National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for food stone clay

  1. Carbon Emissions: Stone, Clay, and Glass Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contact: Stephanie Battles Stephanie.Battles@eia.doe.gov (Phone: (202) 586-7237) FAX: 202-586-0018 Contact Us URL: http:www.eia.govemeuefficiencycarbonemissionsstone...

  2. Skipping Stone | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Skipping Stone Jump to: navigation, search Name: Skipping Stone Place: West Peabody, Massachusetts Zip: 1960 Product: Skipping Stone's mission is to serve the emerging and ever...

  3. Clay Minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Karl T.; Sanders, Rebecca L.; Washton, Nancy M.

    2014-03-14

    Clay minerals are important components of the environment and are involved or implicated in processes such as the uptake of pollutants and the release of nutrients and as potential platforms for a number of chemical reactions. Owing to their small particle sizes (typically, on the order of microns or smaller) and mixing with a variety of other minerals and soil components, advanced characterization methods are needed to study their structures, dynamics, and reactivities. In this article, we describe the use of solid-state NMR methods to characterize the structures and chemistries of clay minerals. Early one-pulse magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR studies of 27Al and 29Si have now been enhanced and extended with new studies utilizing advanced methodologies (such as Multiple Quantum MAS) as well as studies of less-sensitive nuclei. In additional work, the issue of reactivity of clay minerals has been addressed, including studies of reactive surface area in the environment. Utilizations of NMR-sensitive nuclides within the clay minerals themselves, and in molecules that react with speci?c sites on the clay mineral surfaces, have aided in understanding the reactivity of these complex aluminosilicate systems.

  4. Williams Stone Wind Turbine | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stone Wind Turbine Jump to: navigation, search Name Williams Stone Wind Turbine Facility Williams Stone Wind Turbine Sector Wind energy Facility Type Community Wind Facility Status...

  5. Modified clay sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fogler, H. Scott; Srinivasan, Keeran R.

    1990-01-01

    A novel modified clay sorbent and method of treating industrial effluents to remove trace pollutants, such as dioxins, biphenyls, and polyaromatics such as benzo(a)pyrene and pentachlorophenol. The novel clay sorbent has a composite structure in which the interlayer space of an expandable clay, such as smectite, is filled with polyvalent or multivalent inorganic cations which forces weaker surfactant cations to locate on the surface of the clay in such an orientation that the resulting composite is hydrophilic in nature. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-hydroxy aluminum-montmorillonite. In certain embodiments, a non-expanding clay, such as kaolinite, is used and surfactant cations are necessarily located on an external surface of the clay. A specific example is cetylpyridinium-kaolinite.

  6. Stone's code reveals Earth's processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The returning student researches carbon sequestration to determine the best methods to capture the greenhouse gas that increases global warming. August 27, 2013 Ian Stone At the ...

  7. Documenting stone age cleverness by tool development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documenting stone age cleverness by tool development Documenting stone age cleverness by tool development Ancient stone tools show the pace of remarkable technological enhancements over time. March 7, 2013 Ancient stone tools showing the pace of remarkable technological enhancements over time (1.75 to 0.85 million years ago). Credit, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Ancient stone tools showing the pace of remarkable technological enhancements over time (1.75 to 0.85 million years ago). Credit,

  8. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  9. GreyStone Power- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative in Georgia, offers a rebate for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems to members. The one-time rebate is offered for PV installations that are interconnected...

  10. Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays | netl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Ubiquitous clay minerals can play an important role in assessing the ...

  11. Potassium hydroxide clay stabilization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sydansk, R.

    1981-07-28

    An aqueous solution having potassium hydroxide dissolved therein is injected into a subterranean sandstone formation containing water-sensitive fine particles, including clays. Potassium hydroxide stabilizes the fine particles for a substantial period of time thereby substantially preventing formation permeability damage caused by encroachment of aqueous solutions having a distinct ionic makeup into the treated formation.

  12. Clay Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clay Electric Coop Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clay Electric Coop Inc Place: Illinois Phone Number: 1-800-582-9012 Website: www.clayelectric.com Facebook: https:...

  13. Clay complexes support HDS catalyst.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, C. L.; Carrado, K.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-01-01

    Hydroprocessing represents a crucial component of petroleum refining operations both in terms of environmental and economic considerations. Regulations concerning maximum amount of sulfur content of gasoline and emissions of sulfur-oxide compounds upon combustion are becoming more and more stringent. One 1994-2000 focus of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been the development of catalysts for hydrodesulfurization (HDS). Typical HDS catalysts are comprised of Co-Mo sulfides or Ni-Mo sulfides on an alumina support. Modification of the pore structure of the support has generated great attention among researchers. Most desulfurization test reactions have used dibenzothiophene (DBT) as the model compound to test various configurations of support material with Co-Mo-S and Ni-Mo-S catalysts. In this testing, the desired product would be biphenyl and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). A competing reaction creates cyclohexylbenzene by saturating one aromatic ring prior to desulfurization. Ring saturation requires more costly hydrogen and is not desirable. Fortunately, a more effective catalyst for adding hydrogen at the sulfur site with hydrogenating the aromatic rings has been found. However, this has only been tested on DBT. HDS uses various types of catalysts to add hydrogen to reduce unwanted sulfur compounds. Typically this requires expensive, high-pressure, high-temperature equipment to produce the environmentally friendly low-sulfur fuels. ANL scientists identified several new desulfurization catalysts with improved HDS activity and selectivity. From these new catalysts, it may be possible to achieve HDS processing at lower temperature and pressure. The catalysts used for HDS at ANL are various clay complexes. Natural clays have a history of use in the hydroprocessing industry since they are abundant and inexpensive. ANL's approach is to create synthetic organo-clay complexes (SOCC). An advantage of SOCCs is that the pore size and distribution can be controlled by

  14. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  15. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  16. Michael Stone | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Michael Stone Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellowship (AEF) Program Einstein Fellowship Home Eligibility Benefits Obligations How to Apply Key Dates Frequently Asked Questions Fellows Central Current Fellows Alumni Fellows Official AEF Logos Contact WDTS Home Current Fellows Michael Stone Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page Michael Stone Fellowship Placement: National Science Foundation Hometown: East Ridge, TN Michael Stone has taught at several high schools in Chattanooga,

  17. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Solar Thermal Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 counties in northern Florida, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs....

  18. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Conservation Loans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC), a Touchstone Energy Cooperative, covers 14 North Florida counties, including Gainesville, Keystone Heights, Lake City, Orange Park, Palatka, and Salt Springs. It...

  19. Active containment systems incorporating modified pillared clays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundie, P. |; McLeod, N.

    1997-12-31

    The application of treatment technologies in active containment systems provides a more advanced and effective method for the remediation of contaminated sites. These treatment technologies can be applied in permeable reactive walls and/or funnel and gate systems. The application of modified pillared clays in active containment systems provides a mechanism for producing permeable reactive walls with versatile properties. These pillared clays are suitably modified to incorporate reactive intercalatants capable of reacting with both a broad range of organic pollutants of varying molecular size, polarity and reactivity. Heavy metals can be removed from contaminated water by conventional ion-exchange and other reactive processes within the clay structure. Complex contamination problems can be addressed by the application of more than one modified clay on a site specific basis. This paper briefly describes the active containment system and the structure/chemistry of the modified pillared clay technology, illustrating potential applications of the in-situ treatment process for contaminated site remediation.

  20. Stone Mountain, Georgia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Stone Mountain, Georgia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 33.8081608, -84.170196 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  1. Stone & McCarthy Research Associates | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleStone%26McCarthyResearchAssociates&oldid767330" Categories: Organizations Research Institutions Stubs Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  2. Stone County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Point, Missouri Kimberling City, Missouri McCord Bend, Missouri Reeds Spring, Missouri Shell Knob, Missouri Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleStoneCounty,Mi...

  3. GreyStone Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corporation Place: Georgia Phone Number: 770.942.6576 Website: www.greystonepower.com Twitter: @GreyStonePower Facebook: https:www.facebook.comgreystonepower?rdr...

  4. Stone Ridge, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    place in Ulster County, New York.1 Registered Energy Companies in Stone Ridge, New York Prism Solar Technologies Inc References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006...

  5. GreenStone Technologies LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: GreenStone Technologies LLC Place: Wisconsin Zip: 53719 Product: Developing a copper indium hallium selenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technology, also performs custom contract...

  6. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay Mineral Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, and Clay ...

  7. Clay County, Missouri: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Registered Energy Companies in Clay County, Missouri Alternative Energy Sources Inc Smith Electric Vehicles US SEV US Registered Financial Organizations in Clay County,...

  8. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inc Place: Florida Phone Number: 1-888-434-9844 Website: www.clayelectric.com Facebook: https:www.facebook.comClayElectric Outage Hotline: 1-888-434-9844 Outage Map:...

  9. Testing of hollow clay tile masonry prisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, W.D.; Butala, M.B.

    1993-10-15

    This paper presents test results of 610-mm wide (24-in.) by 1219-mm high (48-in.) by 203-or 330-mm (8- or 13-in.) thick prisms constructed of hollow clay tiles. Three prisms were extracted fro existing hollow clay title walls and 69 were constructed in laboratories at The University of Tennessee and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Modulus of Elasticity, E, and compressive strength f{prime}{sub m} were calculated from the results.

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  11. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  12. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium

  13. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  14. Injury experience in stone mining, 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1987. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  15. Injury experience in stone mining, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the united States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  16. Injury experience in stone mining, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1986. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  17. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  18. Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society (June 2007)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall T. Cygan

    2007-06-01

    “Enchanted Clays: 44th Annual Meeting of the Clay Minerals Society” was held in early June 2007 in beautiful and historic Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Santa Fe provided an idyllic location in the southwestern United States for the attendees to enjoy technical and social sessions while soaking up the diverse culture and wonderful climate of New Mexico—The Land of Enchantment. The meeting included a large and varied group of scientists, sharing knowledge and ideas, benefitting from technical interactions, and enjoying the wonderful historic and enchanted environs of Santa Fe. Including significant number of international scientists, the meeting was attended by approximately two hundred participants. The meeting included three days of technical sessions (oral and poster presentations), three days of field trips to clay and geological sites of northern New Mexico, and a full day workshop on the stabilization of carbon by clays. Details can be found at the meeting web site: www.sandia.gov/clay.

  19. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  20. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregar, Kathleen C.; Winans, Randall E.; Botto, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method for incorporating diverse Varieties of intercalants or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalant or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalants or templates may be introduced. The intercalants or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays.

  1. Organic or organometallic template mediated clay synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregar, K.C.; Winans, R.E.; Botto, R.E.

    1994-05-03

    A method is described for incorporating diverse varieties of intercalates or templates directly during hydrothermal synthesis of clays such as hectorite or montmorillonite-type layer-silicate clays. For a hectorite layer-silicate clay, refluxing a gel of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol and lithium fluoride for two days in the presence of an organic or organometallic intercalate or template results in crystalline products containing either (a) organic dye molecules such as ethyl violet and methyl green, (b) dye molecules such as alcian blue that are based on a Cu(II)-phthalocyannine complex, or (c) transition metal complexes such as Ru(II)phenanthroline and Co(III)sepulchrate or (d) water-soluble porphyrins and metalloporphyrins. Montmorillonite-type clays are made by the method taught by U.S. Pat. No. 3,887,454 issued to Hickson, Jun. 13, 1975; however, a variety of intercalates or templates may be introduced. The intercalates or templates should have (i) water-solubility, (ii) positive charge, and (iii) thermal stability under moderately basic (pH 9-10) aqueous reflux conditions or hydrothermal pressurized conditions for the montmorillonite-type clays. 22 figures.

  2. EIS-0377: Big Stone II Power Plant and Transmission Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A systems study was carried out to identify the most appropriate locations to interconnect the proposed Big Stone II power plant to the regional utility grid. The study also identified transmission...

  3. City of Big Stone City, South Dakota (Utility Company) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City, South Dakota (Utility Company) Jump to: navigation, search Name: City of Big Stone City Place: South Dakota Phone Number: (605) 862-8121 Website: www.bigstonecitysd.govoffice...

  4. GreyStone Power- Solar Water Heating Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    GreyStone Power, an electricity cooperative serving 103,000 customers in Georgia, introduced a solar water heating rebate in March 2009. This $500 rebate is available to customers regardless of...

  5. Microsoft Word - Clay Memo PMC Coburn Obama 11_9_06.doc | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clay Memo PMC Coburn Obama 11906.doc Microsoft Word - Clay Memo PMC Coburn Obama 11906.doc Microsoft Word - Clay Memo PMC Coburn Obama 11906.doc More Documents & Publications...

  6. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  7. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A

  8. Clay-Union Electric Coop | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clay-Union Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clay-Union Electric Coop Place: South Dakota Phone Number: 605-624-2673 Website: www.clayunionelectric.coop Facebook:...

  9. Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc Place: Missouri Phone Number: 816-628-3121 Website: www.pcec.coop Twitter:...

  10. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  11. Coatings and films derived from clay/wax nanocomposites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Leyva, Argentina A.

    2006-11-14

    The invention provides methods for making clay/wax nanocomposites and coatings and films of same with improved chemical resistance and gas barrier properties. The invention further provides methods for making and using emulsions of such clay/wax nanocomposites. Typically, an organophillic clay is combined with a wax or wax/polymer blend such that the cohesion energy of the clay matches that of the wax or wax/polymer blend. Suitable organophilic clays include mica and phyllosilicates that have been surface-treated with edge or edge and surface modifying agents. The resulting nanocomposites have applications as industrial coatings and in protective packaging.

  12. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  13. Elastic constants of, and Stonely waves in, molybdenum films measured by Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, J.A.; Zanoni, R.; Seaton, C.T.; Stegeman, G.I.; Makous, J.; Falco, C.M.

    1988-02-22

    The dispersion of Rayleigh, Stonely, and Sezawa acoustic waves guided by deposited thin molybdenum films has been used to evaluate selected elastic constants and film homogeneity. This work includes the first experimental observation of Stonely waves by Brillouin scattering.

  14. Secondary Waste Simulant Development for Cast Stone Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Swanberg, David J.; Mahoney, J.

    2015-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a waste form testing program to implement aspects of the Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Cast Stone Technology Development Plan (Ashley 2012) and the Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap (PNNL 2009) related to the development and qualification of Cast Stone as a potential waste form for the solidification of aqueous wastes from the Hanford Site after the aqueous wastes are treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The current baseline is that the resultant Cast Stone (or grout) solid waste forms would be disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Data and results of this testing program will be used in the upcoming performance assessment of the IDF and in the design and operation of a solidification treatment unit planned to be added to the ETF. The purpose of the work described in this report is to 1) develop simulants for the waste streams that are currently being fed and future WTP secondary waste streams also to be fed into the ETF and 2) prepare simulants to use for preparation of grout or Cast Stone solid waste forms for testing.

  15. Preparation of Clay Brick Using Coal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Jung W.; Jung, Jin H.; Kim, Jae M.; Lee, Sung M.; Kim, Hyung T.

    2004-03-31

    A great deal of coal waste produced during the development of a mine was accumulated around the mine, which caused many problems such as traffic, acid mine drainage and damage of forest and scenery. Carbon in the coal waste helps calcination of the brick even at low temperature. Considering the reuse of natural waste and energy saving, clay brick was prepared using coal waste under various conditions, including particle size, amount of coal waste mixed, calcination temperature and pressing pressure. The specimens were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG-DTA and interpreted in terms of water absorption and compressive strength.

