an ion beam with a scanning force microscope [Persaud et al., Nano Lett. (2005), doi: 10.1021/nl0506103 feeding of ink through an aperture at the apex of a hollow AFM tip have been limited to feature sizes

Espinosa, Horacio D.

148

Pick-and-place nanoassembly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new all-additive method for direct fabrication of nanometer-scale planar and multilayer structures using the probe tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a material reservoir is proposed. The process, which is called ...

Hubert, Brian N., 1973-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope P. Chris Hammel and Denis V. Pelekhov  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Zhang, Moore and Roukes, 1995; Bruland et al., 1998) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) experiments

Hammel, P. Chris

150

Calibration of the torsional spring constant and the lateral photodiode response of frictional force microscopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calibration of the torsional spring constant and the lateral photodiode response of frictional simultaneously calibrates the photodiode response to the angular deflection of the cantilever. It does not rely steps: the calibration of the lateral photodiode response to convert the measured volts to the angle

Attard, Phil

151

Atomic Force Microscope Based Near-field Imaging for Probing Cell Surface Interactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bovine Serum FDTD Finite Difference Time Domain FEM Finite Element Method FRET F?rster Resonance Energy Transfer FWHM Full Width at Half Maximum L-M Lorenz-Mie MEM Minimum Essential Medium QD Quantum Dot RFP Red Fluorescent Protein TE Transverse... .................... 63 4.4 Modeling of WGMs in microspheres with inhomogeneous surrounding ......... 66 4.4.1 ADDA ................................................................................................... 66 4.4.2 L-M model...

Amini, Sina

2013-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

152

New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andDataNational Library of1, 2007TransmissiontoSystemNewApproaches3

153

A high-pressure atomic force microscope for imaging in supercritical carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies |November 2011A FirstEMSLA golden anniversary fordioxide. |

154

Imaging the p-n junction in a gallium nitride nanowire with a scanning microwave microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We used a broadband, atomic-force-microscope-based, scanning microwave microscope (SMM) to probe the axial dependence of the charge depletion in a p-n junction within a gallium nitride nanowire (NW). SMM enables the visualization of the p-n junction location without the need to make patterned electrical contacts to the NW. Spatially resolved measurements of S{sub 11}{sup ?}, which is the derivative of the RF reflection coefficient S{sub 11} with respect to voltage, varied strongly when probing axially along the NW and across the p-n junction. The axial variation in S{sub 11}{sup ?}? effectively mapped the asymmetric depletion arising from the doping concentrations on either side of the junction. Furthermore, variation of the probe tip voltage altered the apparent extent of features associated with the p-n junction in S{sub 11}{sup ?} images.

Imtiaz, Atif [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Wallis, Thomas M.; Brubaker, Matt D.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Bertness, Kris A.; Sanford, Norman A.; Kabos, Pavel, E-mail: kabos@boulder.nist.gov [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Weber, Joel C. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Coakley, Kevin J. [Information Technology Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

155

Unbalanced electromagnetic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . I :, jazdz g (Member) (Member) August 1974 -" ~ 5:. -. 62 ABSTRACT Unbalanced Electromagnetic Forces (August 1974) Craig Martin Hansen, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Attilio J. Giaroia Electromagnetic forces from moving... be deduced from the history of the development of an under- standing of electromagnetic forces. This is a relatively short history (starting in the late 1800's) filled with misunderstandings and pre]udices. This history can be divided into two eras: non...

Hansen, Craig Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

Randrup, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C{sub KOH}) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ?10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C{sub KOH} from ?0.05?M to ?0.60?M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO{sub 2} substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C{sub KOH} was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H{sub 2} bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H{sub 2} supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t{sub d} on C{sub KOH} was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.

Fisichella, G. [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 – 95121 Catania (Italy); Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria, 6 – 95125 Catania (Italy); Di Franco, S.; Roccaforte, F.; Giannazzo, F., E-mail: filippo.giannazzo@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 – 95121 Catania (Italy); Ravesi, S. [STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50 – 95121 Catania (Italy)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

158

Braking system for use with an arbor of a microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling device causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

Norgren, Duane U. (Orinda, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this nonequilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to ''dilution''. This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to submicron distances at realistic porosities.

Bimonte, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario MSA, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Emig, Thorsten [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, CNRS UMR 8626, Bat. 100, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay cedex (France); Krueger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An acoustic microscope surface inspection system and method are described in which pulses of high frequency electrical energy are applied to a transducer which forms and focuses acoustic energy onto a selected location on the surface of an object and receives energy from the location and generates electrical pulses. The phase of the high frequency electrical signal pulses are stepped with respect to the phase of a reference signal at said location. An output signal is generated which is indicative of the surface of said selected location. The object is scanned to provide output signals representative of the surface at a plurality of surface locations. 7 figures.

Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Parent, P.; Reinholdtsen, P.A.

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Scanning tip microwave near field microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Alameda, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Wei, Tao (Albany, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Ponderomotive phase plate for transmission electron microscopes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ponderomotive phase plate system and method for controllably producing highly tunable phase contrast transfer functions in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) for high resolution and biological phase contrast imaging. The system and method includes a laser source and a beam transport system to produce a focused laser crossover as a phase plate, so that a ponderomotive potential of the focused laser crossover produces a scattering-angle-dependent phase shift in the electrons of the post-sample electron beam corresponding to a desired phase contrast transfer function.

Reed, Bryan W. (Livermore, CA)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

163

Disorder-Induced Microscopic Magnetic Memory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation ofthe APSDiscoverDisorder-Induced Microscopic

164

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

165

Crystallinity and compositional changes in carbonated apatites: Evidence from {sup 31}P solid-state NMR, Raman, and AFM analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid-state (magic-angle spinning) NMR spectroscopy is a useful tool for obtaining structural information on bone organic and mineral components and synthetic model minerals at the atomic-level. Raman and {sup 31}P NMR spectral parameters were investigated in a series of synthetic B-type carbonated apatites (CAps). Inverse {sup 31}P NMR linewidth and inverse Raman PO{sub 4}{sup 3?}?{sub 1} bandwidth were both correlated with powder XRD c-axis crystallinity over the 0.3–10.3 wt% CO{sub 3}{sup 2?} range investigated. Comparison with bone powder crystallinities showed agreement with values predicted by NMR and Raman calibration curves. Carbonate content was divided into two domains by the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shift frequency and the Raman phosphate ?{sub 1} band position. These parameters remain stable except for an abrupt transition at 6.5 wt% carbonate, a composition which corresponds to an average of one carbonate per unit cell. This near-binary distribution of spectroscopic properties was also found in AFM-measured particle sizes and Ca/P molar ratios by elemental analysis. We propose that this transition differentiates between two charge-balancing ion-loss mechanisms as measured by Ca/P ratios. These results define a criterion for spectroscopic characterization of B-type carbonate substitution in apatitic minerals. - Graphical abstract: Carbonated apatite shows an abrupt change in spectral (NMR, Raman) and morphological (AFM) properties at a composition of about one carbonate substitution per unit cell. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystallinity (XRD), particle size (AFM) of carbonated apatites and bone mineral. • Linear relationships among crystallinity, {sup 31}P NMR and Raman inverse bandwidths. • Low and high carbonated apatites use different charge-balancing ion-loss mechanism.

McElderry, John-David P.; Zhu, Peizhi [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Mroue, Kamal H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Xu, Jiadi [Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Pavan, Barbara [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Fang, Ming [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Zhao, Guisheng; McNerny, Erin; Kohn, David H.; Franceschi, Renny T. [School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Holl, Mark M.Banaszak [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Tecklenburg, Mary M.J., E-mail: mary.tecklenburg@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry and Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Department of Biophysics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States); Morris, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1055 (United States)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

3D Force and Displacement Sensor for SFA and AFM Measurements Kai Kristiansen,, Patricia McGuiggan,| Greg Carver, Carl Meinhart, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, respectively. (2) A less common method is the resistive method using resistance, semiconductor, or piezoresistive strain gauges in a quarter-bridge, half-bridge, or full-bridge configuration4-7 to also give

Meinhart, Carl

167

OOTW Force Design Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Long working distance incoherent interference microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A full-field imaging, long working distance, incoherent interference microscope suitable for three-dimensional imaging and metrology of MEMS devices and test structures on a standard microelectronics probe station. A long working distance greater than 10 mm allows standard probes or probe cards to be used. This enables nanometer-scale 3-dimensional height profiles of MEMS test structures to be acquired across an entire wafer while being actively probed, and, optionally, through a transparent window. An optically identical pair of sample and reference arm objectives is not required, which reduces the overall system cost, and also the cost and time required to change sample magnifications. Using a LED source, high magnification (e.g., 50.times.) can be obtained having excellent image quality, straight fringes, and high fringe contrast.

Sinclair, Michael B. (Albuquerque, NM); De Boer, Maarten P. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

169

Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.

Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Microscopic study of Ca$+$Ca fusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the fusion barriers for reactions involving Ca isotopes $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}$, $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$, and $\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ using the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. We also study the excitation of the pre-equilibrium GDR for the $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ system and the associated $\\gamma$-ray emission spectrum. Fusion cross-sections are calculated using the incoming-wave boundary condition approach. We examine the dependence of fusion barriers on collision energy as well as on the different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction.

R. Keser; A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

171

Microscopic Description of Nuclear Fission Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss possible avenues to study fission dynamics starting from a time-dependent mean-field approach. Previous attempts to study fission dynamics using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory are analyzed. We argue that different initial conditions may be needed to describe fission dynamics depending on the specifics of the fission phenomenon and propose various approaches towards this goal. In particular, we provide preliminary calculations for studying fission following a heavy-ion reaction using TDHF with a density contraint. Regarding prompt muon-induced fission, we also suggest a new approach for combining the time-evolution of the muonic wave function with a microscopic treatment of fission dynamics via TDHF.

A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker; J. A. Maruhn; P. -G. Reinhard

2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

172

Detection of secondary phases in duplex stainless steel by magnetic force microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The secondary phase transformations in a commercial super duplex stainless steel were investigated by micro-chemical analyses and high resolution scanning probe microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray and electron probe detected ferrite and austenite as well as secondary phases in unetched aged duplex stainless steel type 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo. Volta potential indicated that nitride and sigma appeared more active than ferrite, while secondary austenite and austenite presented a nobler potential. Reversal order in nobility is thought to be attributable to the potential ranking provided by oxide nature diversity as a result of secondary phase surface compositions on steel. After eutectoid transformation, secondary austenite was detected by electron probe microanalysis, whereas atomic force microscopy distinguished this phase from former austenite by image contrast. Magnetic force microscopy revealed a “ghosted” effect on the latter microstructure probably derived from metal memory reminiscence of mechanical polishing at passivity and long range magnetic forces of ferrite phase. - Highlights: • Nobility detection of secondary phases by SKPFM in DSS particles is not a straightforward procedure. • As Volta potential and contrast are not always consistent SKPFM surface oxides is thought played an important role in detection. • AFM distinguished secondary austenite from former austenite by image contrast though SEM required EPMA.

Ramírez-Salgado, J. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Domínguez-Aguilar, M.A., E-mail: madoming@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Castro-Domínguez, B. [University of Tokyo, Department of Chemical System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bldg. 5, 7F 722, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan); Hernández-Hernández, P. [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado, Eje Central Norte Lázaro Cárdenas, No. 152, 07730 D.F., México (Mexico); Newman, R.C. [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5 (Canada)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

174

ATLAS Metadata Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS Metadata Task Force D. Costanzo, J. Cranshaw, S.provided and approved by the ATLAS TDAQ and DCS Connectinformation, go to http://atlas-connect-forum.web.cern.ch/

Costanzo, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Federal Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Constraint and Restoring Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-lived sensor network applications must be able to self-repair and adapt to changing demands. We introduce a new approach for doing so: Constraint and Restoring Force. CRF is a physics-inspired framework for computing ...

Beal, Jacob

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

177

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Microscopic Reactive Diffusion of Uranium in the Contaminated...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

States. Abstract: Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis of uranium-contaminated sediment cores beneath the BX waste tank farm at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford...

179

au microscope electronique: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the Microscope Geosciences Websites Summary: applications ranging from thermoelectric waste heat recovery to radio astronomy. BIOGRAPHY Austin MinnichDepartment of Mechanical...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated microscopic characterization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

characterization problems with the help... in the electron optics, alignment and optimization of electron microscopes. Students will have plenty... of opportunities for hands-on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Graphite. A New Interpretation of the Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image of Graphite. Abstract: In this work, highly-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy images of graphite...

182

Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian [The State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

Atomic force microscopy of biochemically tagged DNA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small fragments of DNA of known length were made with the polymerase chain reaction. These fragments had biotin molecules covalently attached at their ends. They were subsequently labeled with a chimeric protein fusion between streptavidin and two immunoglobulin G-binding domains of staphyloccocal protein A. This tetrameric species was expected to bind up to four DNA molecules via their attached biotin moieties. The DNA-protein complex was deposited on mica and imaged with an atomic force microscope. The images revealed the protein chimera at the expected location at the ends of the strands of DNA as well as the expected dimers, trimers, and tetramers of DNA bound to a single protein. 25 refs., 5 figs.

Ogletree, D.F.; Kolbe, W.; Spengler, S.; Salmeron, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)); Hansma, H.G.; Bezanilla, M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)); Sano, T.; Smith, C.S.; Cantor, C.R. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Visual Positioning of Previously Defined ROIs on Microscopic Slides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Visual Positioning of Previously Defined ROIs on Microscopic Slides Grigory Begelman, Michael slide area. Various microscopy related medical applications, such as telepathology and computer aided of interest. In this paper we present a method for image-based auto positioning on a microscope slide

Rivlin, Ehud

185

Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes O. Rousseau,1 M on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes wave propagation. VC 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4864480] In recent years

Otani, Yoshichika

186

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

187

Work Force Discipline  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

188

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Contractor Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

190

Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which explains this behavior.

Simon Carpentier; Mario S. Rodrigues; Luca Costa; Miguel V. Vitorino; Elisabeth Charlaix; Joel Chevrier

2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

191

Out of equilibrium GigaPa Young modulus of water nanobridge probed by Force Feedback Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because of capillary condensation, water droplets appear in nano/micropores. The large associated surface interactions can deeply influence macroscopic properties as in granular media. We report that dynamical properties of such nanobridge dramatically change when probed at different time scales. Using a novel AFM mode, the Force Feedback Microscopy, the gap between the nanotip and the surface is continuously varied, and we observe this change in the simultaneous measurements, at different frequencies, of the stiffness G'(N/m), the dissipative coefficient G"(kg/sec) together with the static force. As the measuring time approaches the microsecond, the liquid droplet exhibits a large positive stiffness (it is small and negative in the long time limit). Although clearly controlled by surface effects, it compares to the stiffness of a solid nanobridge with a 1 GigaPa Young modulus. We argue that as evaporation and condensation gradually lose efficiency, the contact line progressively becomes immobile, which expla...

Carpentier, Simon; Costa, Luca; Vitorino, Miguel V; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Casimir Friction Force for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Casimir friction is analyzed for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion. We first adopt a microscopic model for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature T moving non-relativistically with constant velocity. We use a statistical-mechanical description where time-dependent correlations are involved. This description is physical and direct, and, in spite of its simplicity, is able to elucidate the essentials of the problem. This treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory of ours back in 1992. The energy change Delta E turns out to be finite in general, corresponding to a finite friction force. In the limit of zero temperature the formalism yields, however, Delta E ->0, this being due to our assumption about constant velocity, meaning slowly varying coupling. For couplings varying more rapidly, there will also be a finite friction force at T=0. As second part of our work, we consider the friction problem using time-dependent perturbation theory. The dissipation, basically a second order effect, is obtainable with the use of first order theory, the reason being the absence of cross terms due to uncorrelated phases of eigenstates. The third part of the present paper is to demonstrate explicitly the equivalence of our results with those recently obtained by Barton (2010); this being not a trivial task since the formal results are seemingly quite different from each other.

Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

193

Force Modulator System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

Redmond Clark

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

Wolter mirror microscope : novel neutron focussing and imaging optic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, I investigated the effectiveness of a Wolter Type I neutron microscope as a focusing and imaging device for thermal and cold neutrons sources by simulating the performance of the optics in a standard neutron ...

Bagdasarova, Yelena S. (Yelena Sergeyevna)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Department of Mechanical Engineering "Heat Under the Microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications ranging from thermoelectric waste heat recovery to radio astronomy. BIOGRAPHY Austin MinnichDepartment of Mechanical Engineering presents "Heat Under the Microscope: Uncovering an essential role in nearly every technological application, ranging from space power generation to consumer

Militzer, Burkhard

196

analytical electron microscope: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ICCD Dual-Beam device IX 71 microscope filter focusing lens beam directing mirror beam expander LASER beam directing mirror 12;Here is an example of how we calculating Leuba,...

197

abnormal electron microscopic: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

OXIDE AS OBSERVED IN AN ELECTRON MICROSCOPE L Investigating (001) and (011) oriented monocrystalline thin foils of Cu2O in a conven- tional electron Abstracts 61. 80F 1....

198

Resolving three-dimensional shape of sub-50?nm wide lines with nanometer-scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3-D) shape variations of nanometer-scale objects can be resolved and measured with sub-nanometer scale sensitivity using conventional optical microscopes by analyzing 4-D optical data using the through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM) method. These initial results show that TSOM-determined cross-sectional (3-D) shape differences of 30?nm–40?nm wide lines agree well with critical-dimension atomic force microscope measurements. The TSOM method showed a linewidth uncertainty of 1.22?nm (k?=?2). Complex optical simulations are not needed for analysis using the TSOM method, making the process simple, economical, fast, and ideally suited for high volume nanomanufacturing process monitoring.

Attota, Ravikiran, E-mail: Ravikiran.attota@nist.gov; Dixson, Ronald G. [Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

199

Soft x-ray laser microscope. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program consisted of two phases (Phase I and Phase II). The goal of the Phase I (first year program) was to design and construct the Soft X-ray Laser Contact Microscope. Such microscope was constructed and adapted to PPL`s 18.2nm soft X-ray Laser (SXL), which in turn was modified and prepared for microscopy experiments. Investigation of the photoresist response to 18.2nm laser radiation and transmissivity of 0.1m thick silicion-nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) windows were important initial works. The goal of the first year of Phase II was to construct X-ray contact microscope in combination with existing optical phase microscope, already used by biologists. In the second year of Phase II study of dehydrated Horeseshoe Crab and Hela cancer cells were performed with COXRALM. Also during Phase II, the Imaging X-Ray Laser Microscope (IXRALM) was designed and constructed. This paper describes the development of each of the microscopes and their application for research.

