Sample records for force base kafb

  1. Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  2. Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Fact sheet...

  3. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience This report sumarizes early...

  4. Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base, El Paso County, Colorado Colorado Natural-491-1309 July 2000 #12;Natural Heritage Inventory of Schriever Air Force Base, El Paso County, Colorado Prepared

  5. Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects Nellis Air Force Base solar array provides model for renewable projects March 24, 2010 - 4:58pm Addthis The...

  6. ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Claude

    1 ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

  7. ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daley, Claude

    ENERGY BASED ICE COLLISION FORCES Claude Daley1 1 Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada A1C 3X5 ABSTRACT Ice collision forces can be determined by energy considerations. A variety of interaction geometry cases are considered. The indentation energy functions for eight different

  8. Hickam Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TOTechnology Validation » Hickam Air Force

  9. air force base: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Energy Savings Performance Contract- Robins Air Force Base, Georgia Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Due to budgetary constraints and lack of funding for energy...

  10. air force bases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Index 1 Energy Savings Performance Contract- Robins Air Force Base, Georgia Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Due to budgetary constraints and lack of funding for energy...

  11. 06-08-2010 NNSA-B-10-0281

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    06-08-2010 NNSA-B-10-0281 SNLNM proposes to assist Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) contract biologists in the use of track surveys and systematic camera arrays to assess the...

  12. An Energy-Based Approach for Contact Force Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An Energy-Based Approach for Contact Force Computation Fran¸cois Faure Francois.Faure@imag.fr, i. The subsequent iterations consist of global redistributions of energy through the solids in order to restrict widely addressed in computer graphics research. The dynamics equations are now well-known and used

  13. Demonstration of Security Benefits of Renewable Generation at FE Warren Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, William M.; Myers, Kurt; Seifert, Gary

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Report detailing field demonstration of security benefits of renewable generation at FE Warren Air Force Base.

  14. Eielson Air Force Base Operable Unit 2 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, R.E.; Jarvis, T.T.; Jarvis, M.R.; Whelan, G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operable Unit 2 at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, is one of several operable units characterized by petroleum, oil, and lubricant contamination, and by the presence of organic products floating at the water table, as a result of Air Force operations since the 1940s. The base is approximately 19,270 acres in size, and comprises the areas for military operations and a residential neighborhood for military dependents. Within Operable Unit 2, there are seven source areas. These source areas were grouped together primarily because of the contaminants released and hence are not necessarily in geographical proximity. Source area ST10 includes a surface water body (Hardfill Lake) next to a fuel spill area. The primary constituents of concern for human health include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Monitored data showed these volatile constituents to be present in groundwater wells. The data also showed an elevated level of trace metals in groundwater.

  15. Born on an Air Force base in Mississippi, Jan never

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials Find FindRewindParticleBorn on an Air Force base in

  16. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  17. Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Lu-Chang

    -resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

  18. Sensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxxxxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that is designed to only be sensitive to axial deflections of the probe. The optical-encoder force sensor exhibitsmembrane interactions under various physiological conditions. The force sensor is an optical encoder based on transSensors and Actuators A xxx (2004) xxxxxx Micromachined silicon force sensor based on diffractive

  19. Periodic forcing of a 555-IC based hysteretic oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moises Santillan

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we designed and developed a master-slave electronic oscillatory system (based on the 555-timer IC working in the astable mode), and investigated its dynamic behavior regarding synchronization. For that purpose we measured the circulation number corresponding to the phase-locking rhythm achieved in a large set of values of the normalized forcing period (NFP) and of the coupling strength between the master and the slave oscillators. In particular we were interested in the system behavior in the strong-coupling limit, because such problem has not been extensively studied from an experimental perspective. Our results indicate the existence of a degenerate codimension-2 bifurcation point at NFP=1:2, where all the phase-locking regions converge in the very strong coupling limit. These findings were corroborated by a mathematical model we developed to that end.

  20. Tunable polarity of the Casimir force based on saturated ferrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Ran [School of Telecommunication, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yang Yaping [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the polarity of the Casimir force between two different parallel slabs separated by vacuum when the saturated ferrite materials under the influence of an external magnetic field are taken into consideration. Between the ordinary dielectric slab and the ferrite slab, repulsive Casimir force may be observed by adjusting the applied magnetic field. For the ferrite material, we consider the frequency dependence of the permeability modified by the external magnetic field to analyze the formation of the repulsive Casimir force. The restoring force, which means the transition of the force polarity from repulsion to attraction with the increasing slab separation, can also be obtained between two different ferrite slabs.

  1. Sitewide feasibility study Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, G.V.; Lanigan, D.C.; Josephson, G.B.; Bagaasen, L.M.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sitewide Feasibility Study (FS) is required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for Eielson Air Force Base (AFB). It is based on findings presented in the Sitewide Remedial Investigation (RI) Report (USAF 1995a), and the Sitewide Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) Report (USAF 1995b). Under the FFA, 64 potential source areas were placed in one of six operable units, based on similar contaminant and environmental characteristics, or were included for evaluation under a Source Evaluation Report (SER). The sitewide RI was directed at contamination that was not confined to an operable unit (OU) or SER source area. The objectives of the sitewide RI were to: Provide information about site characteristics to support individual OU RI/FS efforts and the sitewide RI/FS, including site hydrogeology and determination of background soil and groundwater characteristics; identify and characterize contamination that is not confined or attributable to a specific source area through sitewide monitoring of groundwater and surface water; evaluate cumulative risks to human health and the environment from contamination on a sitewide basis; and provide a mechanism for continued cohesive sitewide monitoring.

  2. Validity of Wind Load Distribution based on High Frequency Force Balance Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Validity of Wind Load Distribution based on High Frequency Force Balance Measurements Xinzhong Chen such a modal analysis procedure for background and resonant response, estimation of the generalized wind force is the critical element for response prediction. The generalized wind force can be characterized through

  3. AN IMPLANTABLE ALL-PARYLENE LIQUID-IMPEDANCE BASED MEMS FORCE SENSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Ellis

    . Specifically, in situ and in vivo measurement of interfacial forces exerted on tissue by chronically implantedAN IMPLANTABLE ALL-PARYLENE LIQUID-IMPEDANCE BASED MEMS FORCE SENSOR Christian A. Gutierrez1 ABSTRACT We present a new transducer paradigm based on the electrochemical impedance transduction

  4. Study of Thermal Properties of Graphene-Based Structures Using the Force Constant Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Study of Thermal Properties of Graphene-Based Structures Using the Force Constant Method Hossein, 2012) Abstract The thermal properties of graphene-based materials are theoretically investigated transport is investigated for different structures including graphene, graphene antidot lat- tices

  5. Rendering of Environmental Force Feedback in Mobile Robot Teleoperation based on Fuzzy Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryu, Jee-Hwan

    Rendering of Environmental Force Feedback in Mobile Robot Teleoperation based on Fuzzy Logic Ildar Farkhatdinov, Jee-Hwan Ryu and Jury Poduraev Abstract-- In this paper a study on rendering of environmen- tal to the distance between the obstacles and the mobile robot. In previous approaches force feedback was rendered

  6. Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dollar, Aaron M.

    Grasp and Force Based Taxonomy of Split-Hook Prosthetic Terminal Devices Joseph T. Belter, Bo C developed two taxonomies of split-hook use, one on grasp shape and one on force exertion, illustrating of the classifications. These taxonomies serve to establish a common language and means of comparing the types of grasps

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia/KAFB Wind Farm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and economic competitiveness. Tagged with: Energy * Renewable Energy * wind energy * Wind Farm Comments are closed. Last Updated: September 8, 2011 Go To Top Exceptional service...

  8. Wave force coefficient correlation based on wake volume scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, T.E.; Feifarek, M.J.; Golestanian, H. (Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States). School of Engineering)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A correlation of the hydrodynamic drag force on a cylinder for a periodic motion is demonstrated. The correlation indicates the dependence of the unsteady flow drag coefficient on the wake volume parameter. This parameter is a measure of the volume of flow through the boundary layer and into the wake in a half-cycle. For a laminar boundary layer, this dimensionless parameter is proportional to the Keulegan-Carpenter number and inversely proportional to the square root of the Reynolds number. Using wake volume scaling, drag coefficients were effectively collapsed into a single curve.

  9. ESPC Success Story - Dyess Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (FEMP) Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) Success Story on water conservation and green energy at Dyess Air Foce Base at Dyess, Texas. espcssdyess.pdf More Documents &...

  10. Case Study - Hill Air Force Base, Utah | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and 350,000 for task orders 1 and 2. Implementation of an initiative to replace faulty steam traps throughout the Base will result in annual savings of about 1 million. There may...

  11. Quantum mechanics based force field for carbon ,,QMFF-Cx... validated to reproduce the mechanical and thermodynamics properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Quantum mechanics based force field for carbon ,,QMFF-Cx... validated to reproduce the mechanical mechanics based force field for carbon QMFF-Cx by fitting to results from density functional theory . A third, eclipsed geometry is calculated to be much higher in energy. The QMFF-Cx force field leads

  12. Energy Savings Performance Contract- Robins Air Force Base, Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edge, J. S.

    was not going to be easily achieved. Natural gas supplies were already being competed yearly between a local municipality and a nearby gas supply company. Robins purchased the gas consumed under two different tariff structures. Fir gas could be purchased... around the base. In 1994 Robins switched a main portion f its natural gas load from the firm tariff to e interruptible tariff. A small propane mixing plant w constructed to provide the required backup under t e interruptible tariff. The two steam...

  13. A comprehensive approach to solid waste and recycling at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, G.G.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The abrupt closure of a nearby, and historically utilized, Kirtland Air Force Base landfill imposed a multitude of solid waste management problems for the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL) research and development facilities operated by Lockheed Martin Company. Due to the close proximity of KAFB, SNL historically used KAFB`s landfill for disposal of solid waste. Under this arrangement SNL paid little or no cost for disposal of its solid waste stream. The disadvantage was that KAFB personnel did not track waste volumes entering the landfill from SNL. On August 1, 1994 this all came to an end. KAFB, without advance notice, closed the sanitary waste and asbestos cells of the landfill. The rapid resolution of unique regulatory issues; the aggressive accomplishment of reviewing options and implementing transport, screening, recycling and disposal procedures; and the construction and operation of a model, on-site Solid Waste Transfer Facility (SWTF) can serve as a case study for servicing DOE solid waste management and recycling needs in a safe, compliant, and timely manor.

  14. Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Surface aerosol radiative forcing derived from collocated ground-based radiometric observations-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer data match closely with those from the Cimel sun- photometer data for two of the sunphotometer to retrieve aerosol optical depths, a, along with observed surface flux data from field campaigns

  15. Polarizable Atomic Multipole-Based AMOEBA Force Field for Proteins Jiajing Zhang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Jay

    Polarizable Atomic Multipole-Based AMOEBA Force Field for Proteins Yue Shi, Zhen Xia, Jiajing Zhang is presented. The current version (AMOEBA- 2013) utilizes permanent electrostatic multipole moments through- ments. The atomic multipole electrostatic parameters for each amino acid residue type are derived from

  16. Experiments in Adaptive ModelBased Force Control Louis Whitcomb # , Suguru Arimoto,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitcomb, Louis L.

    trajectory tracking of a robot arm whose gripper is in point contact with a smooth surface. The comparative experiments with a new class of model­based adaptive force control algorithms for robot arms [6, 3 Controllers We adopt the commonly accepted plant model for a robot arm in rigid contact with a smooth

  17. Interaction of Coupled Particles Based on Lennard-Jones and Spring Forces in Brownian Ratchet Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleeson, James P.

    Interaction of Coupled Particles Based on Lennard-Jones and Spring Forces in Brownian Ratchet particles moving in one-dimensional flashing ratchet is considered. Lennard-Jones type interaction. Keywords: Brownian motor; Coupled ratchet; Elastic coupling; Lennard-Jones potential; DNA separation 1

  18. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this wellthe most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  19. Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this wellthe most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

  20. (Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  1. Summary and evaluation of hydraulic property data available for Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.; Thorne, P.D.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the contaminant source areas at Eielson Air Force Base are located above an unconfined alluvial aquifer with relatively high hydraulic conductivity. Hydraulic tests that have been conducted on wells at the base were evaluated, and in some cases reanalyzed, to determine hydraulic conductivity and specific yield for the aquifer. The reviewed tests included 2 multiple-well pumping tests and 30 slug tests. One slug test was conducted on a well in the bedrock aquifer at Site 38. All the other tests were conducted on the alluvial aquifer.

  2. Fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation survey, Norton Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fall 1994 wildlife and vegetation surveys were completed October 3-7, 1994, at Norton Air Force Base (AFB), California. Two biologists from CDM Federal Programs, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional biologist and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) lead biologist conducted the surveys. A habitat assessment of three Installation Restoration Project (IRP) sites at Norton Air Force Base was also completed during the fall survey period. The IRP sites include: Landfill No. 2 (Site 2); the Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) area; and Former Fire Training Area No. 1 (Site 5). The assessments were designed to qualitatively characterize the sites of concern, identify potential ecological receptors, and provide information for Remedial Design/Remedial Action activities. A Reference Area (Santa Ana River Wash) and the base urban areas were also characterized. The reference area assessment was performed to provide a baseline for comparison with the IRP site habitats. The fall 1994 survey is the second of up to four surveys that may be completed. In order to develop a complete understanding of all plant and animal species using the base, these surveys were planned to be conducted over four seasons. Species composition can vary widely during the course of a year in Southern California, and therefore, seasonal surveys will provide the most complete and reliable data to address changes in habitat structure and wildlife use of the site. Subsequent surveys will focus on seasonal wildlife observations and a spring vegetation survey.

  3. Robins Air Force Base Integrated Resource Assessment. Volume 2, Baseline Detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, J.M.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at Robins Air Force Base (AFB), a US Air Force Materiel Command facility located near Macon, Georgia. This is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Integrated Resource Assessment. The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins AFB. This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This program (1) identifies and evaluates all cost-effective energy projects; (2) develops a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) targets 100% of the financing required to implement energy efficiency projects. PNL applied this model program to Robins AFB. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, oil, propane, and wood chip use for fiscal year 1991. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Robins AFB by building type, fuel type, and energy end use. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  4. Operable Unit 1 remedial investigation report, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, T.J.; Fruland, R.M.; Liikala, T.L. [and others

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This remedial investigation report for operable Unit 1 (OU-1) at Eielson Air Force Base presents data, calculations, and conclusions as to the nature and extent of surface and subsurface contamination at the eight source areas that make up OU-1. The information is based on the 1993 field investigation result and previous investigations. This report is the first in a set of three for OU-1. The other reports are the baseline risk assessment and feasibility study. The information in these reports will lead to a Record of Decision that will guide and conclude the environmental restoration effort for OU-1 at Eielson Air Force Base. The primary contaminants of concern include fuels and fuel-related contaminants (diesel; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene; total petroleum hydrocarbon; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), maintenance-related solvents and cleaners (volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroothylene), polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The origins of contaminants of concern include leaks from storage tanks, drums and piping, and spills. Ongoing operations and past sitewide practices also contribute to contaminants of concern at OU-1 source areas. These include spraying mixed oil and solvent wastes on unpaved roads and aerial spraying of DDT.

  5. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  6. Polycarbonate Simulations with a Density Functional Based Force Field P. Ballone, B. Montanari, and R. O. Jones*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polycarbonate Simulations with a Density Functional Based Force Field P. Ballone, B. Montanari properties of molecules related to polycarbonate have been used to optimize the parameters describing dynamics simulations of crystalline, amorphous, and liquid polycarbonate systems. Applications include

  7. A Standing Posture Control Based on Ground Reaction Force Satoshi Ito1),2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Satoshi

    such as inertial forces, gravitational forces, and ground reaction forces. Among them, we here fo- cus. To achieve it, we design two control laws for each ground reaction force. By alternatively switching them- trol laws are considered. Furthermore, we also study the posture changes by the stationery external

  8. Patrick Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Elliott, D.B.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Force has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost effective energy projects at Patrick Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Patrick AFB which is located south of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume.2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories. A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance, and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost analysis indicating the net present value and value index of each ERO.

  9. Robins Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, G.P.; Keller, J.M.; Stucky, D.J.; Wahlstrom, R.R.; Larson, L.L.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) has tasked the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), supported by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Robins Air Force Base (AFB). This is part of a model program that PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at the AFMC Robins AFB facility located approximately 15 miles south of Macon, Georgia. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 2, Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 13 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative-description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings; impacts on operation and maintenance (O&M); and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. A description of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions is also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost-effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  10. Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, Ren M., E-mail: roverney@u.washington.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called intrinsic friction analysis (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

  11. MEASUREMENT BASED DETERMINATION OF AEROSOL FORCINGS AT ARM SITES: PROPOSED JOINT ASP-ARM STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of aerosol forcings. The dimmed forcings would not be determined -- no indirect aerosol effect in cloud free Stephen E. Schwartz For presentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Science Team) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. There are numerous aerosol forcings

  12. The Force Field for Amino Acid Based Ionic Liquids: Polar Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fileti, Eudes Eterno

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic liquids (ILs) constitute one of the most active fields of research nowadays. Many organic and inorganic molecules can be converted into ions via relatively simple procedures. These ions can be combined into ILs. Amino acid based ILs (AAILs) represent a specific interest due to solubilization of biological species, participation in enzymatic catalysis, and capturing toxic gases. We develop a new force field (FF) for the seven selected AAILs comprising 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium cation and amino acid anions with polar residues. The anions were obtained via deprotonation of carboxyl group. We account for peculiar interactions between the anion and the cation by fitting electrostatic potential for an ion pair, in contrast to isolated ions. The van der Waals interactions were transferred from the CHARMM36 FF with minor modifications, as suggested by hybrid density functional theory. Compatibility between our parameters and CHARMM36 parameters is preserved. The developed interaction model fosters computation...

  13. Microcomputer pollution model for civilian airports and Air Force bases. Model description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segal, H.M.; Hamilton, P.L.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of three reports describing the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS). EDMS is a complex source emissions/dispersion model for use at civilian airports and Air Force bases. It operates in both a refined and a screening mode and is programmed for an IBM-XT (or compatible) computer. This report--MODEL DESCRIPTION--provides the technical description of the model. It first identifies the key design features of both the emissions (EMISSMOD) and dispersion (GIMM) portions of EDMS. It then describes the type of meteorological information the dispersion model can accept and identifies the manner in which it preprocesses National Climatic Center (NCC) data prior to a refined-model run. The report presents the results of running EDMS on a number of different microcomputers and compares EDMS results with those of comparable models. The appendices elaborate on the information noted above and list the source code.

  14. Vandenberg Air Force Base integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Dagle, J.E.; Hickman, B.J.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Sullivan, G.P.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Air Force Space Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program, to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E). The primary goal of the VAFB project is to identify all electric energy efficiency opportunities, and to negotiate with PG and E to acquire those resources through a customized demand-side management program for its federal clients. That customized program should have three major characteristics: (1) 100% up-front financing; (2) substantial utility cost-sharing; and (3) utility implementation through energy service companies under contract to the utility. A similar arrangement will be pursued with Southern California Gas for non-electric resource opportunities if that is deemed desirable by the site and if the gas utility seems open to such an approach. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at VAFB located near Lompoc, California. It is a companion report to Volume 1, Executive Summary, and Volume 3, Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, natural gas, fuel oil, and propane use for fiscal year 1991. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at VAFB by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A more complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, and applicable losses.

  15. Microcomputer pollution model for civilian airports and Air Force Bases. Model application and background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segal, H.M.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of three reports describing the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS). All reports use the same main title--A MICROCOMPUTER MODEL FOR CIVILIAN AIRPORTS AND AIR FORCE BASES--but different subtitles. The subtitles are: (1) USER'S GUIDE - ISSUE 2 (FAA-EE-88-3/ESL-TR-88-54); (2) MODEL DESCRIPTION (FAA-EE-88-4/ESL-TR-88-53); (S) MODEL APPLICATION AND BACKGROUND (FAA-EE-88-5/ESL-TR-88-55). The first and second reports above describe the EDMS model and provide instructions for its use. This is the third report. IT consists of an accumulation of five key documents describing the development and use of the EDMS model. This report is prepared in accordance with discussions with the EPA and requirements outlined in the March 27, 1980 Federal Register for submitting air-quality models to the EPA. Contents: Model Development and Use - Its Chronology and Reports; Monitoring Concorde EMissions; The Influence of Aircraft Operations on Air Quality at Airports; Simplex A - A simplified Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Airport Use -(User's Guide); Microcomputer Graphics in Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling; Pollution from Motor Vehicles and Aircraft at Stapleton International Airport (Abbreviated Report).

  16. Toward a Process-Based Molecular Model of SiC Membranes. 1. Development of a Reactive Force Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Toward a Process-Based Molecular Model of SiC Membranes. 1. Development of a Reactive Force Field Angeles, California 90089-1211, United States Computational Chemistry Group, School of Chemistry be compared with experimental data. Good agreement is found between the data and the results of the MD

  17. Computational Intelligence Based Data Fusion Algorithm for Dynamic sEMG and Skeletal Muscle Force Modelling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekhar Potluri,; Madhavi Anugolu; Marco P. Schoen; D. Subbaram Naidu

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, an array of three surface Electrography (sEMG) sensors are used to acquired muscle extension and contraction signals for 18 healthy test subjects. The skeletal muscle force is estimated using the acquired sEMG signals and a Non-linear Wiener Hammerstein model, relating the two signals in a dynamic fashion. The model is obtained from using System Identification (SI) algorithm. The obtained force models for each sensor are fused using a proposed fuzzy logic concept with the intent to improve the force estimation accuracy and resilience to sensor failure or misalignment. For the fuzzy logic inference system, the sEMG entropy, the relative error, and the correlation of the force signals are considered for defining the membership functions. The proposed fusion algorithm yields an average of 92.49% correlation between the actual force and the overall estimated force output. In addition, the proposed fusionbased approach is implemented on a test platform. Experiments indicate an improvement in finger/hand force estimation.

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 012517 (2011) Tunable polarity of the Casimir force based on saturated ferrites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ferrites Ran Zeng1 and Yaping Yang2,3 1 School of Telecommunication, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou the saturated ferrite materials under the influence of an external magnetic field are taken into consideration. Between the ordinary dielectric slab and the ferrite slab, repulsive Casimir force may be observed

  19. Computation of Casimir forces for dielectrics or intrinsic semiconductors based on the Boltzmann transport equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diego A. R. Dalvit; Steve K. Lamoreaux

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction between drifting carriers and traveling electromagnetic waves is considered within the context of the classical Boltzmann transport equation to compute the Casimir-Lifshitz force between media with small density of charge carriers, including dielectrics and intrinsic semiconductors. We expand upon our previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 101}, 163203 (2008)] and derive in some detail the frequency-dependent reflection amplitudes in this theory and compute the corresponding Casimir free energy for a parallel plate configuration. We critically discuss the the issue of verification of the Nernst theorem of thermodynamics in Casimir physics, and explicity show that our theory satisfies that theorem. Finally, we show how the theory of drifting carriers connects to previous computations of Casimir forces using spatial dispersion for the material boundaries.

  20. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S., E-mail: ishwang@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Huang, K.-Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  1. Estimating the Radiative Forcing of Carbonaceous Aerosols over California based on Satellite and Ground Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yangyang; Bahadur, R.; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonaceous aerosols have the potential to impact climate both through directly absorbing incoming solar radiation, and by indirectly affecting the cloud layer. To quantify this impact recent modeling studies have made great efforts to simulate both the spatial and temporal distribution of carbonaceous aerosols and their associated radiative forcing. This study makes the first observationally constrained assessment of the direct radiative forcing of carbonaceous aerosols at a regional scale over California. By exploiting multiple observations (including ground sites and satellites), we constructed the distribution of aerosol optical depths and aerosol absorption optical depths over California for a ten-year period (2000-2010). The total solar absorption was then partitioned into contributions from elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and dust aerosols using a newly developed scheme. Aerosol absorption optical depth due to carbonaceous aerosols (EC and OC) at 440 nm is 50%-200% larger than natural dust, with EC contributing the bulk (70%-90%). Observationally constrained EC absorption agrees reasonably well with estimates from regional transport models, but the model underestimates the OC AAOD by at least 50%. We estimate that the TOA warming from carbonaceous aerosols is 0.7 W/m2 and the TOA forcing due to OC is close to zero. The atmospheric heating of carbonaceous aerosols is 2.2-2.9 W/m2, of which EC contributed about 80-90%. The atmospheric heating due to OC is estimated to be 0.1 to 0.4 W/m2, larger than model simulations. The surface brightening due to EC reduction over the last two decades is estimated to be 1.5-3.5 W/m2.