  16. Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation | Department of Energy Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation March 16, 2007 - 10:55am Addthis Visits National Nuclear Waste Repository in Mtskheta, Georgia TBILISI, Georgia - U.S. Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell today visited the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mtskheta,

  17. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Carbon Dioxide Brine and Clay Mineral Interactions and Determination of Contact Angles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide ...

  18. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay in Deep Saline Aquifers. Authors: Tenney, Craig M. Publication Date: ...

  19. Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Surfaces in Deep Saline Aquifers. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Nanodroplets on Clay Surfaces in Deep Saline Aquifers. Authors: ...

  20. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rebates are available only to Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) residential members who are making efficiency upgrades to primary residence served by CEC. Rebates are available for residential...

  1. Clay Central Everly School Dist Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Everly School District Energy Purchaser Clay CentralEverly School District Location IA Coordinates 43.1392, -95.2644 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservi...

  2. Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Advance Regional Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation Deputy Secretary Clay Sell Touts Georgian Efforts to Advance Regional Energy Cooperation and Non-Proliferation March ...

  3. Clay County, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Clay County, Florida: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 29.9943564, -81.7787021 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  4. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U.

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  5. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, D.A.; Daniel, D.E.; Koerner, R.M.; Bonaparte, R.

    1997-12-31

    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  6. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection—Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-05

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations and leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.

  7. City of Clay Center, Kansas (Utility Company) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    commu Facebook: https:www.facebook.compagesCity-of-Clay-Center172525069449548?refbrrs Outage Hotline: 785-632-2139 or (785) 632-5454 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final...

  8. Modeling Coupled Processes in Clay Formations for Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zheng, Liange; Sonnenthal, Eric; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2010-08-31

    As a result of the termination of the Yucca Mountain Project, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has started to explore various alternative avenues for the disposition of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The overall scope of the investigation includes temporary storage, transportation issues, permanent disposal, various nuclear fuel types, processing alternatives, and resulting waste streams. Although geologic disposal is not the only alternative, it is still the leading candidate for permanent disposal. The realm of geologic disposal also offers a range of geologic environments that may be considered, among those clay shale formations. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA. Clay rock/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon et al., 2005) have all been under intensive scientific investigations (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relations with flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated and plastic clays (Tsang et al., 2005). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. For both clay rocks, coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes are expected to have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. For

  9. Clay County Electric Coop Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clay County Electric Coop Corp Place: Arkansas Service Territory: Arkansas, Missouri Phone Number: 870.857.3521 or 870.892.5251 or...

  10. Hollow clay tile wall program summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henderson, R.C.; Jones, W.D.

    1995-07-30

    Many of the Y-12 Plant buildings, constructed during the 1940s and 1950s, consist of steel ed concrete framing infilled with hollow clay tile (HCT). The infill was intended to provide for building enclosure and was not designed to have vertical or lateral load-carrying capacity. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, seismic and wind evaluations were performed on many of these buildings in conjunction with the preparation of a site-wide safety analysis report. This analytical work, based on the best available methodology, considered lateral load-carrying capacity of the HCT infill on the basis of building code allowable shear values. In parallel with the analysis effort, DOE initiated a program to develop natural phenomena capacity and performance criteria for existing buildings, but these criteria did not specify guidelines for determining the lateral force capacity of frames infilled with HCT. The evaluation of infills was, therefore, based on the provisions for the design of unreinforced masonry as outlined in standard masonry codes. When the results of the seismic and wind evaluations were compared with the new criteria, the projected building capacities fell short of the requirements. Apparently, if the buildings were to meet the new criteria, many millions of dollars would be required for building upgrades. Because the upgrade costs were significant, the assumptions and approaches used in the analyses were reevaluated. Four issues were identified: (1) Once the infilled walls cracked, what capacity (nonlinear response), if any, would the walls have to resist earthquake or wind loads applied in the plane of the infill (in-plane)? (2) Would the infilled walls remain within the steel or reinforced concrete framing when subjected to earthquake or high wind loads applied perpendicular to the infill (out-of-plane)? (3) What was the actual shear capacity of the HCT infill? (4) Was modeling the HCT infill as a shear wall the best approach?

  11. EI Summary of SIC 24

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lumber (24) All (20-39) Food (20) Textiles (22) Apparel (23) Furniture (25) Paper (26) Printing (27) Chemicals (28) Refineries (29) Rubber (30) Stone, Clay & Glass(32) Primary...

  12. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE TREATMENT AND IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MINWALL HJ

    2011-04-08

    Cast stone technology is being evaluated for potential application in the treatment and immobilization of Hanford low-activity waste. The purpose of this document is to provide background information on cast stone technology. The information provided in the report is mainly based on a pre-conceptual design completed in 2003.

  13. Constitutive relationships for elastic deformation of clay rock: Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-04-15

    Geological repositories have been considered a feasible option worldwide for storing high-level nuclear waste. Clay rock is one of the rock types under consideration for such purposes, because of its favorable features to prevent radionuclide transport from the repository. Coupled hydromechanical processes have an important impact on the performance of a clay repository, and establishing constitutive relationships for modeling such processes are essential. In this study, we propose several constitutive relationships for elastic deformation in indurated clay rocks based on three recently developed concepts. First, when applying Hooke's law in clay rocks, true strain (rock volume change divided by the current rock volume), rather than engineering strain (rock volume change divided by unstressed rock volume), should be used, except when the degree of deformation is very small. In the latter case, the two strains will be practically identical. Second, because of its inherent heterogeneity, clay rock can be divided into two parts, a hard part and a soft part, with the hard part subject to a relatively small degree of deformation compared with the soft part. Third, for swelling rock like clay, effective stress needs to be generalized to include an additional term resulting from the swelling process. To evaluate our theoretical development, we analyze uniaxial test data for core samples of Opalinus clay and laboratory measurements of single fractures within macro-cracked Callovo-Oxfordian argillite samples subject to both confinement and water reduced swelling. The results from this evaluation indicate that our constitutive relationships can adequately represent the data and explain the related observations.

  14. Engineering scale demonstration of a prospective Cast Stone process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Fowley, M.; Hansen, E.; Fox, K.; Miller, D.; Williams, M.

    2014-09-30

    This report documents an engineering-scale demonstration with non-radioactive simulants that was performed at SRNL using the Scaled Continuous Processing Facility (SCPF) to fill an 8.5 ft container with simulated Cast Stone grout. The Cast Stone formulation was chosen from the previous screening tests. Legacy salt solution from previous Hanford salt waste testing was adjusted to correspond to the average composition generated from the Hanford Tank Waste Operation Simulator (HTWOS). The dry blend materials, ordinary portland cement (OPC), Class F fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or BFS), were obtained from Lafarge North America in Pasco, WA. Over three days, the SCPF was used to fill a 1600 gallon container, staged outside the facility, with simulated Cast Stone grout. The container, staged outside the building approximately 60 ft from the SCPF, was instrumented with x-, y-, and z-axis thermocouples to monitor curing temperature. The container was also fitted with two formed core sampling vials. For the operation, the targeted grout production rate was 1.5 gpm. This required a salt solution flow rate of approximately 1 gpm and a premix feed rate of approximately 580 lb/h. During the final day of operation, the dry feed rate was increased to evaluate the ability of the system to handle increased throughput. Although non-steady state operational periods created free surface liquids, no bleed water was observed either before or after operations. The final surface slope at a fill height of 39.5 inches was 1-1.5 inches across the 8.5 foot diameter container, highest at the final fill point and lowest diametrically opposed to the fill point. During processing, grout was collected in cylindrical containers from both the mixer discharge and the discharge into the container. These samples were stored in a humid environment either in a closed box proximal to the container or inside the laboratory. Additional samples collected at these sampling points

  15. Modification of clay-based waste containment materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.; Whang, J.M.; McDevitt, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Bentonite clays are used extensively for waste containment barriers to help impede the flow of water in the subsurface because of their low permeability characteristics. However, they do little to prevent diffusion of contaminants, which is the major transport mechanism at low water flows. A more effective way of minimizing contaminant migration in the subsurface is to modify the bentonite clay with highly sorptive materials. Batch sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the sorptive capabilities of organo-clays and humic- and iron-based materials. These materials proved to be effective sorbents for the organic contaminants 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, nitrobenzene, and aniline in water, humic acid, and methanol solution media. The sorption capacities were several orders of magnitude greater than that of unmodified bentonite clay. Modeling results indicate that with small amounts of these materials used as additives in clay barriers, contaminant flux through walls could be kept very small for 100 years or more. The cost of such levels of additives can be small compared to overall construction costs.

  16. Injury experience in stone mining, 1991. Information report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the united States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  17. "Rolling Stone" covers climate change research at Los Alamos Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rolling Stone" covers climate change research at Los Alamos Lab "Rolling Stone" covers climate change research at Los Alamos Lab By the end of the century, the woodlands of the Southwest will likely be reduced to weeds and shrubs. And scientists worry that the rest of the planet may see similar effects. March 26, 2015 image description The Fate of Trees: How Climate Change May Alter Forests Worldwide is focus of article in Rolling Stone magazine The Fate of Trees: How Climate

  18. Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of hard X-ray microprobe methods to clay-rich materials ...

  19. Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Quantum Chemistry of CO2 Interaction with Swelling Clays Ubiquitous clay minerals can play an important role in assessing the suitability of geologic formations for secure storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). The minerals may affect the reservoir storage capacity as well as the integrity of its natural seals such as caprock formations. CO2 interaction with swelling clays such as smectites is a complex process involving physisorption in micropores and

  20. #WomenInSTEM: Stepping Stones From One Career to Another | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Stepping Stones From One Career to Another #WomenInSTEM: Stepping Stones From One Career to Another November 24, 2014 - 10:30am Addthis Watch our latest #WomenInSTEM profile of Cheryl Martin, Acting Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E). | Video by Matty Greene. Matty Greene Matty Greene Former Videographer Allison Lantero Allison Lantero Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Meet Cheryl Martin, Acting Director of the Advanced Research

  1. Food Sales Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Characteristics by Activity... Food Sales Food sales buildings are buildings that are used for retail or wholesale sale of food. Basic Characteristics See also: Equipment |...

  2. HANFORD CONTAINERIZED CAST STONE FACILITY TASK 1 PROCESS TESTING & DEVELOPMENT FINAL TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L L

    2005-07-13

    Laboratory testing and technical evaluation activities on Containerized Cast Stone (CCS) were conducted under the Scope of Work (SOW) contained in CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) Contract No. 18548 (CHG 2003a). This report presents the results of testing and demonstration activities discussed in SOW Section 3.1, Task I--''Process Development Testing'', and described in greater detail in the ''Containerized Grout--Phase I Testing and Demonstration Plan'' (CHG, 2003b). CHG (2003b) divided the CCS testing and evaluation activities into six categories, as follows: (1) A short set of tests with simulant to select a preferred dry reagent formulation (DRF), determine allowable liquid addition levels, and confirm the Part 2 test matrix. (2) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF and a backup DRF, as selected in Part I, and using low activity waste (LAW) simulant. (3) Waste form performance testing on cast stone made from the preferred DRF using radioactive LAW. (4) Waste form validation testing on a selected nominal cast stone formulation using the preferred DRF and LAW simulant. (5) Engineering evaluations of explosive/toxic gas evolution, including hydrogen, from the cast stone product. (6) Technetium ''getter'' testing with cast stone made with LAW simulant and with radioactive LAW. In addition, nitrate leaching observations were drawn from nitrate leachability data obtained in the course of the Parts 2 and 3 waste form performance testing. The nitrate leachability index results are presented along with other data from the applicable activity categories.

  3. Holiday Food Drive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food Drive Holiday Food Drive Laboratory employees helped donate 300 boxes of nonperishable food items and 360 frozen turkeys during the 2015 annual food drive. September 16, 2013 LANL employees organize food for the Holiday Food Drive. Contacts Annual Food & Holiday Gift Drives Mike Martinez (505) 699-3388 Community Partnerships Office (505) 665-4400 Email Helping feed Northern New Mexico families During the Laboratory's 2015 Annual Food Drive, employees and subcontract workers once again

  4. OIL WELL REMEDIATION IN CLAY AND WAYNE COUNTIES, IL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter L. Dakuras; Larry Stieber; Dick Young

    2003-02-01

    This is the first technical progress report of the remediation of two wells and a water injection well in Clay County, Illinois. The location is identified as the Routt lease and the wells will be identified as the Routt No.3 and Routt No.4 respectively throughout this report. The Clay County portion of this project has met all legal, financial, and environmental requirements to drill and /or pump oil at this lease. We have also obtained all available information about this site and have taken the necessary steps to improve access roads, dig the necessary pits and build the necessary firewalls. Both wells have been drilled to the Salem formation. Gas gun technology was used to stimulate the reservoir of the Routt No.3. This report will address the technical aspects of the remediation.

  5. On sorption and swelling of CO2 in clays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Busch, A.; Bertier, P.; Gensterblum, Y.; Rother, G.; Spiers, C. J.; Zhang, M.; Wentinck, H. M.

    2016-03-23

    One well-studied technology is the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), and a number of demonstration projects around the world have proven its feasibility and challenges. Storage conformance and seal integrity are among the most important aspects, as they determine risk of leakage as well as limits for storage capacity and injectivity. By providing evidence for safe storage is critical for improving public acceptance. Most caprocks are composed of clays as dominant mineral type which can typically be illite, kaolinite, chlorite or smectite. A number of recent studies addressed the interaction between CO2 and these different clays and it wasmore » shown that clay minerals adsorb considerable quantities of CO2. For smectite this uptake can lead to volumetric expansion followed by the generation of swelling pressures. On the one hand CO2 adsorption traps CO2, on the other hand swelling pressures can potentially change local stress regimes and in unfavourable situations shear-type failure is assumed to occur. Moreover, for storage in a reservoir having high clay contents the CO2 uptake can add to storage capacity which is widely underestimated so far. Smectite-rich seals in direct contact with a dry CO2 plume at the interface to the reservoir might dehydrate leading to dehydration cracks. Such dehydration cracks can provide pathways for CO2 ingress and further accelerate dewatering and penetration of the seal by supercritical CO2. At the same time, swelling may also lead to the closure of fractures or the reduction of fracture apertures, thereby improving seal integrity. Finally, the goal of this communication is to theoretically evaluate and discuss these scenarios in greater detail in terms of phenomenological mechanisms, but also in terms of potential risks or benefits for carbon storage.« less

  6. Engineered clay-shredded tyre mixtures as barrier materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Tabbaa, A.; Aravinthan, T.

    1997-12-31

    An engineered clay consisting of kaolin and bentonite was mixed with shredded tyre in various weight percentages and examined for use as a constituent in a landfill liner. The clay-tyre mixtures properties in terms of compaction, unconfined compressive strength, permeability to water and paraffin, leachability, stress-strain behaviour, free swell behaviour and swelling pressure were investigated. The results show that the dry density and strength reduced with the addition of tyre and also with increased tyre content but that good interaction was developed between the clay and tyre. The strain at failure increased showing reinforcing effect of the tyre. The permeability to paraffin was considerably reduced compared to that to water due to the presence of the tyre which caused high swelling pressures to develop. The leachability results indicate initial high concentrations leaching out of the soil-tyre mixtures which will be subjected to dilution in the environment. This work adds evidence to the potential advantages of using soil-tyre mixtures as a landfill liner material.