Suckewer, P.I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W. [School of Chemistry F11, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemistry, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Surface Chemistry, Box 5607, SE-114 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MODIFYING AN INVERTED LABORATORY MICROSCOPE FOR RAMAN MICROSCOPY A Thesis Presented in Partial modifications a spectroscopic imaging instrument, a Raman microscope, can be constructed from a common inverted

202

Self-consistent Green's functions with three-body forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present thesis aims at studying the properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter from a Green's functions point of view, including two-body and three-body chiral forces. An extended self-consistent Green's function formalism is defined to consistently incorporate three-body forces in the many-body calculations. The effect of three-nucleon interactions is included via the construction of a dressed two-body density dependent force. This is obtained performing an average of the leading order three-body terms in the chiral effective field theory expansion. The dressed force corresponds to the use of an in-medium propagator in the average which takes into account the correlations characterizing the system at each stage of the many-body calculation. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sumrule to correctly account for the effect of three-body forces. Microscopic as well as macroscopic properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are analyzed in detailed.

Arianna Carbone

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

203

Norms of Presentational Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 15 hope to illustrate the close connection between emotional appeal and premise adequacy. After arguing that the Declaration of Independence and Constitution secure...Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. "Norms of Presentational Force." Argumentation and Advocacy 41 (2005): 139-51. Official publisher’s version: http://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. 1 Citation: Innocenti Manolescu, Beth...

Innocenti, Beth

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Casimir force driven ratchets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the non-linear dynamics of two parallel periodically patterned metal surfaces that are coupled by the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between them. The resulting Casimir force generates for asymmetric patterns with a time-periodically driven surface-to-surface distance a ratchet effect, allowing for directed lateral motion of the surfaces in sizeable parameter ranges. It is crucial to take into account inertia effects and hence chaotic dynamics which are described by Langevin dynamics. Multiple velocity reversals occur as a function of driving, mean surface distance, and effective damping. These transport properties are shown to be stable against weak ambient noise.

Thorsten Emig

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

205

Work Force Restructuring Activities  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept.|Sindhu Jagadamma Women @ Energy:TerriWeiWaterForce

206

Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

Wu, You-Lin, E-mail: ylwu@ncnu.edu.tw; Liao, Chun-Wei [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China); Ling, Jing-Jenn [Department of Applied Materials and Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Puli, Nantou, Taiwan (China)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

Epoxy replication for Wolter x-ray microscope fabrication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An epoxy replica of a test piece designed to simulate a Wolter x-ray microscope geometry showed no loss of x-ray reflectivity or resolution, compared to the original. The test piece was a diamond-turned cone with 1.5/sup 0/ half angle. A flat was fly-cut on one side, then super- and conventionally polished. The replica was separated at the 1.5/sup 0/-draft angle, simulating a shallow angle Wolter microscope geometry. A test with 8.34 A x rays at 0.9/sup 0/ grazing angle showed a reflectivity of 67% for the replica flat surface, and 70% for the original. No spread of the reflected beam was observed with a 20-arc second wide test beam. This test verifies the epoxy replication technique for production of Wolter x-ray microscopes.

Priedhorsky, W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Multimode AFM (Nanoscope) | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

grown... Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using...

210

Radiological AFM | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromising Science for1 20115,PerformanceUsing RadioactiveOctober

211

Multimode AFM (Nanoscope) | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recovery challenge fundProject8MistakesAdministrationVideo Gallery

212

Geochemistry AFM (Icon) | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr Flickr Editor'sshort version)Unveils High-TechNatural Magmas

213

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

214

Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

Jakob, Christian

215

Dilution and resonance enhanced repulsion in non-equilibrium fluctuation forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are always attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this non-equilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region, and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to "dilution". This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to sub-micron distances at realistic porosities.

Giuseppe Bimonte; Thorsten Emig; Matthias Kruger; Mehran Kardar

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

216

Dilution and resonance enhanced repulsion in non-equilibrium fluctuation forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are always attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive for microscopic particles coupled to thermal baths with different temperatures. We demonstrate that this non-equilibrium repulsion can be realized also between macroscopic objects, as planar slabs, if they are kept at different temperatures. It is shown that repulsion can be enhanced by (i) tuning of material resonances in the thermal region, and by (ii) reducing the dielectric contrast due to "dilution". This can lead to stable equilibrium positions. We discuss the realization of these effects for aerogels, yielding repulsion down to sub-micron distances at realistic porosities.

Bimonte, Giuseppe; Kruger, Matthias; Kardar, Mehran

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Neutrinoless double beta decay in the microscopic interacting boson model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a calculation of the nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay in the closure approximation in several nuclei within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model (IBM-2) are presented and compared with those calculated in the shell model (SM) and quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA)

Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory Yale University New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States)

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

218

Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Rosser, Roy (Princeton, NJ)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Dynamic microscopic theory of fusion using DC-TDHF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density-constrained time-dependent Hartree-Fock (DC-TDHF) theory is a fully microscopic approach for calculating heavy-ion interaction potentials and fusion cross sections below and above the fusion barrier. We discuss recent applications of DC-TDHF method to fusion of light and heavy systems.

Umar, A. S.; Oberacker, V. E.; Keser, R.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); RTE University, Science and Arts Faculty, Department of Physics, 53100, Rize (Turkey); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fur Theoretische Physik, Universitat Erlangen, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

220

Quantum microscopic approach to low-energy heavy ion collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nuclear reactions at low energy where quantum effects play a significant role is an important challenge of nuclear physics. The interplay between nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms is crucial at energiesQuantum microscopic approach to low-energy heavy ion collisions C´edric Simenel1,2, Aditya Wakhle2

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Macro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and alpha [5] processes in taking into account the shell effects, the proximity energy and the nuclear de aiming at reproducing the nuclear binding energy and then the nuclear mass contain the usual vol- umeMacro-microscopic mass formulae and nuclear mass predictions G. Royer, M. Guilbaud, A. Onillon

Boyer, Edmond

222

Comparative study of three-nucleon force models in nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the energy per particle of symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter using the microscopic many-body Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) approach and employing the Argonne V18 (AV18) nucleon-nucleon (NN) potential supplemented with two different three-nucleon force models recently constructed to reproduce the binding energy of $^3$H, $^3$He and $^4$He nuclei as well as the neutron-deuteron doublet scattering length. We find that none of these new three-nucleon force models is able to reproduce simultaneously the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter and the properties of three- and four-nucleon systems.

Logoteta, Domenico; Bombaci, Ignazio; Kievsky, Alejandro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Variational Scheme to Compute Protein Reaction Pathways using Atomistic Force Fields with Explicit Solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a variational approximation to the microscopic dynamics of rare conformational transitions of macromolecules. Within this framework it is possible to simulate on a small computer cluster reactions as complex as protein folding, using state of the art all-atom force fields in explicit solvent. We test this method against molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the folding of an alpha- and a beta-protein performed with the same all-atom force field on the Anton supercomputer. We find that our approach yields results consistent with those of MD simulations, at a computational cost orders of magnitude smaller.

S. a Beccara; L. Fant; P. Faccioli

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

224

Microscopic description of neutron emission rates in compound nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The neutron emission rates in thermal excited nuclei are conventionally described by statistical models with a phenomenological level density parameter that depends on excitation energies, deformations and mass regions. In the microscopic view of hot nuclei, the neutron emission rates can be determined by the external neutron gas densities without any free parameters. Therefore the microscopic description of thermal neutron emissions is desirable that can impact several understandings such as survival probabilities of superheavy compound nuclei and neutron emissivity in reactors. To describe the neutron emission rates microscopically, the external thermal neutron gases are self-consistently obtained based on the Finite-Temperature Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (FT-HFB) approach. The results are compared with the statistical model to explore the connections between the FT-HFB approach and the statistical model. The Skyrme FT-HFB equation is solved by HFB-AX in deformed coordinate spaces. Based on the FT-HFB approach, the thermal properties and external neutron gas are properly described with the self-consistent gas substraction procedure. Then neutron emission rates can be obtained based on the densities of external neutron gases. The thermal statistical properties of $^{238}$U and $^{258}$U are studied in detail in terms of excitation energies. The thermal neutron emission rates in $^{238, 258}$U and superheavy compound nuclei $_{112}^{278}$Cn and $_{114}^{292}$Fl are calculated, which agree well with the statistical model by adopting an excitation-energy-dependent level density parameter. The coordinate-space FT-HFB approach can provide reliable microscopic descriptions of neutron emission rates in hot nuclei, as well as microscopic constraints on the excitation energy dependence of level density parameters for statistical models.

Yi Zhu; Junchen Pei

2014-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

225

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

226

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

227

Whole-Cell Sensing for a Harmful Bloom-Forming Microscopic Alga by Measuring Antibody-Antigen Forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I. I NTRODUCTION INGLE-CELLED microalgae play an essentialabundance of speci?c microalgae [10]–[13]. Early applicationand prokary- otic microalgae [3], [14]–[17]. These

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

X-ray microscope assemblies. Final report and metrology report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report and Metrology Report prepared under Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Subcontract 9936205, X-ray Microscope Assemblies. The purpose of this program was to design, fabricate, and perform detailed metrology on an axisymmetric grazing-incidence x-ray microscope (XRMS) to be used as a diagnostic instrument in the Lawrence Livermore Laser Fusion Program. The optical configuration chosen for this device consists of two internally polished surfaces of revolution: an hyperboloid facing the object; and a confocal, co-axial elliposid facing the image. This arrangement is known as the Wolter Type-I configuration. The grazing angle of reflection for both surfaces is approximately 1/sup 0/. The general optical performance goals under this program were to achieve a spatial resolution in the object plane in the soft x-ray region of approximately 1 micron, and to achieve an effective solid collecting angle which is an appreciable fraction of the geometric solid collecting angle.

Zehnpfennig, T.F.

1981-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

Microscopic analysis of fusion hindrance in heavy systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Background: Heavy-ion fusion reactions involving heavy nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier exhibit fusion hindrance, where the probability of compound nucleus formation is strongly hindered compared with that in light- and medium-mass systems. The origin of this fusion hindrance has not been well understood from a microscopic point of view. Purpose: Analyze the fusion dynamics in heavy systems by a microscopic reaction model and understand the origin of the fusion hindrance. Method: We employ the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. We extract nucleus--nucleus potential and energy dissipation by the method combining TDHF dynamics of the entrance channel of fusion reactions with one-dimensional Newton equation including a dissipation term. Then, we analyze the origin of the fusion hindrance using the properties of the extracted potential and energy dissipation. Results: Extracted potentials show monotonic increase as the relative distance of two nuclei decreases, which induces the disappearance...

Washiyama, Kouhei

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

An Estimate of Biofilm Properties using an Acoustic Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Noninvasive measurements over a biofilm, a three-dimensional community of microorganisms immobilized at a substratum, were made using an acoustic microscope operating at frequencies up to 70 MHz. Spatial variation of surface heterogeneity, thickness, interior structure, and biomass of a living biofilm was estimated over a 2.5-mm by 2.5-mm region. Ultrasound based estimates of thickness were corroborated using optical microscopy and the nominal biofilm thickness was 100 microns. Experimental data showed that the acoustic microscope combined with signal processing was capable of imaging and making quantitative estimates of the spatial distribution of biomass within the biofilm. The revealed surface topology and interior structure of the biofilm provide data for use in advanced biofilm mass transport models. The experimental acoustic and optical systems, methods to estimate of biofilm properties and potential applications for the resulting data are discussed.

Good, Morris S.; Wend, Christopher F.; Bond, Leonard J.; Mclean, Jeffrey S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Crawford, Susan L.; Daly, Don S.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Simulation of High Density Pedestrian Flow: Microscopic Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years modelling crowd and evacuation dynamics has become very important, with increasing huge numbers of people gathering around the world for many reasons and events. The fact that our global population grows dramatically every year and the current public transport systems are able to transport large amounts of people, heightens the risk of crowd panic or crush. Pedestrian models are based on macroscopic or microscopic behaviour. In this paper, we are interested in developing models that can be used for evacuation control strategies. This model will be based on microscopic pedestrian simulation models, and its evolution and design requires a lot of information and data. The people stream will be simulated, based on mathematical models derived from empirical data about pedestrian flows. This model is developed from image data bases, so called empirical data, taken from a video camera or data obtained using human detectors. We consider the individuals as autonomous particles interacting through socia...

Dridi, Mohamed H

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

H# Control Design for a Magnetostrictive Transducer James Nealis and Ralph C. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

milling and hybrid motor design due to their broadband, large force capabilities. To achieve the level) compounds range from nanopositioning stages in an atomic force microscope (AFM) to vibration suppression. Sensor noise is also present in all applications and can cause a degra­ dation in the transducer

233

H Control Design for a Magnetostrictive Transducer James Nealis and Ralph C. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

milling and hybrid motor design due to their broadband, large force capabilities. To achieve the level) compounds range from nanopositioning stages in an atomic force microscope (AFM) to vibration suppression system which must be accommodated. Sensor noise is also present in all applications and can cause a degra

234

Microscopic Optical Potentials for Helium-6 Scattering off Protons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The differential cross section and the analyzing power are calculated for elastic scattering of $^6$He from a proton target using a microscopic folding optical potential, in which the $^6$He nucleus is described in terms of a $^4$He-core with two additional neutrons in the valence p-shell. In contrast to previous work of that nature, all contributions from the interaction of the valence neutrons with the target protons are taken into account.

Ch. Elster; A. Orazbayev; S. P. Weppner

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

235

Connecting local active forces to macroscopic stress in elastic media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In contrast with ordinary materials, living matter drives its own motion by generating active, out-of-equilibrium internal stresses. These stresses typically originate from localized active elements embedded in an elastic medium, such as molecular motors inside the cell or contractile cells in a tissue. While many large-scale phenomenological theories of such active media have been developed, a systematic understanding of the emergence of stress from the local force-generating elements is lacking. In this paper, we present a rigorous theoretical framework to study this relationship. We show that the medium's macroscopic active stress tensor is equal to the active elements' force dipole tensor per unit volume in both continuum and discrete linear homogeneous media of arbitrary geometries. This relationship is conserved on average in the presence of disorder, but can be violated in nonlinear elastic media. Such effects can lead to either a reinforcement or an attenuation of the active stresses, giving us a glimpse of the ways in which nature might harness microscopic forces to create active materials.

Pierre Ronceray; Martin Lenz

2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

236

Investigation of Microscopic Materials Limitations of Superconducting RF Cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high-field performance of SRF cavities is often limited by breakdown events below the intrinsic limiting surface fields of Nb, and there is abundant evidence that these breakdown events are localized in space inside the cavity. Also, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the causal links between surface treatments and ultimate RF performance at low temperatures. An understanding of these links would provide a clear roadmap for improvement of SRF cavity performance, and establish a cause-and-effect ‘RF materials science’ of Nb. We propose two specific microscopic approaches to addressing these issues. First is a spatially-resolved local microwave-microscope probe that operates at SRF frequencies and temperatures to discover the microscopic origins of breakdown, and produce quantitative measurements of RF critical fields of coatings and films. Second, RF Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) has allowed visualization of RF current flow and sources of nonlinear RF response in superconducting devices with micro-meter spatial resolution. The LSM will be used in conjunction with surface preparation and characterization techniques to create definitive links between physical and chemical processing steps and ultimate cryogenic microwave performance. We propose to develop RF laser scanning microscopy of small-sample Nb pieces to establish surface-processing / RF performance relations through measurement of RF current distributions on micron-length scales and low temperatures.

Anlage, Steven [University of Maryland

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

Microscopic thermal diffusivity mapping using an infrared camera  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Standard flash thermal diffusivity measurements utilize a single-point infrared detector to measure the average temperature rise of the sample surface after a heat pulse. The averaging of infrared radiation over the sample surface could smear out the microscopic thermal diffusivity variations in some specimens, especially in fiber-reinforced composite materials. A high-speed, high-sensitivity infrared camera was employed in this study of composite materials. With a special microscope attachment, the spatial resolution of the camera can reach 5.4 {micro}m. The images can then be processed to generate microscopic thermal diffusivity maps of the material. SRM 1462 stainless steel was tested to evaluate the accuracy of the system. Thermal diffusivity micrographs of carbon-carbon composites and SCS-6/borosilicate glass were generated. Thermal diffusivity values of the carbon fiber bundles parallel to the heat flow were found to be higher than the matrix material. A thermal coupling effect between SCS-6 fiber and matrix was observed. The thermal coupling and measured thermal diffusivity value of the fiber were also dependent upon the thickness of the specimen.

Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced microscopic techniques Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in 3D. Techniques for the pre-processing of a microscope's raw... and results of 3D model reconstructions of MEMS devices using a variety of microscopic sensors. These...

239

A Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model for Transportation Planning in Georgios Papageorgiou, Pantelis Damianou, Andreas Pitsilides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Microscopic Traffic Simulation Model for Transportation Planning in Cyprus Georgios Papageorgiou. This paper presents the microscopic simulation model development of a major traffic network of Nicosia simulation model is developed and utilized for transportation planning. 1. Introduction The demand

Pitsillides, Andreas

240

Prediction of vehicle impact forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

Kaderka, Darrell Laine

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Is Gravity an Entropic Force?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde's example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde's argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

Shan Gao

2011-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

242

Development of a heating stage for an optical trapping microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Lang Laboratory specializes in the study of biological systems through research using optical tweezers. Currently, experiments involving force and position manipulations of cellular molecules take place at room ...

Wang, Lynn (Lynn H.)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Hands-On and Minds-On Modeling Activities to Improve Students' Conceptions of Microscopic Friction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hands-On and Minds-On Modeling Activities to Improve Students' Conceptions of Microscopic Friction of microscopic friction. We will also present our investigation on the relative effectiveness of the use, it is possible to facilitate the refinement of students' ideas of microscopic friction. Keywords: friction

Zollman, Dean

244

Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synchrotron infrared confocal microscope: Application to infrared 3D spectral imaging F Jamme1, 2 coupled to an infrared microscope allows imaging at the so-called diffraction limit. Thus, numerous infrared beamlines around the world have been developed for infrared chemical imaging. Infrared microscopes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Electric force microscopy of semiconductors: Theory of cantilever frequency fluctuations and noncontact friction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electric force microscope employs a charged atomic force microscope probe in vacuum to measure fluctuating electric forces above the sample surface generated by dynamics of molecules and charge carriers. We present a theoretical description of two observables in electric force microscopy of a semiconductor: the spectral density of cantilever frequency fluctuations (jitter), which are associated with low-frequency dynamics in the sample, and the coefficient of noncontact friction, induced by higher-frequency motions. The treatment is classical-mechanical, based on linear response theory and classical electrodynamics of diffusing charges in a dielectric continuum. Calculations of frequency jitter explain the absence of contributions from carrier dynamics to previous measurements of an organic field effect transistor. Calculations of noncontact friction predict decreasing friction with increasing carrier density through the suppression of carrier density fluctuations by intercarrier Coulomb interactions. The predicted carrier density dependence of the friction coefficient is consistent with measurements of the dopant density dependence of noncontact friction over Si. Our calculations predict that in contrast to the measurement of cantilever frequency jitter, a noncontact friction measurement over an organic semiconductor could show appreciable contributions from charge carriers.