  2. A Unified Method for Inference of Tokamak Equilibria and Validation of Force-Balance Models Based on Bayesian Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. von Nessi; M. J. Hole

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method, based on Bayesian analysis, is presented which unifies the inference of plasma equilibria parameters in a Tokamak with the ability to quantify differences between inferred equilibria and Grad-Shafranov force-balance solutions. At the heart of this technique is the new method of observation splitting, which allows multiple forward models to be associated with a single diagnostic observation. This new idea subsequently provides a means by which the the space of GS solutions can be efficiently characterised via a prior distribution. Moreover, by folding force-balance directly into one set of forward models and utilising simple Biot-Savart responses in another, the Bayesian inference of the plasma parameters itself produces an evidence (a normalisation constant of the inferred posterior distribution) which is sensitive to the relative consistency between both sets of models. This evidence can then be used to help determine the relative accuracy of the tested force-balance model across several discharges/times. These ideas have been implemented in a code called BEAST (Bayesian Equilibrium Analysis and Simulation Tool), which uses a special implementation of Skilling's nested sampling algorithm [Skilling, Bayesian Analysis 1(4), 833--859 (2006)] to perform sampling and evidence calculations on high-dimensional, non-Gaussian posteriors. Initial BEAST equilibrium inference results are presented for two high-performance MAST discharges.

  3. Summary of activities to remove the aircraft hydrant system (Panero site) at March Air Force Base, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrian, G.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the activities to remove the underground storage tank farm (Panero Site, Operable Unit 3, Installation Restoration Program) used for aircraft refueling at March AFB. This summary report is organized into four sections: introduction--gives the scope, information summary, and composition of the report; planned work scope--states the scope of work as provided in the Performance Work Statement for Removal of Aircraft Fuel Hydrant System March Air Force Base, California; demolition results--records the accomplishments for each task defined in the Performance Work Statement; and recycling efforts--record the efforts to reduce generating unnecessary waste.

  4. Climate forcing Climate forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKinnon, Jennifer

    parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

  5. Microcomputer pollution model for civilian airports and Air Force bases. User's guide - Issue 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Segal, H.M.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past 8 years, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) have developed a number of user-friendly emissions and dispersion models for air-quality assessment purposes. The major result of this effort is the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) which was completed in 1985 and released to the general public. Since that time, major modifications have been made in the EDMS system to enhance its usability and incorporate an integral dispersion model into its code. The approach of this guide is to provide hands-on instructions on how to use the model. The mechanism for doing this is an example problem introduced early in this document. Four short sections precede the example problem instructions. The first shows how the EDMS evolved from the earlier FAA and USAF mainframe models. The next three sections describe the hardware and software required to run Section 5 provides the hands-on instructions to produce: 1) an emissions inventory of all sources at an airport/airbase; and 2) an estimate of the concentrations produced by these sources at four airport locations. An inexperienced user should be able to process the example problem in less than 3 hours.

  6. An overview of the Noncyanide Metal Stripper program conducted at Kelly Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argyle, M.D.; Cowan, R.L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Noncyanide Metal Stripper Program was a waste minimization effort aimed at identifying and testing suitable noncyanide stripping solutions that could replace the cyanide stripping solutions found in the United States Air Force (USAF) Air Logistics Centers (ALC). The program started with laboratory testing of commercial stripping solutions. The performance of these solutions was compared with the cyanide process solutions C-101 and C-106 targeted for replacement. Plate metal stripping rate, basis metal corrosion, and compatibility with masking materials and biodegradability were all used to determine the performance of each product. Those products that passed the acceptance criteria were field tested using 25 to 50-gallon solutions to determine optimum operating conditions, stripper maintenance requirements, and maximum solution loading and longevity. The program included investigating any adverse effects these new products might have on existing chemical and biological waste treatment processes. All cyanide stripping solutions at the San Antonio Air Logistics Command Center have been successfully replaced with commercial noncyanide products. Generally, these replacements were less toxic and generated less waste and had longer lifetimes than their cyanide counterparts.

  7. Radiation Control Coatings Installed on Federal Buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaba, R.L.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical objectives of this CRADA comprise technology deployment and energy conservation efforts with the radiation control coatings industry and the utility sector. The results of this collaboration include a high-level data reporting, analysis and management system to support the deployment efforts. The technical objectives include successfully install, commission, operate, maintain and document the performance of radiation control coatings on roofs at Tyndall AFB and the Buildings Technology Center at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; determine the life cycle savings that can be achieved by using radiation control coatings on entire roofs at Tyndall AFB, based on documented installed cost and operating maintenance costs with and without the coatings; determine if any specific improvements are required in the coatings before they can be successfully deployed in the federal sector; determine the most effective way to facilitate the widespread and rapid deployment of radiation control coatings in the federal sector; and clearly define any barriers to deployment.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 ({sup 214}Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of {sup 214}Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of {sup 137}Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system.

  9. A pressure gauge based on gas density measurement from analysis of the thermal noise of an atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Paul, Mark R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a gas-density gauge based on the analysis of the thermally-driven fluctuations of an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. The fluctuations are modeled as a ring-down of a simple harmonic oscillator, which allows fitting of the resonance frequency and damping of the cantilever, which in turn yields the gas density. The pressure is obtained from the density using the known equation of state. In the range 10-220 kPa, the pressure readings from the cantilever gauge deviate by an average of only about 5% from pressure readings on a commercial gauge. The theoretical description we use to determine the pressure from the cantilever motion is based upon the continuum hypothesis, which sets a minimum pressure for our analysis. It is anticipated that the cantilever gauge could be extended to measure lower pressures given a molecular theoretical description. Alternatively, the gauge could be calibrated for use in the non-continuum range. Our measurement technique is similar to previous AFM cantilever measurements, but the analysis produces improved accuracy.

  10. Biologic surveys for the Sandia National Laboratories, Coyote Canyon Test Complex, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.M. [4115 Allen Dr., Kingsville, TX (United States); Knight, P.J. [Marron and Associates, Inc., Corrales, NM (United States)

    1994-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biologic survey performed in Coyote Canyon Test Complex (CCTC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Bernalillo County, New Mexico, which was conducted during the spring and summer of 1992 and 1993. CCTC is sited on land owned by the Department of Energy (DOE) and Kirtland Air Force Base and managed by SNL. The survey covered 3,760 acres of land, most of which is rarely disturbed by CCTC operations. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative to the general condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico, and relative to other grazing lands in central New Mexico. Widely dispersed, low intensity use by SNL as well as prohibition of grazing has probably contributed to abundance of special status species such as grama grass cactus within the CCTC area. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found in the area, as well as comprehensive assessment of biologic habitats. Included are analyses of potential impacts and mitigative measures designed to reduce or eliminate potential impacts. Included is a summary of CCTC program and testing activities.

  11. Selection of higher eigenmode amplitude based on dissipated power and virial contrast in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, Alfredo J.; Eslami, Babak; Lpez-Guerra, Enrique A.; Solares, Santiago D., E-mail: ssolares@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the effect of the amplitude ratio of the higher to the fundamental eigenmode in bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the phase contrast and the dissipated power contrast of the higher eigenmode. We explore the optimization of the amplitude ratio in order to maximize the type of contrast that is most relevant to the particular study. Specifically, we show that the trends in the contrast range behave differently for different quantities, especially the dissipated power and the phase, with the former being more meaningful than the latter (a similar analysis can be carried out using the virial, for which we also provide a brief example). Our work is based on numerical simulations using two different conservative-dissipative tip-sample models, including the standard linear solid and the combination of a dissipation coefficient with a conservative model, as well as experimental images of thin film Nafion{sup } proton exchange polymers. We focus on the original bimodal AFM method, where the higher eigenmode is driven with constant amplitude and frequency (i.e., in open loop).

  12. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

  13. UNRES -a united-residue force field for energy-based prediction of protein structure -origin and significance of multibody terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    UNRES - a united-residue force field for energy-based prediction of protein structure - origin, 80-952 Gdarlsk, Poland 2Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University to which the na- tive structure of a protein is a global minimum of its potential energy surface [32

  14. 1098 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2011 Impedance-Based Force Transduction Within

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Ellis

    (0.01­1 mN), and are geared toward general surgical gripping and grasping requiring force sensitivity, and the requisite packaging can often prohibit practical implementation [26]. Furthermore, protective elastic coat

  15. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  16. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

  17. Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

  18. Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Reynaud; A. Lambrecht

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present notes are organized as the lectures given at the Les Houches Summer School "Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics" in August 2013. The first section contains an introduction and a description of the current state-of-the-art for Casimir force measurements and their comparison with theory. The second and third sections are a pedagogical presentation of the main features of the theory of Casimir forces for 1-dimensional model systems and for mirrors in 3-dimensional space.

  19. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  20. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  1. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  2. Comparison of natural and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliva, Eduardo; Zeitoun, Philippe; Lambert, Guillaume; Sebban, Stephane [Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee, ENSTA ParisTech, Ecole Polytechnique Paris Tech, CNRS, UMR 7639, F-91761 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Fajardo, Marta [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Ros, David [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et Plasmas, Universite Paris Sud 11, Orsay (France); Velarde, Pedro [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The amplification of high-order harmonics (HOH) in a plasma-based amplifier is a multiscale, temporal phenomenon that couples plasma hydrodynamics, atomic processes, and HOH electromagnetic fields. We use a one-dimensional, time-dependent Maxwell-Bloch code to compare the natural amplification regime and another regime where plasma polarization is constantly forced by the HOH. In this regime, a 10-MW (i.e., 100 times higher than current seeded soft x-ray laser power), 1.5-{mu}J, 140-fs pulse free from the parasitic temporal structures appearing on the natural amplification regime can be obtained.

  3. Environmental assessment of the Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of the Lockheed Martin Company. SNL/NM is located on land controlled by DOE within the boundaries of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The major responsibilities of SNL/NM are the support of national security and energy projects. This report provides an environmental assessment of proposed remedial action activities at the solid waste management units at SNL/NM. A risk assessment of health hazards is also discussed.

  4. World gas supply and demand: 1980-2020. Based on a study by the International Gas Union Force II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fish, L.W.; Kalisch, R.B.; Wingenroth, J.L.; Kirk, S.R.; Meeder, J.F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If world oil prices and economic growth rates rise moderately (2%/yr) as assumed by the International Gas Union's Task Force II, world natural gas demand could increase from 1980's level of 52 quadrillion Btu to 74 quads by 1990 and 90 quads by 2000. Gas demand growth rates will peak at 4.5%/yr during 1980-85, then fall to 3.3%/yr in 1985-90, 2%/yr in the 1990s, and 1% after 2000, although the rates will differ substantially for various countries, regions, and sectors. World gas production (53 quads in 1980) could reach 90-120 quads by 2000 and 92-100 by 2020. The North American/European share of world production, however, will decline from 55% in 1980 to 37% by 1990 and to 27% in 2000. Although North America's conventional production in 2020 will be only 60% of its current level, the expected growth in unconventional output should push overall production up 12%. The world reserves/production ratio, now at 45 years, will drop to 31 years by 2000 and 29 by 2020; the respective world reserves estimates are 2621 and 2350 trillion CF.

  5. Lift Forces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count theLienertLift Forces in Bubbly

  6. Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical. Description: We are looking for a qualified candidate to join our team at the Air Force Research Laboratory

  7. An inverse analytical technique applied to solute-transport observations at Otis Air Force Base, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ala, Natalyn Kraemer

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    area at Otis AFB was developed by Konikow and Bredehoeft in 1978. This model is based on a rectangular, block-centered, finite-difference grid and simulates both flow and solute transport in a two- dimensional aquifer. The modeled area with its...). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Finite-difference grid used to model the study area by the USGS (after Thurman et al. , 1984). 14 Idealization of the dispersion process showing (a) plug flow; (b) longitudinal dispersion; (c) transverse dispersion; and (d) longitudinal...

  8. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  9. Biological investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biological field survey performed on the Sandia National Laboratories Aerial Cable Facility, at the east end of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), Bernalillo County, New Mexico. This survey was conducted late September through October, 1991. ACF occupies a 440-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service (USFS) for use by KAFB, and in turn placed under operational control of SNL by the Department of Energy (DOE). All land used by SNL for ACF is part of a 15,851-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service. In addition, a number of different organizations use the 15,851-acre area. The project area used by SNL encompasses portions of approximately six sections (3,840 acres) of US Forest Service land located within the foothills of the west side of the Manzano Mountains (East Mesa). The biological study area is used by the KAFB, the US Department of Interior, and SNL. This area includes: (1) Sol se Mete Springs and Canyon, (2) East Anchor Access Road, (3) East Anchor Site, (4) Rocket Sled Track, (5) North Arena, (6) East Instrumentation Site and Access Road, (7) West Anchor Access Road, (8) West Anchor Site, (9) South Arena, (10) Winch Sites, (11) West Instrumentation Sites, (12) Explosive Assembly Building, (13) Control Building, (14) Lurance Canyon Road and vicinity. Although portions of approximately 960 acres of withdrawn US Forest Service land have been altered, only 700 acres have been disturbed by activities associated with ACF; approximately 2,880 acres consist of natural habitat. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative lack of human disturbance have allowed this area to remain in a more natural vegetative state relative to the condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found on ACF, as well as a comprehensive assessment of biological habitats.

  10. Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

  11. In Search of the Inverted Region: Chromophore-Based Driving Force Dependence of Interfacial Electron Transfer Reactivity at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron Transfer Reactivity at the Nanocrystalline Titanium Dioxide Semiconductor/Solution Interface Susan: June 20, 2000 Intentional variations of the driving force for back electron transfer from titanium electron transfer for several variants of the classic tris polypyridyl ruthenium/nanocrystalline titanium

  12. Three-Nucleon Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter U. Sauer

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries towards calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian; they represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the decription of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces.

  13. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

  14. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neel, D. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  15. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquivel-Sirvent, R

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  16. Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Esquivel-Sirvent

    2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

  17. Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Laurence

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

  18. Casimir forces in the time domain: Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Steven G.

    Our previous article [Phys. Rev. A 80, 012115 (2009)] introduced a method to compute Casimir forces in arbitrary geometries and for arbitrary materials that was based on a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) scheme. In ...

  19. NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randrup, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

  20. Forces from Connes' geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2007-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We try to give a pedagogical introduction to Connes' derivation of the standard model of electro-magnetic, weak and strong forces from gravity.

  1. Design and characterization of a low cost dual differential proving ring force sensor utilizing Hall-effect sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivest, Christopher W. (Christopher Warren)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel dual differential hall-effect based proving ring force sensor has been designed, manufactured, and tested. Strain gauge based force sensors are among the most common methods of measuring static and dynamic forces, ...

  2. Protective Force Program Manual

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

  3. OOTW Force Design Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

  4. Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. L. Koschmieder

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

  5. Federal Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  6. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

  7. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  8. Strategic forces briefing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bing, G.; Chrzanowski, P.; May, M.; Nordyke, M.

    1989-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Strategic Forces Briefing'' is our attempt, accomplished over the past several months, to outline and highlight the more significant strategic force issues that must be addressed in the near future. Some issues are recurrent: the need for an effective modernized Triad and a constant concern for force survivability. Some issues derive from arms control: the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (SALT) are sufficiently advanced to set broad numerical limits on forces, but not so constraining as to preclude choices among weapon systems and deployment modes. Finally, a new administration faced with serious budgetary problems must strive for the most effective strategic forces limited dollars can buy and support. A review of strategic forces logically begins with consideration of the missions the forces are charged with. We begin the briefing with a short review of targeting policy and implementation within the constraints of available unclassified information. We then review each element of the Triad with sections on SLBMs, ICBMs, and Air-Breathing (bomber and cruise missile) systems. A short section at the end deals with the potential impact of strategic defense on offensive force planning. We consider ABM, ASAT, and air defense; but we do not attempt to address the technical issues of strategic defense per se. The final section gives a brief overview of the tritium supply problem. We conclude with a summary of recommendations that emerge from our review. The results of calculation on the effectiveness of various weapon systems as a function of cost that are presented in the briefing are by Paul Chrzanowski.

  9. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, Wiebe M. de [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, Robert M. [ISIS Neutron Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  10. Hydrodynamic forces on piggyback pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jakobsen, M.L.; Sayer, P. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasing number of new offshore pipelines have been designed as bundles, mainly because of overall cost reductions. One popular way of combining two pipelines with different diameters is the piggyback configuration, with the smaller pipeline strapped on top of the main pipeline. The external hydrodynamic forces on this combination are at present very roughly estimated; pipeline engineers need more data to support their designs. This paper presents experimental results for the in-line hydrodynamic loading on three different piggyback set-ups. The models comprised a 0.4 m main pipeline, and three piggyback pipelines with diameters of 0.038 m, 0.059 m and 0.099 m. Each small pipeline was separately mounted to the main pipeline, with a gap equal to its own diameter. These model sizes lie approximately between half- and full-scale. Experiments were undertaken for K{sub C} between 5 and 42, and R{sub e} in the range 0.0 * 10{sup 4} to 8.5 * 10{sup 5}. The results based on Morison`s equation indicate that a simple addition of the separate forces acting on each cylinder underestimates the actual force by up to 35% at low K{sub C} (< {approximately} 10) and by as much as 100% in the drag-dominated regime (K{sub C} > {approximately} 20).

  11. Unbalanced electromagnetic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Craig Martin

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coils V ? 4 Vertical spring suspension experiment V ? 5 Horizontal suspension experiment 74 V ? 6 Linear plot of data for egg-shaped coil; horizontal suspension experiment V ? 7 Log-log plot of data for egg-shaped coil; horizontal suspension... segment L on straight line current segment L 53 V-1 Geometrical configuration of experimental coils. . . 62 V ? 2 Retational system for measuring force in various size points 65 xi ~Fi ure V ? 3 Rotational system for measuring force in egg-shaped...

  12. Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mccomiskey, Allison

    Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

  13. Protective Force Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

  14. Contractor Protective Force

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

  15. Work Force Discipline

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

  16. Centrifugal cosmological repulsive force in a homogeneous universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko

    2011-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the dynamics of homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional worlds filled with radiation (3R-worlds). It is shown that the dynamics of these worlds with the additional fourth large-scale spatial dimension leads to an important effect. At 3R-worlds the forces of repulsion appear. The source of these forces is the thermal energy of the radiation that fills these worlds. In the four-dimensional space, these forces are centrifugal. They operate in an external for 3R-world spatial dimension and stretch it. In the three-dimensional comoving coordinate system the centrifugal forces shows themselves as forces of repulsion. Standard Einstein's equations do not describe these forces. Written generalized Einstein's equation describing the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, taking into consideration the centrifugal forces of repulsion. We propose a cosmological model of the universe, based on these equations. This model apply to explain the observation data.

  17. Force Modulator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmond Clark

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

  18. Relativistic forces in Lagangian mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Muoz Daz

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a general definition of \\emph{relativistic force} in the context of Lagrangian mechanics. Once this is done we prove that the only relativistic forces which are linear on the velocities are those coming from differential 2-forms defined on the configuration space. In this sense, electromagnetic fields provide a mechanical system with the simplest type of relativistic forces.

  19. Hill Air Force Base Energy Performance Contract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, M. D.

    the original plants were n t required to meet current ASHRAE 15 standards ~ r refrigerant leak detection and evacuation. The chill r replacement will result in energy savings by utilizi g the more efficient screw-compressor chiller betwe n 30% part load... ed from the system. The concept of this ECM is to redIce stearn distribution pressures to the minimum require to provide necessary steam flow at each of the buildi gs connected on the distribution system, which is curre tly calculated...

  20. Hill Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of EnergySeacrist, SeniorVolumeOverview Energy savings

  1. Patrick Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse(Expired) |CERCLA ProcessDepartmentPastPatricia

  2. ESPC Success Story - Dyess Air Force Base

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:RevisedAdvisory Board Contributions EMEM STAREPIcodeFEDERALTEMPLATEESPCRISK,

  3. Hill Air Force Base | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a

  4. Dark Forces At The Tevatron

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

  5. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  6. Casimir force driven ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsten Emig

    2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the non-linear dynamics of two parallel periodically patterned metal surfaces that are coupled by the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between them. The resulting Casimir force generates for asymmetric patterns with a time-periodically driven surface-to-surface distance a ratchet effect, allowing for directed lateral motion of the surfaces in sizeable parameter ranges. It is crucial to take into account inertia effects and hence chaotic dynamics which are described by Langevin dynamics. Multiple velocity reversals occur as a function of driving, mean surface distance, and effective damping. These transport properties are shown to be stable against weak ambient noise.

  7. Work Force Restructuring Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment of EnergyThePatricia Hoffman is theDr.Ulrike1, 2014Force

  8. Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

  9. Conference Discussion of the Nuclear Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz Gross,Thomas D. Cohen,Evgeny Epelbaum,R. Machleidt

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Discussion of the nuclear force, lead by a round table consisting of T. Cohen, E. Epelbaum, R. Machleidt, and F. Gross (chair). After an invited talk by Machleidt, published elsewhere in these proceedings, brief remarks are made by Epelbaum, Cohen, and Gross, followed by discussion from the floor moderated by the chair. The chair asked the round table and the participants to focus on the following issues: (1)What does each approach (chiral effective field theory, large Nc, and relativistic phenomenology) contribute to our knowledge of the nuclear force? Do we need them all? Is any one transcendent? (2) How important for applications (few body, nuclear structure, EMC effect, for example) are precise fits to the NN data below 350 MeV? How precise do these fits have to be? (3) Can we learn anything about nonperturbative QCD from these studies of the nuclear force? The discussion presented here is based on a video recording made at the conference and transcribed afterward.

  10. A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakio?lu, T. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 48740 Turun, Mu?la (Turkey); zgn, Ege; Gnay, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

  11. Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

  12. Pairing forces in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chasman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution, the author mentions some features of pairing forces that are unique to nuclei and cover some areas of major interest in nuclear structure research, that involve pairing. At the level of most nuclear structure studies, nuclei are treated as consisting of two kinds of fermions (protons and neutrons) in a valence space with rather few levels. These features give rise to unique aspects of pairing forces in nuclei: (1) n-p pairing in T = 0 as well as the usual T = 1 pairing that is characteristic of like fermions; (2) a need to correct pairing calculations for the (1/N) effects that can typically be neglected in superconducting solids. An issue of current concern is the nature of the pairing interaction: several recent studies suggest a need for a density dependent form of the pairing interaction. There is a good deal of feedback between the questions of accurate calculations of pairing interactions and the form and magnitude of the pairing interaction. Finally, the authors discuss some many-body wave functions that are a generalization of the BCS wave function form, and apply them to a calculation of energy level spacings in superdeformed rotational bands.

  13. atomic force acoustic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems Peder of Denmark 31 January 2008 12;ii 12;Abstract Within the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems 7 3 Mechanical Diode-Based Ultrasonic Atomic Force...

  14. Bedrock channel response to tetonic, climatic and eustatic forcings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Noah P

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of bedrock channels to external forcings is investigated in this thesis. The approach is to test and constrain a theoretical model for bedrock-channel incision based on shear stress using field data. The primary ...

  15. ForceFit: a code to fit classical force fields to ab-initio potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, Neil Jon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Waldher, Benjamin [WSU; Kuta, Jadwiga [WSU; Clark, Aurora [WSU; Clark, Aurora E [NON LANL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ForceFit program package has been developed for fitting classical force field parameters based upon a force matching algorithm to quantum mechanical gradients of configurations that span the potential energy surface of the system. The program, which runs under Unix and is written in C++, is an easy to use, nonproprietary platform that enables gradient fitting of a wide variety of functional force field forms to quantum mechanical information obtained from an array of common electronic structure codes. All aspects of the fitting process are run from a graphical user interface, from the parsing of quantum mechanical data, assembling of a potential energy surface database, setting the force field and variables to be optimized, choosing a molecular mechanics code for comparison to the reference data, and finally, the initiation of a least squares minimization algorithm. Furthermore, the code is based on a modular templated code design that enables the facile addition of new functionality to the program.

  16. Dynamic Force AFM (Asylum) | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    specifically for biological applications and can be used to: Study individual protein or DNA molecules in situ Image the surface of living cells Measure the adhesive forces of...

  17. Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

  18. Castro with Carranzista Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare magnetic reversal of nanostructured circular magnetic dots of different sizes. This comparison is based on superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, neutron scattering, Monte Carlo simulation, and analytical...