  7. Photocatalytic properties of titania pillared clays by different drying methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Z.; Zhu, H.Y.; Lu, G.Q.; Greenfield, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    Photocatalysts based on titania pillared clays (TiO{sub 2} PILCs) have been prepared through a sol-gel method. Different drying methods, air drying (AD), air drying after ethanol extraction (EAD), and supercritical drying (SCD) have been employed and found to have significant effects on the photocatalytic efficiency of the resultant catalysts for the oxidation of phenol in water. Titania pillared clay (TiO{sub 2} PILC) obtained by SCD has the highest external and micropore surface area, largest amount and smallest crystallite size of anatase, and exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, silica titania pillared clay (SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC) after SCD, titania coated TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) and SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} PILC (SCD) were synthesized to study the key factors controlling the photocatalytic activity. It is concluded that the dispersion of nanometer-sized anatase on the surface of the PILC particles and the suspensibility of the particles are the most important factors for high photocatalytic efficiency.

  8. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E.; Paul, R.

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 1020. The H count rates were roughly 13 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  9. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2015-02-19

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  10. Technetium and Iodine Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Snyder, Michelle MV

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the various getter materials prior to their solidification in Cast Stone, a series of batch sorption experiments was performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. To quantify the effectiveness of the removal of Tc(VII) and I(I) from solution by getters, the distribution coefficient, Kd (mL/g), was calculated. Testing involved placing getter material in contact with spiked waste solutions at a 1:100 solid-to-solution ratio for periods up to 45 days with periodic solution sampling. One Tc getter was also tested at a 1:10 solid-to-solution ratio. Two different solution media, 18.2 MΩ deionized water (DI H2O) and a 7.8 M Na LAW simulant, were used in the batch sorption tests. Each test was conducted at room temperature in an anoxic chamber containing N2 with a small amount of H2 (0.7%) to maintain anoxic conditions. Each getter-solution combination was run in duplicate. Three Tc- and I-doping concentrations were used separately in aliquots of both the 18.2 MΩ DI H2O and a 7.8 M Na LAW waste simulant. The 1× concentration was developed based on Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model runs to support the River Protection Project System Plan Revision 6. The other two concentrations were 5× and 10× of the HTWOS values. The Tc and I tests were run separately (i.e., the solutions did not contain both solutes). Sampling of the solid-solution mixtures occurred nominally after 0.2, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 days and ~35 to 45 days. Seven getter materials were tested for Tc and five materials were tested for I. The seven Tc getters were blast furnace slag 1 (BFS1) (northwest source), BFS2 (southeast source), Sn(II)-treated apatite, Sn(II) chloride, nano tin phosphate, KMS (a potassium-metal-sulfide), and tin hydroxapatite. The five iodine getters were layered bismuth hydroxide (LBH), argentite mineral, synthetic argentite, silver-treated carbon, and silver-treated zeolite. The Tc Kd values measured from experiments conducted

  11. Evaluation of Technetium Getters to Improve the Performance of Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lawter, Amanda R.; Stephenson, John R.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-11-01

    Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. One of the major radionuclides that Cast Stone has the potential to immobilize is technetium (Tc). The mechanism for immobilization is through the reduction of the highly mobile Tc(VII) species to the less mobile Tc(IV) species by the blast furnace slag (BFS) used in the Cast Stone formulation. Technetium immobilization through this method would be beneficial because Tc is one of the most difficult contaminants to address at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site due to its complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes (vitrification, steam reformation, etc.), and high mobility in subsurface environments. In fact, the Tank Closure and Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement for the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington (TC&WM EIS) identifies technetium-99 (99Tc) as one of the radioactive tank waste components contributing the most to the environmental impact associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site. The TC&WM EIS, along with an earlier supplemental waste-form risk assessment, used a diffusion-limited release model to estimate the release of different contaminants from the WTP process waste forms. In both of these predictive modeling exercises, where effective diffusivities based on grout performance data available at the time, groundwater at the 100-m down-gradient well exceeded the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for 99Tc. (900 pCi/L). Recent relatively

  12. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jové Colón, Carlos F.; Weck, Philippe F.; Sassani, David H.; Zheng, Liange; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl I.; Kim, Kunhwi; Nakagawa, Seiji; Houseworth, James; Birkholzer, Jens; Caporuscio, Florie A.; Cheshire, Michael; Rearick, Michael S.; McCarney, Mary K.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Benedicto, Ana; Kersting, Annie B.; Sutton, Mark; Jerden, James; Frey, Kurt E.; Copple, Jacqueline M.; Ebert, William

    2014-08-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in shale/argillite rock formations has been widely considered given its desirable isolation properties (low permeability), geochemically reduced conditions, anomalous groundwater pressures, and widespread geologic occurrence. Clay/shale rock formations are characterized by their high content of clay minerals such as smectites and illites where diffusive transport and chemisorption phenomena predominate. These, in addition to low permeability, are key attributes of shale to impede radionuclide mobility. Shale host-media has been comprehensively studied in international nuclear waste repository programs as part of underground research laboratories (URLs) programs in Switzerland, France, Belgium, and Japan. These investigations, in some cases a decade or more long, have produced a large but fundamental body of information spanning from site characterization data (geological, hydrogeological, geochemical, geomechanical) to controlled experiments on the engineered barrier system (EBS) (barrier clay and seals materials). Evaluation of nuclear waste disposal in shale formations in the USA was conducted in the late 70’s and mid 80’s. Most of these studies evaluated the potential for shale to host a nuclear waste repository but not at the programmatic level of URLs in international repository programs. This report covers various R&D work and capabilities relevant to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in shale/argillite media. Integration and cross-fertilization of these capabilities will be utilized in the development and implementation of the shale/argillite reference case planned for FY15. Disposal R&D activities under the UFDC in the past few years have produced state-of-the-art modeling capabilities for coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC), used fuel degradation (source term), and thermodynamic modeling and database development to evaluate generic disposal concepts. The THMC models have been developed for shale

  13. Food Service Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    was a food service building were only asked whether the building was a restaurant, bar, fast food chain, or cafeteria (all the same category) or some other type of food service...

  14. Clay slurry and engineered soils as containment technologies for remediation of contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.R.; Dudka, S.; Miller, W.P.; Johnson, D.O.

    1997-12-31

    Clay Slurry and Engineered Soils are containment technologies for remediation of waste disposal sites where leaching, groundwater plumes and surface runoff of contaminants are serious ecological hazards to adjacent environments. This technology is a patent-pending process which involves the use of conditioned clay materials mixed with sand and water to form a readily pourable suspension, a clay slurry, which is either placed into a trench barrier system or allowed to de-water to create Engineered Soils. The Engineered Soil forms a layer impervious to water and air, therefore by inhibiting both water and oxygen from penetrating through the soil the material. This material can be installed in layers and as a vertical barrier to create a surface barrier containment system. The clay percentage in the clay slurry and Engineered Soils varies depending on site characteristics and desired performance standards. For example Engineered Soils with 1-2% of clay (dry wt.) had a hydraulic conductivity (K) of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -1} cm/sec. Tests of tailing materials from a kyanite and pyrite mine showed that the clay slurry was effective not only in reducing the permeability of the treated tailings, but also in decreasing their acidity due to the inherent alkalinity of the clay. The untreated tailings had pH values in the range of 2.4 - 3.1; whereas, the effluent from clay and tailings mixtures had pH values in a slightly alkaline range (7.7-7.9). Pug-mills and high volume slurry pumps can be readily adapted for use in constructing and placing caps and creating Engineered Soils. Moreover, material on site or from a local sand supply can be used to create clay slurries and engineered soils. Clay materials used in cap construction are likewise readily available commercially. As a result, the clay slurry system is very cost effective compared to other capping systems, including the commonly used High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) liner systems.

  15. Kathryn Clay, Ph.D. Vice President of Policy Strategy American...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remarks of Kathryn Clay, Ph.D. Vice President of Policy Strategy American Gas Association PUBLIC MEETING ON ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE SITING DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY QUADRENNIAL ENERGY ...

  16. Evaluation of Used Fuel Disposition in Clay-Bearing Rock (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and Thermodynamic Database Development: Evaluation Strategy, Modeling Tools, First-Principles Modeling of Clay, and Sorption Database Assessment;ANL Mixed Potential Model For Used Fuel ...

  17. Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy Clay Sell Sworn in as Deputy Secretary of Energy March 21, 2005 - 10:53am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - Jeffrey Clay Sell was sworn in today as Deputy Secretary of Energy at a small ceremony held at the Department of Energy headquarters in Washington, DC. Mr. Sell was sworn in by Energy Secretary Samuel W. Bodman after being unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate on Thursday, March 17, 2005. "Clay brings a tremendous amount of knowledge

  18. Diagenesis and clay mineral formation at Gale Crater, Mars

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Leveille, R.; Westall, F.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Bristow, T.; Edwards, P.; Berger, G.

    2015-01-18

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity found host rocks of basaltic composition and alteration assemblages containing clay minerals at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater. On the basis of the observed host rock and alteration minerals, we present results of equilibrium thermochemical modeling of the Sheepbed mudstones of Yellowknife Bay in order to constrain the formation conditions of its secondary mineral assemblage. Building on conclusions from sedimentary observations by the Mars Science Laboratory team, we assume diagenetic, in situ alteration. The modeling shows that the mineral assemblage formed by the reaction of a CO₂-poor and oxidizing, dilute aqueous solution (Gale Portage Water)more » in an open system with the Fe-rich basaltic-composition sedimentary rocks at 10–50°C and water/rock ratio (mass of rock reacted with the starting fluid) of 100–1000, pH of ~7.5–12. Model alteration assemblages predominantly contain phyllosilicates (Fe-smectite, chlorite), the bulk composition of a mixture of which is close to that of saponite inferred from Chemistry and Mineralogy data and to that of saponite observed in the nakhlite Martian meteorites and terrestrial analogues. To match the observed clay mineral chemistry, inhomogeneous dissolution dominated by the amorphous phase and olivine is required. We therefore deduce a dissolving composition of approximately 70% amorphous material, with 20% olivine, and 10% whole rock component.« less

  19. CAST STONE TECHNOLOGY FOR TREATMENT & DISPOSAL OF IODINE RICH CAUSTIC WASTE DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    2005-07-14

    CH2M HILL is working to develop, design, and construct low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and imcholization systems to supplement the LAW capacity provided by the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. CH2M HILL is investigating use of cast stone technology for treatment and immobilization of caustic solutions containing high concentrations of radioactive Iodine-129.

  20. Formulation of cracking catalyst based on zeolite and natural clays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliev, R.R.; Lupina, M.I.

    1995-11-01

    Domestically manufactured cracking catalysts are based on a synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate matrix and Y zeolite. A multistage {open_quotes}gel{close_quotes} technology is used in manufacturing the catalysts. The process includes mixing solutions of sodium silicate and acidic aluminum sulfate, forming, syneresis, and activation of the beaded gel. In the manufacture of bead catalysts, the next steps in the process are washing, drying, and calcining; in the manufacture of microbead catalysts, the next steps are dispersion and formation of a hydrogel slurry, spray-drying, and calcining. The Y zeolite is either introduced into the alumina-silica sol in the stage of forming the beads, or introduced in the dispersion stage. With the aim of developing an active and selective cracking catalyst based on Y zeolite and natural clays, with improved physicomechanical properties, the authors carried out a series of studies, obtaining results that are set forth in the present article.

  1. Radiolysis of alanine adsorbed in a clay mineral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Ovando, Ellen Y.; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia

    2013-07-03

    Optical activity in molecules is a chemical characteristic of living beings. In this work, we examine the hypothesis of the influence of different mineral surfaces on the development of a specific chirality in organic molecules when subjected to conditions simulating the primitive Earth during the period of chemical evolution. By using X-ray diffraction techniques and HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of amino acids adsorbed on minerals irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the experiments attempt to prove the hypothesis that some solid surfaces (like clays and meteorite rocks) may have a concentration capacity and protective role against external sources of ionizing radiation (specifically {gamma}-ray) for some organic compounds (like some amino acids) adsorbed on them. Preliminary results show a slight difference in the adsorption and radiolysis of the D-and L-alanine.

  2. Lanthanides-clay nanocomposites: Synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Celedon, Salvador; Quiroz, Carolina; Gonzalez, Guillermo; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.; Benavente, Eglantina

    2009-05-06

    Complexes of Europium(III) and Terbium(III) with 2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline were inserted into Na-bentonite by ion exchange reactions at room temperature. The products display interlaminar distances and stoichiometries in agreement with the ion exchange capacity and the interlayer space available in the clay. The optical properties of the intercalates, being qualitatively similar to those of the free complexes, are additionally improved with respect to exchange processes with the medium, especially in a moist environment. The protection again hydrolysis, together with the intensity of the optical transition {sup 5}D{sub 0}-{sup 5}F{sub 2} observed in the nanocomposite, makes these products promising for the development of novel optical materials.

  3. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Augmented Formulation Matrix Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cozzi, A.; Crawford, C.; Fox, K.; Hansen, E.; Roberts, K.

    2015-07-20

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in Washington State. The HLW will be vitrified in the HLW facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. A portion (~35%) of the LAW will be vitrified in the LAW vitrification facility for disposal onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize all of the wastes destined for those facilities. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. Cast Stone, a cementitious waste form, is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW. A statistically designed test matrix was used to evaluate the effects of key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. For the processing properties, the water-to-dry-blend mix ratio was the most significant parameter in affecting the range of values observed for each property. The single shell tank (SST) Blend simulant also showed differences in measured properties compared to the other three simulants tested. A review of the testing matrix and results indicated that an additional set of tests would be beneficial to improve the understanding of the impacts noted in the Screening

  4. Characterization of Interlayer Cs+ in Clay Samples Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry with Laser Sample Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Groenewold; R. Avci; C. Karahan; K. Lefebre; R. V. Fox; M. M. Cortez; A. K. Gianotto; J. Sunner; W. L. Manner

    2004-04-01

    Ultraviolet laser irradiation was used to greatly enhance the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) detection of Cs+ adsorbed to soil consisting of clay and quartz. Imaging SIMS showed that the enhancement of the Cs+ signal was spatially heterogeneous: the intensity of the Cs+ peak was increased by factors up to 100 for some particles but not at all for others. Analysis of standard clay samples exposed to Cs+ showed a variable response to laser irradiation depending on the type of clay analyzed. The Cs+ abundance was significantly enhanced when Cs+-exposed montmorillonite was irradiated and then analyzed using SIMS, which contrasted with the behavior of Cs+-exposed kaolinite, which displayed no Cs+ enhancement. Exposed illitic clays displayed modest enhancement of Cs+ upon laser irradiation, intermediate between that of kaolinite and montmorillonite. The results for Cs+ were rationalized in terms of adsorption to interlayer sites within the montmorillonite, which is an expandable phyllosilicate. In these locations, Cs+ was not initially detectable using SIMS. Upon irradiation, Cs+ was thermally redistributed, which enabled detection using SIMS. Since neither the illite nor the kaolinite is an expandable clay, adsorption to inner-layer sites does not occur, and either modest or no laser enhancement of the Cs+ signal is observed. Laser irradiation also produced unexpected enhancement of Ti+ from illite and kaolinite clays that contained small quantities of Ti, which indicates the presence of microscopic titanium oxide phases in the clay materials.

  5. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1984. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report.

  6. Carbon Emissions: Food Industry

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct....

  7. Supplemental Immobilization of Hanford Low-Activity Waste: Cast Stone Screening Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Mercier, Theresa M.; Russell, Renee L.; Cozzi, Alex; Daniel, William E.; Eibling, Russell E.; Hansen, E. K.; Reigel, Marissa M.; Swanberg, David J.