Lekkala, Swapna; Marohn, John A.; Loring, Roger F., E-mail: roger.loring@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

Su, Xiao

247

Selection of higher eigenmode amplitude based on dissipated power and virial contrast in bimodal atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the effect of the amplitude ratio of the higher to the fundamental eigenmode in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the phase contrast and the dissipated power contrast of the higher eigenmode. We explore the optimization of the amplitude ratio in order to maximize the type of contrast that is most relevant to the particular study. Specifically, we show that the trends in the contrast range behave differently for different quantities, especially the dissipated power and the phase, with the former being more meaningful than the latter (a similar analysis can be carried out using the virial, for which we also provide a brief example). Our work is based on numerical simulations using two different conservative-dissipative tip-sample models, including the standard linear solid and the combination of a dissipation coefficient with a conservative model, as well as experimental images of thin film Nafion{sup ®} proton exchange polymers. We focus on the original bimodal AFM method, where the higher eigenmode is driven with constant amplitude and frequency (i.e., in “open loop”).

Diaz, Alfredo J.; Eslami, Babak; López-Guerra, Enrique A.; Solares, Santiago D., E-mail: ssolares@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

Microscopic self-energy calculations and dispersive optical-model potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nucleon self-energies for 40Ca, 48Ca, 60Ca isotopes are generated with the microscopic Faddeev-random-phase approximation (FRPA). These self-energies are compared with potentials from the dispersive optical model (DOM) that were obtained from fitting elastic-scattering and bound-state data for 40Ca and 48Ca. The \\textit{ab initio} FRPA is capable of explaining many features of the empirical DOM potentials including their nucleon asymmetry dependence. The comparison furthermore provides several suggestions to improve the functional form of the DOM potentials, including among others the exploration of parity and angular momentum dependence. The non-locality of the FRPA imaginary self-energy, illustrated by a substantial orbital angular momentum dependence, suggests that future DOM fits should consider this feature explicitly. The roles of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force and charge-exchange component in generating the asymmetry dependence of the FPRA self-energies are explored. The global features of the FRPA self-energies are not strongly dependent on the choice of realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction.

S. J. Waldecker; C. Barbieri; W. H. Dickhoff

2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Foucault imaging by using non-dedicated transmission electron microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electron optical system for observing Foucault images was constructed using a conventional transmission electron microscope without any special equipment for Lorentz microscopy. The objective lens was switched off and an electron beam was converged by a condenser optical system to the crossover on the selected area aperture plane. The selected area aperture was used as an objective aperture to select the deflected beam for Foucault mode, and the successive image-forming lenses were controlled for observation of the specimen images. The irradiation area on the specimen was controlled by selecting the appropriate diameter of the condenser aperture.

Taniguchi, Yoshifumi [Science and Medical Systems Business Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ichige, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hiroaki [Corporate Manufacturing Strategy Group, Hitachi High-Technologies Corp., Ishikawa-cho, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-1991 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan)

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 ?m) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 ?m resolution over a 300 ?m field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 ?m field of view.

Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cation Transport in Polymer Electrolytes: A Microscopic Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A microscopic theory for cation diffusion in polymer electrolytes is presented. Based on a thorough analysis of molecular dynamics simulations on PEO with LiBF$_4$ the mechanisms of cation dynamics are characterised. Cation jumps between polymer chains can be identified as renewal processes. This allows us to obtain an explicit expression for the lithium ion diffusion constant D_{Li} by invoking polymer specific properties such as the Rouse dynamics. This extends previous phenomenological and numerical approaches. In particular, the chain length dependence of D_{Li} can be predicted and compared with experimental data. This dependence can be fully understood without referring to entanglement effects.

A. Maitra; A. Heuer

2007-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

252

Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.

Rousseau, O. [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Central Research Laboratory, 1-280 Higashi-koigakubo, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8601 (Japan); Otani, Y., E-mail: yotani@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-858 (Japan)

2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

253

Microscopic analysis of order parameters in nuclear quantum phase transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes are studied using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. As a function of the physical control parameter, the number of nucleons, energy gaps between the ground state and the excited vibrational states with zero angular momentum, isomer shifts, and monopole transition strengths exhibit sharp discontinuities at neutron number N=90, which is characteristic of a first-order quantum phase transition.

Li, Z. P. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Niksic, T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Vretenar, D. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, J. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, CAS, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

Nuclear force in Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

255

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

256

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Casimir force on a piston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a massless scalar field obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions on the walls of a two-dimensional L x b rectangular box, divided by a movable partition (piston) into two compartments of dimensions a x b and (L-a) x b. We compute the Casimir force on the piston in the limit L -> infinity. Regardless of the value of a/b, the piston is attracted to the nearest end of the box. Asymptotic expressions for the Casimir force on the piston are derived for a > b.

R. M. Cavalcanti

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Nonlocal microscopic theory of quantum friction between parallel metallic slabs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a new derivation of the friction force between two metallic slabs moving with constant relative parallel velocity, based on T=0 quantum-field theory formalism. By including a fully nonlocal description of dynamically screened electron fluctuations in the slab, and avoiding the usual matching-condition procedure, we generalize previous expressions for the friction force, to which our results reduce in the local limit. Analyzing the friction force calculated in the two local models and in the nonlocal theory, we show that for physically relevant velocities local theories using the plasmon and Drude models of dielectric response are inappropriate to describe friction, which is due to excitation of low-energy electron-hole pairs, which are properly included in nonlocal theory. We also show that inclusion of dissipation in the nonlocal electronic response has negligible influence on friction.

Despoja, Vito [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Echenique, Pedro M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV/EHU, Apto. 1072, E-20080 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Sunjic, Marijan [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal, E-20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka 32, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

LABORATORY II FORCE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LABORATORY II FORCE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Lab II - 1 After studying forces and material bodies the relationship between forces and energy conservation. Energy and forces, together, support an extremely be able to: · State the principle of conservation of energy; state the relationship between the work done

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

262

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected Utilities Need to Do More to Prepare for Their Future Work Force Needs.............................................................................20 #12;ii Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities #12;1 Work Force Planning for Public Power

263

Solvent-induced forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

264

Correlated density-dependent chiral forces for infinite matter calculations within the Green's function approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are investigated within an extended self-consistent Green's function method that includes the effects of three-body forces. We use the ladder approximation for the study of infinite nuclear matter and incorporate the three-body interaction by means of a density-dependent two-body force. This force is obtained via a correlated average over the third particle, with an in-medium propagator consistent with the many-body calculation we perform. We analyze different prescriptions in the construction of the average and conclude that correlations provide small modifications at the level of the density-dependent force. Microscopic as well as bulk properties are studied, focusing on the changes introduced by the density dependent two-body force. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sum rule. Our results validate previously used uncorrelated averages and extend the availability of chirally motivated forces to a larger density regime.

Arianna Carbone; Arnau Rios; Artur Polls

2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

265

LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text

Minnesota, University of

266

Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global efforts have been put into biodiversity conservation, but biodiversity loss continues rapidly in biodiversity conservation to the global level and help protect biodiversity in other developing countries Wiley & Sons, Ltd. #12;208 ConservationBiology COMPLEXITY OF INTERACTING FORCES AFFECTING BIODIVERSITY

267

Laser irradiation effects on the CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot structure studied by Raman and AFM spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the impact of laser irradiation on semiconducting CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots (QDs) structures. A reference sample (without dots) was also studied for comparison. Both samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy technique on the p-type GaAs substrate. The Raman spectra have been recorded for different time of a laser exposure and for various laser powers. The spectra for both samples exhibit peak related to the localized longitudinal (LO) ZnTe phonon of a wavenumber equal to 210 cm{sup -1}. For the QD sample, a broad band corresponding to the LO CdTe phonon related to the QD-layer appears at a wavenumber of 160 cm{sup -1}. With increasing time of a laser beam exposure and laser power, the spectra get dominated by tellurium-related peaks appearing at wavenumbers around 120 cm{sup -1} and 140 cm{sup -1}. Simultaneously, the ZnTe surface undergoes rising damage, with the formation of Te aggregates at the pinhole edge as reveal atomic force microscopy observations. Local temperature of irradiated region has been estimated from the anti-Stokes/Stokes ratio of the Te modes intensity and it was found to be close or exceeding ZnTe melting point. Thus, the laser damage can be explained by the ablation process.

Zielony, E.; Placzek-Popko, E.; Henrykowski, A.; Gumienny, Z.; Kamyczek, P.; Jacak, J. [Institute of Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Nowakowski, P.; Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Local elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film by atomic force acoustic microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) is a useful nondestructive technique for measurement of local elastic modulus of materials at nano-scale spatial resolution by measuring the contact resonance spectra for higher order modes of the AFM cantilever. The elastic modulus of RF sputtered HfO{sub 2} thin film has been measured quantitatively, using reference approach in which measurements are performed on the test and reference samples. Using AFAM, the measured elastic modulus of the HfO{sub 2} thin film is 223±27 GPa, which is in agreement with the literature value of 220±40 GPa for atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} thin film using nanoindentation technique.

Jena, S., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Tokas, R. B., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Sarkar, P., E-mail: shuvendujena9@gmail.com; Thakur, S.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Misal, J. S.; Rao, K. D. [Optics and Thin Film Laboratory, Autonagar, BARC-Vizag, Visakhapatnam-530 012 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

269

Casimir Friction Force and Energy Dissipation for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Casimir friction problem for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion is analyzed, utilizing a microscopic model in which we start from statistical mechanics for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature moving nonrelativistically with constant velocity. The use of statistical mechanics in this context has in our opinion some definite advantages, in comparison with the more conventional quantum electrodynamic description of media that involves the use of a refractive index. The statistical-mechanical description is physical and direct, and the oscillator model, in spite of its simplicity, is nevertheless able to elucidate the essentials of the Casimir friction. As is known, there are diverging opinions about this kind of friction in the literature. Our treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory presented by us back in 1992. There we found a finite friction force at any finite temperature, whereas at zero temperature the model led to a zero force. As an additional development in the present paper we evaluate the energy dissipation making use of an exponential cutoff truncating the relative motion of the oscillators. For the dissipation we also establish a general expression that is not limited to the simple oscillator model.

Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

WETTABILITY AND IMBIBITION: MICROSCOPIC DISTRIBUTION OF WETTING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES AT THE CORE AND FIELD SCALES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The questions of reservoir wettability have been approached in this project from three directions. First, we have studied the properties of crude oils that contribute to wetting alteration in a reservoir. A database of more than 150 different crude oil samples has been established to facilitate examination of the relationships between crude oil chemical and physical properties and their influence on reservoir wetting. In the course of this work an improved SARA analysis technique was developed and major advances were made in understanding asphaltene stability including development of a thermodynamic Asphaltene Solubility Model (ASM) and empirical methods for predicting the onset of instability. The CO-Wet database is a resource that will be used to guide wettability research in the future. The second approach is to study crude oil/brine/rock interactions on smooth surfaces. Contact angle measurements were made under controlled conditions on mica surfaces that had been exposed to many of the oils in the CO-Wet database. With this wealth of data, statistical tests can now be used to examine the relationships between crude oil properties and the tendencies of those oils to alter wetting. Traditionally, contact angles have been used as the primary wetting assessment tool on smooth surfaces. A new technique has been developed using an atomic forces microscope that adds a new dimension to the ability to characterize oil-treated surfaces. Ultimately we aim to understand wetting in porous media, the focus of the third approach taken in this project. Using oils from the CO-Wet database, experimental advances have been made in scaling the rate of imbibition, a sensitive measure of core wetting. Application of the scaling group to mixed-wet systems has been demonstrated for a range of core conditions. Investigations of imbibition in gas/liquid systems provided the motivation for theoretical advances as well. As a result of this project we have many new tools for studying wetting at microscopic and macroscopic scales and a library of well-characterized fluids for use in studies of crude oil/brine/rock interactions.

Jill S. Buckley; Norman R. Morrow; Chris Palmer; Purnendu K. Dasgupta

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Forced dewetting on porous media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the dewetting of a porous plate withdrawn from a bath of fluid. The microscopic contact angle is fixed to zero and the flow is assumed to be parallel to the plate (lubrication approximation). The ordinary differential equation involving the position of the water surface is analysed in phase space by means of numerical integration. We show the existence of a critical value of the capillary number $\\eta U / \\gamma$, above which no stationary contact line can exist. An analytical model, based on asymptotic matching is developed, that reproduces the dependence of the critical capillary number on the angle of the plate with respect to the horizontal for large control parameters (3/2 power law).

Olivier Devauchelle; Christophe Josserand; Stephane Zaleski

2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

272

Highly charged ion based time of flight emission microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope has been designed, which improves the surface sensitivity of static SIMS measurements because of the higher ionization probability of highly charged ions. Slow, highly charged ions are produced in an electron beam ion trap and are directed to the sample surface. The sputtered secondary ions and electrons pass through a specially designed objective lens to a microchannel plate detector. This new instrument permits high surface sensitivity (10.sup.10 atoms/cm.sup.2), high spatial resolution (100 nm), and chemical structural information due to the high molecular ion yields. The high secondary ion yield permits coincidence counting, which can be used to enhance determination of chemical and topological structure and to correlate specific molecular species.

Barnes, Alan V. (Livermore, CA); Schenkel, Thomas (San Francisco, CA); Hamza, Alex V. (Livermore, CA); Schneider, Dieter H. (Livermore, CA); Doyle, Barney (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Scanning optical microscope with long working distance objective  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning optical microscope, including: a light source to generate a beam of probe light; collimation optics to substantially collimate the probe beam; a probe-result beamsplitter; a long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective; scanning means to scan a beam spot of the focused probe beam on or within a sample; relay optics; and a detector. The collimation optics are disposed in the probe beam. The probe-result beamsplitter is arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light from the sample. The beamsplitter reflects the probe beam into the objective and transmits resultant light. The long working-distance, infinity-corrected objective is also arranged in the optical paths of the probe beam and the resultant light. It focuses the reflected probe beam onto the sample, and collects and substantially collimates the resultant light. The relay optics are arranged to relay the transmitted resultant light from the beamsplitter to the detector.

Cloutier, Sylvain G. (Newark, DE)

2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

274

Analytical scanning evanescent microwave microscope and control stage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning evanescent microwave microscope (SEMM) that uses near-field evanescent electromagnetic waves to probe sample properties is disclosed. The SEMM is capable of high resolution imaging and quantitative measurements of the electrical properties of the sample. The SEMM has the ability to map dielectric constant, loss tangent, conductivity, electrical impedance, and other electrical parameters of materials. Such properties are then used to provide distance control over a wide range, from to microns to nanometers, over dielectric and conductive samples for a scanned evanescent microwave probe, which enable quantitative non-contact and submicron spatial resolution topographic and electrical impedance profiling of dielectric, nonlinear dielectric and conductive materials. The invention also allows quantitative estimation of microwave impedance using signals obtained by the scanned evanescent microwave probe and quasistatic approximation modeling. The SEMM can be used to measure electrical properties of both dielectric and electrically conducting materials.

Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Chen; Duewer, Fred; Yang, Hai Tao; Lu, Yalin

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

Observation of Materials Processes in Liquids in the Electron Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Materials synthesis and the functioning of devices often indispensably involve liquid media. But direct visualization of dynamic process in liquids, especially with high spatial and temporal resolution, has been challenging. For solid materials, advances in aberration corrected electron microscopy have made observation of atomic level features a routine practice. Here we discuss the extent to which one can take advantage of the resolution of modern electron microscopes to image phenomenon occuring in liquids. We will describe the fundamentals of two different experimental approaches, closed and open liquid cells. We will illustrate the capabilities of each approach by considering processes in batteries and nucleation and growth of nanoparticles from solution. We conclude that liquid cell electron microscopy appears to be duly fulfilling its role for in situ studies of nanoscale processes in liquids, revealing physical and chemical processes otherwise difficult to observe.

Wang, Chong M.; Liao, Honggang; Ross, Frances M.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Experimental and theoretical investigation of angular dependence of the Casimir force between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the current work we present the complete results for the measurement of normal Casimir force between shallow and smooth sinusoidally corrugated gold coated sphere and a plate at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. All measured data were compared with the theoretical approach using the proximity force approximation and theory based on derivative expansion. In both cases real material properties of the surfaces and non-zero temperature were taken into account. Special attention is paid to the description of electrostatic interactions between corrugated surfaces at different angels between corrugations and samples reparation and characterization. The measured forces are found to be in good agreement with the theory including correlation effects of geometry and material properties and deviate significantly from the predictions of the proximity force approximation approach. This provides the quantitative confirmation for the observation of diffraction-type effects that are disregarded within the PFA approach. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems.

A. A. Banishev; J. Wagner; T. Emig; R. Zandi; U. Mohideen

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

278

Handheld force-controlled ultrasound probe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An hand-held force controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact force between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand ...

Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

280

Three-body forces and the trinucleons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs.

Friar, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fluid forces on circular cylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the bearings by a least squares linear fit and it vas found that this relation vas expressed bye Fr 0. 00951kZIR I + where /IXI is the absolute sum of the normal loads on the wheel bearings in dynes and Fz is the frictional resistance in dynes. A total... contains the effects of the Von-german vortices which form and release alternately on opposite Fr )L/2 /Vz ~frock fmgo dcp dcg cw mca vvoter surface ~ ass -vertical center of gravity ds os so+ ei 8Fvv FORCE SYSTEM FIGURE IO HFDF MEASURING...

Dean, Robert G

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Quarkonium Binding and Entropic Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Q-Qbar bound state represents a balance between repulsive kinetic and attractive potential energy. In a hot quark-gluon plasma, the interaction potential experiences medium effects. Color screening modifies the attractive binding force between the quarks, while the increase of entropy with Q-Qbar separation gives rise to a growing repulsion. We study the role of these phenomena for in-medium Q-Qbar binding and dissociation. It is found that the relevant potential for Q-Qbar binding is the free energy F; with increasing Q-Qbar separation, further binding through the internal energy U is compensated by repulsive entropic effects.