  19. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

  20. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

  1. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Biopower at the Chanute Air Force Base in Rantoul, Illinois. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarlata, C.; Mosey, G.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Former Chanute Air Force Base site in Rantoul, Illinois, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was contacted to provide technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this study was to assess the site for a possible biopower system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and impacts of different biopower options.

  2. Pulsating Casimir force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Klimchitskaya; U. Mohideen; V. M. Mostepanenko

    2007-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the Lifshitz theory we show that the illumination of one (Si) plate in the three-layer systems Au--ethanol--Si, Si--ethanol--Si and $\\alpha$-Al${}_2$O${}_3$--ethanol--Si with laser pulses can change the Casimir attraction to Casimir repulsion and vice versa. The proposed effect opens novel opportunities in nanotechnology to actuate the periodic movement in electro- and optomechanical micromachines based entirely on the zero-point oscillations of the quantum vacuum without the action of mechanical springs.

  3. Forcing scheme in pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Q. Li; K. H. Luo; X. J. Li

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is a widely used multiphase model in the LB community. In this model, an interaction force, which is usually implemented via a forcing scheme, is employed to mimic the molecular interactions that cause phase segregation. The forcing scheme is therefore expected to play an important role in the pseudo-potential LB model. In this paper, we aim to address some key issues about forcing schemes in the pseudo-potential LB model. Firstly, theoretical and numerical analyses will be made for Shan-Chen's forcing scheme and the exact-difference-method (EDM) forcing scheme. The nature of these two schemes and their recovered macroscopic equations will be shown. Secondly, through a theoretical analysis, we will reveal the physics behind the phenomenon that different forcing schemes exhibit different performances in the pseudo-potential LB model. Moreover, based on the analysis, we will present an improved forcing scheme and numerically demonstrate that the improved scheme can be treated as an alternative approach for achieving thermodynamic consistency in the pseudo-potential LB model.

  4. Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    points; Protective Force Firearms Qualification Courses Section A Appendix 4 July 2011 4-3 d. a projectile print within or cutting the outer ring is 2 points; and e. a projectile...

  5. Measurement of three-point hitch forces on agricultural tractors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandy, Steven Morris

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dynamometer to be used as an additional tool in monitoring tractor performance. Phases 1, Z, and 3 have been completed and these were described by Green, et al. ( 1985), Morris ( 1984), and Grogan ( 1985), respectively. Phase 4 is the subject.... The upper link was instrumented for axial force measurement. measured forces were resolved into components based on the measured angle of the hitch. A second three-point hitch dynamometer was investigated that used load sensing clevis pins. These pins...

  6. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10{sup 2} and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 {micro}m to 1km.

  7. Prediction of vehicle impact forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  8. Prediction of vehicle impact forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaderka, Darrell Laine

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

  9. Strong wind forcing of the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zedler, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    latitudes, tropical storm force winds may be sufficient tolocation where hurricane force winds arrive at the region.shear data. The wind stress used to force these model was

  10. U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

  11. Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zihua Weng

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in the interplanetary space between the sun and the earth.

  12. Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spyros Basilakos; Joan Sola

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kind of Hubble terms ${\\dot H}$ and $H^{2}$ appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the ${\\dot H}$ dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term $H$ without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavors this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

  13. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  14. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  15. Nuclear force in Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

    2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

  16. Spatio-temporal spectral analysis of a forced cylinder wake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Adamo, Juan; Wesfreid, Jos Eduardo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wake of a circular cylinder performing rotary oscillations is studied using hydrodynamic tunnel experiments at $Re=100$. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry on the mid-plane perpendicular to the axis of cylinder is used to characterize the spatial development of the flow and its stability properties. The lock-in phenomenon that determines the boundaries between regions of the forcing parameter space were the wake is globally unstable or convectively unstable is scrutinized using the experimental data. A novel method based on the analysis of power density spectra of the flow allows us to give a detailed description of the forced wake, shedding light on the energy distribution in the different frequency components and in particular on a cascade-like mechanism evidenced for a high amplitude of the forcing oscillation. In addition, a calculation of the drag from the velocity field is performed, allowing us to relate the resulting force on the body to the wake properties.

  17. Forcing in Strategic Belief Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tohm, Fernando; Gangle, Rocco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forcing is a methodology for building models of Set Theory satisfying certain properties. Since its inception by Paul Cohen, in the early 1960s, it has been applied to several areas in Mathematical Logic, becoming a powerful tool in the analysis of axiomatic systems. In this paper we extend the applicability of forcing to game-theoretic strategic belief models. In particular, we propose a very general notion of solutions for such games by enlarging Brandenburger's $RmAR$ condition via extension through generic types.

  18. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  19. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  20. Solvent-induced forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

  1. October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

  2. Nanoscale Optical Devices: Force, Torque and Modulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    enhancements produced by a bowtie (Butterworth Heinemann,stronger binding forces. For bowtie structures, the field

  3. Comparison of various approaches to the calculation of optically induced forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torchigin, V.P., E-mail: v_torchigin@mail.ru; Torchigin, A.V.

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Various approaches used for the calculation of optically induced forces applied to a transparent optical medium imbedded in a close plane optical resonator are analyzed. The forces are calculated by means of analysis of a change in the eigen frequency and energy stored in the resonator at various positions of the medium. It is shown that results obtained are identical to those calculated by means of approaches based on the Maxwell stress tensor, based on an analysis of a change in the momentum of light. An exception is for results obtained on the base of last versions of the Lorentz density force. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are no Lorentz forces in a homogeneous optical medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A net force produced by an inhomogeneous electrostriction pressure is equal to zero. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Any distributions of the Lorentz force in a homogeneous optical medium are misleading.

  4. LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text

  5. The Engineering of Optical Conservative Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Junjie; Ding, Kun; Du, Guiqiang; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T; Ng, Jack

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical forces have been fruitfully applied in a broad variety of areas that not only span the traditional scientific fields such as physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in more applied fields. It is customary and useful to split the optical force into the (conservative) gradient force and the (non-conservative) scattering and absorption force. These forces are different in attributes. The ability to tailor them will open great potential in fundamental optics and practical applications. Here, we present an analytical and a numerical approach to calculate these forces, and, with these tools, we create a fairly general class of 2D conservative optical force field. In general, particles immersed in an optical force do not obey equilibrium statistical mechanics, making the analysis complicated. With conservative forces, these issues are resolved.

  6. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier Montes; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal, E-mail: michal.borkovec@unige.ch [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland)] [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Popescu, Mihail N. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)] [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 ?m in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 0.5) 10{sup ?21} J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  7. Centrifugal force in Kerr geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sai Iyer; A R Prasanna

    1992-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We have obtained the correct expression for the centrifugal force acting on a particle at the equatorial circumference of a rotating body in the locally non-rotating frame of the Kerr geometry. Using this expression for the equilibrium of an element on the surface of a slowly rotating Maclaurin spheroid, we obtain the expression for the ellipticity (as discussed earlier by Abramowicz and Miller) and determine the radius at which the ellipticity is maximum.

  8. OSCILLATORY FLOW FORCED CONVECTION IN MICRO HEAT SPREADERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beskok, Ali

    transfer devices, micro heat pipes, based on capillary pumping of a multiphase uid in microchannels, have-phase forced convection heat transfer and ow characteristics of water in microchannels, both in the laminar) concept for ef cient transport of large, concentrated heat loads is introduced. The MHS is a single

  9. Pre-Feasibility Analysis of Pellet Manufacturing on the Former Loring Air Force Base Site. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunsberger, R.; Mosey, G.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Lands initiative, engaged the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct feasibility studies to assess the viability of developing renewable energy generating facilities on contaminated sites. This site, in Limestone, Maine -- formerly the location of the Loring Air Force Base but now owned by the Aroostook Band of Micmac -- was selected for the potential to produce heating pellets from woody feedstock. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource to evaluate based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. NREL also evaluates potential savings from converting existing Micmac property from oil-fired heating to pellet heating.

  10. Friction forces in cosmological models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

    2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

  11. Marx's Thesis that the Forces of Production Determine the Relations of Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tollefson, Erik

    Marx's Thesis that the Forces of Production Determine the Relations of Production ERIK TOLLEFSON University of Kansas A perennial objection against historical materi alism is that that which is determined seems capable of becoming independent....e. the forces of production, the relations of production, and the superstructure), rather than the usual two (i.e. the economic base and its superstructure). Distinguishing the forces of pro duction from relations of production is advantageous...

  12. Self force on an accelerated particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Linz; John L. Friedman; Alan G. Wiseman

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the singular field of an accelerated point particle (scalar charge, electric charge or small gravitating mass) moving on an accelerated (non-geodesic) trajectory in a generic background spacetime. Using a mode-sum regularization scheme, we obtain explicit expressions for the self-force regularization parameters. In the electromagnetic and gravitational case, we use a Lorenz gauge. This work extends the work of Barack and Ori [1] who demonstrated that the regularization parameters for a point particle in geodesic motion in a Schwarzschild spacetime can be described solely by the leading and subleading terms in the mode-sum (commonly known as the $A$ and $B$ terms) and that all terms of higher order in $\\ell$ vanish upon summation (later they showed the same behavior for geodesic motion in Kerr [2], [3]). We demonstrate that these properties are universal to point particles moving through any smooth spacetime along arbitrary (accelerated) trajectories. Our renormalization scheme is based on, but not identical to, the Quinn-Wald axioms. As we develop our approach, we review and extend work showing that that different definitions of the singular field used in the literature are equivalent to our approach. Because our approach does not assume geodesic motion of the perturbing particle, we are able use our mode-sum formalism to explicitly recover a well-known result: The self-force on static scalar charges near a Schwarzschild black hole vanishes.

  13. On Dynamic Models of Robot Force Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppinger, Steven D.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For precise robot control, endpoint compliance strategies utilize feedback from a force sensor located near the tool/workpiece interface. Such endpoint force control systems have been observed in the laboratory to be ...

  14. Handheld force-controlled ultrasound probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An hand-held force controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact force between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand ...

  15. Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

  16. Glacial cycles and astronomical forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); MacDonald, G.J. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)] [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1997-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Narrow spectral features in ocean sediment records offer strong evidence that the cycles of glaciation were driven by astronomical forces. Two million years ago, the cycles match the 41,000-year period of Earth`s obliquity. This supports the Croll/Milankovitch theory, which attributes the cycles to variations in insolation. But for the past million years, the spectrum is dominated by a single 100,000-year feature and is a poor match to the predictions of insolation models. The spectrum can be accounted for by a theory that derives the cycles of glaciation from variations in the inclination of Earth`s orbital plane.

  17. Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

  18. Reply to Quaas et al.: Can satellites be used to estimate indirect climate forcing by aerosols?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, J. E.; Zhou, Cheng; Xu, Li; Wang, Minghuai

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We welcome the comments by Quaas et al. (1). In our paper (2), we used a model to show that the methods used to estimate indirect aerosol forcing using satellite data, especially those based on relating the slope of present-day (PD) drop number (Nc) to aerosol optical depth (AOD), underestimate the forcing calculated when both PD and preindustrial (PI) data are available.

  19. A Framework for Large-Force Task Planning of Mobile and Redundant Manipulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadopoulos, Evangelos

    of the Cartesian space is designed to generate the Force Workspace. Based on the FW generation algorithm to the Journal of Robotic Systems as a full paper September 1998 #12;2 ABSTRACT In this paper, a framework tackling the problem of large wrench application using robotic systems with limited force or torque

  20. Critical adsorption and critical Casimir forces for geometrically structured confinements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Trndle; L. Harnau; S. Dietrich

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the behavior of fluids, confined by geometrically structured substrates, upon approaching a critical point at T = Tc in their bulk phase diagram. As generic substrate structures periodic arrays of wedges and ridges are considered. Based on general renormalization group arguments we calculate, within mean field approximation, the universal scaling functions for order parameter profiles of a fluid close to a single structured substrate and discuss the decay of its spatial variation into the bulk. We compare the excess adsorption at corrugated substrates with the one at planar walls. The confinement of a critical fluid by two walls generates effective critical Casimir forces between them. We calculate corresponding universal scaling functions for the normal critical Casimir force between a flat and a geometrically structured substrate as well as the lateral critical Casimir force between two identically patterned substrates.

  1. Theory of single-molecule experiments in the overstretching force regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio Manca; Stefano Giordano; Pier Luca Palla; Fabrizio Cleri; Luciano Colombo

    2012-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a statistical mechanics analysis of the finite-size elasticity of biopolymers, consisting of domains which can exhibit transitions between more than one stable state at large applied force. The constant-force (Gibbs) and constant-displacement (Helmholtz) formulations of single molecule stretching experiments are shown to converge in the thermodynamic limit. Monte Carlo simulations of continuous three dimensional polymers of variable length are carried out, based on this formulation. We demonstrate that the experimental force-extension curves for short and long chain polymers are described by a unique universal model, despite the differences in chemistry and rate-dependence of transition forces.

  2. Systems and methods of detecting force and stress using tetrapod nanocrystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Charina L.; Koski, Kristie J.; Sivasankar, Sanjeevi; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods of detecting force on the nanoscale including methods for detecting force using a tetrapod nanocrystal by exposing the tetrapod nanocrystal to light, which produces a luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal. The method continues with detecting a difference in the luminescent response by the tetrapod nanocrystal relative to a base luminescent response that indicates a force between a first and second medium or stresses or strains experienced within a material. Such systems and methods find use with biological systems to measure forces in biological events or interactions.

  3. Modeling forces in high-temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, L. R.; Foster, M. W.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a simple model that uses computed shielding currents to determine the forces acting on a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). The model has been applied to measurements of the force between HTS and permanent magnets (PM). Results show the expected hysteretic variation of force as the HTS moves first toward and then away from a permanent magnet, including the reversal of the sign of the force. Optimization of the shielding currents is carried out through a simulated annealing algorithm in a C++ program that repeatedly calls a commercial electromagnetic software code. Agreement with measured forces is encouraging.

  4. Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;Wood Fuel Task Force Response | 3 Wood Fuel Task Force Response Scottish Government response by Minister for Environment, Michael Russell I am pleased to present on behalf of the Scottish Government our response to the Wood Fuel

  5. Force-induced rupture of a DNA duplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosayebi, Majid; Doye, Jonathan P K; Ouldridge, Thomas E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rupture of double-stranded DNA under stress is a key process in biophysics and nanotechnology. In this article we consider the shear-induced rupture of short DNA duplexes, a system that has been given new importance by recently designed force sensors and nanotechnological devices. We argue that rupture must be understood as an activated process, where the duplex state is metastable and the strands will separate in a finite time that depends on the duplex length and the force applied. Thus, the critical shearing force required to rupture a duplex within a given experiment depends strongly on the time scale of observation. We use simple models of DNA to demonstrate that this approach naturally captures the experimentally observed dependence of the critical force on duplex length for a given observation time. In particular, the critical force is zero for the shortest duplexes, before rising sharply and then plateauing in the long length limit. The prevailing approach, based on identifying when the presence o...

  6. Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

    2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

  7. Casimir force: an alternative treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. R. Silva

    2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force between two parallel uncharged closely spaced metallic plates is evaluated in ways alternatives to those usually considered in the literature. In a first approximation we take in account the suppressed quantum numbers of a cubic box, representing a cavity which was cut in a metallic block. We combine these ideas with those of the MIT bag model of hadrons, but adapted to non-relativistic particles. In a second approximation we consider the particles occupying the energy levels of the Bohr atom, so that the Casimir force depends explicitly on the fine structure constant alpha. In both treatments, the mean energies which have explicit dependence on the particle mass and on the maximum occupied quantum number (related to the Fermi level of the system) at the beginning of the calculations, have these dependences mutually canceled at the end of them. Finally by comparing the averaged energies computed in both approximations, we are able to make an estimate of the value of the fine structure constant alpha.

  8. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Air Force Renewable Energy Programs Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility...

  9. Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    security force-on-force performance tests and exercises. Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 More Documents & Publications...

  10. On single-molecule DNA sequencing with atomic force microscopy using functionalized carbon nanotube probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Daniel James

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel DNA sequencing method is proposed based on the specific binding nature of nucleotides and measured by an atomic force microscope (AFM). A single molecule of DNA is denatured and immobilized on an atomically fiat ...

  11. Design and fabrication of force sensing robotic foot utilizing the volumetric displacement of a hyperelastic polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada, Matthew A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis illustrates the fabrication and characterization of a footpad based on an original principle of volumetric displacement sensing. It is intended for use in detecting ground reaction forces in a running quadrupedal ...

  12. Directed Self-Assembly at the 10 nm Scale by Using Capillary Force-Induced Nanocohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan, Huigao

    We demonstrated a new nanoassembly strategy based on capillary force-induced cohesion of high-aspect ratio nanostructures made by electron-beam lithography. Using this strategy, ordered complex pattern were fabricated from ...

  13. Fast Computation of Optimal Contact Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    and force optimization for the legs of a quadruped robot [21]. Some experimental ... Applications that involve the solution of many FOPs, such as finding the...

  14. Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

  15. Nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In this lecture series, I present the recent progress in our understanding of nuclear forces in terms of chiral effective field theory.

  16. Few-nucleon forces from chiral Lagrangians

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Kolck, U. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few-nucleon forces are considered from the point of view of effective chiral Lagrangians. It is argued that such forces naturally arise at the same order in chiral perturbation theory as some important features of the two-nucleon force. In particular, the leading few-nucleon forces cancel against the leading recoil correction in the iteration of the two-body potential. The remaining three-body potential is presented in momentum and coordinate spaces. It is dominated by contributions of the delta isobar of (i) two-pion range, which are not new, and (ii) shorter range, which involve an undetermined parameter.

  17. Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ATTACHMENT Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force Judith F. English, Mae Y. Cundiff of civilian populations not recommended. 3. Infection Control Practices for Patient Management Symptomatic

  18. Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

  19. Born-series approach to the calculation of Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Bennett

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force between two objects is notoriously difficult to calculate in anything other than parallel-plate geometries due to its non-additive nature. This means that for more complicated, realistic geometries one usually has to resort to approaches such as making the crude proximity force approximation (PFA). Another issue with calculation of Casimir forces in real-world situations (such as with realistic materials) is that there are continuing doubts about the status of the standard Lifshitz treatment as a true quantum theory. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to calculation of Casimir forces for arbitrary geometries which sidesteps both these problems. Our calculations are based upon a Born expansion of the Green's function of the quantised electromagnetic vacuum field, interpreted as multiple scattering, with the relevant coupling strength being the difference in the dielectric functions of the various materials involved. This allows one to consider arbitrary geometries in single or multiple scattering simply by integrating over the desired shape, meaning that extension beyond the PFA is trivial. This work is mostly dedicated to illustration of the method by reproduction of known parallel-slab results -- a process that turns out to be non-trivial and provides several useful insights. We also present a short example of calculation of the Casimir energy for a more complicated geometry, namely that of two finite slabs.

  20. A NEW INTERPHASE FORCE IN TWO-PHASE FLUIDIZED BEDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. ZHANG; W. VANDERHEYDEN

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoscale structures such as particle clusters have been observed both in experiments and in numerical simulations of circulating fluidized beds. In a numerical simulation, in order to account for the effects of such mesoscale structures, the computational grids have to be fine enough. The use of such fine grids is impractical in engineering applications due to excessive computational costs. To predict the macroscopic behavior of a fluidized bed with reasonable computation cost, they perform a second average over the averaged equations for two-phase flows. A mesoscale inter-phase exchange force is found to be the correlation of the particle volume fraction and the pressure gradient. This force is related to the mesoscale added mass of the two-phase flow. Typically, added mass for particle scale interactions is negligible in gas-solid flows since the gas density is small compared to density of solid particles. However, for a mesoscale structure, such as a bubble, the surrounding media is the mixture of gas and particles. The surrounding fluid density experienced by the mesoscale structure is the density of the surrounding mixture. Therefore, the added mass of a mesoscale structure, such as bubbles, cannot be neglected. The property of this new force is studied based on the numerical simulation of a fluidized bed using high grid resolution. It is shown that this force is important in the region where the particle volume fraction is high. The effects of the inhomogeneity to the interphase drag are also studied.

  1. Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UWMadison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UWMadison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

  2. Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

  3. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  4. On Dual Configurational Forces SHAOFAN LIj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Shaofan

    they provide the dual energymomentum tensor. Some previously unknown and yet interesting results in elasticity the configuration force (energymomentum tensor) P and the dual configuration force (dual energymomentum tensor) L energy momentum tensor (referred to as the dual energymomentum tensor in this j Corresponding author

  5. Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard General of the Air Force/Army

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Force | Army | Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard O-10 General of the Air Force/Army (Reserved Corps Navy & Coast Guard WarrantOfficers No Warrant Officer Rank Warrant Officer 1 Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer 5 Air Force Army Marine Corps Navy & Coast Guard E-9 Chief Master Sergeant of the Air

  6. Macroscopic model of scanning force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A macroscopic version of the Scanning Force Microscope is described. It consists of a cantilever under the influence of external forces, which mimic the tip-sample interactions. The use of this piece of equipment is threefold. First, it serves as direct way to understand the parts and functions of the Scanning Force Microscope, and thus it is effectively used as an instructional tool. Second, due to its large size, it allows for simple measurements of applied forces and parameters that define the state of motion of the system. This information, in turn, serves to compare the interaction forces with the reconstructed ones, which cannot be done directly with the standard microscopic set up. Third, it provides a kinematics method to non-destructively measure elastic constants of materials, such as Young's and shear modules, with special application for brittle materials.

  7. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  8. Muon Collider Task Force Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

  9. Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5forces (using a multi-segmented force transducer) and the underlying kinematics (using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) at different elevations throughout the crest to trough region were measured during the tests. The measured wave forces at different elevations have been interpreted using the Morison equation to determine experimental values of force coefficients C{sub D} and C{sub M}. The results in hand suggest that both C{sub D} and C{sub M} values in the splash zone are higher and exhibit a mild frequency dependence in comparison with their corresponding counterparts for the fully submerged segments. For weakly nonlinear waves (H/{lambda}<0.1) only wave fluctuation is found to be important and any mild nonlinearities do not significantly affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1force response, producing ringing effects in conducive conditions.

  10. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schffer, Tilman E., E-mail: Tilman.Schaeffer@uni-tuebingen [Institute of Applied Physics and LISA, University of Tbingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tbingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ?10?100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  11. Self-force on a charge outside a five-dimensional black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew J. S. Beach; Eric Poisson; Bernhard G. Nickel

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the electromagnetic self-force acting on a charged particle held in place at a fixed position r outside a five-dimensional black hole described by the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini metric. Using a spherical-harmonic decomposition of the electrostatic potential and a regularization prescription based on the Hadamard Green's function, we express the self-force as a convergent mode sum. The self-force is first evaluated numerically, and next presented as an analytical expansion in powers of R/r, with R denoting the event-horizon radius. The power series is then summed to yield a closed-form expression. Unlike its four-dimensional version, the self-force features a dependence on a regularization parameter s that can be interpreted as the particle's radius. The self-force is repulsive at large distances, and its behavior is related to a model according to which the force results from a gravitational interaction between the black hole and the distribution of electrostatic field energy attached to the particle. The model, however, is shown to become inadequate as r becomes comparable to R, where the self-force changes sign and becomes attractive. We also calculate the self-force acting on a particle with a scalar charge, which we find to be everywhere attractive. This is to be contrasted with its four-dimensional counterpart, which vanishes at any r.

  12. Near wake models for the hydrodynamics forces on a cylinder in periodic flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibetheros, I.A.; Medeiros, E.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Miksad, R.W. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between hydrodynamic forces and the reversing near wake flow field around a cylinder in oscillatory farfield flow was experimentally investigated. A computer controlled pressurized water tunnel was employed to generate a planar harmonic flow past a stationary cylinder of Keulegan-Carpenter numbers (KC) in the inertia-drag flow regime and at subcritical Reynolds numbers (Re). Streamwise (u-) and cross-stream (v-) velocities near the cylinder and u-velocities at the far flow field were measured using a three-component LDV system. Inline and lift forces on the cylinder were measured using a very sensitive six-component load cell. A modal phase averaging technique was applied to the velocity data to estimate averaged velocity cycles that distinguish between positive and negative flow modes. A positive (negative) flow mode signifies dominant vortex shedding and motion occurring from the top (bottom) of the cylinder, respectively. The force measurements were likewise phase averaged into positive and negative mode force cycles. u- and v-velocity profiles for KC = 10, 15, and 20, based on modal phase averages of velocity measurements, were used to estimate averaged wake u- and v-velocities. These wake velocities were used in the place of the undisturbed farfield u-velocity as inputs to Morison`s equation for the inline force, and to the quasi-steady model for the lift force. It was found that, for KC = 15 a significant improvement in the prediction of lift force was achieved using the wake-based lift force model, whereas a smaller improvement in the inline force prediction was obtained from the wake-based Morison`s equation.