    2013-09-30

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second LAW immobilization facility will be needed for the expected volume of LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with the waste acceptance criteria for the disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF

  8. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup −} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup −}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report

  9. Mineralogical evaluation and industrial applications of the Triassic clay deposits, Southern Tunisia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccour, H. Medhioub, M.; Jamoussi, F.; Mhiri, T.; Daoud, A.

    2008-11-15

    This study deals with the mineralogical and thermal analysis of Triassic clays in the south-Eastern Tunisia (Medenine area) in order to use them in the faience ceramic. That is why the study had recourse to several quantitative and qualitative research instruments: chemical analysis, mineralogical study, thermal analyses and analyses of geotechnical traits. The data collected from these techniques show that illite and kaolinite are the major clay phases. The accessory minerals detected in powdered rock are; quartz, dolomite and hematite. Geotechnical characterization was carried out on the three representative mixtures of Triassic clay samples. Each mixture is fired at three different temperatures 850,900 and 950 deg. C. Firing characteristics (shrinkage, water absorption, and mechanical resistance to the inflection) were measured and the neomineralization processes were investigated principally by X-ray diffraction. At the end of this study, one can affirm that these clays have qualities necessary for the manufacture of faience ceramic and earthenware production.

  10. Clay Electric Cooperative, Inc- Energy Smart Solar Water Heater Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Clay Electric Cooperative (CEC) provides a rebate of $0.01 per BTU output to its residential members when they purchase qualified solar water heaters. This rebate is capped at 60,000 BTUs per...

  11. Spherules from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay at Gubbio, Italy: the problem of outcrop contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, A.

    1986-12-01

    Surficial outcrop contamination has occurred in some well-known stratigraphic sections of carbonate rocks in the northern Apennines. A critical case involves several contaminated clay partings, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay in the classic Bottaccione section near Gubbio, Italy. These clay layers contain shiny spherules which, in several recent studies, have been said to consist of volcanic glass and have been used to support the hypothesis that the terminal Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by widespread volcanism. Laboratory tests, however, indicate that these shiny spherules are made of HF-insoluble and combustible material and are therefore of recent biological origin. These objects were introduced into the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and other clay layers from the surrounding soil along with abundant detrital contaminants derived from erosion of the middle Miocene flysch exposed at the head of the Bottaccione Gorge. They are completely different from the altered and flattened microtektitelike spheroids that are found only in the iridium-rich Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and that provide strong evidence for a large impact.

  12. Temporary Food Service

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food Service The SLAC Café, auditorium and visitor center have been closed and will be replaced with a new Science and User Support Building (SUSB). During this construction (2013-2015), temporary food service will be provided by the Cardinal Chef Mobile Gourmet food trucks. On-Site The food trucks are located in front of Building 27. Hours of Operation Monday through Friday Breakfast: 7:30AM-9:30AM Lunch: 11:00AM-2:00PM Menu: http://www-project.slac.stanford.edu/foodtruckmenu/default.asp Local

  13. Holiday Food Drive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Community Programs Office (505) 665-4400 Email Get Expertise Helping feed Northern New Mexico families During the Laboratory's 2015 Annual Food Drive, employees and subcontract...

  14. Urban Food Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buluswar, Shashi

    2015-05-06

    Shashi Buluswar, Berkeley Lab's Executive Director of the Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) discusses the issue of urban food deserts and malnutrition in American inner cities.

  15. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test ResultsCast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 10-11 to 2.3 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 10-10 to 3.8 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 10-10 to 3.8 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 10-9 to 1.8 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  16. Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.

    2013-07-03

    The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

  17. Materials derived from synthetic organo-clay complexes as novel hydrodesulfurization catalyst supports.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K. A.; Marshall, C. L.; Brenner, J. R.; Song, K.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    A series of mesoporous synthetic organo-clay complexes has been prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice, followed by calcination to remove the organics. The organic serves to impart structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. The choice of organic modifier can be used to control the pore structure of the resulting mesoporous materials. Pore size distributions appear in some cases to be related to the type of polymer packing upon clay formation in situ. These materials are being explored as Co Mo hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary HDS results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysis for the mesoporous materials when a model heavy oil feed is used (1 wt% S as dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). Temperature programmed reduction experiments of used catalysts suggest a relationship between HDS activity and ease of reduction of the CoMo/clay catalysts. Reactivity of the CoMo clay also correlates with the percentage of mesopore volume remaining after reaction. Losses in mesopore volume are largely recouped by recalcination, suggesting that reversible coke is formed inside the pore structure of clays faster than inside conventional alumina.

  18. Report on Modeling Coupled Processes in the Near Field of a Clay Repository

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world. Coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) processes have a significant impact on the long-term safety of a clay repository. This report documents results from three R&D activities: (1) implementation and validation of constitutive relationships, (2) development of a discrete fracture network (DFN) model for investigating coupled processes in the excavation damaged zone, and (3) development of a THM model for the Full-Scale Emplacement Experiment tests at Mont Terri, Switzerland, for the purpose of model validation. One major goal is to provide a better understanding of the evolution of the excavation damage zone in clay repositories.

  19. Dynamics of confined reactive water in smectite clay-zeolite composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, Michael C.; Van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

  20. Dynamics of confined reactive water in Smectic clay-zeolite composites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitman, Michael C.; Van Duin, Adri C. T.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of water confined to mesoporous regions in minerals such as swelling clays and zeolites is fundamental to a wide range of resource management issues impacting many processes on a global scale, including radioactive waste containment, desalination, and enhanced oil recovery. Large-scale atomic models of freely diffusing multilayer smectite particles at low hydration confined in a silicalite cage are used to investigate water dynamics in the composite environment with the ReaxFF reactive force field over a temperature range of 300 647 K. The reactive capability of the force field enabled a range of relevant surface chemistry to emerge, including acid/base equilibria in the interlayer calcium hydrates and silanol formation on the edges of the clay and inner surface of the zeolite housing. After annealing, the resulting clay models exhibit both mono- and bilayer hydration structures. Clay surface hydration redistributed markedly and yielded to silicalite water loading. We find that the absolute rates and temperature dependence of water dynamics compare well to neutron scattering data and pulse field gradient measures from relevant samples of Ca-montmorillonite and silicalite, respectively. Within an atomistic, reactive context, our results distinguish water dynamics in the interlayer Ca(OH)2 nH2O environment from water flowing over the clay surface, and from water diffusing within silicalite. We find that the diffusion of water when complexed to Ca hydrates is considerably slower than freely diffusing water over the clay surface, and the reduced mobility is well described by a difference in the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor rather than a change in activation energy.

  1. In situ synthesis of polymer-clay nanocomposites from silicate gels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K. A.; Xu, L.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    Polymer-containing silicate gels were hydrothermally crystallized to form layered magnesium silicate hectorite clays containing polymers that are incorporated in situ. Gels consist of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol, lithium fluoride, and the polymer of choice. Dilute solutions of gel in water are refluxed for various lengths of time and then isolated via centrifugation, washed, and air-dried. Polymer loadings up to 86% were attained by adding more polymer to the solutions after 2-day reaction times, reacting for another 24 h, and continuing this process prior to isolation. Polyaniline (PANI)- and polyacrylonitrile (PACN)-clay samples contain up to 57% and 76% polymer, respectively, after just one sequential addition at high polymer loading. Series of PANI-, PACN-, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)-clays also were prepared by several sequential additions of lower polymer loading to the silicate gel during crystallization. Final polymer loadings were determined by thermal analysis. Basal spacings between clay interlayers were measured by X-ray powder diffraction for all samples. Increases in polymer loadings and basal spacings were observed for all the neutral polymers studied, until or unless delamination occurred. Delamination was evident for PACN- and PANI-clay nanocomposites. The highest loadings were observed for the PACN-clays, up to 86%. For the cationic polymer polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride, however, the loading could not be increased beyond about 20%. This is due to electrostatic interactions that balance the negatively charged sites on the silicate lattice with those on the cationic polymer chain. Beyond charge compensation, there is no driving force for further incorporation. Charge compensation in the case of the neutral polymers is attained by interlayer lithium(I) cations.

  2. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A

    2006-01-01

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  3. Report on THMC Modeling of the Near Field Evolution of a Generic Clay Repository: Model Validation and Demonstration Rev 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Shale and clay-rich rock formations have been considered as potential host rocks for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world: modeling thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical (THMC) of the near field of generic clay repository is discussed.

  4. Effects of Stone-Wales and vacancy defects in atomic-scale friction on defective graphite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Wu, RunNi; Xia, Re; Chu, Xi-Hua; Xu, Yuan-Jie

    2014-05-05

    Graphite is an excellent solid lubricant for surface coating, but its performance is significantly weakened by the vacancy or Stone-Wales (SW) defect. This study uses molecular dynamics simulations to explore the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite which contains a single defect or stacked defects. Our results suggest that the friction on defective graphite shows a strong dependence on defect location and type. The 5-7-7-5 structure of SW defect results in an effectively negative slope of friction. For defective graphite containing a defect in the surface, adding a single vacancy in the interior layer will decrease the friction coefficients, while setting a SW defect in the interior layer may increase the friction coefficients. Our obtained results may provide useful information for understanding the atomic-scale friction properties of defective graphite.

  5. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (Except stone and coal), 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1990. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  6. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1991. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  7. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, R.B; Hugler, E.C.

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  8. Injury experience in nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal), 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of nonmetallic mineral mining (except stone and coal) in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  9. Rosetta stone method for detecting protein function and protein-protein interactions from genome sequences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eisenberg, David; Marcotte, Edward M.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Thompson, Michael J.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2002-10-15

    A computational method system, and computer program are provided for inferring functional links from genome sequences. One method is based on the observation that some pairs of proteins A' and B' have homologs in another organism fused into a single protein chain AB. A trans-genome comparison of sequences can reveal these AB sequences, which are Rosetta Stone sequences because they decipher an interaction between A' and B. Another method compares the genomic sequence of two or more organisms to create a phylogenetic profile for each protein indicating its presence or absence across all the genomes. The profile provides information regarding functional links between different families of proteins. In yet another method a combination of the above two methods is used to predict functional links.

  10. #WomenInSTEM: Stepping Stones From One Career to Another

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Cheryl

    2014-11-24

    Meet Cheryl Martin, Acting Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency for Energy (ARPA-E) and the latest profile in the Energy Department's #WomenInSTEM video series. Cheryl looks at transformational projects to explore the uncharted territories of energy technology to generate options for entirely new paths to create, store and use energy. There are many challenges to overcome in the energy field, and it's important to have a diverse set of voices in STEM careers to meet these demands. Cheryl recommends that young women include all the skills they have - those gained at formal jobs as well as through volunteering or nonprofit organizations - when they take their next career step. These skills form the stepping stones that lead from one career to the next. And with a solid grounding in STEM, the opportunities are endless.

  11. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  12. Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S. K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  13. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  14. Unearthing the Antibacterial Mechanism of Medicinal Clay: A Geochemical Approach to Combating Antibiotic Resistance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morrison, Keith D.; Misra, Rajeev; Williams, Lynda B.

    2016-01-08

    Natural antibacterial clays, when hydrated and applied topically, kill human pathogens including antibiotic resistant strains proliferating worldwide. Only certain clays are bactericidal; those containing soluble reduced metals and expandable clay minerals that absorb cations, providing a capacity for extended metal release and production of toxic hydroxyl radicals. Here we show the critical antibacterial components are soluble Fe2+ and Al3+ that synergistically attack multiple cellular systems in pathogens normally growth-limited by Fe supply. This geochemical process is more effective than metal solutions alone and provides an alternative antibacterial strategy to traditional antibiotics. Advanced bioimaging methods and genetic show that Al3+ misfoldsmore » cell membrane proteins, while Fe2+ evokes membrane oxidation and enters the cytoplasm inflicting hydroxyl radical attack on intracellular proteins and DNA. The lethal reaction precipitates Fe3+-oxides as biomolecular damage proceeds. In conclusion, discovery of this bactericidal mechanism demonstrated by natural clays should guide designs of new mineral-based antibacterial agents.« less

  15. Clay mineralogy of Lower Cretaceous deep-sea fan sediments, western North Atlantic basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Lower Cretaceous of the eastern North American continent was a time of extensive deltaic progradation. The effects of deltaic deposition on sedimentation in the western North Atlantic were unknown until May 1982, when, at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 603 off Cape Hatteras, over 260 m of micaceous, muddy turbidites were recovered that correlate with deltaic progradation on eastern North America. The results of clay mineral studies from onshore and offshore equivalents indicate that during the Cretaceous, some sorting of clay minerals by transport processes occurred. Kaolinite tends to accumulate in continental environments, illite in transitional to marine environments, and smectite in deep sea sediments as pelagic clay. In the sediments from the western North Atlantic, illite tended to be more abundant in thick bedded sandy muds, whereas kaolinite tended to be more abundant in thin bedded muddy sands. Although the occurrence of illite and kaolinite in pelagic sediments indicates a general increased terrigenous influence, the results of this study indicate that these two clays behave independently in these sediments. The presence of large amounts of kaolinite at certain levels in these sediments corresponds to phases of maximum deep-sea fan development, and so indicates a more direct input of continental material, with less sorting of sediments by continental and shelf processes (pericontinental fractionation) prior to redeposition.

  16. Status of LANL investigations of temperature constraints on clay in repository environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caporuscio, Florie A; Cheshire, Michael C; Newell, Dennis L; McCarney, Mary Kate

    2012-08-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign is presently evaluating various generic options for disposal of used fuel. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize and bound Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in high heat load repositories. The UFD now has the ability to evaluate multiple EBS materials, waste containers, and rock types at higher heat loads and pressures (including deep boreholes). The geologic conditions now available to the U.S.A. and the international community for repositories include saturated and reduced water conditions, along with higher pressure and temperature (P, T) regimes. Chemical and structural changes to the clays, in either backfill/buffer or clay-rich host rock, may have significant effects on repository evolution. Reduction of smectite expansion capacity and rehydration potential due to heating could affect the isolation provided by EBS. Processes such as cementation by silica precipitation and authigenic illite could change the hydraulic and mechanical properties of clay-rich materials. Experimental studies of these repository conditions at high P,T have not been performed in the U.S. for decades and little has been done by the international community at high P,T. The experiments to be performed by LANL will focus on the importance of repository chemical and mineralogical conditions at elevated P,T conditions. This will provide input to the assessment of scientific basis for elevating the temperature limits in clay barriers.

  17. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  18. FutureGen: Stepping-Stone to Sustainable Fossil-Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2006-11-01

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's FutureGen Initiative. The nearly $1 billion government-industry project is a stepping-stone toward future coal-fired power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity with zero-emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. The initiative is a response to a presidential directive to develop a hydrogen economy by drawing upon the best scientific research to address the issue of global climate change. The FutureGen plant will be based on cutting-edge power generation technology as well as advanced carbon capture and sequestration systems. The centerpiece of the project will be coal gasification technology that can eliminate common air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and convert them to useable by-products. Gasification will convert coal into a highly enriched hydrogen gas, which can be burned much more cleanly than directly burning the coal itself. Alternatively, the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to produce ultra-clean electricity, or fed to a refinery to help upgrade petroleum products. Carbon sequestration will also be a key feature that will set the Futuregen plant apart from other electric power plant projects. The initial goal will be to capture 90 percent of the plant's carbon dioxide, but capture of nearly 100 percent may be possible with advanced technologies. Once captured, the carbon dioxide will be injected as a compressed fluid deep underground, perhaps into saline reservoirs. It could even be injected into oil or gas reservoirs, or into unmineable coal seams, to enhance petroleum or coalbed methane recovery. The ultimate goal for the FutureGen plant is to show how new technology can eliminate environmental concerns over the future use of

  19. West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Delivers Food for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    grocery stores to purchase food at or below wholesale price. Volunteers help load the food into trucks, bring it to the pantries, and stock the shelves. "The support we receive...