Satz, Helmut

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Fast Image Drift Compensation in Scanning Electron Microscope Using Image Registration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fast Image Drift Compensation in Scanning Electron Microscope Using Image Registration Naresh Marturi, Sounkalo Demb´el´e and Nadine Piat Abstract-- Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image ac analysis and characterization of materials to recover their structural, mechanical, electrical and optical

Boyer, Edmond

285

Disorder vs. Order 1 Walter J Freeman Brains Create Macroscopic Order from Microscopic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interact with them at many levels of complexity. We are constantly bombarded with fields of energy, but only microscopic samples of them at the receptor cells. Each of our sensory ports contains an array of receptors, which are microscopic transducers that convert the kinds of incident energy for which

Freeman, Walter J.

286

Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopic theory of protein folding rates. II. Local reaction coordinates and chain dynamics John involved in barrier crossing for protein folding are investigated in terms of the chain dynamics of the polymer backbone, completing the microscopic description of protein folding presented in the preceding

Takada, Shoji

287

Microscopic Origin of Shear Relaxation in Strongly Coupled Yukawa Liquids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report accurate molecular dynamics calculations of the shear stress relaxation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled Yukawa liquid over a wide range of the Coulomb coupling strength $\\Gamma$ and the Debye screening parameter $\\kappa$. Our data on the relaxation times of the ideal- , excess- and total shear stress auto-correlation ($\\tau^{id}_M, \\tau^{ex}_M, \\tau_M$ respectively) along with the lifetime of local atomic connectivity $\\tau_{LC}$ leads us to the following important observation. Below a certain crossover $\\Gamma_c(\\kappa)$, $\\tau_{LC} \\rightarrow \\tau^{ex}_M$, directly implying that here $\\tau_{LC}$ is the microscopic origin of the relaxation of excess shear stress unlike the case for ordinary liquids where it is the origin of the relaxation of the total shear stress. At $\\Gamma >> \\Gamma_c(\\kappa)$ i.e. in the potential energy dominated regime, $\\tau^{ex}_M\\rightarrow \\tau_M$ meaning that $\\tau^{ex}_M$ can fully account for the elastic or "solid like" behavior.

Ashwin J.; Abhijit Sen

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Towards a Microscopic Reaction Description Based on Energy Density Functionals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microscopic calculation of reaction cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all particle-hole excitations in the target and one-nucleon pickup channels. The particle-hole states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and subsequently to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. Target excitations for {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 144}Sm were described in a random-phase framework using a Skyrme functional. Reaction cross sections obtained agree very well with experimental data and predictions of a state-of-the-art fitted optical potential. Couplings between inelastic states were found to be negligible, while the pickup channels contribute significantly. The effect of resonances from higher-order channels was assessed. Elastic angular distributions were also calculated within the same method, achieving good agreement with experimental data. For the first time observed absorptions are completely accounted for by explicit channel coupling, for incident energies between 10 and 70 MeV, with consistent angular distribution results.

Nobre, G A; DIetrich, F S; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J; Dupuis, M; Terasaki, J; Engel, J

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

289

Photocathode Optimization for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) team at Harvey Mudd College has been sponsored by LLNL to design and build a test setup for optimizing the performance of the DTEM's electron source. Unlike a traditional TEM, the DTEM achieves much faster exposure times by using photoemission from a photocathode to produce electrons for imaging. The DTEM team's work is motivated by the need to improve the coherence and current density of the electron cloud produced by the electron gun in order to increase the image resolution and contrast achievable by DTEM. The photoemission test setup is nearly complete and the team will soon complete baseline tests of electron gun performance. The photoemission laser and high voltage power supply have been repaired; the optics path for relaying the laser to the photocathode has been finalized, assembled, and aligned; the internal setup of the vacuum chamber has been finalized and mostly implemented; and system control, synchronization, and data acquisition has been implemented in LabVIEW. Immediate future work includes determining a consistent alignment procedure to place the laser waist on the photocathode, and taking baseline performance measurements of the tantalum photocathode. Future research will examine the performance of the electron gun as a function of the photoemission laser profile, the photocathode material, and the geometry and voltages of the accelerating and focusing components in the electron gun. This report presents the team's progress and outlines the work that remains.

Ellis, P; Flom, Z; Heinselman, K; Nguyen, T; Tung, S; Haskell, R; Reed, B W; LaGrange, T

2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface.

Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

292

Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical. Description: We are looking for a qualified candidate to join our team at the Air Force Research Laboratory

Alpay, S. Pamir

294

Nanoscale electrostatic actuators in liquid electrolytes: analysis and experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The experiment consisted of a fixed flat gold electrode and a movable gold electrode consisting of a gold sphere several micrometers in diameter mounted on the end of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilever, which serves as the spring. The electrodes were...

Kim, Doyoung

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

295

Electronic desorption of alkyl monolayers from silicon by very highly charged ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-assembled alkyl monolayers SAM on Si 111 .13 AFM images of SAMs after exposure to Xe41 and Au63 show craters ions, like Xe41 and Th73 . Atomic force microscope images show craters from single ion impacts be used to modify surfaces at very low impact energies. Impact energies are limited by the image charge

296

3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3-D Nano-Fiber Manufacturing by Controlled Pulling of Liquid Polymers using Nano-Probes Amrinder S) nano-scale manufacturing tools in this paper. Commercially available Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) systems are mainly limited to 1-D or 2-D manipulation tasks, and advanced 3-D nano

Sitti, Metin

297

Ballistic Phonon Thermal Transport in Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes H.-Y. Chiu,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coupled with the electrical stress of carrying 1012 A=m2 . We also demonstrate a current-driven self-heating can readily conduct heat by ballistic phonon propagation. We determine the thermal conductance quantum of a carbon nano- tube attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip has been observed to be independent

Bockrath, Marc

298

PIERS ONLINE, VOL. 7, NO. 5, 2011 406 Electromagnetic Heat-induced in Meso-structures: Computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in the case of a bow-tie nanoantenna. The applications could be the development of nanodevices with thermal to this photo-thermal effect is modeled through a Finite Element Method (FEM). This contribu- tion consists]. The topics of in- terest were essentially the thermal radiations of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Mechanical Properties of Bovine Rhodopsin and Bacteriorhodopsin: Possible Roles in Folding and Function  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in rhodopsin but not in bacteriorhodopsin. This core may reflect differences in mechanisms of protein folding their adaptation to differing functions. Introduction Protein folding is one of the most challenging problems protein folding. For more than a decade, the atomic force microscope (AFM) has permitted the use of single

Palczewski, Krzysztof

300

Dark Forces At The Tevatron  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid state synthesis and physical mechanisms of electrical conductivity variation in polycrystalline, strontium doped indium oxide In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:(SrO){sub x} were investigated for materials with different doping levels at different temperatures (T?=?20–300?°C) and ambient atmosphere content including humidity and low pressure. Gas sensing ability of these compounds as well as the sample resistance appeared to increase by 4 and 8 orders of the magnitude, respectively, with the doping level increase from zero up to x?=?10%. The conductance variation due to doping is explained by two mechanisms: acceptor-like electrical activity of Sr as a point defect and appearance of an additional phase of SrIn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. An unusual property of high level (x?=?10%) doped samples is a possibility of extraordinarily large and fast oxygen exchange with ambient atmosphere at not very high temperatures (100–200?°C). This peculiarity is explained by friable structure of crystallite surface. Friable structure provides relatively fast transition of samples from high to low resistive state at the expense of high conductance of the near surface layer of the grains. Microscopic study of the electro-diffusion process at the surface of oxygen deficient samples allowed estimation of the diffusion coefficient of oxygen vacancies in the friable surface layer at room temperature as 3?×?10{sup ?13}?cm{sup 2}/s, which is by one order of the magnitude smaller than that known for amorphous indium oxide films.

Nikolaenko, Y. M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Y. V.; Mezin, N. I. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Fasel, C.; Gurlo, A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T. J. M.; Genenko, Y. A. [Institute of Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

302

Simultaneous atomic force microscopy measurement of topography and contact resistance of metal films and carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

films and carbon nanotubes M. Stadermann,a) H. Grube,b) and J. J. Bolandc) Department of Chemistry dioxide and carbon nanotubes on graphite. © 2003 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1590750 I to adapt to most AFMs. Figure 1 a is a schematic of the CI AFM. The self- excitation loop and frequency

Falvo, Michael

303

Free energy landscape and characteristic forces for the initiation of DNA unzipping  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DNA unzipping, the separation of its double helix into single strands, is crucial in modulating a host of genetic processes. Although the large-scale separation of double-stranded DNA has been studied with a variety of theoretical and experimental techniques, the minute details of the very first steps of unzipping are still unclear. Here, we use atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, coarse-grained simulations and a statistical-mechanical model to study the initiation of DNA unzipping by an external force. The calculation of the potential of mean force profiles for the initial separation of the first few terminal base pairs in a DNA oligomer reveal that forces ranging between 130 and 230 pN are needed to disrupt the first base pair, values of an order of magnitude larger than those needed to disrupt base pairs in partially unzipped DNA. The force peak has an "echo," of approximately 50 pN, at the distance that unzips the second base pair. We show that the high peak needed to initiate unzipping derives from a free energy basin that is distinct from the basins of subsequent base pairs because of entropic contributions and we highlight the microscopic origin of the peak. Our results suggest a new window of exploration for single molecule experiments.

Ahmet Mentes; Ana Maria Florescu; Elizabeth Brunk; Jeff Wereszczynski; Marc Joyeux; Ioan Andricioaei

2015-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

304

1/27/2014 Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energyon the Go http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Microscopic-Wind-Turbines-Offer-Renewable-Energy-on-the-Go.html 1/3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1/27/2014 Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable Energyon the Go http://oilprice.com/Latest-Energy-News/World-News/Microscopic-Wind-Turbines-Offer-Renewable-Energy-on-the-Go.html 1/3 Log In Sign Up Advertising Contact Us About Contributors Write for Us Forum Home Microscopic Wind Turbines Offer Renewable

Chiao, Jung-Chih

305

Competing magnetic anisotropies in an AFM-FM-AFM trilayer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An antiferromagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet trilayer was grown in magnetic field using CoMn, permalloy (Py), and FeMn, respectively. Magnetometry studies show that the direction of exchange coupling of CoMn with Py was perpendicular to that of Py with FeMn. These results are explained by a spin flop in the CoMn layer and show that the spin structure of an antiferromagnet may undergo severe modification due to a relatively small magnetic field applied during its growth. The perpendicular exchange coupling was exploited in the CoMn-Py-FeMn trilayer to manipulate the easy axis of the ferromagnet.

Bali, R.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Blamire, M.G.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered as quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances, and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, are qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries.

Ezequiel Alvarez; Francisco Diego Mazzitelli; Alejandro G. Monastra; Diego A. Wisniacki

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

307

The force exerted by a fireball  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A. [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)] [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

Status of MICROSCOPE, a mission to test the Equivalence Principle in space  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MICROSCOPE is a French Space Agency mission that aims to test the Weak Equivalence Principle in space down to an accuracy of $10^{-15}$. This is two orders of magnitude better than the current constraints, which will allow us to test General Relativity as well as theories beyond General Relativity which predict a possible Weak Equivalence Principle violation below $10^{-13}$. In this communication, we describe the MICROSCOPE mission, its measurement principle and instrument, and we give an update on its status. After a successful instrument's commissioning, MICROSCOPE is on track for on-schedule launch, expected in 2016.

Bergé, Joel; Rodrigues, Manuel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

310

Magnus force effect in optical manipulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

Cipparrone, Gabriella; Pagliusi, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Hernandez, Raul Josue; Provenzano, Clementina [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

312

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

Esquivel-Sirvent, R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

R. Esquivel-Sirvent

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

314

Fast Computation of Optimal Contact Forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and force optimization for the legs of a quadruped robot [21]. Some experimental ... Applications that involve the solution of many FOPs, such as finding the ...

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

315

Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

316

Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATTACHMENT Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force Judith F. English, Mae Y. Cundiff of civilian populations not recommended. 3. Infection Control Practices for Patient Management Symptomatic

Oliver, Douglas L.

317

ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES OF THE MECHANISM OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF Cu Au II FROM THE DISORDERED STATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

846. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDIES OF THE MECHANISM OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH OF Cu Au II FROM the electron microscope. The alloy is disordered by annealing at 450 °C, and the nucleation and growth with the electron microscope by Ogawa and al. [1], and subsequently by Pashley and co-workers [2], [3], [4

Boyer, Edmond

318

Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Characterization of the molecular structure and mechanical properties of polymer surfaces and protein/polymer interfaces by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and other complementary surface-sensitive techniques have been used to study the surface molecular structure and surface mechanical behavior of biologically-relevant polymer systems. SFG and AFM have emerged as powerful analytical tools to deduce structure/property relationships, in situ, for polymers at air, liquid and solid interfaces. The experiments described in this dissertation have been performed to understand how polymer surface properties are linked to polymer bulk composition, substrate hydrophobicity, changes in the ambient environment (e.g., humidity and temperature), or the adsorption of macromolecules. The correlation of spectroscopic and mechanical data by SFG and AFM can become a powerful methodology to study and engineer materials with tailored surface properties. The overarching theme of this research is the interrogation of systems of increasing structural complexity, which allows us to extend conclusions made on simpler model systems. We begin by systematically describing the surface molecular composition and mechanical properties of polymers, copolymers, and blends having simple linear architectures. Subsequent chapters focus on networked hydrogel materials used as soft contact lenses and the adsorption of protein and surfactant at the polymer/liquid interface. The power of SFG is immediately demonstrated in experiments which identify the chemical parameters that influence the molecular composition and ordering of a polymer chain's side groups at the polymer/air and polymer/liquid interfaces. In general, side groups with increasingly greater hydrophobic character will be more surface active in air. Larger side groups impose steric restrictions, thus they will tend to be more randomly ordered than smaller hydrophobic groups. If exposed to a hydrophilic environment, such as water, the polymer chain will attempt to orient more of its hydrophilic groups to the surface in order to minimize the total surface energy. With an understanding of the structural and environmental parameters which govern polymer surface structure, SFG is then used to explore the effects of surface hydrophobicity and solvent polarity on the orientation and ordering of amphiphilic neutral polymers adsorbed at the solid/liquid interface. SFG spectra show that poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) adsorb with their hydrophobic moieties preferentially oriented toward hydrophobic polystyrene surfaces. These same moieties, however, disorder when adsorbed onto a hydrophilic silica/water interface. Water is identified as a critical factor for mediating the orientation and ordering of hydrophobic moieties in polymers adsorbed at hydrophobic interfaces. The role of bulk water content and water vapor, as they influence hydrogel surface structure and mechanics, continues to be explored in the next series of experiments. A method was developed to probe the surface viscoelastic properties of hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) based contact lens materials by analyzing AFM force-distance curves. AFM analysis indicates that the interfacial region is dehydrated, relative to the bulk. Experiments performed on poly(HEMA+MA) (MA = methacrylic acid), a more hydrophilic copolymer with greater bulk water content, show even greater water depletion at the surface. SFG spectra, as well as surface energy arguments, suggest that the more hydrophilic polymer component (such as MA) is not favored at the air interface; this may explain anomalies in water retention at the hydrogel surface. Adsorption of lysozyme onto poly(HEMA+MA) was found to further reduce near-surface viscous behavior, suggesting lower surface water content. Lastly, protein adsorption is studied using a model polymer system of polystyrene covalently bound with a monolayer of bovine serum albumin. SFG results indicate that some amino acid residues in proteins adopt preferred orientations. SFG spectra also show that the phenyl rings of the bare polystyrene substrate in contact with air or

Koffas, Telly Stelianos

2004-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

320

Interference-based Investigation of Microscopic Objects Near Surfaces: a View From Below  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phenomena occurring when microscopic objects approach planar surfaces are challenging to probe directly because their dynamics cannot be resolved with a sufficiently high spatial/temporal resolution in a non-invasive way, and suitable techniques...

Contreras Naranjo, Jose Clemente

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, ...

Liu, Dazhi

322

Microscopic description of isoscalar giant resonance excitations in ??Ca and ¹¹?SN nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a microscopic description of isoscalar giant resonance excitations in ??Ca and ¹¹? Sn nuclei within the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Random-Phase-Approximation (HF-RPA) theory. Such characteristic features...

Karki, Bhishma

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Simultaneous calibration of a microscopic traffic simulation model and OD matrix  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the recent widespread deployment of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) in North America there is an abundance of data on traffic systems and thus an opportunity to use these data in the calibration of microscopic traffic simulation models...

Kim, Seung-Jun

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

324

The mechanical design of a proton microscope for radiography at 800 MeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proton microscope has been developed for radiography applications using the 800-MeV linear accelerator at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). The microscope provides a magnified image of a static device, or of a dynamic event such as a high-speed projectile impacting a target. The microscope assembly consists primarily of four Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQ's) that are supported on movable platforms. The platform supports, along with the rest of the support structure, are designed to withstand the residual dynamic loads that are expected from the dynamic tests. This paper covers the mechanical design of the microscope assembly, including the remote positioning system that allows for fine-tuning the focus of an object being imaged.

Valdiviez, R. (Robert); Sigler, F. E. (Floyd E.); Barlow, D. B. (David B.); Blind, B. (Barbara); Jason, A. J. (Andrew J.); Mottershead, C. T.; Gomez, J. J. (John J.); Espinoza, C. J. (Camilo J.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Low energy ($p,?$) reactions in Ni and Cu nuclei using microscopic optical model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiative capture reactions for low energy protons have been theoretically studied for Ni and Cu isotopes using the microscopic optical model. The optical potential has been obtained in the folding model using different microscopic interactions with the nuclear densities from Relativistic Mean Field calculations. The calculated total cross sections as well as the cross sections for individually low lying levels have been compared with measurements involving stable nuclear targets. Rates for the rapid proton capture process have been evaluated for astrophysically important reactions.

G. Gangopadhyay

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

326

Application of Microscopic Simulation to Evaluate the Safety Performance of Freeway Weaving Sections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC SIMULATION TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF FREEWAY WEAVING SECTIONS A Thesis by THANH QUANG LE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Civil Engineering APPLICATION OF MICROSCOPIC SIMULATION TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY PERFORMANCE OF FREEWAY WEAVING SECTIONS A Thesis by THANH QUANG LE...