  13. Sensing Current and Forces with SPM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

  14. Hill Air Force Base as a case study for linking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Contaminants of Concern: ­ Trichloroethylene (TCE) ­ Tetrachloroethylene (PERC) ­ Carbon Tetrachloride

  15. Ultrasonic-Based Mode-Synthesizing Atomic Force Microscopy - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin TransitionProgram |FrankUltrafastHydrogen and FuelInnovation

  16. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresented By:Science Bowl |Henry

  17. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TO THEHudsonTargetingdutyGovernmentTechnical

  18. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TO

  19. Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4Visitors3(Presentation) |

  20. Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18,new2004_v1.3_5.0.zipFlorida4Visitors3(Presentation) |Energy at

  1. Low frequency forces on tubular spaceframe towers: Analysis of Cognac data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, J.P. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Marshall, P.W. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of the study presented here was to identify if field data collected from the Cognac platform can be used to discriminate between the empirical Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes to approximate near surface kinematics, in terms of the low-frequency forces which are potentially important in the design of compliant towers. Previous studies focusing on the peak hydrodynamic forces, as used for the design of fixed platforms, have shown a significant difference between predictions based on Wheeler and Delta stretching. The cognac field data indicate that the low-frequency force components are not negligible and are significantly correlated to the wave envelope process. Simulation studies based on a vertical rigid cylinder subjected to Hurricane Frederic sea states show significant differences in applied low-frequency drag forces obtained using Wheeler versus Delta stretching.

  2. A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAKAHASHI, Sugio

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan Self-Defense Forces (SDF). Along with the new NDPG,set a direction for the SDF in the post-9/11 inter- nationalsituation also requires the SDF take on these dynamic

  3. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was used for the dredging test...

  4. Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad Mohammad Mahdian Ebad S. Mahmoodian Amin Saberi Bardia, USA. (saberi@cc.gatech.edu) Department of Computer Science, UIUC, Urbana, USA. (sadri@cs.uiuc.edu) 1

  5. Accurate capacitive metrology for atomic force microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzeo, Aaron D. (Aaron David), 1979-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents accurate capacitive sensing metrology designed for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) originally developed in the MIT Precision Motion Control Lab. The capacitive measurements use a set of ...

  6. Interfacial forces in chemical-mechanical polishing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Dedy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    for planarization. The process takes place at the interface of a substrate, a polishing pad, and an abrasive containing slurry. This synergetic process involves several forces in multi-length scales and multi-mechanisms. This research contributes fundamental...

  7. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jakob, Christian

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  8. Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahi, Sahand Jamal

    We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable ...

  9. Clinch River MRS Task Force Recommendations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Clinch River HRS Task Force was appointed in July 1985 by the Roane County Executive and the Oak Ridge City Council to evaluate the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility proposed by the...

  10. Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Dustin Ray

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dredge cutting forces produced by the movement of the cutterhead through the sediment have been measured with the laboratory dredge carriage located at the Haynes Coastal Engineering Laboratory. The sediment bed that was ...

  11. Van der Waals forces from first principles for periodic systems: Application to graphene-water interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partovi-Azar, Pouya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the method of Silvestrelli [P. L. Silvestrelli, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 054106 (2013)] to approximate long-range van der Waals interactions at the density functional theory level based on maximally localized Wannier functions combined with the quantum harmonic oscillator model, to periodic systems. Applying this scheme to study London dispersion forces between graphene and water layers, we demonstrate that collective many-body effects beyond simple additive pair-wise interactions are essential to accurately describe van der Waals forces.

  12. Van der Waals forces from first principles for periodic systems: Application to graphene-water interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pouya Partovi-Azar; T. D. Khne

    2015-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend the method of Silvestrelli [P. L. Silvestrelli, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 054106 (2013)] to approximate long-range van der Waals interactions at the density functional theory level based on maximally localized Wannier functions combined with the quantum harmonic oscillator model, to periodic systems. Applying this scheme to study London dispersion forces between graphene and water layers, we demonstrate that collective many-body effects beyond simple additive pair-wise interactions are essential to accurately describe van der Waals forces.

  13. Half-harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy with transfer function correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Senli [ORNL] [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An approach for surface potential imaging based on half-harmonic band excitation (BE) in Kelvin probe force microscopy is demonstrated. Using linear and half-harmonic BE enables quantitative correction of the cantilever transfer function. Half-harmonic band excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy (HBE KPFM) thus allows quantitative separation of surface potential and topographic contributions to the signal, obviating the primary sources of topographic cross-talk. HBE KPFM imaging and voltage spectroscopy methods are illustrated for several model systems.

  14. Agencies Approve Bacteria TMDL Task Force Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 10 In June 2007 the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) and the TexasState Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSW- CB) approved the recommendations of the Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force and asked... their agencies to update their TMDL guidance documents to reflect these recommendations. They also authorized establishing a multi-agency bacteria TMDL work group to examine the research and development needs identified in the task force report. Both TCEQ...

  15. Calculation of rotordynamic forces on labyrinth seals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hensel, Steve John

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis STEVE JOHN HENSEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALCULATION OF ROTORDYNAMIC FORCES ON LABYRINTH SEALS A Thesis by STEVE JOHN HENSEL Approved as to style snd content by: David Rhode (Chairman of Committee) Erian Baskharone Leel and Garison (Member) +, gg, W. D...

  16. Mean steady granular force on a wall overflowed by free-surface gravity-driven dense flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    focused on the drag force on small obstacles such as cylinders in the case of rapid - dilute - granular and sharply increases the mean force at low incoming inertial numbers. A simple hydrodynamic model based this model, our study provides an example of the ability of simple hydrodynamic approaches to describe

  17. Zipping mechanism for force-generation by growing filament bundles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Kuehne; Reinhard Lipowsky; Jan Kierfeld

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the force generation by polymerizing bundles of filaments, which form because of short-range attractive filament interactions. We show that bundles can generate forces by a zipping mechanism, which is not limited by buckling and operates in the fully buckled state. The critical zipping force, i.e. the maximal force that a bundle can generate, is given by the adhesive energy gained during bundle formation. For opposing forces larger than the critical zipping force, bundles undergo a force-induced unbinding transition. For larger bundles, the critical zipping force depends on the initial configuration of the bundles. Our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

  19. Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive ...

  20. Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Before the Senate Subcommittee on Strategic Forces - Committee on Armed Services Testimony of James Ownedoff, Acting...

  1. 6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahn, Markus, 1946-

    Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

  2. Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology August 12,...

  3. Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to Develop Cyber Security Requirements for Advanced Metering Infrastructure Collaborative Utility Task Force Partners with DOE to...

  4. Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindell, Drew; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Chin, Mian; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, Leon; Mahowald, N. M.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, Andrew; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, Xiaohong; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lo, Fiona

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) ?0.26Wm?2; ?0.06 to ?0.49Wm?2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of ?0.42Wm?2; ?0.33 to ?0.50Wm?2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to ?58 %) to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is ?1.17Wm?2; ?0.71 to ?1.44Wm?2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF peaks in most models around 1980, declining thereafter with only weak sensitivity to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). One model, however, projects approximately stable RF levels, while two show increasingly negative RF due to nitrate (not included in most models). Aerosol ERF, in contrast, becomes more negative during 1980 to 2000. During this period, increased Asian emissions appear to have a larger impact on aerosol ERF than European and North American decreases due to their being upwind of the large, relatively pristine Pacific Ocean. There is no clear relationship between historical aerosol ERF and climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 subset of ACCMIP models. In the ACCMIP/CMIP5 models, historical aerosol ERF of about ?0.8 to ?1.5Wm?2 is most consistent with observed historical warming. Aerosol ERF masks a large portion of greenhouse forcing during the late 20th and early 21st century at the global scale. Regionally, aerosol ERF is so large that net forcing is negative over most industrialized and biomass burning regions through 1980, but remains strongly negative only over east and southeast Asia by 2000. Net forcing is strongly positive by 1980 over most deserts, the Arctic, Australia, and most tropical oceans. Both the magnitude of and area covered by positive forcing expand steadily thereafter.

  5. Steady-State Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Spool Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-speed jet flowing inside of a partially-open hydraulic valve is accompanied by a reaction force, also referred to as flow force. The nature of this force has remained a mystery despite an extensive research effort spanning many decades. The momentum theory on the flow force by Lee and Blackburn (1952) explains the origin of the flow force and offers a design solution to shape the valve spool as a turbine bucket. It provides a model to calculate the compensated flow force as well. This paper shows that the model applies to a different flow case due to incorrect assumptions made. A corrected equation is presented based on a detailed analysis of the static-pressure distribution in the valve cavity as well as on a literature review of pressure loss in diffusers and nozzles. The new equation is based on the compensation taking place upstream of the valve orifice, not downstream as assumed by the momentum theory. The new model can be applied to chamfers or notches on the valve spool without the need to machi...

  6. Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    Hydrodynamic forces and surface topography: Centimeter-scale spatial variation in wave forces. On the rugose rock surfaces of wave-swept shores, interactions between substratum topography and wave-induced flow may create such a spatially variable environment. Topography Numerous investigators have explored

  7. Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

  8. Structural Dynamics The spring force is given by and F(t) is the driving force.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veress, Alexander

    by dry or Coulomb friction between rigid bodies, by internal friction between molecules within/displacement curve. #12;All vibrations are damped to some degree by friction forces. These forces may be caused a deformable body, or by fluid friction when a body moves in a fluid. These result in natural circular

  9. Estimation of Contact Forces using a Virtual Force Sensor Emanuele Magrini Fabrizio Flacco Alessandro De Luca

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Luca, Alessandro

    the exchanged Cartesian forces; 4) control the robot to react according to a desired behavior. Different model Alessandro De Luca Abstract-- Physical human-robot collaboration is character- ized by a suitable exchange of contact forces between human and robot, which can occur in general at any point along the robot structure

  10. A noise inequality for classical forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvir Kafri; J. M. Taylor

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Lorentz invariance requires local interactions, with force laws such as the Coulomb interaction arising via virtual exchange of force carriers such as photons. Many have considered the possibility that, at long distances or large mass scales, this process changes in some way to lead to classical behavior. Here we hypothesize that classical behavior could be due to an inability of some force carriers to convey entanglement, a characteristic measure of nonlocal, quantum behavior. We then prove that there exists a local test that allows one to verify entanglement generation, falsifying our hypothesis. Crucially, we show that noise measurements can directly verify entanglement generation. This provides a step forward for a wide variety of experimental systems where traditional entanglement tests are challenging, including entanglement generation by gravity alone between macroscopic torsional oscillators.

  11. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

  12. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  13. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  14. Explicit force formlulas for two dimensional potential flow with multiple bodies and multiple free vortices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Chen-Yuan; Wu, Zi-Niu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For problems with multiple bodies, the current integral approach needs the use of auxiliary potential functions in order to have an individual force formula for each body. While the singularity approach, based on an extension of the unsteady Lagally theorem, is restricted to multibody and multivortex flows without bound vortex and vortex production. In this paper, we consider multibody and multivortex flow and derive force formulas, in both forms of singularity approach and integral approach but without auxiliary function, that give individual forces of each body for unsteady two dimensional potential flow with vortex production on the surface of bodies. A number of problems, including Karman vortex street, Wagner problem of impulsively starting flow, interaction of two circular cylinders with circulation, and interaction of an airfoil with a bound vortex, are used to validate the force formulas.

  15. Modulational instability in wind-forced waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunetti, Maura

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion, in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared.

  16. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing Hongjun Gao and Jinqiao Duan ¡ 1 external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model

  17. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind Forcing Hongjun Gao 1 and Jinqiao Duan 2 1 external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model

  18. NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foulger, G. R.

    NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian University-980) to include net forces in the mechanisms. Net forces are theoretically required to describe earthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even

  19. Characterization of acoustically forced swirl flame dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    of the flame to acoustic excitation is required. This study presents an analysis of phase-locked OH PLIF images of acoustically excited swirl flames, to identify the key controlling physical processes and qualitatively discuss, and whose relative significance depends upon forcing frequency, amplitude of excitation, and flame

  20. Self-force approach for radiation reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lior M. Burko

    1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We overview the recently proposed mode-sum regularization prescription (MSRP) for the calculation of the local radiation-reaction forces, which are crucial for the orbital evolution of binaries. We then describe some new results which were obtained using MSRP, and discuss their importance for gravitational-wave astronomy.

  1. Columbia University Network Integration Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    Columbia University Network Integration Task Force Final Report II 30 January 1992 #12;1 TOWARDS A COMMON ADMINISTRATIVE AND ACADEMIC NETWORK AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Columbia University's Administrative or terminal. 1.2. Executive Summary This report examines Columbia University's current academic

  2. U.S.Air Force Advanced Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tractor Robins AFB H2 Fuel Cell Forklift/Toolcat Fisher-Tropsch Synthetic FuelTest Robins E-85 Effort Solar - Electric Drive U.S.Air Force Advanced PowerTechnology Office Our Customers TheWarfighter Homeland Defense RefuelerFuel Cell MB-4Fuel Cell Microgrid Hydrogen Refueling Station Renewable Wind Power Renewable Solar

  3. Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Subrata

    . For a more comprehensive report of the findings as well as faculty suggestions for maintaining integrity1 Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary 11/22/11 INTRODUCTION CHARGE: To determine whether there is an issue with academic integrity at UF and, if so, to determine how widespread

  4. Dean's Task Force on Engineering Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean's Task Force on Engineering Leadership Education Final Report May 5, 2010 Doug Reeve (Chair, Membership 1. There is an Urgent Need for Engineering Le 2. Leadership Education ...8 Engineering Leaders. Capability and Compe Engineering Leadership 5 Curriculum Concepts Co-curricular Concepts Extra

  5. Galileon forces in the Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

  6. Chiral effective field theory and nuclear forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We review how nuclear forces emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory. The presentation is accessible to the non-specialist. At the same time, we also provide considerable detailed information (mostly in appendices) for the benefit of researchers who wish to start working in this field.

  7. Strategic forces: Future requirements and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speed, R.D.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

  8. Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Fooling Mother Nature: Forcing Flower Bulbs for Indoor Bloom by George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Bulbs for Indoor Bloom George Graine,Virginia Cooperative Extension Master Gardener, Fairfax County, VA Introduction Have you ever wondered if it is possible to enjoy the beauty of bulbs in the middle of winter

  9. Open Access Task Force Open Access to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    Libraries Initiative launched by National Science Foundation; Social Sciences Research Network (SSRN Library System rgmiller@pitt.edu #12;Open Access Task Force Open Access is... A family of copyright The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain

  10. Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

  11. Chiral lagrangians and few-nucleon forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Kolck, U. [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Some of the implications of chiral symmetry to nuclear forces are considered. The few-nucleon potential is shown to be naturally weaker than the leading pieces of the two-nucleon potential, but comparable to other important features of the latter. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  12. Repulsive and restoring Casimir forces with left-handed materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaping Yang; Ran Zeng; Shutian Liu; Hong Chen; Shiyao Zhu

    2008-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate repulsive Casimir force between slabs containing left-handed materials with controllable electromagnetic properties. The sign of Casimir force is determined by the electric and magnetic properties of the materials, and it is shown that the formation of the repulsive force is related to the wave impedances of two slabs. The sign change of the Casimir force as a function of the distance is studied. Special emphasis is put on the restoring Casimir force which may be found to exist between perfectly conducting material and metamaterial slabs. This restoring force is a natural power for the system oscillation in vacuum and also can be used for system stabilization.

  13. Friction forces on phase transition fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ariel Megevand

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In cosmological first-order phase transitions, the microscopic interaction of the phase transition fronts with non-equilibrium plasma particles manifests itself macroscopically as friction forces. In general, it is a nontrivial problem to compute these forces, and only two limits have been studied, namely, that of very slow walls and, more recently, ultra-relativistic walls which run away. In this paper we consider ultra-relativistic velocities and show that stationary solutions still exist when the parameters allow the existence of runaway walls. Hence, we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the fronts to actually run away. We also propose a phenomenological model for the friction, which interpolates between the non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic values. Thus, the friction depends on two friction coefficients which can be calculated for specific models. We then study the velocity of phase transition fronts as a function of the friction parameters, the thermodynamic parameters, and the amount of supercooling.

  14. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Intravaia; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Stefan Buhmann; Stefan Scheel; Diego A. R. Dalvit; Carsten Henkel

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton [New J. Phys. 12 (2010) 113045]. We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v^4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v^3.

  15. A technique for monitoring fast tuner piezoactuator preload forces for superconducting rf cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pischalnikov, Y.; Branlard, J.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Edwards, H.; Orris, D.; Makulski, A.; McGee, M.; Nehring, R.; Poloubotko, V.; Sylvester, C.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology for mechanically compensating Lorentz Force detuning in superconducting RF cavities has already been developed at DESY. One technique is based on commercial piezoelectric actuators and was successfully demonstrated on TESLA cavities [1]. Piezo actuators for fast tuners can operate in a frequency range up to several kHz; however, it is very important to maintain a constant static force (preload) on the piezo actuator in the range of 10 to 50% of its specified blocking force. Determining the preload force during cool-down, warm-up, or re-tuning of the cavity is difficult without instrumentation, and exceeding the specified range can permanently damage the piezo stack. A technique based on strain gauge technology for superconducting magnets has been applied to fast tuners for monitoring the preload on the piezoelectric assembly. The design and testing of piezo actuator preload sensor technology is discussed. Results from measurements of preload sensors installed on the tuner of the Capture Cavity II (CCII)[2] tested at FNAL are presented. These results include measurements during cool-down, warmup, and cavity tuning along with dynamic Lorentz force compensation.

  16. Exploring medium effects on the nuclear force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Sammarruca

    2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This STI product contains a description of results from theoretical studies in nuclear physics. The goal is a systematic investigation of the nuclear force in the nuclear medium. The problems addressed are: density-dependent effective interactions as seen through proton-nucleus reactions, nuclear matter with unequal densities of protons and neutrons, applications to asymmetric nuclei through predictions of neutron radii and neutron skins.

  17. Dynamic Balance Force Control for Compliant Humanoid Robots Benjamin J. Stephens, Christopher G. Atkeson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -controlled humanoid robot. I. INTRODUCTION Humanoid robots must operate in complex environments while interacting a robot with stiff joint position control and a known environment, the most common approach to balance), for determining full body joint torques based on desired COM motion and contact forces for compliant humanoid

  18. A fast solver for the Stokes equations with distributed forces in complex geometries 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohri, Mehryar

    A fast solver for the Stokes equations with distributed forces in complex geometries 1 George Biros geometries in a black-box fashion; (2) it is second order accurate; and (3) it has optimal algorithmic complexity. Our approach, to which we refer as the Embedded Boundary Integral method, is based on Anita Mayo

  19. Combining rails and anchors with laser forcing for selective manipulation within 2D droplet arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    demonstrate the combination of a rails and anchors microfluidic system with laser forcing to enable to anchor holes made in the base of a microfluidic channel, enabling the creation of arrays their merging and a chemical reaction to take place. Finally by adding guiding rails within the microfluidic

  20. Dynamics of Airfoil Separation Control Using Zero-Net Mass-Flux Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Rajat

    Dynamics of Airfoil Separation Control Using Zero-Net Mass-Flux Forcing Reni Raju and Rajat Mittal, Gainesville, Florida 32611 DOI: 10.2514/1.37147 Zero-net mass-flux jet based control of flow separation over using zero-net mass-flux actuation can either control/delay boundary layer separation or lead to global

  1. JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shupe, Matthew

    JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS surface. In 1997-1998, a large multi-agency effort made the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA with the ice pack in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas for one year. Surface-based remote sensors generated

  2. Blade-forced vibration effects in turbomachinery rotor-stator interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collard, Joseph Eugene

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the effects of blade-forced vibration in turbomachinery rotor-stator interaction. A quasi-three-dimensional multi-row analysis, based on an Euler/Navier-Stokes solver and a parallel computational algorithm, was used to simulate...

  3. A GLRT AND BOOTSTRAP APPROACH TO DETECTION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE FORCE MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, Jos

    A GLRT AND BOOTSTRAP APPROACH TO DETECTION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE FORCE MICROSCOPY PeiJung Chung a model that, although simplistic, captures the features of the problem. We present a GLRT and bootstrap based on the gen- eralized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), and bootstrap. The GLRT is used because besides

  4. Free energy landscape and characteristic forces for the initiation of DNA unzipping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentes, Ahmet; Brunk, Elizabeth; Wereszczynski, Jeff; Joyeux, Marc; Andricioaei, Ioan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA unzipping, the separation of its double helix into single strands, is crucial in modulating a host of genetic processes. Although the large-scale separation of double-stranded DNA has been studied with a variety of theoretical and experimental techniques, the minute details of the very first steps of unzipping are still unclear. Here, we use atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, coarse-grained simulations and a statistical-mechanical model to study the initiation of DNA unzipping by an external force. The calculation of the potential of mean force profiles for the initial separation of the first few terminal base pairs in a DNA oligomer reveal that forces ranging between 130 and 230 pN are needed to disrupt the first base pair, values of an order of magnitude larger than those needed to disrupt base pairs in partially unzipped DNA. The force peak has an "echo," of approximately 50 pN, at the distance that unzips the second base pair. We show that the high peak needed to initiate unzipping derives...

  5. Forced oil-water displacement and spontaneous countercurrent imbibition are the crucial mechanisms of secondary oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    Abstract Forced oil-water displacement and spontaneous countercurrent imbibition are the crucial mechanisms of secondary oil recovery. Classical mathematical models of both these unsteady flows are based on the fundamental assumption of local phase equilibrium. Thus, the water and oil flows are locally redistributed

  6. Critical Skills forC t ca S s o Research/Career Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Tao

    Critical Skills forC t ca S s o Research/Career Development Tao XieTao Xie http.r.t. overall approach effectiveness (e.g., based on manual inspection results ofpp ( g , p sampled evaluation th h ff ti ( d t d bl t Need to show the approach effectiveness (understandable to customers/users

  7. The modeling and characterization of a Lorentz-force actuator for needle-free injection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza, Jonathan Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BioInstrumentation Laboratory at MIT developed a needle-free injector that is driven by a Lorentz-force actuator. The current model was able to generate pressures of up to 20 MPa in order to drive a jet of water based ...

  8. Bulk-Flow analysis for force and moment coefficients of a shrouded centrifugal compressor impeller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    et al. (1996). The comparison shows that the shroud casing clearance flow and the fluid force moment can be simulated by the bulk flow model fairly well. An Iwatsubo-based labyrinth seal code developed by Childs and Scharrer (1986) is used...

  9. Squeeze bottle apparatus with force multiplying pistons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Cary, NC); Gordon, Norman R. (Kennewick, WA); DeFord, Henry S. (Kennewick, WA); Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber, and a corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area, thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  10. A Simple Stand Growth Model Based on Canopy Dynamics and Biomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Quang V.

    and where the force is applied. The lateral force on the tree is created by frictional drag of wind through location where a distributed force such as wind acts on a beam stem is the centroid of the force. Metzger the bending moment generated from wind action on the crown. Stem geometry is based on the constant

  11. Molecular force spectroscopy of homophilic nectin-1 interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedula, Sri Ram Krishna [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Lim, T.S. [Bioinformatics Institute (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering (Singapore); Hui Shi [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kausalya, P. Jaya [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore); Lane, E. Birgitte [Institute of Medical Biology (Singapore); Rajagopal, Gunaretnam [Bioinformatics Institute (Singapore); Hunziker, Walter [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (Singapore); Lim, C.T. [Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)], E-mail: ctlim@nus.edu.sg

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nectins are Ca{sup 2+} independent cell adhesion molecules localizing at the cadherin based adherens junctions. In this study, we have used atomic force microscopy to study interaction of a chimera of extra cellular fragment of nectin-1 and Fc of human IgG (nef-1) with wild type L-fibroblasts that express endogenous nectin-1 to elucidate the biophysical characteristics of homophilic nectin-1 trans-interactions at the level of single molecule. Bond strength distribution revealed three distinct bound states (or configurations) of trans-interactions between paired nectins, where each bound state has a unique unstressed off-rate and reactive compliance. Kinetic analysis of force-dependent off-rate of the bound state involving trans-interacting V-V domains between paired nectin-1 (unstressed off-rate {approx}1.465 {+-} 0.779 s{sup -1}, reactive compliance {approx}0.143 {+-} 0.072 nm) was found to be closest to E-cadherin, indicating that V-V domain trans-interactions are probably necessary to initiate and promote adhesions of E-cadherin at adherens junctions (AJs)

  12. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boularas, A., E-mail: boularas@laplace.univ-tlse.fr; Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Clain, S. [Universidade do Minho, Centro de Matemtica, Campus de Gualtar, 4710 - 057 Braga (Portugal); Universit Paul Sabatier, Institut de Mathmatiques de Toulouse, 31062 Toulouse (France); Teyssedre, G. [LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universit de Toulouse, UPS, INPT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); CNRS, LAPLACE, F-31071 Toulouse (France)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction OperatorPRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tipsample distances (from 0 to 600?nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20?V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  13. Forced cooling of underground electric power transmission lines : design manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jay A.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methodology utilized for the design of a forced-cooled pipe-type underground transmission system is presented. The material is divided into three major parts: (1) The Forced-cooled Pipe-Type Underground Transmission ...