  20. Mesoporous materials derived from synthetic organo-clays as novel hydrodesulfurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Brenner, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Various pore size distributions are found for synthetic organo-clay complexes from which the organic portion has been removed via calcination. The clays are prepared by hydrothermal crystallization of gels containing silica, magnesium hydroxide, lithium fluoride, and an organic of choice. The organic serves to impart long-range structural order to the inorganic network that does not disappear upon its removal. Mesoporous materials are prepared from a host of organic modifiers. For example, pore diameters of 40-50{Angstrom} result from tetraethyl ammonium and celluloses, and polydimethyl diallyl ammonium imparts diameters of about 110{Angstrom} on average. These materials have begun to be explored as hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst supports. Preliminary results show performance commensurate with commercial catalysts for the mesoporous materials when a model oil feed is used (1% dibenzothiophene in hexadecane). The target application is HDS of an actual heavy crude oil from California.

  1. Assessment of the Cast Stone Low-Temperature Waste Form Technology Coupled with Technetium Removal - 14379

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Christopher F.; Rapko, Brian M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Cozzi, Alex; Fox, Kevin M.; Mccabe, Daniel J.; Nash, C. A.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) were chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing low-temperature waste forms for immobilization of DOE aqueous waste streams, including technetium removal as an implementing technology. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the Cast Stone waste immobilization and technetium removal projects at Hanford. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) conducting performance assessments and risk assessments of waste form and disposal system performance, and 2) technetium chemistry in tank wastes and separation of technetium from waste processing streams. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps were identified and an initial sequencing priority was suggested. A subset of research was initiated in 2013 to begin addressing the most significant science and technology gaps. The purpose of this paper is to report progress made towards closing these gaps and provide notable highlights of results achieved to date.

  2. In situ clay formation : evaluation of a proposed new technology for stable containment barriers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.; DiGiovanni, Anthony Albert; Fredrich, Joanne T.

    2004-03-01

    Containment of chemical wastes in near-surface and repository environments is accomplished by designing engineered barriers to fluid flow. Containment barrier technologies such as clay liners, soil/bentonite slurry walls, soil/plastic walls, artificially grouted sediments and soils, and colloidal gelling materials are intended to stop fluid transport and prevent plume migration. However, despite their effectiveness in the short-term, all of these barriers exhibit geochemical or geomechanical instability over the long-term resulting in degradation of the barrier and its ability to contain waste. No technologically practical or economically affordable technologies or methods exist at present for accomplishing total remediation, contaminant removal, or destruction-degradation in situ. A new type of containment barrier with a potentially broad range of environmental stability and longevity could result in significant cost-savings. This report documents a research program designed to establish the viability of a proposed new type of containment barrier derived from in situ precipitation of clays in the pore space of contaminated soils or sediments. The concept builds upon technologies that exist for colloidal or gel stabilization. Clays have the advantages of being geologically compatible with the near-surface environment and naturally sorptive for a range of contaminants, and further, the precipitation of clays could result in reduced permeability and hydraulic conductivity, and increased mechanical stability through cementation of soil particles. While limited success was achieved under certain controlled laboratory conditions, the results did not warrant continuation to the field stage for multiple reasons, and the research program was thus concluded with Phase 2.

  3. Stereo soft x-ray microscopy and elemental mapping of hematite and clay suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gleber, S.-C.; Thieme, J.; Chao, W.; Fischer, P.

    2008-09-01

    The spatial arrangements of hematite particles within aqueous soil and clay samples are investigated with soft X-ray microscopy, taking advantage of the elemental contrast at the Fe-L edge around E = 707 eV. In combination with stereo microscopy, information about spatial arrangements are revealed and correlated to electrostatic interactions of the different mixtures. Manipulation of a sample mounted to the microscope is possible and particles added while imaging can be detected.

  4. Effect of pH on the heavy metal-clay mineral interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altyn, O.; Oezbelge, H.O.; Dogu, T.; Oezbelge, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Adsorption and ion exchange of Pb and Cd on the surface of kaolinite and montmorillonite were studied with a strong emphasis on the pH values of solutions containing heavy metal ions. The pH range studied was 2.5 - 9. For kaolinite at a clay/solution ratio of 1/10 (w/w), Pb removal changes from 20 to 30% for an initial Pb concentration of 1640 ppm, and Cd removal changes from 10 to 20% for an initial Cd concentration of 1809 ppm. Due to its high exchange capacity, montmorillonite can remove more heavy metal than kaolinite. Removal rates for montmorillonite can reach up to 90% for both Pb and Cd. In the pH range of 3-6, there is a plateau for the removal rates. At pH values higher than 6, removal seems to increase artificially due to the precipitation of heavy metals. Under similar conditions for both clays, the rate of removal of Pb is always higher than that of Cd. As the pH value decreases for montmorillonite, there is a strong tendency for decreased surface area and swelling, as indicated by BET surface area measurements, adsorbed layer thickness and pore size distribution data. In the range of pH values studied, X-ray diffraction analysis showed the appearance of a characteristic (001) peak for montmorillonite, indicating that the crystalline structure of the clay was intact during the experiments.

  5. Investigations of Near-Field Thermal-Hydrologic-Mechanical-Chemical Models for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Clay/Shale Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Li, L.; Zheng, L.; Houseworth, J.E.; Rutqvist, J.

    2011-06-20

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of radioactive waste. Figure 1-1 presents the distribution of clay/shale formations within the USA.

  6. West Pico Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pico Food Jump to: navigation, search Name: West Pico Food Place: Vernon, California Sector: Solar Product: A distributor of wholesale frozen foods to supermarket chains in...

  7. Variations in clay mineralogy and sediment texture of salt marsh soils on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.E.; Furman, T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    On the Eastern Shore of VA, relative sea level rise has resulted in encroachment of marsh onto upland areas. The amount and type of sediment determines the morphologic environment of the system: lagoon, mudflat, low marsh, high marsh or upland. This research is part of a study to examine the relationship between marsh soil characteristics and the production of Spartina alterniflora. The productivity of marsh vegetation depends on the import and entrapment of sediments that maintain marsh elevation and control water and nutrient availability. This work focused on distribution patterns of sediment texture and mineralogy. One meter deep cores were taken at marsh sites with 10 cm intervals homogenized for analysis. In order to distinguish potential sediment sources, samples were also taken from upland soil pits on the mainland and dredged one-half mile seaward of the barrier islands. Samples have undergone size analysis with a hydrometer and the clay fraction has been analyzed by XRD. Results from the marsh surface indicate large variations in sediment texture, but only slight differences in clay mineralogy between marshes. Barrier island marshes contain a higher average sand content than mainland marshes because of their closer proximity to barrier island beaches and inputs from overwash deposits. The clay minerals found in all marsh surface deposits are illite and chlorite, indicative of oceanic clays. The clay mineralogy of upland soils (kaolinite, chlorite, illite, vermiculite mixed-layer clay) differs from marsh surface clays, indicating that recent sediment deposited on the marsh surface is no upland soil but rather material brought in through tidal inlets. The sediment texture and clay mineralogy at different depths varies as a function of the past geomorphic and depositional history of the site. These data will be used to determine the timing of marsh development on flooded upland sites and to determine the pre-Holocene source of inorganic sediment inputs.

  8. Molecular Simulation of Structure and Diffusion at Smectite-Water Interfaces: Using Expanded Clay Interlayers as Model Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David; Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, R. James; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-07-20

    In geologic settings relevant to a number of extraction and potential sequestration processes, nanopores bounded by clay mineral surfaces play a critical role in the transport of aqueous species. Solution structure and dynamics at claywater interfaces are quite different from their bulk values, and the spatial extent of this disruption remains a topic of current interest. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and diffusion of aqueous solutions in clay nanopores approximately 6 nm thick, comparing the effect of clay composition with model Na-hectorite and Na-montmorillonite surfaces. In addition to structural properties at the interface, water and ion diffusion coefficients were calculated within each aqueous layer at the interface, as well as in the central bulk-like region of the nanopore. The results show similar solution structure and diffusion properties at each surface, with subtle differences in sodium adsorption complexes and water structure in the first adsorbed layer due to different arrangements of layer hydroxyl groups in the two clay models. Interestingly, the extent of surface disruption on bulk-like solution structure and diffusion extends to only a few water layers. Additionally, a comparison of sodium ion residence times confirms similar behavior of inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexes at each clay surface, but ~1% of sodium ions adsorb in ditrigonal cavities on the hectorite surface. Thus, the presence of these anhydrous ions is consistent with highly immobile anhydrous ions seen in previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of hectorite pastes.

  9. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-08-12

    all the waste forms had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium; (2) Rhenium diffusivity: Cast Stone 2M specimens, when tested using EPA 1315 protocol, had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium based on rhenium as a surrogate for technetium. All other waste forms tested by ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 test methods had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 9 for Tc based on rhenium release. These studies indicated that use of Re(VII) as a surrogate for 99Tc(VII) in low temperature secondary waste forms containing reductants will provide overestimated diffusivity values for 99Tc. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use Re as a surrogate 99Tc in future low temperature waste form studies. (3) Iodine diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that the three waste forms had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 11 for iodine. Therefore, it may be necessary to use a more effective sequestering material than silver zeolite used in two of the waste forms (Ceramicrete and DuraLith); (4) Sodium diffusivity: All the waste form specimens tested by the three leach methods (ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315) exceeded the target LI value of 6; (5) All three leach methods (ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308 and EPA 1315) provided similar 99Tc diffusivity values for both short-time transient diffusivity effects as well as long-term ({approx}90 days) steady diffusivity from each of the three tested waste forms (Cast Stone 2M, Ceramicrete and DuraLith). Therefore, any one of the three methods can be used to determine the contaminant diffusivities from a selected waste form.

  10. CO2-driven Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Stepping Stone to What?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2010-07-14

    This paper draws heavily on the authors’ previously published research to explore the extent to which near term carbon dioxide-driven enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) can be “a stepping stone to a long term sequestration program of a scale to be material in climate change risk mitigation.” The paper examines the historical evolution of CO2-EOR in the United States and concludes that estimates of the cost of CO2-EOR production or the extent of CO2 pipeline networks based upon this energy security-driven promotion of CO2-EOR do not provide a robust platform for spurring the commercial deployment of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies (CCS) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The paper notes that the evolving regulatory framework for CCS makes a clear distinction between CO2-EOR and CCS and the authors examine arguments in the technical literature about the ability for CO2-EOR to generate offsetting revenue to accelerate the commercial deployment of CCS systems in the electric power and industrial sectors of the economy. The authors conclude that the past 35 years of CO2-EOR in the U.S. have been important for boosting domestic oil production and delivering proven system components for future CCS systems. However, though there is no reason to suggest that CO2-EOR will cease to deliver these benefits, there is also little to suggest that CO2-EOR is a necessary or significantly beneficial step towards the commercial deployment of CCS as a means of addressing climate change.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a PbO{sub 2}-clay nanocomposite: Removal of lead from water using montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aroui, L.; Zerroual, L.; Boutahala, M.

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The replacement of Na by Pb in the interlayer space of the smectite leads to a decrease in the intensity of the the (0 0 1) reflection as the concentration of lead nitrate increases. A significant restructuring at the particle scale is observed leading probably to the exfoliation of the caly. In addition, the thermal behaviour of the montmorillonite samples with regard to their dehydration and dehydroxilation capacities is significantly influenced. This leads to a lowering of the water content and a decrease in the ionic conductivity of the clay. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the clay, Pb replaces Na ions and a significant restructuring at the particle scale is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb influenced significantly the thermal behaviour of the clay with regard to its dehydration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the interlayer space, the exchange of Na by Pb leads to a decrease in the protonic conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A PbO{sub 2}-clay nanocomposite material with good conductivity is synthesized. -- Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the results obtained with Pb(II) sorption on an Algerian Clay. The experiments were carried out using a batch process. Powder X-rays diffraction patterns (PXRD) prove that in the montmorillonite Pb replaces Na ions. A significant restructuring at the particle scale is observed leading to the disappearance of the d{sub 001} reflection of the clay at high concentrations of lead. The replacement of hydrated Na with Pb ions influenced significantly the thermal behaviour of the montmorillonite samples with regard to their dehydration and dehydroxilation capacities with a lowering of the water content. A PbO{sub 2}-clay composite material with good electrical conductivity is synthesized.

  12. Clay-sewage sludge co-pyrolysis. A TG-MS and Py-GC study on potential advantages afforded by the presence of clay in the pyrolysis of wastewater sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ischia, Marco; Maschio, Roberto Dal; Grigiante, Maurizio; Baratieri, Marco

    2011-01-15

    Wastewater sewage sludge was co-pyrolyzed with a well characterized clay sample, in order to evaluate possible advantages in the thermal disposal process of solid waste. Characterization of the co-pyrolysis process was carried out both by thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric (TG-MS) analysis, and by reactor tests, using a lab-scale batch reactor equipped with a gas chromatograph for analysis of the evolved gas phase (Py-GC). Due to the presence of clay, two main effects were observed in the instrumental characterization of the process. Firstly, the clay surface catalyzed the pyrolysis reaction of the sludge, and secondly, the release of water from the clay, at temperatures of approx. 450-500 deg. C, enhanced gasification of part of carbon residue of the organic component of sludge following pyrolysis. Moreover, the solid residue remaining after pyrolysis process, composed of the inorganic component of sludge blended with clay, is characterized by good features for possible disposal by vitrification, yielding a vitreous matrix that immobilizes the hazardous heavy metals present in the sludge.

  13. Effects of biogenic silica on acoustic and physical properties of clay-rich marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tribble, J.S.; Mackenzie, F.T.; Urmos, J.; O'Brien, D.K.; Manghnani, M.H. )

    1992-06-01

    The physical properties of marine sediments are influenced by compaction and diagenesis during burial. Changes in mineralogy, chemistry, density, porosity, and microfabric all affect a sediment's acoustic and electrical properties. Sediments from the Japan Trench illustrate the dependence of physical properties on biogenic silica content. Increased opal-A content is correlated with increased porosity and decreased grain density and compressional velocity. Variations with depth in opal-A concentration are therefore reflected in highly variable and, at times, inverse velocity-depth gradients. The diagenetic conversion of opal-A to opal-CT and finally to quartz was investigated at a site in the San Miguel Gap, California. Distinct changes in microfabric, particularly in the porosity distribution, accompany the diagenetic reactions and contribute to a sharp velocity discontinuity at the depth of the opal-A to opal-CT conversion. Evaluation of this reaction at several sites indicates a systematic dependence on temperature and age in clay-rich and moderately siliceous sediments. In ocean margin regions, sediments are buried rapidly, and opal-A may be converted to opal-CT in less than 10 m.y. Temperatures of conversion range from 30{degree} to 50{degree}C. Much longer times (>40 m.y.) are required to complete the conversion in open ocean deposits which are exposed to temperatures less than 15{degree}C. In the absence of silica diagenesis, velocity-depth gradients of most clay-rich and moderately siliceous sediments fall in the narrow range of 0.15 to 0.25 km/s/km which brackets the gradient (0.18 km/s/km) determined for a type pelagic clay section. Relationships such as these can be useful in unraveling the history of a sediment sequence, including the evolution with time of reservoir properties and seismic signatures.