Le, Thanh Quang

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

327

Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

328

U.S.Air Force Advanced Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency,improved power distribution,reduced fuel dependency,reduction of noise,heat,and visual signatureU.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology Office (APTO) U.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology/Wind Powered Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Applications · Waste-To-Energy APTO/Small Business Innovation

329

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

California at Santa Cruz, University of

330

Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

Sheridan, Jennifer

331

Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FORCES ON LABORATORY MODEL DREDGE CUTTERHEAD A Thesis by DUSTIN RAY YOUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering FORCES ON LABORATORY MODEL DREDGE CUTTERHEAD A Thesis by DUSTIN RAY YOUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

Young, Dustin Ray

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

332

Muon Collider Task Force Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Force localization in contracting cell layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epithelial cell layers on soft elastic substrates or pillar arrays are commonly used as model systems for investigating the role of force in tissue growth, maintenance and repair. Here we show analytically that the experimentally observed localization of traction forces to the periphery of the cell layers does not necessarily imply increased local cell activity, but follows naturally from the elastic problem of a finite-sized contractile layer coupled to an elastic foundation. For homogeneous contractility, the force localization is determined by one dimensionless parameter interpolating between linear and exponential force profiles for the extreme cases of very soft and very stiff substrates, respectively. If contractility is sufficiently increased at the periphery, outward directed displacements can occur at intermediate positions, although the edge itself still retracts. We also show that anisotropic extracellular stiffness leads to force localization in the stiffer direction, as observed experimentally.

Carina M. Edwards; Ulrich S. Schwarz

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

334

Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5forces (using a multi-segmented force transducer) and the underlying kinematics (using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) at different elevations throughout the crest to trough region were measured during the tests. The measured wave forces at different elevations have been interpreted using the Morison equation to determine experimental values of force coefficients C{sub D} and C{sub M}. The results in hand suggest that both C{sub D} and C{sub M} values in the splash zone are higher and exhibit a mild frequency dependence in comparison with their corresponding counterparts for the fully submerged segments. For weakly nonlinear waves (H/{lambda}<0.1) only wave fluctuation is found to be important and any mild nonlinearities do not significantly affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1force response, producing ringing effects in conducive conditions.

Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

Field-regulated force by grafted polyelectrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation of mechanical force regulated by external electric field is studied both theoretically and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The force arises in deformable bodies linked to the free end of a grafted polyelectrolyte chain which is exposed to electric field that favours its adsorption. We consider a few target bodies with different force-deformation relations including (i) linear and (ii) cubic dependences as well as (iii) Hertzian-like force. Such force-deformation relations mimic the behaviour of (i) coiled and (ii) stretched polymer chains, respectively, or (iii) that of a squeezed colloidal particle. The magnitude of the arising force varies over a wide interval although the electric field alters within a relatively narrow range only. The predictions of our theory agree quantitatively well with the results of numerical simulations. Both cases of zero and finite electrical current are investigated and we do not obtain substantial differences in the force generated. The phenomenon studied could possibly be utilised to design, e.g., vice-like devices to fix nano-sized objects.

Christian Seidel; Yury A. Budkov; Nikolay V. Brilliantov

2014-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

337

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Magnetic force driven six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system using a phase compensated velocity sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A six-axis active vibration isolation system (AVIS) is developed using voice coil actuators. Point contact configuration is employed to have an easy assembly of eight voice coil actuators to an upper and a base plates. The velocity sensor, using an electromagnetic principle that is commonly used in the vibration control, is investigated since its phase lead characteristic causes an instability problem for a low frequency vibration. The performances of the AVIS are investigated in the frequency domain and finally validated by comparing with the passive isolation system using the atomic force microscope images.

Kim, Yongdae; Park, Kyihwan [Department of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangyoo [Compressor Group, Digital Appliance Laboratory LG Electronics, Gaeumjeong-Dong, Changwon, Gyeongnam 641-711 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Spectroscopy of 26F to Probe Proton-Neutron Forces Close to the Drip Line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A long-lived J 4 1 isomer, T1=2 2:2 1 ms, has been discovered at 643.4(1) keV in the weakly bound 26 9 F nucleus. It was populated at Grand Acce le rateur National d Ions Lourds in the fragmentation of a 36S beam. It decays by an internal transition to the J 1 1 ground state [82(14)%], by decay to 26Ne, or -delayed neutron emission to 25Ne. From the -decay studies of the J 1 1 and J 4 1 states, new excited states have been discovered in 25;26Ne. Gathering the measured binding energies of the J 1 1 4 1 multiplet in 26 9 F, we find that the proton-neutron 0d5=20d3=2 effective force used in shell-model calculations should be reduced to properly account for the weak binding of 26 9 F. Microscopic coupled cluster theory calculations using interactions derived from chiral effective field theory are in very good agreement with the energy of the low-lying 1 1 , 2 1 , 4 1 states in 26F. Including three-body forces and coupling to the continuum effects improve the agreement between experiment and theory as compared to the use of two-body forces only.

Hagen, Gaute [ORNL; Sorlin, O. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Borcea, C. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Brown, B. A. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Grevy, S. [Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL); Grinyer, G. F. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten [ORNL; Jansen, G. R. [UTK/ORNL; Negoita, F. [IFIN, Bucharest-Magurele, Romania; Thomas, J.-C. [CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan/CNRS, France

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Strong, Tough Ceramics Containing Microscopic Reinforcements: Tailoring In-Situ Reinforced Silicon Nitride Ceramics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ceramics with their hardness, chemical stability, and refractoriness could be used to design more efficient energy generation and conversion systems as well as numerous other applications. However, we have needed to develop a fundamental understanding of how to tailor ceramics to improve their performance, especially to overcome their brittle nature. One of the advances in this respect was the incorporation of very strong microscopic rod-like reinforcements in the form of whiskers that serve to hold the ceramic together making it tougher and resistant to fracture. This microscopic reinforcement approach has a number of features that are similar to continuous fiber-reinforced ceramics; however, some of the details are modified. For instance, the strengths of the microscopic reinforcements must be higher as they typically have much stronger interfaces. For instance, single crystal silicon carbide whiskers can have tensile strengths in excess of {ge}7 GPa or >2 times that of continuous fibers. Furthermore, reinforcement pullout is limited to lengths of a few microns in the case of microscopic reinforcement due as much to the higher interfacial shear resistance as to the limit of the reinforcement lengths. On the other hand, the microscopic reinforcement approach can be generated in-situ during the processing of ceramics. A remarkable example of this is found in silicon nitride ceramics where elongated rod-like shape grains can be formed when the ceramic is fired at elevated temperatures to form a dense component.

Becher, P.F.

1999-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

Jakob, Christian

342

Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable ...

Rahi, Sahand Jamal

343

U.S. Air Force UESCs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation—given at the Spring 2009 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the U.S. Air Force's approval process, submittal requirements, and guidelines for utility energy service contracts (UESCs).

344

Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad Mohammad Mahdian Ebad S. Mahmoodian Amin Saberi§ Bardia, USA. (saberi@cc.gatech.edu) ¶ Department of Computer Science, UIUC, Urbana, USA. (sadri@cs.uiuc.edu) 1

Toronto, University of

345

Macroscopic approach to the Casimir friction force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The general formula is derived for the vacuum friction force between two parallel perfectly flat planes bounding two material media separated by a vacuum gap and moving relative to each other with a constant velocity $\\mathbf{v}$. The material media are described in the framework of macroscopic electrodynamics whereas the nonzero temperature and dissipation are taken into account by making use of the Kubo formulae from non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics. The formula obtained provides a rigorous basis for calculation of the vacuum friction force within the quantum field theory methods in the condensed matter physics. The revealed $v$-dependence of the vacuum friction force proves to be the following: for zero temperature ($T=0$) it is proportional to $(v/c)^3$ and for $T>0$ this force is linear in $(v/c)$.

V. V. Nesterenko; A. V. Nesterenko

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

346

Clinch River MRS Task Force Recommendations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Clinch River HRS Task Force was appointed in July 1985 by the Roane County Executive and the Oak Ridge City Council to evaluate the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility proposed by the...

347

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Japan Self-Defense Forces (SDF). Along with the new NDPG,set a direction for the SDF in the post-9/11 inter- nationalsituation also requires the SDF take on these “dynamic”

TAKAHASHI, Sugio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate Directed Energy Directorate PROGRAM Space Scholars and Directed Energy Scholars The Space Vehicles and Directed Energy Directorates Scholars The Phillips Scholars internship offers an edu- cational and fulfilling summer job experience

Piao, Daqing

349

Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

Wilson, Laurence

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Static forces in a superconducting magnet bearing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Static levitation forces and stiffnesses in a superconducting bearing consisting of concentric ring magnets and a superconducting YBaCuO ring are investigated. In the field-cooled mode a levitation force of 20 N has been achieved. The axial and radial stiffnesses have values of 15 N/mm and 10 N/mm, respectively. An arrangement with two bearings supporting a high speed shaft is now under development. A possible application of superconducting magnetic bearings is flywheels for energy storage.

Stoye, P.; Fuchs, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany); Gawalek, W.; Goernert, P. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany); Gladun, A. [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Ellipsoidal and parabolic glass capillaries as condensers for x-ray microscopes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-bounce ellipsoidal and paraboloidal glass capillary focusing optics have been fabricated for use as condenser lenses for both synchrotron and tabletop x-ray microscopes in the x-ray energy range of 2.5-18 keV. The condenser numerical apertures (NAs) of these devices are designed to match the NA of x-ray zone plate objectives, which gives them a great advantage over zone plate condensers in laboratory microscopes. The fabricated condensers have slope errors as low as 20 {mu}rad rms. These capillaries provide a uniform hollow-cone illumination with almost full focusing efficiency, which is much higher than what is available with zone plate condensers. Sub-50 nm resolution at 8 keV x-ray energy was achieved by utilizing this high-efficiency condenser in a laboratory microscope based on a rotating anode generator.

Zeng Xianghui; Duewer, Fred; Feser, Michael; Huang, Carson; Lyon, Alan; Tkachuk, Andrei; Yun Wenbing

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis Wolfram Stacklies1. , M, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract The role of mechanical force in cellular processes is increasingly revealed force propagates within proteins determines their mechanical behavior yet remains largely unknown. We

Gräter, Frauke

353

Note: Long-range scanning tunneling microscope for the study of nanostructures on insulating substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a powerful tool for studying the electronic properties at the atomic level, however, it is of relatively small scanning range and the fact that it can only operate on conducting samples prevents its application to study heterogeneous samples consisting of conducting and insulating regions. Here we present a long-range scanning tunneling microscope capable of detecting conducting micro and nanostructures on insulating substrates using a technique based on the capacitance between the tip and the sample and performing STM studies.

Molina-Mendoza, Aday J., E-mail: aday.molina@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rodrigo, José G.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Island, Joshua; Burzuri, Enrique; Zant, Herre S. J. van der [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, Nicolás [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain) [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC) and Instituto Universitario de Ciencia de Materiales “Nicolás Cabrera,” Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Noncontact atomic force microscopy simulator with phase-locked-loop controlled frequency detection and excitation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simulation of an atomic force microscope operating in the constant amplitude dynamic mode is described. The implementation mimics the electronics of a real setup including a digital phase-locked loop (PLL). The PLL is not only used as a very sensitive frequency detector, but also to generate the time-dependent phase shifted signal driving the cantilever. The optimum adjustments of individual functional blocks and their joint performance in typical experiments are determined in detail. Prior to testing the complete setup, the performances of the numerical PLL and of the amplitude controller were ascertained to be satisfactory compared to those of the real components. Attention is also focused on the issue of apparent dissipation, that is, of spurious variations in the driving amplitude caused by the nonlinear interaction occurring between the tip and the surface and by the finite response times of the various controllers. To do so, an estimate of the minimum dissipated energy that is detectable by the instru...

Nony, L; Schaer, D; Pfeiffer, O; Wezel, A; Meyer, E; Nony, Laurent; Baratoff, Alexis Prof.; Schaer, Dominique; Pfeiffer, Oliver; Wezel, Adrian; Meyer, Ernst

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A functional approach to quantum friction: effective action and dissipative force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir friction due to the relative, uniform, lateral motion of two parallel semitransparent mirrors coupled to a vacuum real scalar field, $\\phi$. We follow a functional approach, whereby nonlocal terms in the action for $\\phi$, concentrated on the mirrors' locii, appear after functional integration of the microscopic degrees of freedom. This action for $\\phi$, which incorporates the relevant properties of the mirrors, is then used as the starting point for two complementary evaluations: Firstly, we calculate the { in-out} effective action for the system, which develops an imaginary part, hence a non-vanishing probability for the decay (because of friction) of the initial vacuum state. Secondly, we evaluate another observable: the vacuum expectation value of the frictional force, using the { in-in} or Closed Time Path formalism. Explicit results are presented for zero-width mirrors and half-spaces, in a model where the microscopic degrees of freedom at the mirrors are a set of identical quantum harmonic oscillators, linearly coupled to $\\phi$

M. Belén Farías; César D. Fosco; Fernando C. Lombardo; Francisco D. Mazzitelli; Adrián E. Rubio López

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

356

Long-range forces and the collisions of free-molecular and transition regime aerosols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An aerosol here is understood to be a two-component system comprised of gaseous and condensed phases with the characteristic that the condensed phase is not an equilibrium subsystem. In contrast to the usual definitions based upon geometrical or mechanical variables, this quasi-thermodynamic formulation is framed to emphasize the dynamical behavior of aerosols by allowing for coagulation and other aerosol evolutionary processes as natural consequences of the interactions and state variables appropriate to the system. As will become clear later, it also provides a point of departure for distinguishing aerosol particles from unstable gas-phase cluster systems. The question of accommodation in particle collisions must be addressed as a prelude to the discussion of the role of long-range forces. Microscopic reversibility is frequently assumed for molecular collisions with either molecules or solid surfaces. In the case of aerosol collisions, the implication of this assumption is that collisions are elastic, which is contrary to the evidence from coagulation experiments and the conventional operational assumption of sticking upon collision. Gay and Berne have performed computer simulations of the collision of two clusters consisting of a total of 135 molecules interacting via Lennard-Jones potentials. That work showed that complete accommodation, accompanied by overall heating of the unified cluster, occurred. Since heating represents an irreversible degradation of the kinetic energy of the collision, the hamiltonian of the two-cluster system should be considered as dissipative and therefore microscopic reversibility does not apply.

Marlow, W.H.

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Nanometer-scale electrochemical patterning of LiMn2O4 surfaces by an atomic force microscope operating in air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electrochemical nanometer-scale patterning of the surface of a conducting lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) was studied. The ability to produce nanometer-size patterns of chemically modified oxide or nanometer-sized alterations of the oxide morphology is demonstrated and discussed with reference to possible mechanisms. It is demonstrated that unlike the SPM-based surface oxidation of metals and semiconductors, the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface is altered via electrochemically generated species. We show that a localized surface chemical change can be confined to a depth which depends on the oxide-tip voltage difference and ambient humidity. In situ Raman microscopy measurements of localized electrochemical reaction products suggest complex mechanisms of processes induced at the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} surface, such as delithiation through Li-proton exchange and disproportionation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} to MnO{sub 2} and soluble Mn{sup 2+} species.

Kostecki, Robert; Bonhomme, Frederic; Servant, Laurent; Argoul, Francoise; McLarnon, Frank

2001-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

358

73Nanowear of atomic force microscope tips: Modeling and experiments Corresponding author: Nicola M. Pugno, e-mail: nicola.pugno@polito.it  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and experimentally validated. The model is based on the assumption that the energy consumed to remove the unit volume with material transformation. Their energy- based model was then based on the assumption that the energy is plausible and, more importantly, that the specific energy is close to the material strength

Espinosa, Horacio D.

359

Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Fact sheet...

360

Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience This report sumarizes early...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series The four-part Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country webinar series provided tribal leaders an...

362

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12,...

363

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

364

6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

Zahn, Markus, 1946-

365

Transmission Services WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Force Dynamic Transfer Capability Report - Phase I BPA is an active participant in the Wind Integration Study Team (WIST), especially the Task Force looking at DTC study...

366

China's Evolving Defense Economy: A PLA Ground Force Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s Evolving Defense Economy: A PLA Ground Force PerspectivePeople’s Liberation Army (PLA) doctrinal developments,modernization of the PLA ground forces have incrementally

COOPER, Cortez A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Zipping mechanism for force-generation by growing filament bundles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the force generation by polymerizing bundles of filaments, which form because of short-range attractive filament interactions. We show that bundles can generate forces by a zipping mechanism, which is not limited by buckling and operates in the fully buckled state. The critical zipping force, i.e. the maximal force that a bundle can generate, is given by the adhesive energy gained during bundle formation. For opposing forces larger than the critical zipping force, bundles undergo a force-induced unbinding transition. For larger bundles, the critical zipping force depends on the initial configuration of the bundles. Our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

Torsten Kuehne; Reinhard Lipowsky; Jan Kierfeld

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

368

Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology August 12,...

369

Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

371

Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

372

Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

373

Conference Discussion of the Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discussion of the nuclear force, lead by a round table consisting of T. Cohen, E. Epelbaum, R. Machleidt, and F. Gross (chair). After an invited talk by Machleidt, published elsewhere in these proceedings, brief remarks are made by Epelbaum, Cohen, and Gross, followed by discussion from the floor moderated by the chair. The chair asked the round table and the participants to focus on the following issues: (1)What does each approach (chiral effective field theory, large Nc, and relativistic phenomenology) contribute to our knowledge of the nuclear force? Do we need them all? Is any one transcendent? (2) How important for applications (few body, nuclear structure, EMC effect, for example) are precise fits to the NN data below 350 MeV? How precise do these fits have to be? (3) Can we learn anything about nonperturbative QCD from these studies of the nuclear force? The discussion presented here is based on a video recording made at the conference and transcribed afterward.

Franz Gross,Thomas D. Cohen,Evgeny Epelbaum,R. Machleidt

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

Goddard III, William A.

375

Estimation of Contact Forces using a Virtual Force Sensor Emanuele Magrini Fabrizio Flacco Alessandro De Luca  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the exchanged Cartesian forces; 4) control the robot to react according to a desired behavior. Different model Alessandro De Luca Abstract-- Physical human-robot collaboration is character- ized by a suitable exchange of contact forces between human and robot, which can occur in general at any point along the robot structure

De Luca, Alessandro

376

materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma-terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

28 Plaster materials analysis of inorganic, organic, and bioma- terials. See ELECTRON MICROSCOPE: The next chip-scale technology, Mater. Today, 9:20­27, 2006. Plaster A plastic mixture of solids and water plaster is also used in the industry to designate plaster of paris. Plaster is usually applied in one

Anderson, Peter M.