  14. UNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    program in order to reduce Federal employee's contribution to traffic congestion and air pollutionUNITED STATES AIR FORCE OUTSIDE THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION BENEFIT PROGRAM): ____________ City (Residence): __________________________State: _______________ Zip Code: ________________ Air Force

  15. REPORT OF THE TASK FORCE ON NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Secretary of Energy on December 20, 2013 established the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board (SEAB) Task Force on Nuclear Nonproliferation and charged the Task Force to advise the DOE on future areas of emphasis for its nuclear nonproliferation activities

  16. Transmission Services WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability Report - Phase I BPA is an active participant in the Wind Integration Study Team (WIST), especially the Task Force looking at DTC study...

  17. air force family: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10spintronics-discover-could-lead-to- magnetic-batteries.php Applica'ons Motors Transformers MRI current element Forces on a Charge EQFe Analogous to the electric force: We...

  18. Buoyant plumes with inertial and chemical reaction-driven forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Stephen W.

    . The forced plumes were compositionally buoy- ant and were injected with inertial forcing into a fluid filled power law relationship that explains their ascent velocity. However, the morphology of the plume heads

  19. Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House of Representatives Gregory H. Friedman: Before the Subcommittee on Strategic Forces Committee on Armed Services U.S. House...

  20. air force systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a piece of equipment that provides the heating energy (the furnace, boiler or heat pump) and the method used 10 U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer...

  1. Annual report on contractor work force restructuring, fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work force restructuring and community transition activities at all sites. It outlines work force restructuring activity for FY 1997, changing separation patterns, cost savings and separation costs, program assessment, activities to mitigate restructuring impacts, community transition activities, status of displaced workers, lessons learned, and emerging issues in worker and community transition. Work force restructuring and community transition activities for defense nuclear sites are summarized, as are work force restructuring activities at non-defense sites.

  2. Power-law rheology and mechano-sensing in a cytoskeleton model with forced protein unfolding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenton D. Hoffman; Gladys Massiera; John C. Crocker

    2006-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a model of cytoskeletal mechanics based on the force-induced conformational change of protein cross-links in a stressed polymer network. Slow deformation of simulated networks containing cross-links that undergo repeated, serial domain unfolding leads to an unusual state--with many cross-links accumulating near the critical force for further unfolding. Thermal activation of these links gives rise to power-law rheology resembling the previously unexplained mechanical response of living cells. Moreover, we hypothesize that such protein cross-links function as biochemical mechano-sensors of cytoskeletal deformation.

  3. Solar coronal loops as non force-free minimum energy relaxed states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhattacharyya, R. [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, Dewali, Bari Road, Udaipur 313 001 (India)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the well established two-fluid relaxation model based on the minimum energy principle is extended to include open systems like the solar corona. The Euler-Lagrange equations obtained are of double curl in nature and support non-zero plasma-{beta} along with mass flow of the magnetofluid. These equations are solved in Cartesian coordinates utilizing a geometry relevant to the solar atmosphere, and a basic comparative study of the non force-free, force-free, and potential magnetic field obtained as solutions of the same Euler-Lagrange equations is presented.

  4. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization: Phase 1 demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Floran, R.J.; Bujewski, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology demonstration that optimizes sampling strategies and real-time data collection was carried out at the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) RB-11 Radioactive Burial Site, Albuquerque, New Mexico in August 1994. The project, which was funded by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), involved the application of a geostatistical-based Adaptive Sampling methodology and software with on-site field screening of soils for radiation, organic compounds and metals. The software, known as Plume{trademark}, was developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the DOE/OTD-funded Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID). The objective of the investigation was to compare an innovative Adaptive Sampling approach that stressed real-time decision-making with a conventional RCRA-driven site characterization carried out by the Air Force. The latter investigation used a standard drilling and sampling plan as mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). To make the comparison realistic, the same contractors and sampling equipment (Geoprobe{reg_sign} soil samplers) were used. In both investigations, soil samples were collected at several depths at numerous locations adjacent to burial trenches that contain low-level radioactive waste and animal carcasses; some trenches may also contain mixed waste. Neither study revealed the presence of contaminants appreciably above risk based action levels, indicating that minimal to no migration has occurred away from the trenches. The combination of Adaptive Sampling with field screening achieved a similar level of confidence compared to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) investigation regarding the potential migration of contaminants at the site.

  5. Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Alexander Rozhko Thesis September 2007 #12;ii Role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns Abstract. The mechanical role of seepage forces on hydraulic fracturing and failure patterns was studied both

  6. The driving force of plate tectonics evaluated in spherical coordinates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donahue, John Michael

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &' + Ri according to the force balance equation of Garison et al (1983) . The age weighting for a ridge-push driving force model is only the age, t. 13 magnetic linea tio ns I subduction boundary force vector FIG. 4. Trench segmentation scheme. I...

  7. Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhancing Optical Gradient Forces with Metamaterials Vincent Ginis,1 Philippe Tassin,2,* Costas M demonstrate how the optical gradient force between two waveguides can be enhanced using transformation optics perceived by light, resulting in a more than tenfold enhancement of the optical force. This process

  8. CONSERVED INTEGRALS AND ENERGETIC FORCES JAMES R. RICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the structure of inealstic constitutive relations; they also include some new results on the energetic forcesCONSERVED INTEGRALS AND ENERGETIC FORCES JAMES R. RICE Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA ABSTRACT Conserved integrals of the Eshelby type representing energetic forces on dislocations, inclusions

  9. Comparison of Ornithopter Wind Tunnel Force Measurements with Free Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    Comparison of Ornithopter Wind Tunnel Force Measurements with Free Flight Cameron Rose and Ronald S flight force model from wind tunnel data is a practical approach. In this work, we compare the flight, to measured wind tunnel force and moment values. We compare the two data sets at equilibrium as a metric

  10. Measurement of friction coefficients with the atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Measurement of friction coefficients with the atomic force microscope Phil Attard1, Johanna axial method for measuring the friction coefficient with the atomic force microscope is given measurement by measuring the difference between the constant compliance slopes of the extend and retract force

  11. Heat release response of acoustically forced turbulent premixed flamesrole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lieuwen, Timothy C.

    Heat release response of acoustically forced turbulent premixed flamesrole of kinematic surface to coherent forcing and turbulent fluctuations are coupled even at linear order in coherent forcing amplitude, ea, due to flame propagation (kinematic restoration). This coupling effectively causes

  12. ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsuoka, Hiroshige

    ADHESION FORCES BETWEEN MICA SURFACES IN UNDERSATURATED VAPORS OF HYDROCARBONS H. MATSUOKA1 , T] or meniscus force [3], which have been neglected in the conventional and relatively large mechani- cal systems forces between mica surfaces in under- saturated vapors of several kind of hydrocarbon liquids are mea

  13. US Air Force Facility Energy Management Program - How Industry Can Help the Air Force Meet Its Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, P. C.; Kroop, R. H.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the Air Force's facility energy management program including how industry can help the Air Force meet its facility energy objectives. Background information on energy use and energy conservation efforts are presented to give...

  14. Laser interferometry force-feedback sensor for an interfacial force microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houston, Jack E.; Smith, William L.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanning force microscope is provided with a force-feedback sensor to increase sensitivity and stability in determining interfacial forces between a probe and a sample. The sensor utilizes an interferometry technique that uses a collimated light beam directed onto a deflecting member, comprising a common plate suspended above capacitor electrodes situated on a substrate forming an interference cavity with a probe on the side of the common plate opposite the side suspended above capacitor electrodes. The probe interacts with the surface of the sample and the intensity of the reflected beam is measured and used to determine the change in displacement of the probe to the sample and to control the probe distance relative to the surface of the sample.

  15. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  16. ARM - Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds - Single Column Model Forcing (xie-scm_forcing)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Xie, Shaocheng; McCoy, Renata; Zhang, Yunyan

    The constrained variational objective analysis approach described in Zhang and Lin [1997] and Zhang et al. [2001]was used to derive the large-scale single-column/cloud resolving model forcing and evaluation data set from the observational data collected during Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), which was conducted during April to June 2011 near the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The analysis data cover the period from 00Z 22 April - 21Z 6 June 2011. The forcing data represent an average over the 3 different analysis domains centered at central facility with a diameter of 300 km (standard SGP forcing domain size), 150 km and 75 km, as shown in Figure 1. This is to support modeling studies on various-scale convective systems.

  17. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  18. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  19. 136Sn and three body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Saha Sarkar; S. Sarkar

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    New experimental data on 2+ energies of 136,138Sn confirms the trend of lower 2+ excitation energies of even-even tin isotopes with N > 82 compared to those with N 4+)) of these nuclei, simultaneously, apart from one whose matrix elements have been changed empirically to produce mixed seniority states by weakening pairing. We have shown that the experimental result also shows good agreement with the theory in which three body forces have been included in a realistic interaction. The new theoretical results on transition probabilities have been discussed to identify the experimental quantities which will clearly distinguish between different views.

  20. Force 9 Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife Energy Park atFisiaFlorida: EnergyFlyingForbesForce

  1. Reflexion on a method for Archaeology of technical machine: a multi-competences experience on roman wooden force pump of Perigueux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on roman wooden force pump of Perigueux N.Perry, Technological Institute of Bordeaux1 University, Fr R Institute for Building of Perigueux, Fr Abstract This study is based on Roman wooden force pumps. It appears that they were used in small numbers to raise water from wells, and more commonly as portable pumps to fight

  2. Calculation of cogging force in a novel slotted linear tubular brushless permanent magnet motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Z.Q.; Hor, P.J.; Howe, D. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering] [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering; Rees-Jones, J. [Unilever Research Port Sunlight Lab., Bebington (United Kingdom)] [Unilever Research Port Sunlight Lab., Bebington (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an increasing requirement for controlled linear motion over short and long strokes, in the factory automation and packaging industries, for example. Linear brushless PM motors could offer significant advantages over conventional actuation technologies, such as motor driven cams and linkages and pneumatic rams--in terms of efficiency, operating bandwidth, speed and thrust control, stroke and positional accuracy, and indeed over other linear motor technologies, such as induction motors. Here, a finite element/analytical based technique for the prediction of cogging force in a novel topology of slotted linear brushless permanent magnet motor has been developed and validated. The various force components, which influence cogging are pre-calculated by the finite element analysis of some basic magnetic structures, facilitate the analytical synthesis of the resultant cogging force. The technique can be used to aid design for the minimization of cogging.

  3. Second-order diffraction forces on an array of vertical cylinders in bichromatic bidirectional waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez, J.H. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Williams, A.N. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete second-order solution is presented for the hydrodynamic forces due to the action of bichromatic, bidirectional waves on an array of bottom-mounted, surface-piercing cylinders of arbitrary cross section in water of uniform finite depth. Based on the constant structural cross section, the first-order problem is solved utilizing a two-dimensional Green function approach, while an assisting radiation potential approach is used to obtain the hydrodynamic loads due to the second-order potential. Results are presented which illustrate the influence of wave directionality on the second-order sum and difference frequency hydrodynamic forces on a two-cylinder array. It is found that wave directionality may have a significant influence on the second-order hydrodynamic forces on these arrays and that the assumption of unidirectional waves does not always lead to conservative estimates of the second-order loading.

  4. Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.

  5. Bayesian field theoretic reconstruction of bond potential and bond mobility in single molecule force spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Joshua C; Chou, Tom

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantifying the forces between and within macromolecules is a necessary first step in understanding the mechanics of molecular structure, protein folding, and enzyme function and performance. In such macromolecular settings, dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy (DFS) has been used to distort bonds. The resulting responses, in the form of rupture forces, work applied, and trajectories of displacements, have been used to reconstruct bond potentials. Such approaches often rely on simple parameterizations of one-dimensional bond potentials, assumptions on equilibrium starting states, and/or large amounts of trajectory data. Parametric approaches typically fail at inferring complex-shaped bond potentials with multiple minima, while piecewise estimation may not guarantee smooth results with the appropriate behavior at large distances. Existing techniques, particularly those based on work theorems, also do not address spatial variations in the diffusivity that may arise from spatially inhomogeneous coupling to...

  6. Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

  7. Ab-initio friction forces on the nanoscale: A DFT study of fcc Cu(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolloch, Michael; Mohn, Peter; Redinger, Josef; Vernes, Andrs

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While there are a number of models that tackle the problem of calculating friction forces on the atomic level, providing a completely parameter-free approach remains a challenge. Here we present a quasi-static model to obtain an approximation to the nanofrictional response of dry, wearless systems based on quantum mechanical all-electron calculations. We propose a mechanism to allow dissipative sliding, which relies on atomic relaxations. We define two different ways of calculating the mean nanofriction force, both leading to an exponential friction-versus-load behavior for all sliding directions. Since our approach does not impose any limits on lengths and directions of the sliding paths, we investigate arbitrary sliding directions for an fcc Cu(111) interface and detect two periodic paths which form the upper and lower bound of nanofriction. For long aperiodic paths the friction force convergences to a value in between these limits. For low loads we retrieve the Derjaguin generalization of Amontons-Coulomb ...

  8. Force generation by Myosin II Filaments in Compliant Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samantha Stam; Jon Alberts; Margaret L. Gardel; Edwin Munro

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Myosin II isoforms with varying mechanochemistry and filament size interact with filamentous actin (F-actin) networks to generate contractile forces in cells. How their properties control force production in environments with varying stiffness is poorly understood. Here, we incorporated literature values for properties of myosin II isoforms into a cross-bridge model. Similar actin gliding speeds and force-velocity curves expected from previous experiments were observed. Motor force output on an elastic load was regulated by two timescales--that of their attachment to F-actin, which varied sharply with the ensemble size, motor duty ratio, and external load, and that of force build up, which scaled with ensemble stall force, gliding speed, and load stiffness. While such regulation did not require force-dependent kinetics, the myosin catch bond produced positive feedback between attachment time and force to trigger switch-like transitions from short attachments and small forces to high force-generating runs at threshold parameter values. Parameters representing skeletal muscle myosin, non-muscle myosin IIB, and non-muscle myosin IIA revealed distinct regimes of behavior respectively: (1) large assemblies of fast, low-duty ratio motors rapidly build stable forces over a large range of environmental stiffness, (2) ensembles of slow, high-duty ratio motors serve as high-affinity cross-links with force build-up times that exceed physiological timescales, and (3) small assemblies of low-duty ratio motors operating at intermediate speeds may respond sharply to changes in mechanical context--at low forces or stiffness, they serve as low affinity cross-links but they can transition to effective force production via the positive feedback mechanism described above. These results reveal how myosin isoform properties may be tuned to produce force and respond to mechanical cues in their environment.

  9. Vacuum Energy and Repulsive Casimir Forces in Quantum Star Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Fulling; L. Kaplan; J. H. Wilson

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Casimir pistons are models in which finite Casimir forces can be calculated without any suspect renormalizations. It has been suggested that such forces are always attractive, but we present several counterexamples, notably a simple type of quantum graph in which the sign of the force depends upon the number of edges. We also show that Casimir forces in quantum graphs can be reliably computed by summing over the classical orbits, and study the rate of convergence of the periodic orbit expansion. In generic situations where no analytic expression is available, the sign and approximate magnitude of Casimir forces can often be obtained using only the shortest classical orbits.

  10. Propagation of travelling waves in sub-excitable systems driven by noise and periodic forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fen-Ni Si; Quan-Xing Liu; Jin-Zhong Zhang; Lu-Qun Zhou

    2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been reported that traveling waves propagate periodically and stably in sub-excitable systems driven by noise [Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 138301 (2002)]. As a further investigation, here we observe different types of traveling waves under different noises and periodic forces, using a simplified Oregonator model. Depending on different noises and periodic forces, we have observed different types of wave propagation (or their disappearance). Moreover, the reversal phenomena are observed in this system based on the numerical experiments in the one-dimensional space. As an explanation, we regard it as the effect of periodic forces. Thus, we give qualitative explanations to how reversal phenomena stably appear, which seem to arise from the mixing function of the periodic force and the noise. And the output period and three velocities (the normal, the positive and the negative) of the travelling waves are defined and their relationship with the periodic forces, along with the types of waves, are also studied in sub-excitable system under a fixed noise intensity.

  11. Casimir Friction Force for Moving Harmonic Oscillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johan S. Hye; Iver Brevik

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Casimir friction is analyzed for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion. We first adopt a microscopic model for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature T moving non-relativistically with constant velocity. We use a statistical-mechanical description where time-dependent correlations are involved. This description is physical and direct, and, in spite of its simplicity, is able to elucidate the essentials of the problem. This treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory of ours back in 1992. The energy change Delta E turns out to be finite in general, corresponding to a finite friction force. In the limit of zero temperature the formalism yields, however, Delta E ->0, this being due to our assumption about constant velocity, meaning slowly varying coupling. For couplings varying more rapidly, there will also be a finite friction force at T=0. As second part of our work, we consider the friction problem using time-dependent perturbation theory. The dissipation, basically a second order effect, is obtainable with the use of first order theory, the reason being the absence of cross terms due to uncorrelated phases of eigenstates. The third part of the present paper is to demonstrate explicitly the equivalence of our results with those recently obtained by Barton (2010); this being not a trivial task since the formal results are seemingly quite different from each other.

  12. Force budget: I. Theory and numerical methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Whillans, I. M.

    1989-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ,y) and vertical (z). Balance of forces is expressed by: 8 h- J Rxxdz8x b ~ 8 h ~ Rxx(h)- + - J Rxydz - Rxy(h)-8 +8x 8y yb (11 ) 8C1XX 8C1xy 8C1xz + + 0 (1)8x 8y 8z 8C1xy 8C1yy 8C1yz 0 (2)+ +8x 8y 8z 8 h 8x J Rxydz b (12) 8C1XZ 8C1yz 8C1ZZ + + ---- - pg = 0 (3)8x 8... are small compared to pg. This is satisfied if 8Rxz/ax = aC1xz/aX * 0 and 8Ryz/ay = aC1yz/ay * O.When the balance equations are solved numerically, this approximation is not necessary, and the value of Rzz can be obtained from Equation (3) for vertical force...

  13. Softening of Granular Packings with Dynamic Forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Olson Reichhardt; L. M. Lopatina; X. Jia; P. A. Johnson

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform numerical simulations of a two-dimensional bidisperse granular packing subjected to both a static confining pressure and a sinusoidal dynamic forcing applied by a wall on one edge of the packing. We measure the response experienced by a wall on the opposite edge of the packing and obtain the resonant frequency of the packing as the static or dynamic pressures are varied. Under increasing static pressure, the resonant frequency increases, indicating a velocity increase of elastic waves propagating through the packing. In contrast, when the dynamic amplitude is increased for fixed static pressure, the resonant frequency decreases, indicating a decrease in the wave velocity. This occurs both for compressional and for shear dynamic forcing, and is in agreement with experimental results. We find that the average contact number $Z_c$ at the resonant frequency decreases with increasing dynamic amplitude, indicating that the elastic softening of the packing is associated with a reduced number of grain-grain contacts through which the elastic waves can travel. We image the excitations created in the packing and show that there are localized disturbances or soft spots that become more prevalent with increasing dynamic amplitude. Our results are in agreement with experiments on glass bead packings and earth materials such as sandstone and granite, and may be relevant to the decrease in elastic wave velocities that has been observed to occur near fault zones after strong earthquakes, in surficial sediments during strong ground motion, and in structures during earthquake excitation.

  14. Spin-Orbit Force from Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Murano; N. Ishii; S. Aoki; T. Doi; T. Hatsuda; Y. Ikeda; T. Inoue; H. Nemura; K. Sasaki

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a first attempt to determine nucleon-nucleon potentials in the parity-odd sector, which appear in 1P1, 3P0, 3P1, 3P2-3F2 channels, in Nf=2 lattice QCD simulations. These potentials are constructed from the Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter wave functions for J^P=0^-, 1^- and 2^-, which correspond to A1^-, T1^- and T2^- + E^- representation of the cubic group, respectively. We have found a large and attractive spin-orbit potential VLS(r) in the isospin-triplet channel, which is qualitatively consistent with the phenomenological determination from the experimental scattering phase shifts. The potentials obtained from lattice QCD are used to calculate the scattering phase shifts in 1P1, 3P0, 3P1 and 3P2-3F2 channels. The strong attractive spin-orbit force and a weak repulsive central force in spin-triplet P-wave channels lead to an attraction in the 3P2 channel, which is related to the P-wave neutron paring in neutron stars.

  15. The Role of Quantum Vacuum Forces in Microelectromechanical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Jordan Maclay

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of boundary surfaces in the vacuum alters the ground state of the quantized electromagnetic field and can lead to the appearance of vacuum forces. In the last decade, landmark measurements of the vacuum stress between conducting uncharged parallel plates (Casimir force) have been made. Recently the first micromachined MEMS (microelectromechanical system) device was fabricated that utilizes the Casimir force between parallel plates. The force dependence allows the device to serve as a highly sensitive position sensor. The are many other examples of quantum vacuum forces and effects besides the well known parallel plate Casimir force. Here we discuss potential roles of quantum vacuum forces and effects in MEMS systems and other systems. With the growing capability in nanofabrication, some of the roles may be actualized in the future. Because of the computational complexity, no theoretical results are yet available for a number of potentially interesting geometries and we can only speculate.

  16. Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

    2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

  17. Low-frequency forces on tubular spaceframe towers: Analysis of Cognac data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, J.P. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Marshall, P.W. (Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cognac field data indicate that the low-frequency force response components are not negligible and are significantly correlated to the wave envelope process. Although this is a well-known phenomenon in floating structures, it had previously not been validated from data recorded on fixed platforms. Simulation studies based on a vertical rigid cylinder subjected to Hurricane Frederic sea states show significant differences in applied low-frequency drag forces obtained using the Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes used to approximate near-surface fluid kinematics. Previous studies focusing on the peak hydrodynamic forces, as used for the design of fixed platforms, have shown a significant difference between predictions based on Wheeler and Delta stretching. The present study reveals that the Cognac field data could be used to discriminate between the Wheeler and Delta stretching schemes in terms of the low-frequency forces, which are potentially important in the design of compliant towers. However, such a discriminatory study would require detailed structural and hydrodynamic modeling of the Cognac tower.

  18. Task force reduces stuck-pipe costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, W.B. (BP Research, Houston, TX (US)); Jarman, D. (BP Exploration Operation Co., Aberdeen (GB)); Auflick, R.A.; Plott, R.S. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Houston, TX (US)); Wood, R.D. (BP Exploration Operating Co., London (GB)); Schofield, T.R. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Beijing (CN)); Cocking, D. (BP Exploration Operating Co., Ho Chi Minh City (CN))

    1991-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A task-force approach to stuck pipe has produced more than a 70% reduction in BP Exploration Operating Co.'s worldwide stuck-pipe costs during 1989 and 1990. We believe that these results have been primarily due to focusing our attention on improving personnel performance rather than to the introduction of new technology. Key elements in this paper of the efforts involved: Recognizing the importance of the drilling contractor and the service company staff's role in helping control stuck pipe; Promoting a rig-team approach to tackling the problem; Providing training on rig-team, stuck-pipe problem solving; and raising awareness of stuck pipe through a coordinated worldwide communications program among BP, contractors, and service companies.