  14. Laboratory measurements of contaminant attenuation of uranium mill tailings leachates by sediments and clay liners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serne, R.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-04-01

    We discuss FY82 progress on the development of laboratory tools to aid in the prediction of migration potential of contaminants present in acidic uranium mill tailings leachate. Further, empirical data on trace metal and radionuclide migration through a clay liner are presented. Acidic uranium mill tailings solution from a Wyoming mill was percolated through a composite sediment called Morton Ranch Clay liner. These laboratory columns and subsequent sediment extraction data show: (1) As, Cr, Pb, Ag, Th and V migrate very slowly; (2) U, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and similar transition metals are initially immobilized during acid neutralization but later are remobilized as the tailings solution exhausts the clay liner's acid buffering capacity. Such metals remain immobilized as long as the effluent pH remains above a pH value of 4 to 4.5, but they become mobile once the effluent pH drops below this range; and (3) fractions of the Se and Mo present in the influent tailings solution are very mobile. Possible controlling mechanisms for the pH-dependent immobilization-mobilization of the trace metals are discussed. More study is required to understand the controlling mechanisms for Se and Mo and Ra for which data were not successfully collected. Using several column lengths (from 4.5 to 65 cm) and pore volume residence times (from 0.8 to 40 days) we found no significant differences in contaminant migration rates or types and extent of controlling processes. Thus, we conclude that the laboratory results may be capable of extrapolation to actual disposal site conditions.

  15. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to compare the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.

  16. Inelastic neutron scattering and molecular simulation of the dynamics of interlayer water in smectite clay minerals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Daemen, Luke L.; Ilgen, Anastasia G.; Krumhansl, James L.; Nenoff, Tina M.

    2015-11-16

    The study of mineral–water interfaces is of great importance to a variety of applications including oil and gas extraction, gas subsurface storage, environmental contaminant treatment, and nuclear waste repositories. Understanding the fundamentals of that interface is key to the success of those applications. Confinement of water in the interlayer of smectite clay minerals provides a unique environment to examine the interactions among water molecules, interlayer cations, and clay mineral surfaces. Smectite minerals are characterized by a relatively low layer charge that allows the clay to swell with increasing water content. Montmorillonite and beidellite varieties of smectite were investigated to comparemore » the impact of the location of layer charge on the interlayer structure and dynamics. Inelastic neutron scattering of hydrated and dehydrated cation-exchanged smectites was used to probe the dynamics of the interlayer water (200–900 cm–1 spectral region) and identify the shift in the librational edge as a function of the interlayer cation. Molecular dynamics simulations of equivalent phases and power spectra, derived from the resulting molecular trajectories, indicate a general shift in the librational behavior with interlayer cation that is generally consistent with the neutron scattering results for the monolayer hydrates. Both neutron scattering and power spectra exhibit librational structures affected by the location of layer charge and by the charge of the interlayer cation. Furthermore, divalent cations (Ba2+ and Mg2+) characterized by large hydration enthalpies typically exhibit multiple broad librational peaks compared to monovalent cations (Cs+ and Na+), which have relatively small hydration enthalpies.« less

  17. P. D. Nonn, A. P. Blair, K. J. McCollam, J. S. Sarff, and D. R. Stone

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powered oscillator using ignitron switches P. D. Nonn, A. P. Blair, K. J. McCollam, J. S. Sarff, and D. R. Stone Citation: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 064701 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3589266 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3589266 View Table of Contents: http://rsi.aip.org/resource/1/RSINAK/v82/i6 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Rev. Sci. Instrum. Journal Homepage: http://rsi.aip.org Journal Information: http://rsi.aip.org/about/about_the_journal Top

  18. GLADY CASSIT Y VANDALIA MURPHY CR EEK BU CKHN-CENT URY CLAY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    GLADY CASSIT Y VANDALIA MURPHY CR EEK BU CKHN-CENT URY CLAY GLENVILLE N MINNORA JARVISVILLE FAR MINGTON PH ILIPPI BELIN GT ON WAYN ESBUR G PR UNT Y GLENVILLE S CAVE RUN TAYLOR DRAIN ROSEDALE ST MPT-N RMNT-SHK WESTON-JAN E LEW SWN DL-WID EN VADIS STANL EY DEKALB UNION TALLM AN SVILL E ASPINALL-FIN ST ER ZOLLARSVILLE WILBU R RAMSEY HEATER S BR IDGEPORT-PRUNT YTOWN ALEXAND ER LILLY FORK SH ERMAN HIRAM ST FK-BLST N CK BU RNS CH APEL S BR WN -LUM BER PORT CON INGS PR ATT BOSWELL REVEL ELK C REEK

  19. Food and Beverage (2010 MECS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Food and Beverage Sector (NAICS 311, 312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  20. Food Service | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Types 1 References EIA CBECS Building Types U.S. Energy Information Administration (Oct 2008) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFoodService&old...

  1. Food Sales | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Building Types 1 References EIA CBECS Building Types U.S. Energy Information Administration (Oct 2008) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleFoodSales&oldid...

  2. Molecular simulation of structure and diffusion at smectite-water interfaces: Using expanded clay interlayers as model nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David; Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, R. James; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-07-20

    In geologic settings relevant to a number of extraction and potential sequestration processes, nanopores bounded by clay mineral surfaces play a critical role in the transport of aqueous species. Solution structure and dynamics at clay–water interfaces are quite different from their bulk values, and the spatial extent of this disruption remains a topic of current interest. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and diffusion of aqueous solutions in clay nanopores approximately 6 nm thick, comparing the effect of clay composition with model Na-hectorite and Na-montmorillonite surfaces. In addition to structural properties at the interface, water and ion diffusion coefficients were calculated within each aqueous layer at the interface, as well as in the central bulk-like region of the nanopore. The results show similar solution structure and diffusion properties at each surface, with subtle differences in sodium adsorption complexes and water structure in the first adsorbed layer due to different arrangements of layer hydroxyl groups in the two clay models. Interestingly, the extent of surface disruption on bulk-like solution structure and diffusion extends to only a few water layers. Additionally, a comparison of sodium ion residence times confirms similar behavior of inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexes at each clay surface, but ~1% of sodium ions adsorb in ditrigonal cavities on the hectorite surface. Thus, the presence of these anhydrous ions is consistent with highly immobile anhydrous ions seen in previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of hectorite pastes.

  3. Steep-Slope Assembly Testing of Clay and Concrete Tile With and Without Cool Pigmented Colors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A

    2005-11-01

    Cool color pigments and sub-tile venting of clay and concrete tile roofs significantly impact the heat flow crossing the roof deck of a steep-slope roof. Field measures for the tile roofs revealed a 70% drop in the peak heat flow crossing the deck as compared to a direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and its affiliate members are keenly interested in documenting the magnitude of the drop for obtaining solar reflectance credits with state and federal "cool roof" building efficiency standards. Tile roofs are direct-nailed or are attached to a deck with batten or batten and counter-batten construction. S-Misson clay and concrete tile roofs, a medium-profile concrete tile roof, and a flat slate tile roof were installed on fully nstrumented attic test assemblies. Temperature measures of the roof, deck, attic, and ceiling, heat flows, solar reflectance, thermal emittance, and the ambient weather were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and directnailed asphalt shingle roof. ORNL measured the tile's underside temperature and the bulk air temperature and heat flows just underneath the tile for batten and counter-batten tile systems and compared the results to the conventional asphalt shingle.

  4. Characterization of Two Different Clay Materials by Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dilatometry (DIL) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) - 12215

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, Ekkehard; Henderson, Jack B.

    2012-07-01

    An illitic clay containing higher amounts of organic materials was investigated by dilatometry, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetric. The evolved gases were studied during simultaneous TG-DSC (STA) and dilatometer measurements with simultaneous mass spectrometry in inert gas and oxidizing atmosphere. The dilatometer results were compared with the STA-MS results which confirmed and explained the reactions found during heating of the clay, like dehydration, dehydroxylation, shrinkage, sintering, quartz phase transition, combustion or pyrolysis of organics and the solid state reactions forming meta-kaolinite and mullite. The high amount of organic material effects in inert gas atmosphere most probably a reduction of the oxides which leads to a higher mass loss than in oxidizing atmosphere. Due to this reduction an additional CO{sub 2} emission at around 1000 deg. C was detected which did not occur in oxidizing atmosphere. Furthermore TG-MS results of a clay containing alkali nitrates show that during heating, in addition to water and CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} are also evolved, leading to additional mass loss steps. These types of clays showed water loss starting around 100 deg. C or even earlier. This relative small mass loss affects only less shrinkage during the expansion of the sample. The dehydroxylation and the high crystalline quartz content result in considerable shrinkage and expansion of the clay. During the usual solid state reaction where the clay structure collapses, the remaining material finally shrinks down to a so-called clinker. With the help of MS the TG steps can be better interpreted as the evolved gases are identified. With the help of the MS it is possible to distinguish between CO{sub 2} and water (carbonate decomposition, oxidation of organics or dehydration/dehydroxylation). The MS also clearly shows that mass number 44 is found during the TG step of the illitic clay at about 900 deg. C in inert gas, which was interpreted

  5. CO2 Storage by Sorption on Organic Matter and Clay in Gas Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Yonkofski, Catherine MR; Schaef, Herbert T.; White, Mark D.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-10-10

    Simulations of methane production and supercritical carbon dioxide injection were developed that consider competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on both organic matter and montmorillonite. The results were used to assess the potential for storage of CO2 in a hydraulically fractured shale gas reservoir and for enhanced recovery of CH4. Assuming equal volume fractions of organic matter and montmorillonite, amounts of CO2 adsorbed on both materials were comparable, while methane desorption was from clays was two times greater than desorption from organic material. The most successful strategy considered CO2 injection from a separate well and enhanced methane recovery by 73%, while storing 240 kmt of CO2.

  6. Thanksgiving Goodwill: West Valley Demonstration Project Food...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thanksgiving Goodwill: West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Provides 640 Turkeys to People in Need Thanksgiving Goodwill: West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive...

  7. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the ...

  8. Effects of boron-nitride substrates on Stone-Wales defect formation in graphene: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, K.; Xiao, H. Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Zhang, Y. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Weber, W. J., E-mail: wjweber@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effects of a boron nitride (BN) substrate on Stone-Wales (SW) defect formation and recovery in graphene. It is found that SW defects can be created by an off-plane recoil atom that interacts with the BN substrate. A mechanism with complete bond breakage for formation of SW defects in suspended graphene is also revealed for recoils at large displacement angles. In addition, further irradiation can result in recovery of the SW defects through a bond rotation mechanism in both graphene and graphene/BN, and the substrate has little effect on the recovery process. This study indicates that the BN substrate enhances the irradiation resistance of graphene.

  9. Molecular simulation of structure and diffusion at smectite-water interfaces: Using expanded clay interlayers as model nanopores

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Hart, David; Bowers, Geoffrey M.; Kirkpatrick, R. James; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-07-20

    In geologic settings relevant to a number of extraction and potential sequestration processes, nanopores bounded by clay mineral surfaces play a critical role in the transport of aqueous species. Solution structure and dynamics at clay–water interfaces are quite different from their bulk values, and the spatial extent of this disruption remains a topic of current interest. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the structure and diffusion of aqueous solutions in clay nanopores approximately 6 nm thick, comparing the effect of clay composition with model Na-hectorite and Na-montmorillonite surfaces. In addition to structural properties at the interface, water andmore » ion diffusion coefficients were calculated within each aqueous layer at the interface, as well as in the central bulk-like region of the nanopore. The results show similar solution structure and diffusion properties at each surface, with subtle differences in sodium adsorption complexes and water structure in the first adsorbed layer due to different arrangements of layer hydroxyl groups in the two clay models. Interestingly, the extent of surface disruption on bulk-like solution structure and diffusion extends to only a few water layers. Additionally, a comparison of sodium ion residence times confirms similar behavior of inner-sphere and outer-sphere surface complexes at each clay surface, but ~1% of sodium ions adsorb in ditrigonal cavities on the hectorite surface. Thus, the presence of these anhydrous ions is consistent with highly immobile anhydrous ions seen in previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements of hectorite pastes.« less

  10. Replacemernt of thermally produced calcined clay with chemically structured pigments and methods for the same, quarterly report, January 1, 1995-April 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whalen-Shaw, M.

    1995-04-25

    The business objective is to manufacture an economically viable chemically structured clay to replace thermally structured calcined clay. The technology will provide substantial benefit in paper coating. The structured pigment containing 90% clay and 10% TiO2 vs the loose blend of these materials as a filler for paper was evaluated. A plan to improve the permanence of the structured pigment using dual functional dispersed pigments is in place. The cationic dispersant for TiO2 will also be a binder. Spray drying will be use to fix the structure of the internally bound structured pigment.

  11. Capillary suction-time tests on selected clays and shales. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, K.M.

    1989-05-01

    Shale stability has been an ongoing problem in the drilling of oil wells. The Capillary Suction Time test is simple and easy to use, allowing operators to conduct the test at the rigsite. However because of difficulty in reproducing results, the test should be used only qualitatively. The CST, along with the Methylene Blue, Specific Surface Area and Ensilin tests, accurately predicts shale swelling and dispersion. The tests have the added advantage of being able to be conducted relatively quickly. These tests could be carried out at the rigsite while the drilling is taking place. The experiments conducted also demonstrated the usefulness of KCL as an inhibitor of shale swelling and dispersion. From the CST data, it can be seen that KCL concentrations as low as 0.5% are effective in controlling the swelling of Phillips Ekofisk, Phillips Andrews County, Texaco Mississippi Canyon and Pierre Texaco. However a greater concentration of KCL is required to inhibit the swelling of Gold Seal Bentonite, Standard Arizona, Standard Wyoming and Standard Texas. It is recommended that more concentrations of KCL be tested of the high swelling clays to determine the minimum concentration required to inhibit swelling and dispersion.

  12. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for amore » montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.« less

  13. Swelling properties of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals from molecular simulation: Comparison of temperature interlayer cation, and charge location effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie L.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2015-08-27

    In this study, the swelling properties of smectite clay minerals are relevant to many engineering applications including environmental remediation, repository design for nuclear waste disposal, borehole stability in drilling operations, and additives for numerous industrial processes and commercial products. We used molecular dynamics and grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of layer charge location, interlayer cation, and temperature on intracrystalline swelling of montmorillonite and beidellite clay minerals. For a beidellite model with layer charge exclusively in the tetrahedral sheet, strong ion–surface interactions shift the onset of the two-layer hydrate to higher water contents. In contrast, for a montmorillonite model with layer charge exclusively in the octahedral sheet, weaker ion–surface interactions result in the formation of fully hydrated ions (two-layer hydrate) at much lower water contents. Clay hydration enthalpies and interlayer atomic density profiles are consistent with the swelling results. Water adsorption isotherms from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to relate interlayer hydration states to relative humidity, in good agreement with experimental findings.

  14. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, L M

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  15. Performance analysis of boron nitride embedded armchair graphene nanoribbon metaloxidesemiconductor field effect transistor with Stone Wales defects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chanana, Anuja; Sengupta, Amretashis; Mahapatra, Santanu

    2014-01-21

    We study the performance of a hybrid Graphene-Boron Nitride armchair nanoribbon (a-GNR-BN) n-MOSFET at its ballistic transport limit. We consider three geometric configurations 3p, 3p + 1, and 3p + 2 of a-GNR-BN with BN atoms embedded on either side (2, 4, and 6 BN) on the GNR. Material properties like band gap, effective mass, and density of states of these H-passivated structures are evaluated using the Density Functional Theory. Using these material parameters, self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger simulations are carried out under the Non Equilibrium Green's Function formalism to calculate the ballistic n-MOSFET device characteristics. For a hybrid nanoribbon of width ?5?nm, the simulated ON current is found to be in the range of 265??A280??A with an ON/OFF ratio 7.1 10{sup 6}7.4 10{sup 6} for a V{sub DD}?=?0.68?V corresponding to 10?nm technology node. We further study the impact of randomly distributed Stone Wales (SW) defects in these hybrid structures and only 2.5% degradation of ON current is observed for SW defect density of 3.18%.