377

Microscopic optical potentials of the nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at medium energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopic optical potentials of the nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at medium energies R interpreted in terms of the phenomenological optical model potential [1]. At medium and high energies of the optical model approach at medium energies has also some theoretical founda- tions. At a sufficiently large

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Semi-Automated Reconstruction of Vascular Networks in Knife-Edge Scanning Microscope Mouse Brain Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The KnifeEdge Scanning Microscope (KESM) enables imaging of an entire mouse brain at sub-micrometer resolution. The data from KESM can be used in the reconstruction of neuronal and vascular structures in the mouse brain. Tracing the vascular network...

Dileepkumar, Ananth

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Low resistivity of Pt silicide nanowires measured using double-scanning-probe tunneling microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

experimentally shown to be conductive.8­10 However, RE metal silicide NWs are easily oxidized, so that inert NWs similarly to RE metal silicide NWs.11 It is essential to study the electrical properties, especiallyLow resistivity of Pt silicide nanowires measured using double-scanning- probe tunneling microscope

Kim, Sehun

380

Microscopic mechanism of the noncrystalline anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting with a microscopic model based on the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian and kinetic p-d exchange combined with Boltzmann formula for conductivity we identify the scattering from magnetic Mn combined with the strong spin-orbit interaction of the Ga...

Vyborny, Karel; Kucera, Jan; Sinova, Jairo; Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Microscopic Description of the Exotic Nuclei Reactions by Using Folding model Potentials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A microscopic folding approach based upon the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction and the nuclear matter densities of the interacting nuclei has been carried out to explain recently measured experimental data of the {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn elastic scattering reaction at four different laboratory energies near the Coulomb barrier. The corresponding reaction cross sections are also considered.

Ibraheem, Awad A. [Physics Department, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch, Assiut 71524 (Egypt); Physics Department, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Hassanain, M. A. [Physics Department, King Khalid University, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Sciences Department, New-Valley Faculty of Education, Assiut University, El-Kharga, New-Valley (Egypt); Mokhtar, S. R.; El-Azab Farid, M. [Physics Department, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Zaki, M. A. [Physics Department, South-Valley University, Aswan (Egypt); Mahmoud, Zakaria M. M. [Sciences Department, New-Valley Faculty of Education, Assiut University, El-Kharga, New-Valley (Egypt)

2011-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

382

Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric-Field Control of Magnetism Intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling describes the microscopic interaction between magnetic and electric polarization in a single-phase material. The control of the magnetic state of a material with an electric field is an enticing prospect for device engineering. MRSEC

Maroncelli, Mark

383

OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OIL IN THE OPEN WATER microscopic plants and animals that form the basis of the oceanic food web the surface, corals and other deepwater OIL AND HUMAN USE Wellhead CORALS · Coral surveys · Tissue collections · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment sampling AQUATIC VEGETATION

384

Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a MachZehnder interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Harmonic phase-dispersion microscope with a Mach­Zehnder interferometer Andrew Ahn, Changhuei Yang S. Feld Harmonic phase-dispersion microscopy (PDM) is a new imaging technique in which contrast is provided by differences in refractive index at two harmonically related wavelengths. We report a new

Fang-Yen, Christopher

385

1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, and ice conspire with the prevailing environmental conditions 52 to produce macroscopic ice by Henry (2000). The first comprehensive and tractable model 57 for ice lens growth was produced by O1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses 3

Rempel, Alan W.

386

Microscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the sys- tems in question. An example of a practical problem is the behavior of steam in turbines, whereMicroscopic simulations of molecular cluster decay: Does the carrier gas affect evaporation? Hoi Yu water droplets produced through condensation in the transition from dry to wet steam can lead

Ford, Ian

387

Microscopic models of quasicrystals J. Jdrzejewski and J. Mikisz, Devil's staircase for nonconvex interactions,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microscopic models of quasicrystals J. Jdrzejewski and J. Mikisz, Devil's staircase for nonconvex-dimensional infinite-range lattice-gas interactions, molecules consisting of two particles form a molecular devil's staircase in the unique ground- state measure. The structure of the ground set is that of a Cantor set

Miekisz, Jacek

388

Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

389

NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian University-980) to include net forces in the mechanisms. Net forces are theoretically required to describe earthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even

Foulger, G. R.

390

Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic descriptions and their relationship  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plastic behavior of fcc metals over a wide range of strain: Macroscopic and microscopic The room temperature macroscopic and microscopic plastic behavior of four face-centered cubic metals (Al dislocations during plastic flow. It is shown that forest dislocations develop primarily due to interaction

Gubicza, Jenõ

391

Galileon forces in the Solar System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

392

Strategic forces: Future requirements and options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

Speed, R.D.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

394

Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For a more comprehensive report of the findings as well as faculty suggestions for maintaining integrity1 Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary 11/22/11 INTRODUCTION CHARGE: To determine whether there is an issue with academic integrity at UF and, if so, to determine how widespread

Roy, Subrata

395

Actin Polymerization: Forcing Flat Faces Forward  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Actin Polymerization: Forcing Flat Faces Forward Arpita Upadhyaya1 and Alexander van Oudenaarden2 Actin polymerization has been shown to be sufficient to propel curved objects, for example beads polymerization forms the basis of numerous forms of cell motility. Actin is thought to polymerize at the leading

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

396

Characterization of acoustically forced swirl flame dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the flame to acoustic excitation is required. This study presents an analysis of phase-locked OH PLIF images of acoustically excited swirl flames, to identify the key controlling physical processes and qualitatively discuss, and whose relative significance depends upon forcing frequency, amplitude of excitation, and flame

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

397

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Gary. Suntzeff, Texas A&M University Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among

Hu, Wayne

398

Columbia University Network Integration Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Columbia University Network Integration Task Force Final Report II 30 January 1992 #12;1 TOWARDS A COMMON ADMINISTRATIVE AND ACADEMIC NETWORK AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Columbia University's Administrative or terminal. 1.2. Executive Summary This report examines Columbia University's current academic

Yang, Junfeng

399

FINAL REPORT FOR DE-FG02-03ER46071 ENTITLED, "UNDERSTANDING FOAM RHEOLOGY FROM THE MICROSCOPIC TO THE MACROSCOPIC SCALE"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research effort is focused on understanding the mechanical response of foams, and other complex fluids, from the microscopic to the macroscopic level. The research uses a model two-dimensional system: bubble rafts. Bubble rafts are a single layer of gas bubbles with liquid walls that float on a water surface. The work involves studies of the macroscopic response of foam under various conditions of external forcing, mesoscopic studies of bubble motion, and systematic variations of the microscopic details of the system. In addition to characterizing the specific properties of the bubble raft, a second aim of the research is to provide experimental tests of various general theories that have recently been developed to characterize complex fluids. Primarily, the focus is on testing the proposed jamming phase diagram paradigm. This paradigm suggests that a general â??jammedâ? state of matter exists and is common to a wide range of systems, including foam, colloids, granular matter, glasses, and emulsions. Therefore,we have extended our research in two directions. First, we have included studies of plastic bead rafts. These are systems of plastic beads floating on the air-water interface. The advantage of plastic beads is that they do not pop, so they can be studied for the much longer periods of time required to measure the slow dynamics associated with the jammed state. Also, they allow us to explore a different density regime than the bubbles. Second, to better understand the role of defects in jamming behavior, we have done a few experiments on the impact of defects on domain growth.

Michael Dennin

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

Visualization of microcrack anisotropy in granite affected by afault zone, using confocal laser scanning microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brittle deformation in granite can generate a fracture system with different patterns. Detailed fracture analyses at both macroscopic and microscopic scales, together with physical property data from a drill-core, are used to classify the effects of reverse fault deformation in four domains: (1) undeformed granite, (2) fractured granite with cataclastic seams, (3) fractured granite from the damage zone, and (4) foliated cataclasite from the core of the fault. Intact samples from two orthogonal directions, horizontal (H) and vertical (V), from the four domains indicate a developing fracture anisotropy toward the fault, which is highly developed in the damage zone. As a specific illustration of this phenomenon, resin impregnation, using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) technique is applied to visualize the fracture anisotropy developed in the Toki Granite, Japan. As a result, microcrack networks have been observed to develop in H sections and elongate open cracks in V sections, suggesting that flow pathways can be determined by deformation.

Onishi, Celia T.; Shimizu, Ichiko

2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Macroscopic observables experimentally linked to microscopic processes in the explosive fracture and fragmentation of metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The response of a metal element to explosive loading depends on a broad spectrum of explosive and metal properties, macroscopic geometry plays a crucial role in defining the localized loading history and the resulting gradients of interest, while microscopic effects and defects are generally believed responsible for damage nucleation. Certain experiments reduce the complexity by producing conditions that are uniform in some sense, allowing dynamic measurement of variables that can be correlated with corresponding microscopic effects observed in recovery experiments. Spherical expansion of thin shells, that eventually fragment, and steady wave loading of flat plates are two such experiments. Proton radiography, x-radiography, laser velocimetry, imaging IR, and visible light photography all have produced dynamic measurements in 4340 steel, copper, uranium alloys, tantalum, and titanium. Correlation of the macroscopic measurements with microscopy on recovered samples has been done with a statistical approach.

Hull, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

402

Design of a scanning Josephson junction microscope for submicron-resolution magnetic imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a magnetic field scanning instrument designed to extend the spatial resolution of scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy into the submicron regime. This instrument, the scanning Josephson junction microscope, scans a single Josephson junction across the surface of a sample, detecting the local magnetic field by the modulation of the junction critical current. By using a submicron junction and a scanning tunneling microscope feedback system to maintain close proximity to the surface, magnetic field sensitivity of 10 {mu}G with a spatial resolution of 0.3 {mu}m should be attainable, opening up new opportunities for imaging vortex configurations and core structure in superconductors and magnetic domains in magnetic materials. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Plourde, B.L.; Van Harlingen, D.J. [Department of Physics, Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity, and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Scanning electron microscope study of connective tissue in raw and cooked muscles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the cooked psoas is another indication that less perimysium is present in the psoas major. These factors indicate why connective tissue is probably responsible for the difference in tenderness of the biceps and psoas muscles. 22 Indented surface...SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE STUDY OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN RAW AND COOKED MUSCLES A Thesis MARY LOU PERCY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas Alii University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Percy, Mary Lou

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Development of SQUID microscope for localization and imaging of material defects (NDE)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dramatic progress was made in FY1997, the first full year of implementing a new technique for detecting and imaging material defects in nuclear weapon components. Design, fabrication, and initial tests of a ``SQUID Microscope`` has been completed utilizing the extraordinary sensitivity of High-Critical-Temperature (HTC) Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. SQUIDs, the most sensitive magnetic field detectors known, are used to sense magnetic anomalies caused by the perturbation of an induction field by defects in the material under examination. Time variation of the amplitude (A) and angle ({theta}) of an induction field with unique spatial distribution allows examination of material defects as a function of depth and orientation within the sample. Variation of the frequency of amplitude variation, {Omega}(A), enables depth selection in a given sample. Scanning the sample in physical, A, and {theta} space enables detection and localization of defects to high precision. A few examples of the material defects anticipated for study include cracks, stress fractures, corrosion, separation between layers, and material inclusions. Design and fabrication of a prototype SQUID Microscope has been completed during FY97. Extensive testing of the physical, thermal, precision mechanical, and vacuum performance of the SQUID microscope were performed. First preliminary tests of the integrated system have been performed and initial results were obtained in the first week of September 1997, more than 3 months ahead of schedule.

Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Espy, M.; Atencio, L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Agencies Approve Bacteria TMDL Task Force Recommendations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

their agencies to update their TMDL guidance documents to reflect these recommendations. They also authorized establishing a multi-agency bacteria TMDL work group to examine the research and development needs identified in the task force report. Both TCEQ... activities needed to strengthen the scientific tools available for TMDL and I-Plan development. The report and related documents are available at twri.tamu.edu/bacteriatmdl/. Tier 1 Analysis (T1) (one-year) Required for all bacteria TMDLs. ? Form TMDL...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

F. Sammarruca

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

407

Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

Moss, Owen R. (Cary, NC); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Spacetime approach to force-free magnetospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Force-Free Electrodynamics (FFE) describes magnetically dominated relativistic plasma via non-linear equations for the electromagnetic field alone. Such plasma is thought to play a key role in the physics of pulsars and active black holes. Despite its simple covariant formulation, FFE has primarily been studied in 3+1 frameworks, where spacetime is split into space and time. In this article we systematically develop the theory of force-free magnetospheres taking a spacetime perspective. Using a suite of spacetime tools and techniques (notably exterior calculus) we cover 1) the basics of the theory, 2) exact solutions that demonstrate the extraction and transport of the rotational energy of a compact object (in the case of a black hole, the Blandford-Znajek mechanism), 3) the behavior of current sheets, 4) the general theory of stationary, axisymmetric magnetospheres and 5) general properties of pulsar and black hole magnetospheres. We thereby synthesize, clarify and generalize known aspects of the physics of force-free magnetospheres, while also introducing several new results.

Samuel E. Gralla; Ted Jacobson

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kind of Hubble terms ${\\dot H}$ and $H^{2}$ appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the ${\\dot H}$ dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term $H$ without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavors this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

Spyros Basilakos; Joan Sola

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

410

Repulsive and restoring Casimir forces with left-handed materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate repulsive Casimir force between slabs containing left-handed materials with controllable electromagnetic properties. The sign of Casimir force is determined by the electric and magnetic properties of the materials, and it is shown that the formation of the repulsive force is related to the wave impedances of two slabs. The sign change of the Casimir force as a function of the distance is studied. Special emphasis is put on the restoring Casimir force which may be found to exist between perfectly conducting material and metamaterial slabs. This restoring force is a natural power for the system oscillation in vacuum and also can be used for system stabilization.

Yaping Yang; Ran Zeng; Shutian Liu; Hong Chen; Shiyao Zhu

2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

411

Stall force of polymerizing microtubules and filament bundles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate stall force and polymerization kinetics of rigid protofilaments in a microtubule or interacting filaments in bundles under an external load force in the framework of a discrete growth model. We introduce the concecpt of polymerization cycles to describe the stochastic growth kinetics, which allows us to derive an exact expression for the stall force. We find that the stall force is independent of ensemble geometry and load distribution. Furthermore, the stall force is proportional to the number of filaments and increases linearly with the strength of lateral filament interactions. These results are corroborated by simulations, which also show a strong influence of ensemble geometry on growth kinetics below the stall force.

Jaroslaw Krawczyk; Jan Kierfeld

2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule.

Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA); Siekhaus, Wigbert J. (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Method for identifying biochemical and chemical reactions and micromechanical processes using nanomechanical and electronic signal identification  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning probe microscope, such as an atomic force microscope (AFM) or a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), is operated in a stationary mode on a site where an activity of interest occurs to measure and identify characteristic time-varying micromotions caused by biological, chemical, mechanical, electrical, optical, or physical processes. The tip and cantilever assembly of an AFM is used as a micromechanical detector of characteristic micromotions transmitted either directly by a site of interest or indirectly through the surrounding medium. Alternatively, the exponential dependence of the tunneling current on the size of the gap in the STM is used to detect micromechanical movement. The stationary mode of operation can be used to observe dynamic biological processes in real time and in a natural environment, such as polymerase processing of DNA for determining the sequence of a DNA molecule. 6 figs.

Holzrichter, J.F.; Siekhaus, W.J.

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

A diamond-based scanning probe spin sensor operating at low temperature in ultra-high vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) low temperature scanning probe microscope employing the nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond as an ultrasensitive magnetic field sensor. Using this center as an atomic-size scanning probe has enabled imaging of nanoscale magnetic fields and single spins under ambient conditions. In this article we describe an experimental setup to operate this sensor in a cryogenic UHV environment. This will extend the applicability to a variety of molecular systems due to the enhanced target spin lifetimes at low temperature and the controlled sample preparation under UHV conditions. The instrument combines a tuning-fork based atomic force microscope (AFM) with a high numeric aperture confocal microscope and the facilities for application of radio-frequency (RF) fields for spin manipulation. We verify a sample temperature of <50 K even for strong laser and RF excitation and demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging with a magnetic AFM tip.

Schaefer-Nolte, E.; Wrachtrup, J. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); 3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Reinhard, F. [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [3rd Institute of Physics and Research Center SCoPE, University Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ternes, M., E-mail: m.ternes@fkf.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, K. [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany) [Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condenseé, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

415

Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

Brown, Jay A.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base, El Paso County, Colorado Colorado Natural-491-1309 July 2000 #12;Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base, El Paso County, Colorado Prepared

417

Signs and Polarized/Magnetic versions of the Casimir Forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider versions of the Casimir effect where the force can be controlled by changing the angle between two Casimir ``plates'' or the temperature of two nearby rings. We also present simple arguments for the sign of Casimir forces.

S. Nussinov

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House...

419

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Presentation-given at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-discusses the U.S. Air...

420

Aerodynamic Forces on Truck Models, Including Two Trucks in Tandem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rear-edge shaping on the aerodynamic drag of bluff vehiclesOF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY Aerodynamic Forces on Truck Models,TRANSIT AND HIGHWAYS Aerodynamic Forces on Truck Models,

Hammache, Mustapha; Michaelian, Mark; Browand, Fred

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Development of a body force description for compressor stability assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a methodology for a body force description of a compressor with particular application to compressor stability calculations. The methodology is based on extracting blade forces from an axisymmetric ...

Kiwada, George (George Ford)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Air Force Achieves Fuel Efficiency through Industry Best Practices Fact sheet offers an overview of the U.S. Air...

423

Microstructure effects for Casimir forces in chiral metamaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine a recent prediction for the chirality dependence of the Casimir force in chiral metamaterials by numerical computation of the forces between the exact microstructures, rather than homogeneous approximations. ...

Johnson, Steven G.