  19. Atomic force microscopy of biochemically tagged DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogletree, D.F.; Kolbe, W.; Spengler, S.; Salmeron, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)); Hansma, H.G.; Bezanilla, M. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (United States)); Sano, T.; Smith, C.S.; Cantor, C.R. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small fragments of DNA of known length were made with the polymerase chain reaction. These fragments had biotin molecules covalently attached at their ends. They were subsequently labeled with a chimeric protein fusion between streptavidin and two immunoglobulin G-binding domains of staphyloccocal protein A. This tetrameric species was expected to bind up to four DNA molecules via their attached biotin moieties. The DNA-protein complex was deposited on mica and imaged with an atomic force microscope. The images revealed the protein chimera at the expected location at the ends of the strands of DNA as well as the expected dimers, trimers, and tetramers of DNA bound to a single protein. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Entropic force, noncommutative gravity, and ungravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolini, Piero [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    After recalling the basic concepts of gravity as an emergent phenomenon, we analyze the recent derivation of Newton's law in terms of entropic force proposed by Verlinde. By reviewing some points of the procedure, we extend it to the case of a generic quantum gravity entropic correction to get compelling deviations to the Newton's law. More specifically, we study: (1) noncommutative geometry deviations and (2) ungraviton corrections. As a special result in the noncommutative case, we find that the noncommutative character of the manifold would be equivalent to the temperature of a thermodynamic system. Therefore, in analogy to the zero temperature configuration, the description of spacetime in terms of a differential manifold could be obtained only asymptotically. Finally, we extend the Verlinde's derivation to a general case, which includes all possible effects, noncommutativity, ungravity, asymptotically safe gravity, electrostatic energy, and extra dimensions, showing that the procedure is solid versus such modifications.

  1. Multi-range force sensors utilizing shape memory alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Venugopal K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a multi-range force sensor comprising a load cell made of a shape memory alloy, a strain sensing system, a temperature modulating system, and a temperature monitoring system. The ability of the force sensor to measure contact forces in multiple ranges is effected by the change in temperature of the shape memory alloy. The heating and cooling system functions to place the shape memory alloy of the load cell in either a low temperature, low strength phase for measuring small contact forces, or a high temperature, high strength phase for measuring large contact forces. Once the load cell is in the desired phase, the strain sensing system is utilized to obtain the applied contact force. The temperature monitoring system is utilized to ensure that the shape memory alloy is in one phase or the other.

  2. Notes 14. Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An example of system parameter identification (Hybrid Brush Seal) Luis San Andr?s (lecturer) Thanks to Adolfo Delgado, Jos? Baker (RAs) & support from Siemens Power Generation MEEN 617 - April 2008 Structural parameters K shaft = 243 lbf/in (42...Notes 14. IDENTIFICATION OF BEARING FORCE COEFFICIENTS. ? Dr. Luis San Andr?s (2009) 1 Handout # 14 (MEEN 626) Application example Experimental identification of bearing force coefficients Experimental identification of the dynamic force...

  3. Wind forces on isolated and grouped mobile homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldham, Gary Albert

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WIND FORCES ON ISOLATED AND GROUPED MOBILE HOMFS A Thesis by GARY ALBERT OLDHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major... Subject: Aerospace Engineering WIND FORCES ON ISOLATED AND GROUPED MOBILE HOMES A Thesis by GARY ALBERT OLDHAM Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ( a of Department (Member) (Member) December 1974 ABSTRACT Wind Forces...

  4. New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Characterization New Atomic Force Microscope Spectroscopy Probes Local Elasticity March 04, 2015 Shown is a contact resonance frequency image after nano-oxidation of a...

  5. air force operations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the issue of path planning is addressed for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) cooperative joint-forces electronic attack operating in a hostile environment. Specifically, the...

  6. Dynamics and length distribution of microtubules under force and confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjrn Zelinski; Nina Mller; Jan Kierfeld

    2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the microtubule polymerization dynamics with catastrophe and rescue events for three different confinement scenarios, which mimic typical cellular environments: (i) The microtubule is confined by rigid and fixed walls, (ii) it grows under constant force, and (iii) it grows against an elastic obstacle with a linearly increasing force. We use realistic catastrophe models and analyze the microtubule dynamics, the resulting microtubule length distributions, and force generation by stochastic and mean field calculations; in addition, we perform stochastic simulations. We also investigate the force dynamics if growth parameters are perturbed in dilution experiments. Finally, we show the robustness of our results against changes of catastrophe models and load distribution factors.

  7. Synthetic Peptides Use the Force to Influence Cell Survival

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this study investigated how positively charged PAs interact with cells when water-hating properties and hydrogen bonding (a force that holds the nanofibers together) are altered....

  8. Correlation between fundamental binding forces and clinical prognosis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic force microscopy was used to fish for binding reactions between a fibronectin-coated probe (i.e., substrate simulating an implant device) and each of 15...

  9. Force Field Modeling of Conformational Energies: Importance of Multipole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponder, Jay

    Force Field Modeling of Conformational Energies: Importance of Multipole Moments and Intramolecular as the molecules become more polar. Inclusion of multipole moments and intramolecular polarization can improve

  10. Air Force Announces Funding for Alternative Energy Research & Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has released a Broad Area Announcement (BAA) for over $25 million for Alternative Energy Research & Development.

  11. Improved Constraints on an Axion-Mediated Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoedl, S. A.; Fleischer, F.; Adelberger, E. G.; Heckel, B. R. [Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Box 354290, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-4290 (United States)

    2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Low mass pseudoscalars, such as the axion, can mediate macroscopic parity and time-reversal symmetry-violating forces. We searched for such a force between polarized electrons and unpolarized atoms using a novel, magnetically unshielded torsion pendulum. We improved the laboratory bounds on this force by more than 10 orders of magnitude for pseudoscalars heavier than 1 meV and have constrained this force over a broad range of astrophysically interesting masses (10 {mu}eV to 10 meV).

  12. amber force fields: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fields and Development of Improved Protein Backbone Parameters Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, ABSTRACT The ff94 force field that is com- monly associated with the Amber a...

  13. amber force field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fields and Development of Improved Protein Backbone Parameters Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, ABSTRACT The ff94 force field that is com- monly associated with the Amber a...

  14. air force plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 18 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  15. air force research: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    current status and opportunities MIT - DSpace Summary: There are hundreds of weapons programs, under the management of the United States Air Force worth billions of dollars. These...

  16. air force technical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technical design Texas at Austin, University of 20 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  17. air force surveys: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  18. air force petroleum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 16 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  19. air force civil: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 18 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  20. air force institute: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  1. air force bench: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information...

  2. air force installations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 19 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  3. air force journal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Cooling Uninsulated Basement Systems ... 13 16 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information Sciences...

  4. Drag forces on inclusions in classical fields with dissipative dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent Demery; D. S. Dean

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the drag force on uniformly moving inclusions which interact linearly with dynamical free field theories commonly used to study soft condensed matter systems. Drag forces are shown to be nonlinear functions of the inclusion velocity and depend strongly on the field dynamics. The general results obtained can be used to explain drag forces in Ising systems and also predict the existence of drag forces on proteins in membranes due to couplings to various physical parameters of the membrane such as composition, phase and height fluctuations.

  5. antibody recognition force: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Models of YesNo and Two-Alternative Forced-Choice Recognition Memory compared 3 models of recognition memory in their ability to generalize across yesno and...

  6. active force control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of free-hand ... Gilbertson, Matthew Wright 2010-01-01 9 On Dynamic Models of Robot Force Control MIT - DSpace Summary: For precise robot control, endpoint compliance...

  7. Force and shape coordination in amoeboid cell motility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strain energy. Traction force components in wild-type cellswild-type cells To investigate the role that MyoII contractility plays in the strain energy

  8. association task force: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions for Information Technology at Binghamton for Research Bahgat Sammakia to lead the Task Force on Information Technology (IT). The president's original Suzuki,...

  9. aespoe task force: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions for Information Technology at Binghamton for Research Bahgat Sammakia to lead the Task Force on Information Technology (IT). The president's original Suzuki,...

  10. air force information: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions for Information Technology at Binghamton for Research Bahgat Sammakia to lead the Task Force on Information Technology (IT). The president's original Suzuki,...

  11. assessment task force: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions for Information Technology at Binghamton for Research Bahgat Sammakia to lead the Task Force on Information Technology (IT). The president's original Suzuki,...

  12. SciTech Connect: Gametic selection as an evolutionary force:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gametic selection as an evolutionary force: the maintenance of lethal polymorphisms in wild populations of Mus musculus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Gametic selection...

  13. Force controlled manipulation is a common technique for compli antly contacting and manipulating uncertain environments. Visual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Force controlled manipulation is a common technique for compli antly contacting guide a manipulator simplifies the force control problem by allowing the effective use of low gain force force sensor and a stiff manipulator position control loop. Because the force sensor measures all forces

  14. An intuitive approach to inertial forces and the centrifugal force paradox in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rickard Jonsson

    2007-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    As the velocity of a rocket in a circular orbit near a black hole increases, the outwardly directed rocket thrust must increase to keep the rocket in its orbit. This feature might appear paradoxical from a Newtonian viewpoint, but we show that it follows naturally from the equivalence principle together with special relativity and a few general features of black holes. We also derive a general relativistic formalism of inertial forces for reference frames with acceleration and rotation. The resulting equation relates the real experienced forces to the time derivative of the speed and the spatial curvature of the particle trajectory relative to the reference frame. We show that an observer who follows the path taken by a free (geodesic) photon will experience a force perpendicular to the direction of motion that is independent of the observers velocity. We apply our approach to resolve the submarine paradox, which regards whether a submerged submarine in a balanced state of rest will sink or float when given a horizontal velocity if we take relativistic effects into account. We extend earlier treatments of this topic to include spherical oceans and show that for the case of the Earth the submarine floats upward if we take the curvature of the ocean into account.

  15. Conference-EC-US Task Force Joint US-EU Workshop on Metabolomics and Environmental Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PI: Lily Y. Young; Co-PI: Gerben J. Zylstra

    2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1990, the EC-US Task Force on Biotechnology Research has been coordinating transatlantic efforts to guide and exploit the ongoing revolution in biotechnology and the life sciences. The Task Force was established in June 1990 by the European Commission and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. The Task Force has acted as an effective forum for discussion, coordination, and development of new ideas for the last 18 years. Task Force members are European Commission and US Government science and technology administrators who meet annually to enhance communication across the Atlantic, and to encourage collaborative research. Through sponsoring workshops, and other activities, the Task Force also brings together scientific leaders and early career researchers from both sides of the Atlantic to forecast research challenges and opportunities and to promote better links between researchers. Over the years, by keeping a focus on the future of science, the Task Force has played a key role in establishing a diverse range of emerging scientific fields, including biodiversity research, neuroinformatics, genomics, nanobiotechnology, neonatal immunology, transkingdom molecular biology, biologically-based fuels, and environmental biotechnology. The EC-US Task Force has sponsored a number of Working Groups on topics of mutual transatlantic interest. The idea to create a Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology research was discussed in the Task Force meeting of October 1993. The EC-US Working Group on Environmental Biotechnology set as its mission 'To train the next generation of leaders in environmental biotechnology in the United States and the European Union to work collaboratively across the Atlantic.' Since 1995, the Working Group supported three kinds of activities, all of which focus one early career scientists: (1) Workshops on the use of molecular methods and genomics in environmental biotechnology; (2) Short courses with theoretical, laboratory and field elements; and (3) Short term exchange fellowships. The short term exchange fellowships were created to enable young scientists to develop collaborations with colleagues across the Atlantic and to learn a new skill or expertise in the area of environmental biotechnology.

  16. Hydrophobic force field as molecular alternative to surface-area models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummer, G.

    1999-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective force field for hydrophobic interactions is developed based on a modified potential-of-mean-force (PMF) expansion of the effective many-body interactions between nonpolar molecules in water. For the simplest nonpolar solutes in water, hard particles, the modified PMF expansion is exact in both limiting cases of infinite separation and perfect overlap. The hydrophobic interactions are parametrized by using the information-theory model of hydrophobic hydration. The interactions between nonpolar solutes are short-ranged and can be evaluated efficiently on a computer. The force field is compared with simulation data for alkane conformational equilibria in water as well as a model for the formation of a hydrophobic core of a protein. The modified PMF expansion can be extended to solutes with attractive interactions. The observed accuracy, computational efficiency, and atomic detail of the model suggest that this simple hydrophobic force field can lead to a molecular alternative for phenomenological surface-area models with applications in ligand-binding and protein-folding studies.

  17. Dielectric spectroscopy at the nanoscale by atomic force microscopy: A simple model linking materials properties and experimental response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miccio, Luis A., E-mail: luisalejandro-miccio@ehu.es; Colmenero, Juan [Centro de Fsica de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastin (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastin (Spain); Departamento de Fsica de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastin (Spain); Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegra, ngel [Centro de Fsica de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastin (Spain); Departamento de Fsica de Materiales (UPV/EHU), 20080 San Sebastin (Spain); Schwartz, Gustavo A. [Centro de Fsica de Materiales (CSIC-UPV/EHU), P. M. de Lardizabal 5, 20018 San Sebastin (Spain); Donostia International Physics Center, P. M. de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastin (Spain)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of an atomic force microscope for studying molecular dynamics through dielectric spectroscopy with spatial resolution in the nanometer scale is a recently developed approach. However, difficulties in the quantitative connection of the obtained data and the material dielectric properties, namely, frequency dependent dielectric permittivity, have limited its application. In this work, we develop a simple electrical model based on physically meaningful parameters to connect the atomic force microscopy (AFM) based dielectric spectroscopy experimental results with the material dielectric properties. We have tested the accuracy of the model and analyzed the relevance of the forces arising from the electrical interaction with the AFM probe cantilever. In this way, by using this model, it is now possible to obtain quantitative information of the local dielectric material properties in a broad frequency range. Furthermore, it is also possible to determine the experimental setup providing the best sensitivity in the detected signal.

  18. Amsterdam Oxford Joint Rescue Forces Team Description Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Arnoud

    Amsterdam Oxford Joint Rescue Forces Team Description Paper Virtual Robot competition Rescue van Weelden1 , Chaim Bastiaan1 , Niels Out1 , Olaf Zwennes1 , Sev´aztian Soffia Ot´arola1 , Julian de://www.jointrescueforces.eu Abstract. With the progress made in active exploration, the robots of the Joint Rescue Forces are capable

  19. Nuclear forces from chiral EFT: The unfinished business

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Machleidt; D. R. Entem

    2010-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In spite of the great progress we have seen in recent years in the derivation of nuclear forces from chiral effective field theory (EFT), some important issues are still unresolved. In this contribution, we discuss the open problems which have particular relevance for microscopic nuclear structure, namely, the proper renormalization of chiral nuclear potentials and sub-leading many-body forces.

  20. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between true zero, where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and apparent zero, defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  1. Optical geometry analysis of the electromagnetic self-force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiano Sonego; Marek A. Abramowicz

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of the behaviour of the electromagnetic self-force for charged particles in a conformally static spacetime, interpreting the results with the help of optical geometry. Some conditions for the vanishing of the local terms in the self-force are derived and discussed.

  2. UW SCHOOL OF PHARMACY EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION TASK FORCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    UW SCHOOL OF PHARMACY EDUCATIONAL INNOVATION TASK FORCE 2012-2013 Barry Gidal (chair) Ron Burnette of the Task Force and how those activities fulfilled the charges and support the School's mission and strategic priorities. These documents will be posted, as appropriate, on the SOP Committee webpage (http://pharmacy.wisc.edu/about-school

  3. ORIGINAL PAPER Contributions of solar and greenhouse gases forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Rokjin

    and West 2006; Lean and Rind 2008; Sch- wartz et al. 2010). There is no doubt that the climate sci- ence radiative flux from Responsible editor: S. Hong. H.-G. Lim School of Environmental Science and Engineering to the surface of Earth (Trenberth et al. 2007). In addition to the GHG forcings, however, radiative forcings due

  4. air force nuclear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air force nuclear First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Air Force 2025 by CiteSeer Summary:...

  5. Integrating Tactile and Force Feedback with Finite Element Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , impedances of robot arms, and the computational model. We also describe an implementation of a compliance rendering system combining a low-impedance robot arm for large workspace kinesthetic force feedback, a high on a low-impedance robot arm, used here as a force feedback device. A real-time FEM model accepts user

  6. Crawling Waves from Radiation Force Excitation ZAEGYOO HAH,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Kevin J.

    Crawling Waves from Radiation Force Excitation ZAEGYOO HAH,1 CHRISTOPHER HAZARD,2 YOUNG THUNG CHO1 from focused beams that produce radiation force excitation within the tissue. Some examples are also radiofrequency ablated hepatic lesions in vitro 6,7 to characterize human skeletal muscle in vivo 8, 9

  7. air force materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air force materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Air Force Research Laboratory...

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bazant, Martin Z.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Attractive forces in microporous carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization P. M double layer in microporous carbon electrodes, suitable for incorporation in porous electrode theory and the metallic pore surfaces (image forces) that are not captured by mean-field theories, such as the Poisson

  9. Formal definition of POTENTIAL ENERGY (valid for conservative forces only)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    page - 16 Formal definition of POTENTIAL ENERGY (valid for conservative forces only) Given one type of conservative force F UB - UA= - = - Definition of 'Potential energy difference" conserv #12;page - 17 the definition of the "potential energy difference UB - UA " as equal to negative value of the work W done

  10. Long range forces between atomic impurities in liquid helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long range forces between atomic impurities in liquid helium J. Dupont-Roc Laboratoire Kastler in a polarizable medium. We show that atomic impurities in liquid helium may indeed realize repulsive forces embedded in liquid helium, super uid or not. Solid helium have also been used. Successful theoretical

  11. Biocompatible Force Sensor with Optical Readout and Dimensions of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Straight, Aaron

    Biocompatible Force Sensor with Optical Readout and Dimensions of 6 nm3 Hari Shroff,, Bjo1rn M Received June 6, 2005 ABSTRACT We have developed a nanoscopic force sensor with optical readout. The sensor energy transfer. The sensor was calibrated between 0 and 20 pN using a combined magnetic tweezers

  12. Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, William David

    Efficiency of Mixing Forced by Unsteady Shear Flow RYUICHIRO INOUE Department of Physics form 18 December 2008) ABSTRACT The dependence of mixing efficiency on time-varying forcing is studied frame and allowing the tilt angle to vary in time. Mixing efficiency Gc is defined as the ratio

  13. Extra force in Kaluza-Klein gravity theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Belayev

    2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In induced matter Kaluza-Klein gravity theory the solution of the dynamics equations for the test particle on null path leads to additional force in four-dimensional space-time. We find such force from five-dimensional geodesic line equations and apply this approach to analysis of the asymmetrically warped space-time.

  14. High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, William P.

    High-temperature piezoresponse force microscopy B. Bhatia,1 J. Karthik,2 D. G. Cahill,1,2 L. W September 2011; published online 24 October 2011) We report high temperature piezoresponse force microscopy resistive heater allows local temperature control up to 1000 C with minimal electrostatic interactions

  15. Modeling Masticatory Muscle Force in Finite Element Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Masticatory Muscle Force in Finite Element Analysis: Sensitivity Analysis Using Principal: electromyography; muscle force; mastication; primates; principal coordinates analysis; finite element analysis Our Origins, University of Arizona, Tempe, Arizona ABSTRACT Our work on a finite element model of the skull

  16. Techniques for Modeling Muscle-Induced Forces in Finite Element

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Elizabeth R.

    program was written to interface with a commercial finite element analysis tool to automatically apply: finite element analysis; muscle force; skull; muscle loading alogorithm, biting Finite element analysisTechniques for Modeling Muscle- Induced Forces in Finite Element Models of Skeletal Structures IAN

  17. Fluid forces on two circular cylinders in crossflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Chen, S.S.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluid excitation forces are measured in a water loop for two circular cylinders arranged in tandem and normal to flow. The Strouhal number and fluctuating drag and lift coefficients for both cylinders are presented for various spacings and incoming flow conditions. The results show the effects of Reynolds number, pitch ratio, and upstream turbulence on the fluid excitation forces.

  18. Wavenumber Locking And Pattern Formation In Spatially Forced Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagberg, Aric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meron, Ehud [BEN-GURION UNIV; Manor, Rotem [BEN-GURION UNIV

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study wavenumber locking and pattern formation resulting from weak spatially periodic one-dimensional forcing of two-dimensional systems. We consider systems that support stationary or traveling stripe patterns in the absence of the forcing, and assume that the one-dimensional forcing is aligned with the direction of the stripe patterns. When the forcing wavenumber is about twice as large as the wavenumber of the unforced system we find that the forcing can either select or stabilize a resonant stripe solution at half the forcing wavenumber, or create a new resonant solution. When the wavenumber mismatch is high we find that the wave-vector component of the pattern in the direction of the forcing can stilI lock at half the forcing wavenumber, but a wave-vector component in the orthogonal direction develops to compensate for the total wavenumber. As a result stationary two-dimensional rectangular and oblique patterns form. When the unforced system supports traveling waves resonant rectangular patterns remain stationary but the oblique patterns travel in a direction orthogonal to the traveling-waves.

  19. Feeling molecular forces: tactile feedback to enhance drug design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Jocylin Amber

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    that can return force and torque to the user through a hand held stylus. The system configuration for molecular modeling consists of integrating the haptic device with a high-end PC running Windows NT and developing code to model the intermolecular forces...

  20. Academic Science Program Task Force Tuesday, September 13, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academic Science Program Task Force Tuesday, September 13, 2011 3:00 p.m. Nelson Hall, Room 3220 on the Academic Science Program Task Force to Council of Deans on Thursday, September 22, 2011 Margery has been, September 28, 2011 in Witherspoon Cinema from 3-4 p.m. and topics will include budget, strategic plan

  1. Spanning the Scales of Granular Materials: Microscopic Force Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Brodu; Joshua A. Dijksman; Robert P. Behringer

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    If you walk on sand, it supports your weight. How do the disordered forces between particles in sand organize, to keep you from sinking? This simple question is surprisingly difficult to answer experimentally: measuring forces in three dimensions, between deeply buried grains, is challenging. We describe here experiments in which we have succeeded in measuring forces inside a granular packing subject to controlled deformations. We connect the measured micro-scale forces to the macro-scale packing force response with an averaging, mean field calculation. This calculation explains how the combination of packing structure and contact deformations produce the unexpected mechanical response of the packing, and reveals a surprising microscopic particle deformation enhancement mechanism.

  2. Is electrospray emission really due to columbic forces?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliotta, Francesco, E-mail: aliotta@ipcf.cnr.it; Ponterio, Rosina C.; Salvato, Gabriele; Vasi, Cirino [CNR-Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Viale F. Stagno dAlcontres 37, I-98158 Messina (Italy); Calandra, Pietro [CNR-Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, via dei Taurini 19, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Pochylski, Mikolaj [Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics, Umultowska 85, PL-62614 Poznan (Poland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a widely adopted soft ionization method for mass spectroscopy (MS). In spite of the undeniable success of the technique, its mechanisms are difficult to be analytically modelled because the process is characterized by non-equilibrium conditions. The common belief is that the formation of gas-phase ions takes place at the apex of the Taylor cone via electrophoretic charging. The charge balance implies that a conversion of electrons to ions should occur at the metal-liquid interface of the injector needle. We have detected that the above description is based on unproved assumptions which are not consistent with the correct evaluation of the problem. The comparison between experiments performed under the usual geometry and observations obtained under symmetric field configurations suggests that the emitted droplets cannot be significantly charged or, at least, that any possible ionization mechanism is so poorly efficient to ensure that columbic forces cannot play a major role in jet formation, even in cases where the liquid consists of a solution of ionic species. Further work is required to clearly understand how ionization occurs in ESI-MS.

  3. Because of the upcoming Jamestown 2007 quadricentennial, the Virginia Heritage Project Task Force Force of the Virtual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beex, A. A. "Louis"

    #12;Because of the upcoming Jamestown 2007 quadricentennial, the Virginia Heritage Project Task Force Force of the Virtual Library of Virginia (VIVA) asked Colonial National Historical Park-1996, available on the Web. During 2003- 2004, the Virginia Heritage Project Task surveyed manuscript holdings

  4. NONLINEAR FORCE PROFILE USED TO INCREASE THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAPTIC USER INTERFACE FOR TELEOPERATING A ROBOTIC HAND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hands anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a users teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hands anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques used by other systems. Key Words: Teleoperation, Robotic Hand, Robotic Force Scaling

  5. Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, James L.; Huey, Bryan D., E-mail: bhuey@ims.uconn.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Grishin, Ilya; Kolosov, Oleg V. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Gyu Choi, Yong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanosecond scale threshold switching is investigated with conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM) for an amorphous GeSe film. Switched bits exhibit 23 orders of magnitude variations in conductivity, as demonstrated in phase change based memory devices. Through the nm-scale AFM probe, this crystallization was achieved with pulse durations of as low as 15?ns, the fastest reported with scanning probe based methods. Conductance AFM imaging of the switched bits further reveals correlations between the switched volume, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration. The influence of film heterogeneities on switching is also directly detected, which is of tremendous importance for optimal device performance.