  16. Field test of plutonium and thorium contaminated clay soils from the Mound Site using the ACT*DE*CON Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.O.; Swift, N.A.; Church, R.H.; Neff, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    A treatability test was run during the summer and fall of 1997 to demonstrate the effectiveness of ACT*DE*CON for removing plutonium and thorium from the clay soils around Mound. ACT*DE*CON is a proprietary solution patented by Selentec. The process utilized a highly selective dissolution of the contaminants by the use of a chemical wash. The pilot scale process involved pretreatment of the soil in an attrition scrubber with ACT*DE*CON solution. This blended solution was then passed through a counter-current extraction chamber where additional contact with ACT*DE*CON solution occurred, followed by a rinse cycle. During this process sand was added to aid contact of the solution with the soil particles. The sand is removed during the rinse step and reused. The chelating agent is separated from the contaminant and recycled back into the process, along with the reverse osmosis permeate. The resulting solution can be further treated to concentrate the contaminant. Three different types of environmental soils were tested -- plutonium and thorium contaminated soils with the natural clay content, and plutonium contaminated soils with a high percentage of fine clay particles. The goal of these tests was to reduce the plutonium levels from several hundreds of pCi/g to between 25 and 75 pCi/g and the thorium from a couple hundred pCi/g to less than 5 pCi/g. The results of these four tests are presented along with a discussion of the operating parameters and the lessons learned relating to full scale implementation at Mound as well as other potential applications of this process.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of food wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Criner, G. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes a research project at the University of Maine in which food wastes from the University cafeteria salad bar are processed in the anaerobic facility which normally treats only animal wastes. The project has benefited the University in several ways: avoidance of waste disposal fees; increased electricity co-generated from the biogas process; and use of the residual as fertilizer. An economic analysis indicated that the estimated cost of anaerobic treatment of the salad bar wastes was $4520/yr and benefits were $4793/yr. Since the digester was already in use, this cost was not factored into the analysis. Further studies are being planned.

  18. Multiaxial deformation of polyethylene and polyethylene/clay nanocomposites: In situ synchrotron small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurun, Bilge; Bucknall, David G.; Thio, Yonathan S.; Teoh, Chin Ching; Harkin-Jones, Eileen

    2013-01-10

    A unique in situ multiaxial deformation device has been designed and built specifically for simultaneous synchrotron small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements. SAXS and WAXS patterns of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and HDPE/clay nanocomposites were measured in real time during in situ multiaxial deformation at room temperature and at 55 C. It was observed that the morphological evolution of polyethylene is affected by the existence of clay platelets as well as the deformation temperature and strain rate. Martensitic transformation of orthorhombic into monoclinic crystal phases was observed under strain in HDPE, which is delayed and hindered in the presence of clay nanoplatelets. From the SAXS measurements, it was observed that the thickness of the interlamellar amorphous region increased with increasing strain, which is due to elongation of the amorphous chains. The increase in amorphous layer thickness is slightly higher for the nanocomposites compared to the neat polymer.

  19. Ethanol: Producting Food, Feed, and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Todd Sneller (Nebraska Ethanol Board) discussed the food versus fuel issue.

  20. Covered Product Category: Hot Food Holding Cabinets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  1. Technical Approach for Determining Key Parameters Needed for Modeling the Performance of Cast Stone for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yabusaki, Steven B.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rockhold, Mark L.; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2015-03-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) and its contractors at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are conducting a development program to develop / refine the cementitious waste form for the wastes treated at the ETF and to provide the data needed to support the IDF PA. This technical approach document is intended to provide guidance to the cementitious waste form development program with respect to the waste form characterization and testing information needed to support the IDF PA. At the time of the preparation of this technical approach document, the IDF PA effort is just getting started and the approach to analyze the performance of the cementitious waste form has not been determined. Therefore, this document looks at a number of different approaches for evaluating the waste form performance and describes the testing needed to provide data for each approach. Though the approach addresses a cementitious secondary aqueous waste form, it is applicable to other waste forms such as Cast Stone for supplemental immobilization of Hanford LAW. The performance of Cast Stone as a physical and chemical barrier to the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) from solidification of Hanford liquid low activity waste (LAW) and secondary wastes processed through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) is of critical importance to the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) total system performance assessment (TSPA). The effectiveness of cementitious waste forms as a barrier to COC release is expected to evolve with time. PA modeling must therefore anticipate and address processes, properties, and conditions that alter the physical and chemical controls on COC transport in the cementitious waste forms over time. Most organizations responsible for disposal facility operation and their regulators support an iterative hierarchical safety/performance assessment approach with a general philosophy that modeling provides

  2. Sonic Temperature Sensor for Food Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akers, D. W.; Porter, A. M.; Tow, D. M.

    1997-09-01

    The lack of adequate temperature measurement is the major barrier to the development of more efficient and better quality food processing methods. The objective of the sonic temperature sensor for food processing project is to develop a prototype sensor system to noninvasively measure the interior temperature of particulate foods during processing. The development of the prototype sensor is a collaborative project with the National Food Processors Association. The project is based on the property of materials that involves a change in the temperature of a material having a corresponding change in the speed of sound. The approach for the sonic sensor system is to determine the speed of sound through particulate foods using a tomographic reconstruction process.

  3. NNSA Livermore Field Office donates over 4,000 pounds of food to food banks

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) Livermore Field Office donates over 4,000 pounds of food to food banks Friday, October 9, 2015 - 9:00am NNSA Blog The NNSA Livermore Field Office in California donated over 4,000 pounds of food to local food banks, food pantries and other local groups in support of the 2015 Feds Feed Families campaign. As part of the campaign LFO staff, family and friends worked with The Urban Farmers to pick 600 pounds of apples for donation to local

  4. Relationship between crystal structure and thermo-mechanical properties of kaolinite clay: Beyond standard density functional theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2015-03-04

    In this study, the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of 1 : 1 layered dioctahedral kaolinite clay, with ideal Al2Si2O5(OH)4 stoichiometry, were investigated using density functional theory corrected for dispersion interactions (DFT-D2). The bulk moduli of 56.2 and 56.0 GPa predicted at 298 K using the Vinet and Birch–Murnaghan equations of state, respectively, are in good agreement with the recent experimental value of 59.7 GPa reported for well-crystallized samples. The isobaric heat capacity computed for uniaxial deformation of kaolinite along the stacking direction reproduces calorimetric data within 0.7–3.0% from room temperature up to its thermal stability limit.

  5. Relationship between crystal structure and thermo-mechanical properties of kaolinite clay: Beyond standard density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2015-03-04

    In this study, the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of 1 : 1 layered dioctahedral kaolinite clay, with ideal Al2Si2O5(OH)4 stoichiometry, were investigated using density functional theory corrected for dispersion interactions (DFT-D2). The bulk moduli of 56.2 and 56.0 GPa predicted at 298 K using the Vinet and BirchMurnaghan equations of state, respectively, are in good agreement with the recent experimental value of 59.7 GPa reported for well-crystallized samples. The isobaric heat capacity computed for uniaxial deformation of kaolinite along the stacking direction reproduces calorimetric data within 0.73.0% from room temperature up to its thermal stability limit.

  6. Relationship between crystal structure and thermo-mechanical properties of kaolinite clay: Beyond standard density functional theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F.; Kim, Eunja; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2015-03-04

    In this study, the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of 1 : 1 layered dioctahedral kaolinite clay, with ideal Al2Si2O5(OH)4 stoichiometry, were investigated using density functional theory corrected for dispersion interactions (DFT-D2). The bulk moduli of 56.2 and 56.0 GPa predicted at 298 K using the Vinet and Birch–Murnaghan equations of state, respectively, are in good agreement with the recent experimental value of 59.7 GPa reported for well-crystallized samples. The isobaric heat capacity computed for uniaxial deformation of kaolinite along the stacking direction reproduces calorimetric data within 0.7–3.0% from room temperature up to its thermal stability limit.

  7. Pet Food Safety A Shared Concern

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchanan, Robert L; Baker, Robert C; Charlton, Adrian J; Riviere, Jim E; Standaert, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    The safety of the food supply is a subject of intense interest to consumers, particularly as a result of large scale outbreaks that involve hundreds and sometimes thousands of consumers. During the last decade this concern about food safety has expanded to include the diets of companion animals as a result of several incidences of chemical toxicities and infectious disease transmission. This has led to increased research into the causes and controls for these hazards for both companion animals and their owners. The following summary provides an introduction to the issues, challenges, and new tools being developed to ensure that commercial pet foods are both nutritious and safe.

  8. Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy November 1, 2013 - 1:28pm Addthis Pumpkin Power: Turning Food Waste into Energy Matthew...

  9. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, 2015 CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS -...

  10. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - ...

  11. Dr Writer s Food Products Pvt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dr Writer s Food Products Pvt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dr. Writer(tm)s Food Products Pvt. Ltd. Place: Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Sector: Biomass Product:...

  12. A Look at Food Service Buildings - Index Page

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and sale of food and beverages for consumption; they include buildings such as fast food establishments, full service restaurants, caterers, cafeterias, diners, and...

  13. Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security and Environmental Resilience Jump to: navigation, search Name Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food...

  14. California Department of Food and Agriculture | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Department of Food and Agriculture Name: California Department of Food and Agriculture Abbreviation: CDFA Address: 1220 N...

  15. MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Food and Beverage (121.73 KB) More Documents & Publications Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum MECS 2006 - ...

  16. Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage Industry - Fact Sheet, 2014 Flexible Distributed Energy and Water from Waste for the Food and Beverage ...

  17. Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & Beverage Industry - Presentation by GE Global Research, June 2011 Flexible Distributed Energy & Water from Waste for the Food & ...

  18. Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardshi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings FEMP ESPC Success Story on water conservation and green energy at the Food and Drug ...

  19. Trade My Food | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search for food they would like to trade for. Example: Alicia grows parsley, Bob is a fisherman. Alicia wants some fish. Bob wants some parsley. They find each other on...

  20. Bioenergy Impacts … Non-Food

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Researchers at Energy Department national laboratories, including National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are reducing the cost of producing biofuel from non-food sources (such as corn stalks, grasses, and forestry trimmings, and algae) by reducing and streamlining conversion process steps to producing ethanol and "drop-in" biofuels (a direct replacement for gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel). Biofuel from non-food sources is becoming cheaper to produce BIOENERGY IMPACTS To learn more,

  1. Origin and diagenesis of clay minerals in relation to sandstone paragenesis: An example in eolian dune reservoirs and associated rocks, Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Eolian dune sandstones are the principal reservoir rocks in the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming. These sandstones formed as shorelines retreated and dunes migrated across siliciclastic sabkhas. Sandstones are mainly quartzarenites; on average, clay minerals constitute about 5 wt.% the whole rock. Although present in minor amounts, clay minerals play an important role in the diagenetic evolution of these sandstones. Allogenic clay minerals are present in shaly rock fragments and laminae. Early infiltration of clays into porous sabkha sands commonly form characteristic menisei or bridges between framework grains or, when more extensive, form coatings or rims on grain surfaces. Authigenic clays include nearly pure smectite, mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S), and late diagenetic illite and corrensite; these clay minerals are present as pore-lining cements. In addition to the deposition and neoformation of clay minerals throughout sandstone paragenesis, the conversion of smectite to illite occurred as temperatures increased with progressive burial. A temperature of 103C is calculated at a present depth of 3,200 m using a geothermal gradient of 30C/km and a mean annual surface temperature of 7C. After correction for uplift and erosion (250 m), the maximum calculated temperature for the conversion of all random I/S to ordered I/S is 100C. This calculated temperature is in excellent agreement with temperatures of 100-110C implied from I/S geothermometry.

  2. Efficiency of clay-TiO2 nanocomposites on the photocatalytic eliminationof a model hydrophobic air pollutant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibanova, Daria; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Destaillats, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Clay-supported TiO2 photocatalysts can potentially improve the performance of air treatment technologies via enhanced adsorption and reactivity of target volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this study, a bench-top photocatalytic flow reactor was used to evaluate the efficiency of hectorite-TiO2 and kaolinite-TiO2, two novel composite materials synthesized in our laboratory. Toluene, a model hydrophobic VOC and a common indoor air pollutant, was introduced in the air stream at realistic concentrations, and reacted under UVA (gamma max = 365 nm) or UVC (gamma max = 254 nm) irradiation. The UVC lamp generated secondary emission at 185 nm, leading to the formation of ozone and other short-lived reactive species. Performance of clay-TiO2 composites was compared with that of pure TiO2 (Degussa P25), and with UV irradiation in the absence of photocatalyst under identical conditions. Films of clay-TiO2 composites and of P25 were prepared by a dip-coating method on the surface of Raschig rings, which were placed inside the flow reactor. An upstream toluene concentration of ~;;170 ppbv was generated by diluting a constant flow of toluene vapor from a diffusion source with dry air, or with humid air at 10, 33 and 66percent relative humidity (RH). Toluene concentrations were determined by collecting Tenax-TA (R) sorbent tubes downstream of the reactor, with subsequent thermal desorption -- GC/MS analysis. The fraction of toluene removed, percentR, and the reaction rate, Tr, were calculated for each experimental condition from the concentration changes measured with and without UV irradiation. Use of UVC light (UV/TiO2/O3) led to overall higher reactivity, which can be partially attributed to the contribution of gas phase reactions by short-lived radical species. When the reaction rate was normalized to the light irradiance, Tr/I gamma, the UV/TiO2 reaction under UVA irradiation was more efficient for samples with a higher content of TiO2 (P25 and Hecto-TiO2), but not for Kao

  3. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  4. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-12-31

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

  5. West Valley Demonstration Project Food Drive Delivers Food for 700 Families

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WEST VALLEY, N.Y. – EM employees at West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) helped collect and deliver 114,843 pounds of food, including 360 turkeys, to nine food pantries in the West Valley area, just in time to benefit about 700 families in need during the holidays.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: 100 Resilient Cities: Sandia Challenge: Food

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenge Food Protect supply chains Using simulations & analyses to help cities minimize impacts to food systems Red and green peppers Sandia has comprehensive expertise in improving the resilience of food supply chains for cities, regions, and countries. Sandia uses proprietary modeling and simulation tools to identify and mitigate potential disruptions to a city's food system. These methods were recently used to lessen the negative effects of Superstorm Sandy on New York City's food

  7. {sup 31}P NMR study of the complexation of TBP with lanthanides and actinides in solution and in a clay matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartzell, C.J.

    1994-07-24

    Goal was to use NMR to study TBP/lanthanide complexes in the interlayer or on edge sites of clays. Work in this laboratory yielded details of the complexation of Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} with TBP in hexane solution; this information is crucial to interpretation of results of NMR studies of the complexes exchanged into clays. The solution {sup 31}P-chemical shift values were improved by repeating the studies on the lanthanide salts dissolved directly into neat TBP. NMR studies of these neat solutions of the Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex and the Pr(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{lg_bullet}3TBP-complex show that the {sup 31}P chemical shift remains relatively constant for TBP: lanthanide ratios below 3: 1. At higher ratios, the chemical shift approaches that of free TBP, indicating rapid exchange of TBP between the free and complexed state. Exchange of these complexes into the clay hectorite yielded discrete {sup 31}P-NMR signals for the Eu{lg_bullet}TBP complex at -190 ppm and free TBP at -6 ppm. Adsorption of the Pr{lg_bullet}TBP complex yielded broad signals at 76 ppm for the complex and -6 ppm for free TBP. There was no evidence of exchange between the incorporated complex and the free TBP.