424

UNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

program in order to reduce Federal employee's contribution to traffic congestion and air pollutionUNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BENEFIT PROGRAM): ____________ City (Residence): __________________________State: _______________ Zip Code: ________________ Air Force

425

Atomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conducted so as to characterize atmospheric aerosols from anthropogenic (pollution) and natural (sea saltAtomic Force and Scanning Electron Microscopy of Atmospheric Particles ZAHAVA BARKAY,1 * AMIT 69978, Israel KEY WORDS atmospheric aerosols; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron microscopy

Shapira, Yoram

426

REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Secretary of Energy on December 20, 2013 established the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Nuclear Nonproliferation and charged the Task Force to advise the DOE on future areas of emphasis for its nuclear nonproliferation activities

427

Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

428

A flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

low-noise measurements in ambient, in situ, and electrochemical environments. II. DESIGNA flexible, highly stable electrochemical scanning probe microscope for nanoscale studies at the solid-liquid interface, specifically in electrolyte environments. Quantification of system noise limits

Gimzewski, James

429

Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Alexander Rozhko Thesis September 2007 #12;ii Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Abstract. The mechanical role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns was studied both

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

430

Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonal dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence. The long-term globally integrated annual mean net forcing calculated here is approximately zero, related to the annual cycle in photochemistry; the O3 radiative forcing calculations also have a seasonal, although earlier work suggests a small net positive forcing. The model design (e.g., upper tropospheric

431

Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Ryan Jantzen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aerodynamic Force Modeling for Unsteady Wing Maneuvers Ryan Jantzen and Kunihiko Taira Florida, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH We report on the development of an aerodynamic force model for a flat focus is placed on examining the influence of large-amplitude wing motion on the unsteady aerodynamics

432

Probing polymerization forces by using actin-propelled lipid vesicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Probing polymerization forces by using actin-propelled lipid vesicles Arpita Upadhyaya, Jeffrey R) Actin polymerization provides a powerful propulsion force for numerous types of cell motility. Although the polymerization forces quantitatively, we introduce an experimental system in which lipid vesicles coated

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

433

Heat release response of acoustically forced turbulent premixed flamesrole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat release response of acoustically forced turbulent premixed flames­role of kinematic surface to coherent forcing and turbulent fluctuations are coupled even at linear order in coherent forcing amplitude, ea, due to flame propagation (kinematic restoration). This coupling effectively causes

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

434

CONSERVED INTEGRALS AND ENERGETIC FORCES JAMES R. RICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the structure of inealstic constitutive relations; they also include some new results on the energetic forcesCONSERVED INTEGRALS AND ENERGETIC FORCES JAMES R. RICE Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA ABSTRACT Conserved integrals of the Eshelby type representing energetic forces on dislocations, inclusions

435

Coke cake behavior under compressive forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Weardale Task Force | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWende NewSowitec do BrasilGmbHWeardale Task Force Jump to:

437

Sandia National Laboratories: Air Force Research Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -the Mid-Infrared0Energy Advanced Nuclear Energy TheASC ContactAir Force

438

136Sn and three body forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New experimental data on 2+ energies of 136,138Sn confirms the trend of lower 2+ excitation energies of even-even tin isotopes with N > 82 compared to those with N 4+)) of these nuclei, simultaneously, apart from one whose matrix elements have been changed empirically to produce mixed seniority states by weakening pairing. We have shown that the experimental result also shows good agreement with the theory in which three body forces have been included in a realistic interaction. The new theoretical results on transition probabilities have been discussed to identify the experimental quantities which will clearly distinguish between different views.

M. Saha Sarkar; S. Sarkar

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

439

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

440

ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

US Air Force Facility Energy Management Program - How Industry Can Help the Air Force Meet Its Objectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes the Air Force's facility energy management program including how industry can help the Air Force meet its facility energy objectives. Background information on energy use and energy conservation efforts are presented to give...

Holden, P. C.; Kroop, R. H.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Force generation by Myosin II Filaments in Compliant Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) networks to generate contractile forces in cells. How their properties control force production in environments with varying stiffness is poorly understood. Here, we incorporated literature values for properties of myosin II isoforms into a cross-bridge model. Similar actin gliding speeds and force-velocity curves expected from previous experiments were observed. Motor force output on an elastic load was regulated by two timescales--that of their attachment to F-actin, which varied sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load, and that of force build up, which scaled with ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and load stiffness. While such regulation did not require force-dependent kinetics, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from short attachments and small forces to high force-generating runs at threshold parameter values. Parameters representing skeletal muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin IIB, and non-muscle myosin IIA revealed distinct regimes of behavior respectively: (1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness, (2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force build-up times that exceed physiological timescales, and (3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds may respond sharply to changes in mechanical context--at low forces or stiffness, they serve as low affinity cross-links but they can transition to effective force production via the positive feedback mechanism described above. These results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment.

Samantha Stam; Jon Alberts; Margaret L. Gardel; Edwin Munro

2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

443

Spectro-Microscopic Measurements of Carbonaceous Aerosol Aging in Central California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosols are responsible for large uncertainties in climate models, degraded visibility, and adverse health effects. The Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was designed to study carbonaceous aerosols in the natural environment of Central Valley, California, and learn more about their atmospheric formation and aging. This paper presents results from spectro-microscopic measurements of carbonaceous particles collected during CARES at the time of pollution accumulation event (June 27-29, 2010), when in situ measurements indicated an increase in the organic carbon content of aerosols as the Sacramento urban plume aged. Computer controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy coupled with near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS) were used to probe the chemical composition and morphology of individual particles. It was found that the mass of organic carbon on individual particles increased through condensation of secondary organic aerosol. STXM/NEXAFS indicated that the number fraction of homogenous organic particles lacking inorganic inclusions (greater than ~50 nm diameter) increased with plume age as did the organic mass per particle. Comparison of the CARES spectro-microscopic data set with a similar dataset obtained in Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign showed that individual particles in Mexico City contained twice as much carbon as those sampled during CARES. The number fraction of soot particles at the Mexico City urban site (30%) was larger than at the CARES urban site (10%) and the most aged samples from CARES contained less carbon-carbon double bonds. Differences between carbonaceous particles in Mexico City and California result from different sources, photochemical conditions, gas phase reactants, and secondary organic aerosol precursors. The detailed results provided by these spectro-microscopic measurements will allow for a comprehensive evaluation of aerosol process models used in climate research.

Moffet, Ryan C.; Rodel, Tobias; Kelly, Stephen T.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Carroll, Gregory; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

444

Softening of Granular Packings with Dynamic Forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform numerical simulations of a two-dimensional bidisperse granular packing subjected to both a static confining pressure and a sinusoidal dynamic forcing applied by a wall on one edge of the packing. We measure the response experienced by a wall on the opposite edge of the packing and obtain the resonant frequency of the packing as the static or dynamic pressures are varied. Under increasing static pressure, the resonant frequency increases, indicating a velocity increase of elastic waves propagating through the packing. In contrast, when the dynamic amplitude is increased for fixed static pressure, the resonant frequency decreases, indicating a decrease in the wave velocity. This occurs both for compressional and for shear dynamic forcing, and is in agreement with experimental results. We find that the average contact number $Z_c$ at the resonant frequency decreases with increasing dynamic amplitude, indicating that the elastic softening of the packing is associated with a reduced number of grain-grain contacts through which the elastic waves can travel. We image the excitations created in the packing and show that there are localized disturbances or soft spots that become more prevalent with increasing dynamic amplitude. Our results are in agreement with experiments on glass bead packings and earth materials such as sandstone and granite, and may be relevant to the decrease in elastic wave velocities that has been observed to occur near fault zones after strong earthquakes, in surficial sediments during strong ground motion, and in structures during earthquake excitation.

C. J. Olson Reichhardt; L. M. Lopatina; X. Jia; P. A. Johnson

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

445

Spin-Orbit Force from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a first attempt to determine nucleon-nucleon potentials in the parity-odd sector, which appear in 1P1, 3P0, 3P1, 3P2-3F2 channels, in Nf=2 lattice QCD simulations. These potentials are constructed from the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave functions for J^P=0^-, 1^- and 2^-, which correspond to A1^-, T1^- and T2^- + E^- representation of the cubic group, respectively. We have found a large and attractive spin-orbit potential VLS(r) in the isospin-triplet channel, which is qualitatively consistent with the phenomenological determination from the experimental scattering phase shifts. The potentials obtained from lattice QCD are used to calculate the scattering phase shifts in 1P1, 3P0, 3P1 and 3P2-3F2 channels. The strong attractive spin-orbit force and a weak repulsive central force in spin-triplet P-wave channels lead to an attraction in the 3P2 channel, which is related to the P-wave neutron paring in neutron stars.

K. Murano; N. Ishii; S. Aoki; T. Doi; T. Hatsuda; Y. Ikeda; T. Inoue; H. Nemura; K. Sasaki

2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

446

Evidence of microscopic effects in fragment mass distribution in heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Our measurements of variances ($\\sigma_{m}^2$) in mass distributions of fission fragments from fusion-fission reactions of light projectiles (C, O and F) on deformed thorium targets exhibit a sharp anomalous increase with energy near the Coulomb barrier, in contrast to the smooth variation of $\\sigma_{m}^2$ for the spherical bismuth target. This departure from expectation based on a statistical description is explained in terms of microscopic effects arising from the orientational dependence in the case of deformed thorium targets.

T. K. Ghosh; S. Pal; K. S. Gold; P. Bhattacharya

2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

447

Direct photon emission in Heavy Ion Collisions from Microscopic Transport Theory and Fluid Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach, the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are made.

Bjoern Baeuchle; Marcus Bleicher

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

448

Neutrinoless double-{beta} decay in the microscopic interacting boson model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a formalism for calculating nuclear matrix elements of double-{beta} decay within the framework of the microscopic interacting boson model. We calculate Fermi, Gamow-Teller, and tensor matrix elements in the decay of Ge-Se-Mo-Te-Xe-Nd-Sm and compare our results with those of the shell-model (SM) and of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Our results are in agreement with QRPA. We discuss simple features of the matrix elements and give a formula that allows one to estimate matrix elements in terms of the number of valence proton and neutron pairs.

Barea, J.; Iachello, F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8120 (United States)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

A Simple Quantum-Mechanical Model of Spacetime I: Microscopic Properties of Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This is the first part in a series of two papers, where we consider a specific microscopic model of spacetime. In our model Planck size quantum black holes are taken to be the fundamental building blocks of space and time. Spacetime is assumed to be a graph, where black holes lie on the vertices. In this first paper we construct our model in details, and show how classical spacetime emerges at the long distance limit from our model. We also consider the statistics of spacetime.

J. Makela

2009-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

450

Energy-Dependence of Elastic Alpha-Particle Scattering - Microscopic Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (Received 8 June 1972) The energy dependence of elastic n scattering from 4 Ca between 39.6 and 115.4 MeV is determined using a microscopic optical model. The agreement between theory and experi- ment improves as the energy... applied to the scattering of e particles from 40 to 166 MeV' ' ' ' ' and good agreement with experiment has been obtained. Once XV,?has been determined, E(l. (l) can be used to predict the scattering of a particles (in the diffraction region) given a...

Lerner, G. M.; Rutledge, L. L.; Hiebert, John C.; Bernstein, A. M.

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Coupling mechanism between microscopic two-level system and superconducting qubits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a scheme to clarify the coupling nature between superconducting Josephson qubits and microscopic two-level systems. Although dominant interest in studying two-level systems was in phase qubits previously, we find that the sensitivity of the generally used spectral method in phase qubits is not sufficient to evaluate the exact form of the coupling. On the contrary, our numerical calculation shows that the coupling strength changes remarkably with the flux bias for a flux qubit, providing a useful tool to investigate the coupling mechanism between the two-level systems and qubits.

Zhang Zhentao; Yu Yang [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

452

Technical report on the General Electric model #1 electrostatic electron microscope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

screen Vacuum Chamber' Figi 5. Sectionalized View of the Lens System of the General Electric Electron microscope. which is held in place with the micalex insulatoz s is a source of many difficulties. Ii' the combination of the insulators and central..., or if desired to give the beam a diverging angle with the optical axis. The filament of the General Electric Electron Gun is heated with 60 cycle alternating current. This gives rise to an alternat1ng field about the f1lament which will deflect...

Druce, Albert J

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Analysis with electron microscope of multielement samples using pure element standards  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This disclosure describes a method and modified analytical electron microscope for determining the concentration of elements in a multielement sample by exposing samples with differing thicknesses for each element to a beam of electrons. Simultaneously the electron dosage and x-ray intensities are measured for each sample of element to determine a ''K/sub AB/'' value to be used in the equation (I/sub A/I/sub B/) = K/sub AB/ (C/sub A//C/sub B/), where I is intensity and C is concentration for elements A and B. The multielement sample is exposed to determine the concentrations of the elements in the sample.

King, W.E.

1986-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

454

Atomic delocalisation as a microscopic origin of two-level defects in Josephson junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identifying the microscopic origins of decoherence sources prevalent in Josephson junction based circuits is central to their use as functional quantum devices. Focussing on so called "strongly coupled" two-level defects, we construct a theoretical model using the atomic position of the oxygen which is spatially delocalised in the oxide forming the Josephson junction barrier. Using this model, we investigate which atomic configurations give rise to two-level behaviour of the type seen in experiments. We compute experimentally observable parameters for phase qubits and examine defect response under the effects of applied electric field and strain.

Timothy C. DuBois; Salvy P. Russo; Jared H. Cole

2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

455

Tunable polarity of the Casimir force based on saturated ferrites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the polarity of the Casimir force between two different parallel slabs separated by vacuum when the saturated ferrite materials under the influence of an external magnetic field are taken into consideration. Between the ordinary dielectric slab and the ferrite slab, repulsive Casimir force may be observed by adjusting the applied magnetic field. For the ferrite material, we consider the frequency dependence of the permeability modified by the external magnetic field to analyze the formation of the repulsive Casimir force. The restoring force, which means the transition of the force polarity from repulsion to attraction with the increasing slab separation, can also be obtained between two different ferrite slabs.

Zeng Ran [School of Telecommunication, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yang Yaping [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Fluid Mechanical and Electrical Fluctuation Forces in Colloids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluctuations in fluid velocity and fluctuations in electric fields may both give rise to forces acting on small particles in colloidal suspensions. Such forces in part determine the thermodynamic stability of the colloid. At the classical statistical thermodynamic level, the fluid velocity and electric field contributions to the forces are comparable in magnitude. When quantum fluctuation effects are taken into account, the electric fluctuation induced van der Waals forces dominate those induced by purely fluid mechanical motions. The physical principles are applied in detail for the case of colloidal particle attraction to the walls of the suspension container and more briefly for the case of forces between colloidal particles.

D. Drosdoff; A. Widom

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

457

Weak and Repulsive Casimir Force in Piston Geometries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the Casimir force in piston-like geometries semiclassically. The force on the piston is finite and physical, but to leading semiclassical approximation depends strongly on the shape of the surrounding cavity. Whereas this force is attractive for pistons in a parallelepiped with flat cylinder head, for which the semiclassical approximation by periodic orbits is exact, this approximation to the force on the piston vanishes for a semi-cylindrical head and becomes repulsive for a cylinder of circular cross section with a hemispherical head. In leading semiclassical approximation the sign of the force is related to the generalized Maslov index of short periodic orbits between the piston and its casing.

Martin Schaden; Liviu Mateescu

2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

458

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

459

The Role of Quantum Vacuum Forces in Microelectromechanical Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The presence of boundary surfaces in the vacuum alters the ground state of the quantized electromagnetic field and can lead to the appearance of vacuum forces. In the last decade, landmark measurements of the vacuum stress between conducting uncharged parallel plates (Casimir force) have been made. Recently the first micromachined MEMS (microelectromechanical system) device was fabricated that utilizes the Casimir force between parallel plates. The force dependence allows the device to serve as a highly sensitive position sensor. The are many other examples of quantum vacuum forces and effects besides the well known parallel plate Casimir force. Here we discuss potential roles of quantum vacuum forces and effects in MEMS systems and other systems. With the growing capability in nanofabrication, some of the roles may be actualized in the future. Because of the computational complexity, no theoretical results are yet available for a number of potentially interesting geometries and we can only speculate.

G. Jordan Maclay

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

460

Microscopic description of octupole shape-phase transitions in light actinides and rare-earth nuclei  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A systematic analysis of low-lying quadrupole and octupole collective states is presented, based on the microscopic energy density functional framework. By mapping the deformation constrained self-consistent axially symmetric mean-field energy surfaces onto the equivalent Hamiltonian of the $sdf$ interacting boson model (IBM), that is, onto the energy expectation value in the boson condensate state, the Hamiltonian parameters are determined. The study is based on the global relativistic energy density functional DD-PC1. The resulting IBM Hamiltonian is used to calculate excitation spectra and transition rates for the positive- and negative-parity collective states in four isotopic chains characteristic for two regions of octupole deformation and collectivity: Th, Ra, Sm and Ba. Consistent with the empirical trend, the microscopic calculation based on the systematics of $\\beta_{2}$-$\\beta_{3}$ energy maps, the resulting low-lying negative-parity bands and transition rates show evidence of a shape transition between stable octupole deformation and octupole vibrations characteristic for $\\beta_{3}$-soft potentials.

K. Nomura; D. Vretenar; T. Niksic; Bing-Nan Lu

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

A new approach to nuclear microscopy: The ion-electron emission microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new multidimensional high lateral resolution ion beam analysis technique, Ion-Electron Emission Microscopy or IEEM is described. Using MeV energy ions, IEEM is shown to be capable of Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection (IBICC) measurements in semiconductors. IEEM should also be capable of microscopically and multidimensionally mapping the surface and bulk composition of solids. As such, IIEM has nearly identical capabilities as traditional nuclear microprobe analysis, with the advantage that the ion beam does not have to be focused. The technique is based on determining the position where an individual ion enters the surface of the sample by projection secondary electron emission microscopy. The x-y origination point of a secondary electron, and hence the impact coordinates of the corresponding incident ion, is recorded with a position sensitive detector connected to a standard photoemission electron microscope (PEEM). These signals are then used to establish coincidence with IBICC, atomic, or nuclear reaction induced ion beam analysis signals simultaneously caused by the incident ion.

Doyle, B.L.; Vizkelethy, G.; Walsh, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Senftinger, B. [Staib Instrumente GmbH, Langenbach (Germany); Mellon, M. [Quantar Technologies Inc., Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

The Circular Unitary Ensemble and the Riemann zeta function: the microscopic landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show in this paper that after proper scalings, the characteristic polynomial of a random unitary matrix converges almost surely to a random analytic function whose zeros, which are on the real line, form a determinantal point process with sine kernel. Our scaling is performed at the so-called "microscopic" level, that is we consider the characteristic polynomial at points which are of order $1/n$ distant. We draw several consequences from our result. On the random matrix theory side, we obtain the limiting distribution for ratios of characteristic polynomials where the points are evaluated at points of the form $\\exp(2 i \\pi \\alpha/n)$. We also give an explicit expression for the (dependence) relation between two different values of the characteristic polynomial on the microscopic scale. On the number theory side, inspired by the Keating-Snaith philosophy, we conjecture some new limit theorems for the Riemann zeta function at the stochastic process level as well as some alternative approach to the conjecture by Goldston, Montgomery and Gonek for the moments of the logarithmic derivative of the Riemann zeta function. We prove our main random matrix theory result in the framework of virtual isometries to circumvent the fact that the rescaled characteristic polynomial does not even have a moment of order one, hence making the classical techniques of random matrix theory difficult to apply.