  6. Treatise with Reasoning Proof of the First Law of Energy Conservation Forced Interactions of Material Systems and Their Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    Treatise with Reasoning Proof of the First Law of Energy Conservation Forced Interactions The First Law of Energy Conservation, have been traditionally accepted as axiomatic laws that cannot and reasoned the general proof of energy conservation based on the Newton's Laws of motion and energy

  7. State Estimation for Force-Controlled Humanoid Balance using Simple Models in the Presence of Modeling Error

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    State Estimation for Force-Controlled Humanoid Balance using Simple Models in the Presence-based control frameworks, such as model predictive control (MPC), use the expected dynamics to generate that requires active balance control in the presence of modeling error. Primus humanoid shown in Figure 1

  8. Physical mechanisms of megahertz vibrations and nonlinear detection in ultrasonic force and related microscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, J. L.; Huey, B. D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 97 North Eagleville Road, Unit 3136, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Tovee, P. D.; Kolosov, O. V., E-mail: o.kolosov@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of high frequency (HF) vibrations at MHz frequencies in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) advanced nanoscale property mapping to video rates, allowed use of cantilever dynamics for mapping nanomechanical properties of stiff materials, sensing ?s time scale phenomena in nanostructures, and enabled detection of subsurface features with nanoscale resolution. All of these methods critically depend on the generally poor characterized HF behaviour of AFM cantilevers in contact with a studied sample, spatial and frequency response of piezotransducers, and transfer of ultrasonic vibrations between the probe and a specimen. Focusing particularly on Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM), this work is also applicable to waveguide UFM, heterodyne force microscopy, and near-field holographic microscopy, all methods that exploit nonlinear tip-surface force interactions at high frequencies. Leveraging automated multidimensional measurements, spectroscopic UFM (sUFM) is introduced to investigate a range of common experimental parameters, including piezotransducer excitation frequency, probed position, ultrasonic amplitude, cantilever geometry, spring constant, and normal force. Consistent with studies of influence of each of these factors, the data-rich sUFM signatures allow efficient optimization of ultrasonic-AFM based measurements, leading to best practices recommendations of using longer cantilevers with lower fundamental resonance, while at the same time increasing the central frequency of HF piezo-actuators, and only comparing results within areas on the order of few ?m{sup 2} unless calibrated directly or compared with in-the-imaged area standards. Diverse materials such as Si, Cr, and photoresist are specifically investigated. This work thereby provides essential insight into the reliable use of MHz vibrations with AFM and provides direct evidence substantiating phenomena such as sensitivity to adhesion, diminished friction for certain ultrasonic conditions, and the particular benefit of UFM and related methods for nanoscale mapping of stiff materials.

  9. A calibration method for lateral forces for use with colloidal probe force microscopy cantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintanilla, M. A. S.; Goddard, D. T. [Nexia Solutions Ltd., Springfields, Salwick, Preston, Lancashire PR4 0XJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration method is described for colloidal probe cantilevers that enables friction force measurements obtained using lateral force microscopy (LFM) to be quantified. The method is an adaptation of the lever method of Feiler et al. [A. Feiler, P. Attard, and I. Larson, Rev. Sci. Instum. 71, 2746 (2000)] and uses the advantageous positioning of probe particles that are usually offset from the central axis of the cantilever. The main sources of error in the calibration method are assessed, in particular, the potential misalignment of the long axis of the cantilever that ideally should be perpendicular to the photodiode detector. When this is not taken into account, the misalignment is shown to have a significant effect on the cantilever torsional stiffness but not on the lateral photodiode sensitivity. Also, because the friction signal is affected by the topography of the substrate, the method presented is valid only against flat substrates. Two types of particles, 20 {mu}m glass beads and UO{sub 3} agglomerates attached to silicon tapping mode cantilevers were used to test the method against substrates including glass, cleaved mica, and UO{sub 2} single crystals. Comparisons with the lateral compliance method of Cain et al. [R. G. Cain, S. Biggs, and N. W. Page, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 227, 55 (2000)] are also made.

  10. Forcing Adsorption of a Tethered Polymer by Pulling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judy-anne Osborn; Thomas Prellberg

    2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of a partially directed walk model of a polymer which at one end is tethered to a sticky surface and at the other end is subjected to a pulling force at fixed angle away from the point of tethering. Using the kernel method, we derive the full generating function for this model in two and three dimensions and obtain the respective phase diagrams. We observe adsorbed and desorbed phases with a thermodynamic phase transition in between. In the absence of a pulling force this model has a second-order thermal desorption transition which merely gets shifted by the presence of a lateral pulling force. On the other hand, if the pulling force contains a non-zero vertical component this transition becomes first-order. Strikingly, we find that if the angle between the pulling force and the surface is beneath a critical value, a sufficiently strong force will induce polymer adsorption, no matter how large the temperature of the system. Our findings are similar in two and three dimensions, an additional feature in three dimensions being the occurrence of a reentrance transition at constant pulling force for small temperature, which has been observed previously for this model in the presence of pure vertical pulling. Interestingly, the reentrance phenomenon vanishes under certain pulling angles, with details depending on how the three-dimensional polymer is modeled.

  11. Flow-Force Compensation in a Hydraulic Valve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lugowski, Jan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flow-reaction forces acting in hydraulic valves have been studied for many decades. Despite this, they are difficult to account for due to the complexities of the jet flow. This paper focuses only on the reduction, also referred to as compensation, of the flow force as applied to a valve spool featuring a profile of a turbine bucket. Fluid power textbooks explain the compensation taking place on such a profile by applying Newton laws of motion to the profile and deliver an equation for the magnitude and the direction of the flow force. This paper shows that both the magnitude and the direction of the compensating flow force are incorrect if calculated from the textbook equation. A corrected analysis of the dynamic forces is presented that are in agreement with earlier experiments by this author. It follows that the compensating flow force should be calculated from the static-pressure imbalance on the spool profile. That is, not Newton but Pascal law should be applied to calculate the compensating flow force.

  12. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  13. Extracting folding landscape characteristics of biomolecules using mechanical forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbong Hyeon; Michael Hinczewski; D. Thirumalai

    2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years single molecule force spectroscopy has opened a new avenue to provide profiles of the complex energy landscape of biomolecules. In this field, quantitative analyses of the data employing sound theoretical models, have played a major role in interpreting data and anticipating outcomes of experiments. Here, we explain how by using temperature as a variable in mechanical unfolding of biomolecules in force spectroscopy, the roughness of the energy landscape can be measured without making any assumptions about the underlying reaction coordinate. Estimates of other aspects of the energy landscape such as free energy barriers or the transition state (TS) locations could depend on the precise model used to analyze the experimental data. We illustrate the inherent difficulties in obtaining the transition state location from loading rate or force-dependent unfolding rates. Because the transition state moves as the force or the loading rate is varied, which is reminiscent of the Hammond effect, it is in general difficult to invert the experimental data. The independence of the TS location on force holds good only for brittle or hard biomolecules whereas the TS location changes considerably if the molecule is soft or plastic. Finally, we discuss the goodness of the end-to-end distance (or pulling) coordinate of the molecule as a surrogate reaction coordinate in a situation like force-induced ligand-unbinding from a gated molecular receptor as well as force-quench refolding of an RNA hairpin.

  14. Hydrodynamic forces on smooth inclined cylinder in oscillatory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.G. [Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrodynamic forces on a smooth inclined circular cylinder exposed to oscillating flow were experimentally investigated at Reynolds number (Re) in the range 40,000--200,000 and Keulegan-Capenter number (Kc) in the interval from 5--40. In the test, Re number and Kc number were varied systematically. The inertia force coefficient (C{sub M}) and the drag force coefficient (C{sub D}) in Morison equation were determined form the measured loads and the water particle kinematics. This analysis uses a modified form of Morison equation since it uses the normal velocity and acceleration. Thus, the applicability of the Cross Flow Principle was assumed. This principle, simply stated, is as follows: the force acting in the direction normal to the axis of a cylinder placed at some oblique angle to the direction of flow is expressed in terms of the normal component of flow only, and the axial component is disregarded. Both total in-line force coefficient (C{sub F}) and transverse force (lift) coefficient (C{sub L}) were analyzed in terms of their maximum and root mean square values. All the in-line and lift force coefficient were given as a functions of Re and Kc number. From this research, it can be seen that the Cross-Flow Principle does not always work well. It seems valid for the total in-line force at high Re and large Kc number; the C{sub M} for {alpha} = 45{degree} is larger and the C{sub D} for {alpha} = 45{degree} is smaller than that for {alpha} = 90{degree} and Re {ge} 80,000. The hydrodynamic force coefficients C{sub D} and C{sub M} for the inclined cylinder are only the functions of oblique angle ({alpha}) and Kc number, but not of the Re number.

  15. Effects of realistic tensor force on nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakada, H. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    First-order tensor-force effects on nuclear structure are investigated in the self-consistent mean-field and RPA calculations with the M3Y-type semi-realistic interactions, which contain the realistic tensor force. The tensor force plays a key role in Z- or N-dependence of the shell structure, and in transitions involving spin degrees-of-freedom. It is demonstrated that the semi-realistic interactions successfully describe the N-dependence of the shell structure in the proton-magic nuclei (e.g. Ca and Sn), and the magnetic transitions (e.g. M1 transition in {sup 208}Pb).

  16. Force-velocity relations for multiple molecular motor transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ziqing

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition rate model of cargo transportation by N effective molecular motors is proposed. Under the assumption of steady state, the force-velocity curve of multi-motor system can be derived from the force-velocity curve of single motor. Our work shows, in the case of low load, the velocity of multi-motor system can decrease or increase with increasing motor number, which is dependent on the single motor force-velocity curve. And most commonly, the velocity decreases. This gives a possible explanation to some recent experimental observations.

  17. Force-velocity relations for multiple-molecular-motor transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziqing Wang; Ming Li

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transition rate model of cargo transport by $N$ molecular motors is proposed. Under the assumption of steady state, the force-velocity curve of multi-motor system can be derived from the force-velocity curve of single motor. Our work shows, in the case of low load, the velocity of multi-motor system can decrease or increase with increasing motor number, which is dependent on the single motor force-velocity curve. And most commonly, the velocity decreases. This gives a possible explanation to some recent

  18. New confining force solution of QCD axion domain wall problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. M. Barr; Jihn E. Kim

    2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The serious cosmological problems created by the axion-string/axion-domain-wall system in standard axion models are alleviated by positing the existence of a new confining force. The instantons of this force can generate an axion potential that erases the axion strings long before QCD effects become important, thus preventing QCD-generated axion walls from ever appearing. Axion walls generated by the new confining force would decay so early as not to contribute significantly to the energy in axion dark matter.

  19. Faddeev equations with three-nucleon force in momentum space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, A. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-3000 Hannover 1 (Germany)); Gloeckle, W. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-4630 Bochum 1 (Germany)); Sauer, P.U. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, D-3000 Hannover 1 (Germany) Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modified Faddeev equations that allow the inclusion of irreducible three-body forces in addition to two-body interactions are formulated and the technical apparatus for their solution in momentum space is described. Results for the triton binding energy are obtained with realistic two-nucleon interactions and the Tucson-Melbourne two-pion exchange three-nucleon force and compared with previous calculations. Excellent agreement with the results of other groups is found confirming that the accuracy of present-day techniques for handling three-nucleon forces is very high indeed.

  20. Analytic cubic and quartic force fields using density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringholm, Magnus; Gao, Bin; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of TromsThe Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Troms (Norway)] [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of TromsThe Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Troms (Norway); Jonsson, Dan [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of TromsThe Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Troms (Norway) [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of TromsThe Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Troms (Norway); High Performance Computing Group, University of TromsThe Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Troms (Norway); Bast, Radovan [Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden and PDC Center for High Performance Computing, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Theoretical Chemistry and Biology, School of Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden and PDC Center for High Performance Computing, Royal Institute of Technology, S-10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstrm, Ulf; Helgaker, Trygve [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway)] [Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry (CTCC), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first analytic implementation of cubic and quartic force constants at the level of KohnSham density-functional theory. The implementation is based on an open-ended formalism for the evaluation of energy derivatives in an atomic-orbital basis. The implementation relies on the availability of open-ended codes for evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals differentiated with respect to nuclear displacements as well as automatic differentiation of the exchangecorrelation kernels. We use generalized second-order vibrational perturbation theory to calculate the fundamental frequencies of methane, ethane, benzene, and aniline, comparing B3LYP, BLYP, and HartreeFock results. The HartreeFock anharmonic corrections agree well with the B3LYP corrections when calculated at the B3LYP geometry and from B3LYP normal coordinates, suggesting that the inclusion of electron correlation is not essential for the reliable calculation of cubic and quartic force constants.

  1. Electrostatic microvalves utilizing conductive nanoparticles for improved speed, lower power, and higher force actuation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Branson, Eric D.; Kenis, Paul J. A. (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Desai, Amit (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Schudel, Ben (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Givler, Richard C.; Tice, Josh (University of Illinois, Champaign Urbana); Collord, Andrew; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Cook, Adam W.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and built electrostatically actuated microvalves compatible with integration into a PDMS based microfluidic system. The key innovation for electrostatic actuation was the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the PDMS valve membrane, allowing for electrostatic charging of the PDMS layer and subsequent discharging, while still allowing for significant distention of the valveseat for low voltage control of the system. Nanoparticles were applied to semi-cured PDMS using a stamp transfer method, and then cured fully to make the valve seats. DC actuation in air of these valves yielded operational voltages as low as 15V, by using a supporting structure above the valve seat that allowed sufficient restoring forces to be applied while not enhancing actuation forces to raise the valve actuation potential. Both actuate to open and actuate to close valves have been demonstrated, and integrated into a microfluidic platform, and demonstrated fluidic control using electrostatic valves.

  2. Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the grapheneliquid interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solidliquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the grapheneliquid interface.

  3. The effect of atmospheric forcing resolution on delivery of ocean heat to the2 Antarctic floating ice shelves3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    floating ice shelves3 4 5 by6 7 Michael S. Dinniman1 8 John M. Klinck1 9 Le-Sheng Bai2 10 David H. Bromwich melting of the base of the floating Antarctic ice shelves is now thought to38 be a more significant cause heat to the base of the ice41 shelves. The atmospheric forcing comes from the ERA-Interim reanalysis

  4. armed forced chief: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: muscle produces a torque at a joint that is the product of its contractile force and its moment arm Arm and Estimation of...

  5. Renormalization and power counting of chiral nuclear forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Bingwei [JLAB

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the progress we have made on modifying Weinberg's prescription for chiral nuclear forces, using renormalization group invariance as the guideline. Some of the published results are presented.

  6. EVALUATION OF FORCED CONVECTION NUCLEATE BOILING DETECTION BY ACOUSTIC EMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, R.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Energy under Contract W-7405-ENG-48 (JJ V'J y \\J7 LEGALunder Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48. References J.A. Paterson,under Contract No. W-7405-ENG-48. Apparatus The forced-

  7. 2014-09-25 Frsvarsmakten Swedish Armed Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yuxiao

    : SCADA protection In 2010, The Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) Defence Staff, Policy Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are used for a number of industrial and critical-infrastructure control applications. SCADA systems can involve

  8. Government and Industry a Force for Collaboration at the Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Sept. 16, 2009 Energy sector leaders in the public and private sectors have once again come together to...

  9. Collective behaviors of the Casimir force in microelectromechanical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, H. B.; Yelton, J.

    2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Our goal was to explore the strong dependence of the Casimir force on the shape of the interacting bodies. We made significant progress and measured the Casimir force on silicon surface with rectangular corrugation and showed that the results agree with theoretical calculations, provided that the optical properties of silicon are taken into account. Furthermore, we performed measurement of the Casimir force within a single chip for the first time, between a doubly clamped beam and a movable, on-chip electrode at liquid helium temperature. This experiment represents a new way of studying the Casimir effect, a significant advance from the conventional approach of placing an external surface close to a force transducer.

  10. Orbital precession due to central-force perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory S. Adkins; Jordan McDonnell

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the precession of Keplerian orbits under the influence of arbitrary central-force perturbations. Our result is in the form of a one-dimensional integral that is straightforward to evaluate numerically. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our formula for the case of the Yukawa potential. We obtain analytic results for potentials of the form V(r) = \\alpha r^n and V(r) = \\alpha \\ln(r/\\lambda) in terms of the hypergeometric function {_2F_1} (1/2-n/2,1-n/2; 2; e^2), where e is the eccentricity. Our results reproduce the known general relativistic (n=-3), constant force (n=1), and cosmological constant (n=2) precession formulas. Planetary precessions are often used to constrain the sizes of hypothetical new weak forces--our results allow for more precise, and often stronger, constraints on such proposed new forces.

  11. ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE MULTISERVICE TACTICS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES Development and Integration T. L. DAVISON THOMAS J. LOFTUS Captain, US Navy Major General, USAF, MC, CFS Acting Assistant Surgeon General Navy Warfare Development Command Health Care Operations Office

  12. Modeling Robot Dynamic Performance for Endpoint Force Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eppinger, Steven D.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research aims to understand the fundamental dynamic behavior of servo-controlled machinery in response to various types of sensory feedback. As an example of such a system, we study robot force control, a scheme ...

  13. Bonding, antibonding and tunable optical forces in asymmetric membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Pui-Chuen

    We demonstrate that tunable attractive (bonding) and repulsive (anti-bonding) forces can arise in highly asymmetric structures coupled to external radiation, a consequence of the bonding/anti-bonding level repulsion of ...

  14. Robotic Catheter Cardiac Ablation Combining Ultrasound Guidance and Force Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    manipulation speeds while allowing the operator to utilize robotic teleoperation to reduce radiation exposure force control. One medical application that may benefit from this technology is the radiofrequency (RF

  15. US Air Force Fellows and Education with Industry Presentation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 10:00 AM - 11:00 AM Col Michael Richardson, Maj Stephen Pippel, and Capt Kelley Thompson, US Air Force Global Security Directorate Seminar Building 4500-N, Weinberg...

  16. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The head disk interface in a hard disk drive can be considered to be one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models. In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  17. Modeling and control of undesirable dynamics in atomic force microscopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Rifai, Osamah M

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenal resolution and versatility of the atomic force microscope (AFM), has made it a widely-used instrument in nanotechnology. In this thesis, a detailed model of AFM dynamics has been developed. It includes a new ...

  18. Dynamics of the Thermohaline Circulation under Wind forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongjun Gao; Jinqiao Duan

    2001-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The ocean thermohaline circulation, also called meridional overturning circulation, is caused by water density contrasts. This circulation has large capacity of carrying heat around the globe and it thus affects the energy budget and further affects the climate. We consider a thermohaline circulation model in the meridional plane under external wind forcing. We show that, when there is no wind forcing, the stream function and the density fluctuation (under appropriate metrics) tend to zero exponentially fast as time goes to infinity. With rapidly oscillating wind forcing, we obtain an averaging principle for the thermohaline circulation model. This averaging principle provides convergence results and comparison estimates between the original thermohaline circulation and the averaged thermohaline circulation, where the wind forcing is replaced by its time average. This establishes the validity for using the averaged thermohaline circulation model for numerical simulations at long time scales.

  19. On advancement of high speed atomic force microscope technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SooHoo, Kimberly E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High speed atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a developing process in which nanoscale objects, such as crystal structures or strands of DNA, can be imaged at rates fast enough to watch processes as they occur. Although current ...

  20. Vacuum fluctuation forces between ultra-thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Benassi; Carlo Calandra

    2008-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the role of the quantum size effects in the evaluation of the force caused by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between ultra-thin films, using the dielectric tensor derived from the particle in a box model. Comparison with the results obtained by adopting a continuum dielectric model shows that, for film thicknesses of 1-10 nm, the electron confinement causes changes in the force intensity with respect to the isotropic plasma model which range from 40% to few percent depending upon the film electron density and the film separation. The calculated force shows quantum size oscillations, which can be significant for film separation distances of several nanometers. The role of electron confinement in reducing the large distance Casimir force is discussed.

  1. On the Correlation between Forcing and Climate Sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei

    The possible correlation between climate sensitivity and radiative forcing is studied using versions of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) model with different climate sensitivities. No such correlation was found ...

  2. Polymer-mediated entropic forces between scale-free objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faghfoor Maghrebi, Mohammad

    The number of configurations of a polymer is reduced in the presence of a barrier or an obstacle. The resulting loss of entropy adds a repulsive component to other forces generated by interaction potentials. When the ...

  3. Forced turbulence in thermally bistable gas: A parameter study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seifried, D; Niemeyer, J C

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: The thermal instability is one of the dynamical agents for turbulence in the diffuse interstellar medium, where both, turbulence and thermal instability interact in a highly non-linear manner. Aims: We study basic properties of turbulence in thermally bistable gas for variable simulation parameters. The resulting cold gas fractions can be applied as parameterisation in simulations on galactic scales. Methods: Turbulent flow is induced on large scales by means of compressive stochastic forcing in a periodic box. The compressible Euler equations with constant UV heating and a parameterised cooling function are solved on uniform grids. We investigate several values of the mean density of the gas and different magnitudes of the forcing. For comparison with other numerical studies, solenoidal forcing is applied as well. Results: After a transient phase, we observe that a state of statistically stationary turbulence is approached. Compressive forcing generally produces a two-phase medium, with a decreasing...

  4. Host nation security force development : a new roadmap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzgerald, Shawn (Shawn Michael)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model concerning the concepts of host nation security force development, or security sector reform (SSR), is proposed. This model is rooted in scholarly literature and seeks to fill current gaps in United States Army ...

  5. air force pilots: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information...

  6. air force pilot: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Scholars Program is currently Computer Technologies and Information...

  7. Design and analysis of a monolithic flexure atomic force microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ljubicic, Dean M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis details the design, manufacture, and testing of a sub-nanometer accuracy atomic force microscope. It was made to be integrated into the Sub-Atomic Measuring Machine (SAMM) in collaboration with the University ...

  8. Portfolio management in the Air Force : current status and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Dave B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are hundreds of weapons programs, under the management of the United States Air Force worth billions of dollars. These programs are being developed to fulfill a need in the U.S. defense strategy. Bringing these weapon ...

  9. ARI Task Force, ECA Work to Stimulate Regional Economies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. DOEs Asset Revitalization Initiative (ARI) Task Force met with the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) this week to advance the Departments processes for transferring excess land...

  10. Struts, springs and crumple zones: protein structures under force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dill, Jesse

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energies indicating both that the discontinuous wild-?energies reported from optical tweezers experiments showed that unfolding of the wild-?energy of folding calculated when force was applied at residues 16 and 61 in the wild-?

  11. Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load Task Force Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, C. Allan; Wagner, Kevin; Di Giovanni, George; Hauck, Larry; Mott, Joanna; Rifai, Hanadi; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ward, George; Wythe, Kathy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 2006, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board (TSSWCB) charged a seven-person Bacteria Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Task Force with: * examining approaches...

  12. Force Field Parameter Estimation of Functional Perfluoropolyether Lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.; Chung, P.S.; Steckel, J; Jhon, M.S.; Biegler, L.T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The head disk interface in hard disk drive can be considered one of the hierarchical multiscale systems, which require the hybridization of multiscale modeling methods with coarse-graining procedure. However, the fundamental force field parameters are required to enable the coarse-graining procedure from atomistic/molecular scale to mesoscale models .In this paper, we investigate beyond molecular level and perform ab-initio calculations to obtain the force field parameters. Intramolecular force field parameters for the Zdol and Ztetraol were evaluated with truncated PFPE molecules to allow for feasible quantum calculations while still maintaining the characteristic chemical structure of the end groups. Using the harmonic approximation to the bond and angle potentials, the parameters were derived from the Hessian matrix, and the dihedral force constants are fit to the torsional energy profiles generated by a series of constrained molecular geometry optimization.

  13. Fast dynamic force computation for electrostatic and electromagnetic conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koteeswaran, Prabhavathi

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an improved method for dynamic force computation applicable to both electrostatic and electromagnetic conductors with complex 3D geometries. During the transient simulation of electrostatic actuated MEMS, the positions...

  14. Burnout in forced convection nucleate boiling of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds John Mitchell

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data are presented for burnout in forced coivection nucleate boiling of water at pressures above 500 psia. A dimensionless correlation is devised for. the M.I.T. data which is found to be valid for certain recent data ...