  8. Thermal and mechanical properties of palm oil-based polyurethane acrylate/clay nanocomposites prepared by in-situ intercalative method and electron beam radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salih, A. M.; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Dahlan, Khairul Zaman Hj Mohd; Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Yunus, Wan Md. Zin Wan

    2014-02-12

    Palm oil based-polyurethane acrylate (POBUA)/clay nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization using epoxidized palm oil acrylate (EPOLA) and 4,4' methylene diphenyl diisocyante (MDI). Organically modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) was incorporated in EPOLA (1, 3 and 5%wt), and then subjected to polycondensation reaction with MDI. Nanocomposites solid films were obtained successfully by electron beam radiation induced free radical polymerization (curing). FTIR results reveal that the prepolymer was obtained successfully, with nanoclay dispersed in the matrix. The intercalation of the clay in the polymer matrix was investigated by XRD and the interlayer spacing of clay was found to be increased up to 37 , while the structure morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by TEM and SEM. The nanocomposites were found to be a mixture of exfoliated and intercalated morphologies. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was significantly increased by incorporation of nanoclay into the polymer matrix. DSC results reveal that the Tg was shifted to higher values, gradually with increasing the amount of filler in the nanocomposites. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of the nanocomposites showed remarkable improvement compared to the neat POBUA.

  9. Facility will focus on bioenergy, global food security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facility will focus on bioenergy, global food security Facility will focus on bioenergy, global food security The New Mexico Consortium expects to complete the 27,000 square foot ...

  10. Bioenergy and Food Security Criteria and Indicators (BEFSCI)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentbioenergy-and-food-security-criteria- Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  11. Employees give to local food bank | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Employees give to local food bank Employees give to local food bank September 12, 2014 - 11:00am Addthis This is the fifth year OREM employees have participated in the annual Feds Feed Families summer campaign that helps replenish local food banks and raises awareness about the prevalence of hunger. This is the fifth year OREM employees have participated in the annual Feds Feed Families summer campaign that helps replenish local food banks and raises awareness about the prevalence of hunger. OAK

  12. The effect of clay catalyst on the chemical composition of bio-oil obtained by co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solak, Agnieszka; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-catalytic and catalytic fast pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene blend was carried out in a laboratory scale reactor. • Optimization of process temperature was done. • Optimization of clay catalyst type and amount for co-pyrolysis of cellulose and polyethylene was done. • The product yields and the chemical composition of bio-oil was investigated. - Abstract: Cellulose/polyethylene (CPE) mixture 3:1, w/w with and without three clay catalysts (K10 – montmorillonite K10, KSF – montmorillonite KSF, B – Bentonite) addition were subjected to pyrolysis at temperatures 400, 450 and 500 °C with heating rate of 100 °C/s to produce bio-oil with high yield. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 41.3–79.5 wt% depending on the temperature, the type and the amount of catalyst. The non-catalytic fast pyrolysis at 500 °C gives the highest yield of bio-oil (79.5 wt%). The higher temperature of catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose/polyethylene mixture the higher yield of bio-oil is. Contrarily, increasing amount of montmorillonite results in significant, almost linear decrease in bio-oil yield followed by a significant increase of gas yield. The addition of clay catalysts to CPE mixture has a various influence on the distribution of bio-oil components. The addition of montmorillonite K10 to cellulose/polyethylene mixture promotes the deepest conversion of polyethylene and cellulose. Additionally, more saturated than unsaturated hydrocarbons are present in resultant bio-oils. The proportion of liquid hydrocarbons is the highest when a montmorillonite K10 is acting as a catalyst.

  13. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  14. Whole Building Efficiency for Whole Foods: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deru, M.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Whole Foods Market under the Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program to design and implement a new store in Raleigh, North Carolina. The result was a design with a predicted energy savings of 40% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 25% energy savings over their standard design. Measured performance of the as-built building showed that the building did not achieve the predicted performance. A detailed review of the project several months after opening revealed a series of several items in construction and controls items that were not implemented properly and were not fully corrected in the commissioning process.

  15. Energy Modeling for the Artisan Food Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goel, Supriya

    2013-05-01

    The Artisan Food Center is a 6912 sq.ft food processing plant located in Dayton, Washington. PNNL was contacted by Strecker Engineering to assist with the building’s energy analysis as a part of the project’s U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) submittal requirements. The project is aiming for LEED Silver certification, one of the prerequisites to which is a whole building energy model to demonstrate compliance with American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1 2007 Appendix G, Performance Rating Method. The building incorporates a number of energy efficiency measures as part of its design and the energy analysis aimed at providing Strecker Engineering with the know-how of developing an energy model for the project as well as an estimate of energy savings of the proposed design over the baseline design, which could be used to document points in the LEED documentation. This report documents the ASHRAE 90.1 2007 baseline model design, the proposed model design, the modeling assumptions and procedures as well as the energy savings results in order to inform the Strecker Engineering team on a possible whole building energy model.

  16. Sustainable Harvest for Food and Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grosshans, Raymond R.; Kostelnik, Kevin, M.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-04-01

    The DOE Biomass Program recently implemented the Biofuels Initiative, or 30x30 program, with the dual goal of reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil by making cellulosic ethanol cost competitive with gasoline by 2012 and by replacing 30 percent of gasoline consumption with biofuels by 2030. Experience to date with increasing ethanol production suggests that it distorts agricultural markets and therefore raises concerns about the sustainability of the DOE 30 X 30 effort: Can the U.S. agricultural system produce sufficient feedstocks for biofuel production and meet the food price and availability expectations of American consumers without causing environmental degradation that would curtail the production of both food and fuel? Efforts are underway to develop computer-based modeling tools that address this concern and support the DOE 30 X 30 goals. Beyond technical agronomic and economic concerns, however, such models must account for the publics growing interest in sustainable agriculture and in the mitigation of predicted global climate change. This paper discusses ongoing work at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies that investigates the potential consequences and long-term sustainability of projected biomass harvests by identifying and incorporating sustainable harvest indicators in a computer modeling strategy.

  17. Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Web) | Department of Energy and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, and Water Quality Food Web) 57_mhk_modeling.ppt (7.28 MB) More Documents & Publications Effects on the Physical Environment (Hydrodynamics, Sediment Transport, and Water Quality) Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator Optimized for the

  18. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Goals for Industry | Department of Energy Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry February 17, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis PORTLAND, OR - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northwest Food Processors Association today set ambitious goals to reduce energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial sector. DOE Industrial Technologies Program

  19. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 | Department of Energy Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Presentation by Frito-Lay North America, June 2011 Presentation on Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry, given by Kevin Chilcoat of Frito-Lay North America, at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in

  20. Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Goals for Industry Energy Department, Northwest Food Processors Association Set Energy Efficiency Goals for Industry PORTLAND, OR - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Northwest Food Processors Association today set ambitious goals to reduce energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial sector. DOE Industrial Technologies Program Manager Douglas Kaempf and Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) President David Zepponi signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU)

  1. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Hot Food Holding Cabinets | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Hot Food Holding Cabinets Purchasing Energy-Efficient Hot Food Holding Cabinets The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for hot food holding cabinets, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically

  2. Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet, 2011 Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry - Fact Sheet, 2011 Frito-LayPepsiCo, in cooperation with the Energy Solutions Center, is demonstrating...

  3. Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS;...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition NONE 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOFUELS; PRODUCTION; AGRICULTURE; ENERGY POLICY; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT;...

  4. THRESHOLD RADIOACTIVITY FOR BULK FOOD SAMPLES BY GAMMA SPECTROSCOPY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-65 Research Org: Div. of Pharmacology, Food and Drug ... NIOBIUM 95; POTASSIUM 40; QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS; RADIOACTIVITY; SAMPLING; ...

  5. International Food Policy Research Institute | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    mission flows from the CGIAR mission: "To achieve sustainable food security and reduce poverty in developing countries through scientific research and research-related activities...

  6. List of Food Service Equipment Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Refrigeration Equipment Food Service Equipment Yes Alabama Gas Corporation - Residential Natural Gas Rebate Program (Alabama) Utility Rebate Program Alabama Residential Furnaces...

  7. Food and Fuel for the 21st Century

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Food and Fuel for the 21st Century held its annual symposium March 12–13, 2015, at Atkinson Hall, University of California San Diego.

  8. Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Strategy for Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change AgencyCompany...

  9. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, ... CHP is reducing the energy costs and environmental impact of the facility while easing ...

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY TECHNOLOGY ROADMAP VOLUME 7: INDUSTRIAL FOOD...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    leak detection Preliminary study how laser perforation of blueberry can improve fruit infusion with more yield and better quality Laser food processing (marker and micro...

  11. New Mexico Consortium works toward food and energy security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Mexico Consortium works toward food and energy security Community Connections: Your ... Latest Issue:July 2016 all issues All Issues submit New Mexico Consortium works toward ...

  12. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Energy and process substitution ...

  13. Food and Drug Administration White Oak Campus Environmental Stewardshi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oak Campus Environmental Stewardship and Cost Savings FEMP ESPC Success Story on water conservation and green energy at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) White Oak Campus....

  14. Y-12 and Stone & Webster`

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the peoples of the world." The two letters that Bill wanted me to share are: Army Service Forces United States Engineer Office Manhattan District Oak Ridge, Tennessee 6 August 1945...

  15. Biofuels and Food Security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-15

    In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation around the following five axes

  16. DOE Hosts Festival to Collect Items for Area Food Banks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman and a representative of the Capital Area Food Bank are among the guest speakers at an event this Tuesday, July 31, to collect food items for the DOE Feeds Families drive.

  17. Flat Ge-doped optical fibres for food irradiation dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noor, N. Mohd; Jusoh, M. A.; Razis, A. F. Abdull; Alawiah, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2015-04-24

    Exposing food to radiation can improve hygiene quality, germination control, retard sprouting, and enhance physical attributes of the food product. To provide for food safety, radiation dosimetry in irradiated food is required. Herein, fabricated germanium doped (Ge-doped) optical fibres have been used. The fibres have been irradiated using a gamma source irradiator, doses in the range 1 kGy to 10 kGy being delivered. Using Ge-doped optical fibres of variable size, type and dopant concentration, study has been made of linearity, reproducibility, and fading. The thermoluminescence (TL) yield of the fibres were obtained and compared. The fibres exhibit a linear dose response over the investigated range of doses, with mean reproducibility to within 2.69 % to 8.77 %, exceeding the dose range of all commercial dosimeters used in evaluating high doses for the food irradiation industry. TL fading of the Ge-doped flat fibres has been found to be < 13%.

  18. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  19. Pantex collects food for kids | National Nuclear Security Administration |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    (NNSA) collects food for kids Friday, May 16, 2014 - 1:02pm For the past two weeks, a group of volunteers at Pantex has been collecting donations for the Snack Pak 4 Kids program, gathering an impressive amount of food for needy children. Pantexans donated more than $1,000 to the effort, as well as a variety of food items, which were placed in barrels located throughout the plant. Snack Pak 4 Kids is an Amarillo-based charity started in 2010 to provide backpacks with snacks in them for

  20. Effectiveness of the food recovery at the retailing stage under shelf life uncertainty: An application to Italian food chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The food recovery is seen as suitable way to manage food near to its expiry date. • The variability of the products shelf life must be taken into account. • The paper addresses the mathematic modeling of the profit related to food recovery. • The optimal time to withdraw the products is determinant for food recovery. - Abstract: Food losses represent a significant issue affecting food supply chains. The possibility of recovering such products can be seen as an effective way to reduce such a phenomenon, improve supply chain performances and ameliorate the conditions of undernourished people. The topic has been already investigated by a previous paper enforcing the hypothesis of deterministic and constant Shelf Life (SL) of products. However, such a model cannot be properly extended to products affected by uncertainties of the SL as it does not take into account the deterioration costs and loss of profits due to the overcoming of the SL within the cycle time. Thus the present paper presents an extension of the previous one under stochastic conditions of the food quality. Differently from the previous publication, this work represents a general model applicable to all supply chains, especially to those managing fresh products characterized by uncertain SL such as fruits and vegetables. The deterioration costs and loss of profits are included in the model and the optimal time at which to withdraw the products from the shelves as well as the quantities to be shipped at each alternative destination have been determined. A comparison of the proposed model with that reported in the previous publication has been carried out in order to underline the impact of the SL variability on the optimality conditions. The results show that the food recovery strategy in the presence of uncertainty of the food quality is rewarding, even if the optimal profit is lower than that of the deterministic case.

  1. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    courtesy Patty Campbell; click to view larger. Scientists study ways to integrate biofuels and food crops on farms By Payal Marathe * July 7, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint We ask a lot...

  2. Food Quality Sensors Discussed at Pittcon 2013 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food Quality Sensors Discussed at Pittcon 2013 Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  3. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K. 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND...

  4. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  5. Memorandum of Understanding with Northwest Food Processors Association

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    The Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy entered into this memorandum of understanding to work collaboratively to reduce energy intensity by 25% within ten years.

  6. EM's Portsmouth Site Donations Lead to Food Pantry Reopening

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of the annual Feds Feeds Families initiative, an Office of Environmental Management field office contributed enough food to a local pantry to reopen it for families in need.

  7. States Biomass/Clean Cities Information Exchange: Food and Fuel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 joint quarterly Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Roya Stanley (Iowa Office of Energy Independence) discussed the food versus fuel issue

  8. DOE, Contractors Gather Food for Less Fortunate | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    KY) with an American flag constructed of donated food. Media Contact Buz Smith (270) 441-6821 Robert.Smith@lex.doe.gov PADUCAH, Ky. - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its ...

  9. Evaluation of Radiation Doses Due to Consumption of Contaminated Food Items and Calculation of Food Class-Specific Derived Intervention Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinzelman, K M; Mansfield, W G

    2010-04-27

    This document evaluates the expected radiation dose due to the consumption of several specific food classes (dairy, meat, produce, etc.) contaminated with specific radionuclides, and relates concentration levels in food to the detection abilities of typical aboratory analysis/measurement methods. The attached charts present the limiting organ dose as a function of the radionuclide concentration in a particular food class, and allow the user to compare these concentrations and doses to typical analytical detection apabilities. The expected radiation dose depends on several factors: the age of the individual; the radionuclide present in the food; the concentration of the radionuclide in the food; and the amount of food consumed. Food consumption rates for individuals of various ges were taken from the 1998 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) document, Accidental Radioactive Contamination of HUman Food and Animal Feeds: Recommendations for State and Local Agencies. In that document, the FDA defines the erived Intervention Level (DIL), which is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in food that if consumed could result in an individual receiving a radiation dose exceeding the Protection Action Guide (PAG) thresholds for intervention. This document also resents odified, food class specific DIL, which is calculated using a somewhat modified version of the FDA's procedure. This document begins with an overview of the FDA's DIL calculation, followed by a description of the food class specific DIL calculations, and finally charts of the radiation dose per radioactivity concentration for several food class/radionuclide combinations.

  10. Food and gift drives help make holidays brighter for regional families

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) Food and Beverage (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Food and Beverage Sector (NAICS 311, 312) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Food and Beverage (126.07 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Food and Beverage All Manufacturing (2010 MECS) Cement

    STEM skills Community Connections: Your