Reda Chhaibi; Joseph Najnudel; Ashkan Nikeghbali

2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

464

Experience proves forced fracture closure works  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced closure, or perhaps better-named ``reverse gravel packing,`` of fractures immediately following hydraulic fracturing with proppant and gelled fluids is a technique which, with rare exception, can be extremely beneficial to the success of almost every hydraulic fracture treatment. By proper planning of the rig-up to allow immediate flow-back, substantial quantities of polymer and load fluid can be removed while simultaneously negating undesirable proppant settling within fractures in the near wellbore area. Fracture smearing (dilution of proppant into an extending fracture) after shutdown can be negated. And in most cases, proppant production from the formation can be reduced. Discussions in the article explain why Ely and Associates has the confidence to make these claims after extensive hydraulic fracturing experience in many geographical areas.

Ely, J.W. [John Ely and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Case Study- Hill Air Force Base, Utah  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Energy savings performance contracting at Hill Air Force Base generated much interest during a recent training session on energy management that downlinked 12 Department of Defense sites. Energy systems in 940 buildings on the Base will be upgraded under an 18-year ESPC between the Government and the energy service company, CES/Way. Improvements are distributed over five task orders that will be completed in five years, with CES/Way providing $2.5 million in up-front costs for the first two task orders. Utah Power & Light will provide $8 million in rebates to help cover the contractor's initial investment, maintenance services, and interest costs. The remainder of the costs will be reimbursed from the Government's share of energy savings.

466

Task force reduces stuck-pipe costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A task-force approach to stuck pipe has produced more than a 70% reduction in BP Exploration Operating Co.'s worldwide stuck-pipe costs during 1989 and 1990. We believe that these results have been primarily due to focusing our attention on improving personnel performance rather than to the introduction of new technology. Key elements in this paper of the efforts involved: Recognizing the importance of the drilling contractor and the service company staff's role in helping control stuck pipe; Promoting a rig-team approach to tackling the problem; Providing training on rig-team, stuck-pipe problem solving; and raising awareness of stuck pipe through a coordinated worldwide communications program among BP, contractors, and service companies.

Bradley, W.B. (BP Research, Houston, TX (US)); Jarman, D. (BP Exploration Operation Co., Aberdeen (GB)); Auflick, R.A.; Plott, R.S. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Houston, TX (US)); Wood, R.D. (BP Exploration Operating Co., London (GB)); Schofield, T.R. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Beijing (CN)); Cocking, D. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Ho Chi Minh City (CN))

1991-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

467

Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB) - CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux 1, 87 Avenue du Dr A. Schweitzer, F-33608 PESSAC (France); Veeco, Z.I. de la Gaudree, 11 Rue Marie Poussepin, F-91412 Dourdain (France)

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Single asperity tribochemical wear of silicon nitride studied by atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are hard, inert, and stable at high temperatures, making them attractive for use in extreme en- vironments lubrication, which results in low fric- tion and almost no wear, has been observed on sufficiently smooth of conditions. In the AFM geometry, the tip serves as an idealized single asperity interacting with a nearly

Dickinson, J. Thomas

470

SUBMOLECULAR IMAGING OF EPITAXIALLY CRYSTALLIZED HELICAL POLYOLEFINS BY ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital Instruments, Inc., Santa Barbara, Cal. USA. Images were taken with an A­type scan head (max. scan microscopy EM and electron diffraction ED. AFM pictures with high resolution could be obtained when using polypropylene has been determined by electron microscopy EM and electron diffraction ED: chain conformation

Peters, Achim

471

Sub-surface characterization and three dimensional profiling of semiconductors by magnetic resonance force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.

Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Wave forces on monotower structures fitted with icebreaking cones  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and theory presently used in the design of offshore tower structures. Presently, wave forces are predicted using a wave- structure interaction approach, diffraction theory, or some combination of the two. An alternative wave force theory was presented... of structures fitted with icebreaking cones. THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT One of the major difficulties in analyzing the dynamic response of offshore structures is determining the wave-induced excitation forces. There are currently two methods of predicting wave...

Harrington, Michael Gerard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

473

Notes 14. Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An example of system parameter identification (Hybrid Brush Seal) Luis San Andr?s (lecturer) Thanks to Adolfo Delgado, Jos? Baker (RAs) & support from Siemens Power Generation MEEN 617 - April 2008 Structural parameters K shaft = 243 lbf/in (42...Notes 14. IDENTIFICATION OF BEARING FORCE COEFFICIENTS. ? Dr. Luis San Andr?s (2009) 1 Handout # 14 (MEEN 626) Application example Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients Experimental identification of the dynamic force...

San Andres, Luis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

amber force fields: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fields and Development of Improved Protein Backbone Parameters Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, ABSTRACT The ff94 force field that is com- monly associated with the Amber a...

475

amber force field: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fields and Development of Improved Protein Backbone Parameters Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, ABSTRACT The ff94 force field that is com- monly associated with the Amber a...

476

antibody recognition force: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Models of YesNo and Two-Alternative Forced-Choice Recognition Memory compared 3 models of recognition memory in their ability to generalize across yesno and...

477

Before Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services By: David Huizenga, Senior Advisor for Environmental Management Subject: FY 2013 Budget Request for Office of...

478

Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - House Armed Services...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Written Statement by David Huizenga, Senior Advisor for Environmental Management For the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - House Armed Services Committee 5-9-13David Huizenga FT...

479

A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

Hakio?lu, T. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 48740 Turunç, Mu?la (Turkey); Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

Drag forces on inclusions in classical fields with dissipative dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the drag force on uniformly moving inclusions which interact linearly with dynamical free field theories commonly used to study soft condensed matter systems. Drag forces are shown to be nonlinear functions of the inclusion velocity and depend strongly on the field dynamics. The general results obtained can be used to explain drag forces in Ising systems and also predict the existence of drag forces on proteins in membranes due to couplings to various physical parameters of the membrane such as composition, phase and height fluctuations.

Vincent Demery; D. S. Dean

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "force microscope afm" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

active force control: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of free-hand ... Gilbertson, Matthew Wright 2010-01-01 9 On Dynamic Models of Robot Force Control MIT - DSpace Summary: For precise robot control, endpoint compliance...

482

Force and shape coordination in amoeboid cell motility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

strain energy. Traction force components in wild-type cellswild-type cells To investigate the role that MyoII contractility plays in the strain energy

Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research & Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has released a Broad Area Announcement (BAA) for over $25 million for Alternative Energy Research & Development.

484

SciTech Connect: Gametic selection as an evolutionary force:...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Gametic selection as an evolutionary force: the maintenance of lethal polymorphisms in wild populations of Mus musculus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gametic selection...

485

Dynamics and length distribution of microtubules under force and confinement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the microtubule polymerization dynamics with catastrophe and rescue events for three different confinement scenarios, which mimic typical cellular environments: (i) The microtubule is confined by rigid and fixed walls, (ii) it grows under constant force, and (iii) it grows against an elastic obstacle with a linearly increasing force. We use realistic catastrophe models and analyze the microtubule dynamics, the resulting microtubule length distributions, and force generation by stochastic and mean field calculations; in addition, we perform stochastic simulations. We also investigate the force dynamics if growth parameters are perturbed in dilution experiments. Finally, we show the robustness of our results against changes of catastrophe models and load distribution factors.

Björn Zelinski; Nina Müller; Jan Kierfeld

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

486

Correlation between fundamental binding forces and clinical prognosis...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic force microscopy was used to “fish” for binding reactions between a fibronectin-coated probe (i.e., substrate simulating an implant device) and each of 15...

487

Colorado - Report of the Task Force on Statewide Transmission...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Permitting Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Colorado - Report of the Task Force on Statewide Transmission Siting and Permitting Abstract...

488

Microscopic models for charge-noise-induced dephasing of solid-state qubits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Several experiments have shown qubit coherence decay of the form $\\mathrm{exp}[-(t/T_2)^\\alpha]$ due to environmental charge-noise fluctuations. We present a microscopic description for temperature dependences of the parameters $T_2$ and $\\alpha$. Our description is appropriate to qubits in semiconductors interacting with spurious two-level charge fluctuators coupled to a thermal bath. We find distinct power-law dependences of $T_2$ and $\\alpha$ on temperature depending on the nature of the interaction of the fluctuators with the associated bath. We consider fluctuator dynamics induced by first- and second-order tunneling with a continuum of delocalized electron states. We also study one- and two-phonon processes for fluctuators in either GaAs or Si. These results can be used to identify dominant charge-dephasing mechanisms and suppress them.

Félix Beaudoin; W. A. Coish

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

489

Microscopic description of the beta delayed deuteron emission from [sup 6]He  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The beta delayed deuteron emission from [sup 6]He is studied in a dynamical microscopic cluster model. This model gives a reasonably good description for all the subsystems of [sup 6]He and [sup 6]Li in a coherent way, without any free parameter. The beta decay transition probability to the [sup 6]Li ground state is underestimated by a few percent. The theoretical beta delayed deuteron spectrum is close to experiment but it is also underestimated, by about a factor of 1.7. We argue that, in spite of their different magnitudes, both underestimations might have a common origin. The model confirms that the neutron halo part of the [sup 6]He wave function plays a crucial role in quenching the beta decay toward the [alpha]+[ital d] channel.

Csoto, A.; Baye, D. (Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Campus Plaine, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium) Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51 Debrecen, H-4001 (Hungary))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Electron microscope studies. Progress report, June 1, 1992--November 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past year we have continued our work on the mirror-corrected high resolution STEM. We have made significant progress in the design and fabrication of the various microscope sub-systems and have completed a new display system. Additional calculations and computer simulations have been performed to confirm the original theory of mirror correctors. In our biological work we have made a careful study of the structure of globins, vertebrate and invertebrate, using the accumulated information contained in the Brookhaven Data Bank (3D structures), the Protein Identification Resource (ID sequences) and the data we have obtained with the STEM. Statistical templates have been generated to predict various classes of globins.

Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Linear relationship between water wetting behavior and microscopic interactions of super-hydrophilic surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show a fine linear relationship between surface energies and microscopic Lennard-Jones parameters of super-hydrophilic surfaces. The linear slope of the super-hydrophilic surfaces is consistent with the linear slope of the super-hydrophobic, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic surfaces where stable water droplets can stand, indicating that there is a universal linear behavior of the surface energies with the water-surface van der Waals interaction that extends from the super-hydrophobic to super-hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, we find that the linear relationship exists for various substrate types, and the linear slopes of these different types of substrates are dependent on the surface atom density, i.e., higher surface atom densities correspond to larger linear slopes. These results enrich our understanding of water behavior on solid surfaces, especially the water wetting behaviors on uncharged super-hydrophilic metal surfaces.

Liu, Jian; Guo, Pan [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China) [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Chunlei; Shi, Guosheng, E-mail: shiguosheng@sinap.ac.cn; Fang, Haiping [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)] [Division of Interfacial Water and Key Laboratory of Interfacial Physics and Technology, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

492

Microscopic derivation of nuclear rotation-vibration model, axially symmetric case  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive from first principles the successful phenomenological hydrodynamic model of Bohr-Davydov-Faessler-Greiner for rotation-vibration motion of an axially symmetric deformed nucleus. The derivation is not limited to small oscillation amplitude, and provides microscopic expressions for the interaction operators among the rotation, vibration, and intrinsic motions, for the moment of inertia, vibration mass, and for the deformation variables. The method uses canonical transformations to collective co-ordinates, followed by a constrained variational method, with the associated constraints imposed on the wavefunction rather than on the particle co-ordinates. The approach yields three self-consistent, time-reversal invariant, cranking-type Schrodinger equations for the rotation-vibration and intrinsic motions, and a self-consistency equation. For deformed harmonic oscillator mean-field potentials, these equations are solved in closed forms for the energies, moments of inertia, quadrupole moments and transition...

Gulshani, Parviz

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Microscopic Description of Entanglements in Polyethylene Networks and Melts: Strong, Weak, Pairwise, and Collective Attributes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of two Polyethylene systems where all entanglements are trapped: a perfect network, and a melt with grafted chain ends. We examine microscopically at what level topological constraints can be considered as a collective entanglement effect, as in tube model theories, or as certain pairwise uncrossability interactions, as in slip-link models. A pairwise parameter, which varies between these limiting cases, shows that, for the systems studied, the character of the entanglement environment is more pairwise than collective. We employ a novel methodology, which analyzes entanglement constraints into a complete set of pairwise interactions, similar to slip links. Entanglement confinement is assembled by a plethora of links, with a spectrum of confinement strengths, from strong to weak. The strength of interactions is quantified through a link `persistence', which is the fraction of time for which the links are active. By weighting links according to their strength,...

Anogiannakis, Stefanos D; Theodorou, Doros N

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Upconversion in Nd{sup 3+}-doped glasses: Microscopic theory and spectroscopic measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we report a systematic investigation of upconversion losses and their effects on fluorescence quantum efficiency and fractional thermal loading in Nd{sup 3+}-doped fluoride glasses. The energy transfer upconversion ({gamma}{sub up}) parameter, which describes upconversion losses, was experimentally determined using different methods: thermal lens (TL) technique and steady state luminescence (SSL) measurements. Additionally, the upconversion parameter was also obtained from energy transfer models and excited state absorption measurements. The results reveal that the microscopic treatment provided by the energy transfer models is similar to the macroscopic ones achieved from the TL and SSL measurements because similar {gamma}{sub up} parameters were obtained. Besides, the achieved results also point out the migration-assisted energy transfer according to diffusion-limited regime rather than hopping regime as responsible for the upconversion losses in Nd-doped glasses.

Oliveira, S. L.; Sousa, D. F. de; Andrade, A. A.; Nunes, L. A. O.; Catunda, T. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos-Sao Paulo (Brazil)

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

495

Quantitative microscopic spectral fluorescence measurement of crude oil, bitumen, kerogen, and coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ten samples each of black shale (kerogen and bitumen fractions) from Lias epsilon, coal from Western Canada and nine crude oil and condensate samples from Alaska and northern Germany have been studied using quantitative microscopic spectral fluorescence. The parameters used are lambda/sub max/, red/green quotient (Q), and alteration of fluorescence emission intensity under UV excitation. Using the same parameters, the data show that kerogen and crude oil have opposite maturation trends. Autochthonous bitumens include both kerogen and crude oil characters. Immature, biodegraded, or normal crude oil of different maturity can be characterized using these parameters. Quantitative spectral fluorescence microscopy yields more accurate maturation parameters for the Type I and II kerogens than vitrinite reflectance because the fluorescence of liptinites are used (i.e., the main oil-generating macerals). This method may become the most suitable inexpensive scanning technique for the characterization of crude oil, condensate, and autochthonous/allochthonous source rock bitumens.

Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Rullkoetter, J.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Drift-insensitive distributed calibration of probe microscope scanner in nanometer range: Real mode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method is described intended for distributed calibration of a probe microscope scanner consisting in a search for a net of local calibration coefficients (LCCs) in the process of automatic measurement of a standard surface, whereby each point of the movement space of the scanner can be defined by a unique set of scale factors. Feature-oriented scanning (FOS) methodology is used to implement the distributed calibration, which permits to exclude in situ the negative influence of thermal drift, creep and hysteresis on the obtained results. The sensitivity of LCCs to errors in determination of position coordinates of surface features forming the local calibration structure (LCS) is eliminated by performing multiple repeated measurements followed by building regression surfaces. There are no principle restrictions on the number of repeated LCS measurements. Possessing the calibration database enables correcting in one procedure all the spatial distortions caused by nonlinearity, nonorthogonality and spurious cro...

Lapshin, Rostislav V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Drift-insensitive distributed calibration of probe microscope scanner in nanometer range: Approach description  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method is described intended for distributed calibration of a probe microscope scanner consisting in a search for a net of local calibration coefficients (LCCs) in the process of automatic measurement of a standard surface, whereby each point of the movement space of the scanner can be defined by a unique set of scale factors. Feature-oriented scanning (FOS) methodology is used to implement the distributed calibration, which permits to exclude in situ the negative influence of thermal drift, creep and hysteresis on the obtained results. The sensitivity of LCCs to errors in determination of position coordinates of surface features forming the local calibration structure (LCS) is eliminated by performing multiple repeated measurements followed by building regression surfaces. There are no principle restrictions on the number of repeated LCS measurements. Possessing the calibration database enables correcting in one procedure all the spatial distortions caused by nonlinearity, nonorthogonality and spurious cro...

Lapshin, Rostislav V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Interacting dark energy: the role of microscopic feedback in the dark sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the impact on the classical dynamics of dark matter particles and dark energy of a non-minimal coupling in the dark sector, assuming that the mass of the dark matter particles is coupled to a dark energy scalar field. We show that standard results can only be recovered if the space-time variation of the dark energy scalar field is sufficiently smooth on the characteristic length scale of the dark matter particles, and we determine the associated constraint dependent on both the mass and radius of the dark matter particles and the coupling to the dark energy scalar field. We further show, using field theory numerical simulations, that a violation of such constraint results in a microscopic feedback effect strongly affecting the dynamics of dark matter particles, with a potential impact on structure formation and on the space-time evolution of the dark energy equation of state.

Avelino, P P

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Two-neutron correlations in microscopic wave functions of He-6, He-8 and C-12  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-neutron densities obtained from microscopic wave functions of $^6$He and $^8$He are investigated to reveal di-neutron correlations. In particular, the comparison of the two-neutron density with the product of one-neutron densities is useful for a quantitative discussion of di-neutron correlations. The calculations show that the S=0 spatial two-neutron correlation increases at the surface of $^6$He$(0^+_1)$ and $^8$He$(0^+_2)$. The enhancement is remarkable in the $^6$He$(0^+_1)$ ground state but not as prominent in the $^8$He$(0^+_1)$ ground state. Configuration mixing of many Slater determinants is essential to describe the di-neutron correlations. Two-neutron densities in $^{12}$C wave functions with $\\alpha$-cluster structures are also studied.

Yoshiko Kanada-En'yo; Hans Feldmeier; Tadahiro Suhara

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

500

Interacting dark energy: the role of microscopic feedback in the dark sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the impact on the classical dynamics of dark matter particles and dark energy of a non-minimal coupling in the dark sector, assuming that the mass of the dark matter particles is coupled to a dark energy scalar field. We show that standard results can only be recovered if the space-time variation of the dark energy scalar field is sufficiently smooth on the characteristic length scale of the dark matter particles, and we determine the associated constraint dependent on both the mass and radius of the dark matter particles and the coupling to the dark energy scalar field. We further show, using field theory numerical simulations, that a violation of such constraint results in a microscopic feedback effect strongly affecting the dynamics of dark matter particles, with a potential impact on structure formation and on the space-time evolution of the dark energy equation of state.

P. P. Avelino

2015-03-10T23:59:59.000Z