  15. Nuclear forces in the parity odd sector and the LS forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiko Murano; for the HALQCD Collaboration

    2011-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report our first attempt at determining NN potentials in the parity odd sector including the spin-orbit force in lattice QCD, employing the method to extract successfully parity even NN potentials from Nambu-Bethe-Salpeter (NBS) wave functions through the Schr\\"odinger equation. Using Nf = 2 CP-PACS gauge configurations on a 16^3 x 32 lattice at a = 0.16 fm and m_\\pi \\cong 1.1 GeV, we calculate central, tensor and spin-orbit potentials in the parity odd sector. Although statistical errors are still large, we observe that the qualitative features of these potentials roughly agree with those of phenomenological potentials.

  16. Casimir forces in a Plasma: Possible Connections to Yukawa Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barry W. Ninham; Mathias Bostrm; Clas Persson; Iver Brevik; Stefan Y. Buhmann; Bo E. Sernelius

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical and numerical results for the screened Casimir effect between perfect metal surfaces in a plasma. We show how the Casimir effect in an electron-positron plasma can provide an important contribution to nuclear interactions. Our results suggest that there is a connection between Casimir forces and nucleon forces mediated by mesons. Correct nuclear energies and meson masses appear to emerge naturally from the screened Casimir-Lifshitz effect.

  17. Ion pump activity generates fluctuating electrostatic forces in biomembranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Loubet; M. A. Lomholt

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of lipid membranes with proteins that actively pump ions across the membrane. We find that the activity leads to a fluctuating force distribution due to electrostatic interactions arising from variation in dielectric constant across the membrane. By applying a multipole expansion we find effects on both the tension and bending rigidity dominated parts of the membranes fluctuation spectrum. We discuss how our model compares with previous studies of force-multipole models.

  18. Fast dynamic force computation for electrostatic and electromagnetic conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koteeswaran, Prabhavathi

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Computer Engineering FAST DYNAMIC FORCE COMPUTATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC CONDUCTORS AThesis by PRABHAVATHI KOTEESWARAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  19. A Nanocrystal Sensor for Luminescence Detection of Cellular Forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Charina; Chou, Jonathan; Lutker, Katie; Werb, Zena; Alivisatos, Paul

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum dots have been used as bright fluorescent tags with high photostability to probe numerous biological systems. In this work we present the tetrapod quantum dot as a dynamic, next-generation nanocrystal probe that fluorescently reports cellular forces with spatial and temporal resolution. Its small size and colloidal state suggest that the tetrapod may be further developed as a tool to measure cellular forces in vivo and with macromolecular spatial resolution.

  20. Dikin-type algorithms for dextrous grasping force optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, M. [Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany). Inst. of Automatic Control Engineering; Faybusovich, L. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Moore, J.B. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, Australia Capital Territory (Australia)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the central issues in dextrous robotic hand grasping is to balance external forces acting on the object and at the same time achieve grasp stability and minimum grasping effort. A companion paper shows that the nonlinear friction-force limit constraints on grasping forces are equivalent to the positive definiteness of a certain matrix subject to linear constraints. Further, compensation of the external object force is also a linear constraint on this matrix. Consequently, the task of grasping force optimization can be formulated as a problem with semidefinite constraints. In this paper, two versions of strictly convex cost functions, one of them self-concordant, are considered. These are twice-continuously differentiable functions that tend to infinity at the boundary of possible definiteness. For the general class of such cost functions, Dikin-type algorithms are presented. It is shown that the proposed algorithms guarantee convergence to the unique solution of the semidefinite programming problem associated with dextrous grasping force optimization. Numerical examples demonstrate the simplicity of implementation, the good numerical properties, and the optimality of the approach.

  1. THE OPERATION OF A FORCED TWO PHASE COOLING SYSTEM ON A LARGE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, M.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A FORCED TWO PHASE COOLING SYSTEM ON A LARGE SUPERCONDUCTINGOPERATION O A FORCED T O PHASE COOLING SYSTEM F W O A LARGEof a forced two phase cooling system on a two meter diameter

  2. Transfer of Air Force technical procurement bid set data to small businesses, using CALS and EDI: Test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a test transfer of three Air Force technical procurement bid sets to one large and twelve small businesses, using the Department of Defense (DoD) Continuous Acquisition and Life-cycle Support (CALS) and ANSI ASC X12 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards. The main goal of the test was to evaluate the effectiveness of using CALS technical data within the context of the DoD`s EDI-based standard approach to electronic commerce in procurement, with particular emphasis on receipt and use of the data by small contractors. Air Force procurement data was provided by the Sacramento Air Logistics Center at McClellan Air Force Base; the manufacturing participants were selected from among McClellan`s ``Blue Ribbon`` contractors, located throughout the US. The test was sponsored by the Air Force CALS Test Network, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The test successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of including CALS MIL-R-28002 (Raster) engineering data in an EDI Specification/Technical Information transaction set (ANSI ASC X12 841) when issuing electronic requests for quotation to small businesses. In many cases, the data was complete enough for the contractor participant to feel comfortable generating a quote. Lessons learned from the test are being fed back to the CALS and EDI standards organizations, and to future implementors of CALS-EDI based acquisition or contracting systems, which require the transfer of technical information, such as engineering data, manufacturing process data, quality test data, and other product or process data, in the form of a CALS or other digital datafile.

  3. Implementing Nonlinear Buoyancy and Excitation Forces in the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Modeling Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.; Nelessen, A.; Ruehl, K.; Michelen, C.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wave energy converters (WECs) are commonly designed and analyzed using numerical models that combine multi-body dynamics with hydrodynamic models based on the Cummins Equation and linearized hydrodynamic coefficients. These modeling methods are attractive design tools because they are computationally inexpensive and do not require the use of high performance computing resources necessitated by high-fidelity methods, such as Navier Stokes computational fluid dynamics. Modeling hydrodynamics using linear coefficients assumes that the device undergoes small motions and that the wetted surface area of the devices is approximately constant. WEC devices, however, are typically designed to undergo large motions in order to maximize power extraction, calling into question the validity of assuming that linear hydrodynamic models accurately capture the relevant fluid-structure interactions. In this paper, we study how calculating buoyancy and Froude-Krylov forces from the instantaneous position of a WEC device (referred to as instantaneous buoyancy and Froude-Krylov forces from herein) changes WEC simulation results compared to simulations that use linear hydrodynamic coefficients. First, we describe the WEC-Sim tool used to perform simulations and how the ability to model instantaneous forces was incorporated into WEC-Sim. We then use a simplified one-body WEC device to validate the model and to demonstrate how accounting for these instantaneously calculated forces affects the accuracy of simulation results, such as device motions, hydrodynamic forces, and power generation.

  4. U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Connecticut and New Jersey, and the Canadian province of Ontario. U.S. - Canada Power System Outage Task Force: Final Report on the Implementation of Task Force...

  5. Reducing the forces required to delimb hardwoods. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattson, J.A.; Sturos, J.B.

    1996-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Documents the forces required to delimb hardwoods as a function of knife parameters, and identifies opportunities to reduce forces and increase productivity of machines using delimbing knives.

  6. Ab-initio friction forces on the nanoscale: A DFT study of fcc Cu(111)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Wolloch; Gregor Feldbauer; Peter Mohn; Josef Redinger; Andrs Vernes

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    While there are a number of models that tackle the problem of calculating friction forces on the atomic level, providing a completely parameter-free approach remains a challenge. Here we present a quasi-static model to obtain an approximation to the nanofrictional response of dry, wearless systems based on quantum mechanical all-electron calculations. We propose a mechanism to allow dissipative sliding, which relies on atomic relaxations. We define two different ways of calculating the mean nanofriction force, both leading to an exponential friction-versus-load behavior for all sliding directions. Since our approach does not impose any limits on lengths and directions of the sliding paths, we investigate arbitrary sliding directions for an fcc Cu(111) interface and detect two periodic paths which form the upper and lower bound of nanofriction. For long aperiodic paths the friction force convergences to a value in between these limits. For low loads we retrieve the Derjaguin generalization of Amontons-Coulomb kinetic friction law which appears to be valid all the way down to the nanoscale. We observe a non-vanishing Derjaguin-offset even for atomically flat surfaces in dry contact.

  7. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  8. Force and heat current formulas for many-body potentials in molecular dynamics simulation with applications to thermal conductivity calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Zheyong; Wang, Hui-Qiong; Zheng, Jin-Cheng; Donadio, Davide; Harju, Ari

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive expressions of interatomic force and heat current for many-body potentials such as the Tersoff, the Brenner, and the Stillinger-Weber potential used extensively in molecular dynamics simulations of covalently bonded materials. Although these potentials have a many-body nature, a pairwise force expression that follows Newton's third law can be found without referring to any partition of the potential. Based on this force formula, a stress applicable for periodic systems can be unambiguously defined. The force formula can then be used to derive the heat current formulas using a natural potential partitioning. Our heat current formulation is found to be equivalent to most of the seemingly different heat current formulas used in the literature, but to deviate from the stress-based formula derived from two-body potential. We validate our formulation numerically on various systems descried by the Tersoff potential, namely three-dimensional silicon and diamond, two-dimensional graphene, and quasi-one-dimen...

  9. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  10. Self-consistent Green's functions with three-body forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arianna Carbone

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present thesis aims at studying the properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter from a Green's functions point of view, including two-body and three-body chiral forces. An extended self-consistent Green's function formalism is defined to consistently incorporate three-body forces in the many-body calculations. The effect of three-nucleon interactions is included via the construction of a dressed two-body density dependent force. This is obtained performing an average of the leading order three-body terms in the chiral effective field theory expansion. The dressed force corresponds to the use of an in-medium propagator in the average which takes into account the correlations characterizing the system at each stage of the many-body calculation. The total energy of the system is obtained by means of a modified Galitskii-Migdal-Koltun sumrule to correctly account for the effect of three-body forces. Microscopic as well as macroscopic properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter are analyzed in detailed.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: 2005 Presidential Visit / Bill...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2005 Presidential Visit Bill Signing ATLAS II Data Acquisition System SandiaKAFB Wind Farm 2005 Presidential Visit Bill Signing On May 18, 2011, in Energy, News, Renewable...

  12. Earth's Inner Core dynamics induced by the Lorentz force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lasbleis, M; Cardin, P; Labrosse, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic studies indicate that the Earth's inner core has a complex structure and exhibits a strong elastic anisotropy with a cylindrical symmetry. Among the various models which have been proposed to explain this anisotropy, one class of models considers the effect of the Lorentz force associated with the magnetic field diffused within the inner core. In this paper we extend previous studies and use analytical calculations and numerical simulations to predict the geometry and strength of the flow induced by the poloidal component of the Lorentz force in a neutrally or stably stratified growing inner core, exploring also the effect of different types of boundary conditions at the inner core boundary (ICB). Unlike previous studies, we show that the boundary condition that is most likely to produce a significant deformation and seismic anisotropy is impermeable, with negligible radial flow through the boundary. Exact analytical solutions are found in the case of a negligible effect of buoyancy forces in the inne...

  13. Forced transport of deformable containers through narrow constrictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Remy Kusters; Thijs van der Heijden; Badr Kaoui; Jens Harting; Cornelis Storm

    2014-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study, numerically and analytically, the forced transport of deformable containers through a narrow constriction. Our central aim is to quantify the competition between the constriction geometry and the active forcing, regulating whether and at which speed a container may pass through the constriction and under what conditions it gets stuck. We focus, in particular, on the interrelation between the force that propels the container and the radius of the channel, as these are the external variables that may be directly controlled in both artificial and physiological settings. We present Lattice-Boltzmann simulations that elucidate in detail the various phases of translocation, and present simplified analytical models that treat two limiting types of these membrane containers: deformational energy dominated by the bending or stretching contribution. In either case we find excellent agreement with the full simulations, and our results reveal that not only the radius but also the length of the constriction determines whether or not the container will pass.

  14. Acceleration of particles in an isotropic random force field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hector Javier Durand-Manterola

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    If we have a particle immersed in a field of random forces, each interaction of the particle with the field can enlarge or diminish its kinetic energy. In this work is shown that in general, for any field of random force with uniform distribution of directions, the probability to gain kinetic energy is larger that the probability to lose it. Therefore, if the particle is submitted to a great number of interactions with the force stochastic field, the final result will be that the particle will gain energy. The probability to gain energy in each interaction is Pg=1/2 (1+T/(2Po)), where T is the impulse given by the field and Po is the momentum of the particle before the interaction. The probability to lose energy in each interaction is Pl=1/2 (1-T/(2Po)).

  15. Determining the role of hydration forces in protein folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hura, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Soper, A.K. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility] [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility; Pertsemlidis, A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry] [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Head-Gordon, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the primary issues in protein folding is determining what forces drive folding and eventually stabilize the native state. A delicate balance exists between electrostatic forces such as hydrogen bonding and salt bridges, and the hydrophobic effect, which are present for both intramolecular protein interactions and intermolecular contributions with the surrounding aqueous environment. This article describes a combined experimental, theoretical, and computational effort to show how the complexity of aqueous hydration can influence the structure, folding and aggregation, and stability of model protein systems. The unification of the theoretical and experimental work is the development or discovery of effective amino acid interactions that implicitly include the effects of aqueous solvent. The authors show that consideration of the full range of complexity of aqueous hydration forces such as many-body effects, long-ranged character of aqueous solvation, and the assumptions made about the degree of protein hydrophobicity can directly impact the observed structure, folding, and stability of model protein systems.

  16. Unitary approach to the quantum forced harmonic oscillator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Velasco-Martinez; V. G. Ibarra-Sierra; J. C. Sandoval-Santana; J. L. Cardoso; A. Kunold

    2014-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we introduce an alternative approach to studying the evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator subject to an arbitrary time dependent force. With the purpose of finding the evolution operator, certain unitary transformations are applied successively to Schr\\"odinger's equation reducing it to its simplest form. Therefore, instead of solving the original Schr\\"odinger's partial differential equation in time and space the problem is replaced by a system of ordinary differential equations. From the obtained evolution operator we workout the propagator. Even though we illustrate the use of unitary transformations on the solution of a forced harmonic oscillator, the method presented here might be used to solve more complex systems. The present work addresses many aspects regarding unitary transformations and the dynamics of a forced quantum harmonic oscillator that should be useful for students and tutors of the quantum mechanics courses at the senior undergraduate and graduate level.

  17. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P. [Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne Victoria, 3010 (Australia); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Asylum Research, 6310 Hollister Ave, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States); Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanodevices and Nanostructures (CRANN), University of Dublin, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  18. Spin contribution to the ponderomotive force in a plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Brodin; A. P. Misra; M. Marklund

    2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a ponderomotive force due to the intrinsic spin of electrons is developed. An expression containing both the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive force is derived. The results are used to demonstrate that an electromagnetic pulse can induce a spin-polarized plasma. Furthermore, it is shown that for certain parameters, the nonlinear back-reaction on the electromagnetic pulse from the spin magnetization current can be larger than that from the classical free current. Suitable parameter values for a direct test of this effect are presented.

  19. SRS reactor control rod cooling without normal forced convection cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C. (SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Easterling, T.C. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an analytical study of the coolability of the control rods in the Savannah River site (SRS) K production reactor under conditions of loss of normal forced convection cooling. The study was performed as part of the overall safety analysis of the reactor supporting its restart. The analysis addresses the buoyancy-driven boiling flow over the control rods that occurs when forced cooling is lost. The objective of the study was to demonstrate that the control rods will remain cooled (i.e., no melting) at powers representative of those anticipated for restart of the reactor.

  20. The mechano-chemistry of cytoskeletal force generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirko Maraldi; Krishna Garikipati

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this communication, we propose a model to study the non-equilibrium process by which actin stress fibers develop force in contractile cells. The emphasis here is on the non-equilibrium thermodynamics, which is necessary to address the mechanics as well as the chemistry of dynamic cell contractility. In this setting we are able to develop a framework that relates (a) the dynamics of force generation within the cell and (b) the cell response to external stimuli to the chemical processes occurring within the cell, as well as to the mechanics of linkage between the stress fibers, focal adhesions and extra-cellular matrix.

  1. A channel Brownian pump powered by an unbiased external force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-quan Ai; Liang-gang Liu

    2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A Brownian pump of particles in an asymmetric finite tube is investigated in the presence of an unbiased external force. The pumping system is bounded by two particle reservoirs. It is found that the particles can be pumped through the tube from a reservoir at low concentration to one at the same or higher concentration. There exists an optimized value of temperature (or the amplitude of the external force) at which the pumping capacity takes its maximum value. The pumping capacity decreases with increasing the radius at the bottleneck of the tube.

  2. Spatial synchronization and extinction of species under external forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. E. Amritkar; Govindan Rangarajan

    2006-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the interplay between synchronization and extinction of a species. Using a general model we show that under a common external forcing, the species with a quadratic saturation term in the population dynamics first undergoes spatial synchronization and then extinction, thereby avoiding the rescue effect. This is because the saturation term reduces the synchronization time scale but not the extinction time scale. The effect can be observed even when the external forcing acts only on some locations provided there is a synchronizing term in the dynamics. Absence of the quadratic saturation term can help the species to avoid extinction.

  3. On transition from Alfvn resonance to forced magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, Q. [MOE Key Lab of Materials Modification by Beams and School of Physics and Optoelectrical Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X., E-mail: xgwang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We revisit the transition from Alfvn resonance to forced magnetic reconnection with a focus on the property of their singularities. As the driven frequency tends to zero, the logarithmic singularity of Alfvn resonance shifts to the power-law singularity of forced reconnection, due to merging of the two resonance layers. The transition criterion depends on either kinetic effects or dissipations that resolve the singularity. As an example, a small but finite resistivity ? is introduced to investigate the transition process. The transition threshold is then obtained as the driven frequency reaches a level of ?O((?/k){sup 1/3})

  4. Wave forces on a large submerged hemispherical object

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snider, Robert Hoyd

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    r% 'I'1'e' ' s , cd', ", ". T ', ltd~ D +'i IC TP. ;25 A'. . '1 U 1" \\, E1 M, ~' '-'~, i)=. ' SCTE, '; g 6'7;g Ila)sz Su'i-, -i" -. ~: C~ v ~ ~ ' rc~r, - . ' ' rg ViAi& ' FORC'' S OE A LA( SE SUB':RAGED HE'lXSPBERTCAL OBJECT A Theses ROBERT... Force Load Cell System 16 Resistance Wave Heaght Gage Pressure Transducer 20 23 Experimental Procedure III. THEORETICAL CONSIDERA'1IONS 24 26 Progressive Linear Wave Theory 27 Evaluation of Experimental Data IV. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION...

  5. Wave forces on monotower structures fitted with icebreaking cones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Michael Gerard

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Table 5 provides the model dimensions. The cones were attached to the pile section and then sealed to prevent entrapment of water. Data Acquisition. -A Hewlett-Packard (HP) 3497A Data Acquisition System was used to measure wave heights and forces.... the inertial force term. The damping matrix is usually composed of internal, viscous and radiation damping as expressed by [C] = [Ci] + [Cv] + [R] (2. 7) The solution of Equation (2. 5) is found in terms of the relative displacements, therefore the fluid...

  6. Spin Contribution to the Ponderomotive Force in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodin, G.; Misra, A. P.; Marklund, M. [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of a ponderomotive force due to the intrinsic spin of electrons is developed. An expression containing both the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive force is derived. The results are used to demonstrate that an electromagnetic pulse can induce a spin-polarized plasma. Furthermore, it is shown that, for certain parameters, the nonlinear backreaction on the electromagnetic pulse from the spin magnetization current can be larger than that from the classical free current. Suitable parameter values for a direct test of this effect are presented.

  7. Wave induced forces on a partially exposed circular cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Michael Edward

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed to give a dimensionless force which was related to the wave parameters H/L and d/L. Other methods of analysis were also used for the derivation of drag, inertia, and lift coefficients for use with various forms of the Norison Equation. RCKHOI... = Fluid Density A = Area of Hodel u = Horizontal Hater Particle Velocity x In a study conducted by Chakrabarti (9), the data presented by Shank and Herbich were analyzed by a different method, namely a closed form expression for the wave forces. Only...

  8. Work Force Retention Work Group Charter | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium TransferonUS-IndiaVALUEWaterWhereChinn Women @Department ofForceForce

  9. An exact solution for the Casimir force in a spherically symmetric medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf Leonhardt; William M. R. Simpson

    2011-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculated the force of the quantum vacuum, the Casimir force, in a spherically symmetric medium, Maxwell's fish eye, surrounded by a perfect mirror and derived an exact analytic solution. Our solution questions the idea that the Casimir force of a spherical mirror is repulsive - we found an attractive force that diverges at the mirror.

  10. Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verification of the Equilibrium and MHD Stability Codes within the Integrated Tokamak Modeling Task Force

  11. Robust control for a class of interval model: application to the force control of piezoelectric cantilevers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    the second one on force [4][5]. In order to synthesize a controller for the manipulation force, a model is necessary. However, it is known that the model linking this manipulation force and the input controlRobust control for a class of interval model: application to the force control of piezoelectric

  12. Dynamics of Quasi-Geostrophic Fluid Motions with Rapidly Oscillating Coriolis Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the viscosity, D9QUR is the Ekman dissipation constant, GH¡!£¦¥3§ is the wind forcing, and V¡XWY¥3`IT6 WI5a and time almost periodic wind forcing, respectively. We assume that fluctuating Coriolis force term )1Dynamics of Quasi-Geostrophic Fluid Motions with Rapidly Oscillating Coriolis Force Hongjun Gao

  13. Force microscopy of layering and friction in an ionic liquid Judith Hotha,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueser, Martin

    shape of the force vs. distance curve is explained by a model for the interaction between tip, gold of the compliant force sensor between branches of the oscillatory force curve. Frictional force between-viscosity, yet load- bearing lubricant [1-4]. The load-bearing ability stems from the formation of solvation

  14. Graphene thickness dependent adhesion force and its correlation to surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pourzand, Hoorad [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Tabib-Azar, Massood, E-mail: azar.m@utah.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, adhesion force of graphene layers on 300?nm silicon oxide is studied. A simple model for measuring adhesion force for a flat surface with sub-nanometer roughness was developed and is shown that small surface roughness decreases adhesion force while large roughness results in an effectively larger adhesion forces. We also show that surface roughness over scales comparable to the tip radius increase by nearly a factor of two, the effective adhesion force measured by the atomic force microscopy. Thus, we demonstrate that surface roughness is an important parameter that should be taken into account in analyzing the adhesion force measurement results.

  15. Detection of Percolating Paths in PMMA/CB Segregated Network Composites Using Electrostatic Force Microscopy and Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ou, R. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gupta, S. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Parker, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Gerhardt, Dr. Rosario [Georgia Institute of Technology; Seal, Katyayani [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite specimens possessing polyhedral segregated network microstructures require a very small amount of nanosize filler, <1 vol %, to reach percolation because percolation occurs by accumulation of the fillers along the edges of the deformed polymer matrix particles. In this paper, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) were used to confirm the location of the nanosize fillers and the corresponding percolating paths in polymethyl methacrylate/carbon black composites. The EFM and C-AFM images revealed that the polyhedral polymer particles were coated with filler, primarily on the edges as predicted by the geometric models provided.

  16. Business Association Joint Task Force Position on Higher Education December 2010 Business Association Joint Task Force Position on Higher Education December 2010 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Business Association Joint Task Force Position on Higher Education ­ December 2010 Business Association Joint Task Force Position on Higher Education ­ December 2010 1 Joint Business Association Task Force on Higher Education Summary The four business associations, Associated Oregon Industries, Oregon

  17. Bed topography and the development of forced bed surface patches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    bars developed and became essentially fixed in space, producing quasisteady state bed topography over in a fixed location for an extended period even after passing considerable bed load flux [Dietrich et alBed topography and the development of forced bed surface patches Peter A. Nelson,1 William E

  18. People Tracking with Human Motion Predictions from Social Forces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arras, Kai O.

    People Tracking with Human Motion Predictions from Social Forces Matthias Luber Johannes A. Stork Gian Diego Tipaldi Kai O. Arras Abstract-- For many tasks in populated environ- ments, robots need to keep track of current and future motion states of people. Most approaches to people tracking make weak

  19. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  20. ELECTROMOTION 2009 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Co or NdFeB, the designers can use magnets owning a really rigid magnetization. They are the magnets whichELECTROMOTION 2009 1 3D Analytical Calculation of Forces between Linear Halbach-Type Permanent Magnet Arrays H. Allag1,2 , J-P. Yonnet1 and M. E. H. Latreche2 1- Laboratoire de Génie Electrique de